Literary and Critical Theory Sigmund Freud
by
Benjamin Poore
  • LAST MODIFIED: 22 February 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780190221911-0058

Introduction

The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (b. 6 May 1856–d. 23 September 1939) was one of the most controversial and innovative thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Freud’s account of selfhood inaugurated an entirely novel and disruptive conception of what it means to be a person, as well as a radical mode of psychotherapeutic treatment that put speech, meaning, and the unconscious at its center. The body of work—clinical, intellectual, and artistic—that has emerged in response to his ideas is dizzying in its scope, and this article can only touch on the most salient commentaries and arguments. His own body of work—running to twenty-four volumes in the Standard Edition—that is at the center of this article is also vast and thus this bibliography is necessarily selective, identifying prominent works in areas of his thinking that have been organized conceptually and thematically. Sigmund Freud’s work inaugurated a number of key ideas and principles that have simply refused to go away, despite the vicissitudes of the “Freud Wars” of the 1980s and 1990s and the oft-proclaimed “death” of psychoanalysis. Freud’s influence and reach, described by W. H. Auden as “a whole climate of opinion/under whom we conduct our different lives,” is as culturally and intellectually pervasive as ever. Freud himself considered the discovery of unconscious mental life as being no less than Copernican in significance. Freud’s work is characterized by, and, for some, scandalous for, the primacy that it gives to human sexuality as that which undergirds all of human behavior and social life. Sexuality in the Freudian version, however, is not simply a set of demands that can simply be articulated and met leaving one whole and replete; rather, sexuality introduces a destabilizing, disturbing asymmetry into the equilibrium of the subject and social life, what Freud would come to call das Unbehagen, that is, the “uneasiness” or discontent in culture. It is what must be repressed for civilized life to go on existing, yet it is also that which cannot be contained by the better angels of our nature. The Oedipus complex is the most exemplary instance of this dynamic, a developmental structure Freud identified in literary sources in conjunction with his clinical work. Freud’s family romance is one that places the child in a developmental deadlock: the forbidden desire for the mother and the murderous resentment of the father can be resolved, and the threat of castration averted, only by identification with him; an identification necessarily and frustratingly incomplete, as to fully emulate the father would entail desiring that which identification is supposed to assuage: the mother herself. Freud’s positing of the existence of child sexuality and the formative function of ambivalent sexual feelings toward the mother and father is the most controversial yet utterly essential aspect of his thinking, notwithstanding his concept of the unconscious. The unconscious is the realm of thoughts, fantasies, and wishes that consist of difficult or indeed unacceptable content, and which are only tentatively permitted access to our conscious experience in altered, concealed, and compromised forms. In the state of sleep we are more readily able to perceive the functioning of these processes of representation and transformation; so too in the clinical process of free association, where the patient lies supine on the couch and, unprompted, constructs complex and digressive chains of thought that is it the analyst’s task to respond to and interpret. Thanks in part to Freud’s both cultivation and expulsion of various disciples, the name Freud and the practice of psychoanalysis have become nearly synonymous. Indeed, this attitude is so pervasive that many of those working across the institutional and intellectual legacies of psychoanalysis frequently imagine themselves “returning” to Freud’s original project or intention in some form or other. Disputes in the history of psychoanalysis center on the proper definition of key terms that Freud himself set out, or what should and should not be considered to be “proper” psychoanalytic clinical practice, something most intensely articulated in the so-called Controversial Discussions of the 1940s. The focus of this article on Freud as an individual writer is not intended to elide the distinct and vast contributions of analysts in traditions subsequent to Freud, whose work also contributes a great deal to literary and critical theory; by the same token, a cursory inclusion of a rich body of work would risk positioning such writers as merely supplementary.

Freud in Context

Freud’s work synthesizes, in sometimes inconsistent and discontinuous ways, a range of medical, psychological, and philosophical principles from the 19th century. Indeed, Freud would claim himself to be a “Darwin of the Mind.” Freud sees human beings as principally biological beings, motivated physical forces and processes as part of a struggle for survival and continuity, and he was very much a product of the medical and biological debates of his education and period, especially those raised by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin. The most comprehensive and far-reaching analysis of the origins and emergence of Freudianism is Makari 2008. Sulloway’s monograph explores many of the same connections, although in a more tendentious and hostile mode (Sulloway 1992). Freud’s work was profoundly shaped by his experiences working with Jean-Martin Charcot, the so-called father of modern neurology, at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris. For a highly critical account of Charcot’s influence on Freud, see Dufresne 2003. Freud’s own translation of Charcot’s famous Tuesday lectures, complete with his own critical notes, are published in Volume 1 of the Standard Edition. The association of Freud’s insights with the philosophical work of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche also has a long history. The entry on Schopenhauer in Edwin Erwin’s The Freud Encyclopaedia offers a succinct overview on key points of contact in their writings (Erwin 2002). Paul Roazen comments extensively on Freud and Nietzsche in “Nietzsche and Freud: Two Voices from the Underground” (Roazen 1991). More recently, Paul-Laurent Assoun’s Freud and Nietzsche (Assoun 2000, originally published 1980) has been translated into English by Richard L. Collier Jr. and offers a richly textured exposition of the historical and theoretical connections between both writers. ffytche 2012 offers a complex account of Freud’s indebtedness to German romanticism and 19th-century psychology and philosophy in his formulation of the concept of the unconscious. Lear 2005 describes the contribution Freudian theory makes to specifically philosophical and metaphysical questioning in a provocative and comprehensive way, ideal for those approaching his thought from a background in critical theory or the humanities. Frosh 2005 and Yerushalmi 1991 both articulate the complex role Freud’s Jewishness played in the formation and reception of psychoanalysis, with Frosh examining the political and cultural destiny of “the Jewish science” throughout the 20th century.

  • Assoun, Paul-Laurent. Freud and Nietzsche. Translated by Richard H. Collier Jr. London: Continuum, 2000.

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    Assoun identifies many of the thematic similarities in the work produced by both of these key figures, but he moves considerably further, exploring Freud’s own personal engagement with and understanding of Nietzsche, as well as the question whether Nietzsche might be conceived as precursor, antagonist, or inspiration to the Freudian project.

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    • Borch-Jacobson, Mikkel, and Sonu Shamdasani. The Freud Files: An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511979842Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A substantive and involved commentary on the implications and scope of Sulloway’s arguments, and its reception, in light of later historiographical research on Freud in his scientific and medical context.

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      • Dufresne, Todd. “Suggestion and Fraud in the Age of Critical Freud Studies.” In Killing Freud: Twentieth Century Freud and the Death of Psychoanalysis. By Todd Dufresne, 16–29. London: Continuum, 2003.

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        A highly critical account of Charcot’s influences on Freud, particularly exploring the classic attack on Freud’s work on hysteria as entailing a form of suggestion.

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        • Erwin, Edward. “Schopenhauer.” In The Freud Encyclopaedia: Theory, Therapy, and Culture. Edited by Edward Erwin, 469–471. London: Routledge, 2002.

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          Erwin examines in this brief entry the relationship of Freud’s writing to Schopenhauer. Freud explicitly admired the work of Schopenhauer, particularly his skepticism about the primacy of reason in determining our motivation and character and the consequent valuation of the “Will” as the driving force in human behavior.

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          • ffytche, Matt. The Foundation of the Unconscious: Schelling, Freud, and the Birth of the Modern Psyche. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

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            This monograph describes the genesis of the concept of the unconscious in its specifically romantic and German context, particularly in the work of philosophers and psychologists of the 19th century, including Schelling, Fichte, Herder, and I. G. Carus. The author’s vision of Freud places his investment in 19th-century German romanticism at the center of the work.

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            • Freud, Sigmund. “Preface and Footnotes to Charcot’s Tuesday Lectures (1892–1894).” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 1. Translated by James Strachey. By Sigmund Freud, 129–143. London: Vintage, 1999.

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              Originally published 1966–1974 (London: Hogarth). Freud’s own perspective on the importance of Charcot’s work is evident in these lecture notes, from his days at the Salpêtrière. Freud also begins to signal here his own break with Charcot’s thinking in his postulation of the origins of hysterical symptomatology, beginning to argue for its nonorganic character.

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              • Frosh, Stephen. Hate and the “Jewish Science”: Anti-Semitism, Nazism and Psychoanalysis. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2005.

                DOI: 10.1057/9780230510074Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Frosh articulates the ways in which Freud’s work channels culturally Jewish modes of argument and interoperation, as well as exploring the political and culture complications of the association of Jewishness and psychoanalysis, in light of the events of the 20th century.

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                • Lear, Jonathan. Freud. London: Routledge, 2005.

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                  Lear’s book not only offers an excellent overview of Freudian concepts, including the unconscious and neurosis, but also is valuable in recognizing the importance of Freud’s contribution to a range of philosophical questions (including death, freedom, and sexuality) and situates him in that tradition of questioning.

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                  • Makari, George. Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2008.

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                    Makari’s classic study describes the intellectual and scientific foment from which Freud’s ideas emerged. On the micro-level, we see his relationships with fellow scientists and analysts in the “Wednesday Club” and in cities such as Zurich and Vienna. On the macro-level, Makari sketches the different debates and disciplines that Freud managed to bring together in his development of a complex theory of mind.

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                    • Roazen, Paul. “Nietzsche and Freud: Two Voices from the Underground.” The Psychohistory Review 19.3 (Spring 1991): 327–349.

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                      A succinct exploration of key connections between Freud and Nietzsche’s thinking, exploring especially the emergence of civilized morality from the work of the repression of aggressive instincts; the prophetic character of both writers’ work; and a historical/archival discussion of Freud’s particular encounters with Nietzsche.

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                      • Sulloway, Frank. Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

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                        The influence of 19th-century biologists and zoologists in Freud’s thinking is outlined extensively in Frank Sulloway’s monograph (originally published in 1979). Sulloway’s book offers rich material for historians of psychoanalysis and of 20th-century science, though it has been most enthusiastically taken up by those seeking to criticize Freud and psychoanalysis more generally as part of the “Freud Wars.”

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                        • Yerushalmi, Yosef Hayim. Freud’s Moses: Judaism Terminable and Interminable. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.

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                          This monograph was the first to offer a thorough exegesis of Freud’s intellectual development and theory with his Jewish identity at its center. The author bases his arguments through a sustained reading of Freud’s late book Moses and Monotheism.

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                          Overviews of Freud’s Work: Introductions and Readers

                          There are myriad introductions to psychoanalytic theory as a total body of knowledge, and, indeed, many on Freud’s own voluminous oeuvre. Freud offers a number of overviews of his thinking from various stages in his career, outlining key ideas as well as the history and cultural importance of psychoanalysis (Freud 1999a, Freud 1999b, Freud 1999c), particularly in light of his developing thinking. Josh Cohen and Anthony Storr offer lucid theoretical and biographical overviews in short, accessible volumes that are part of a well-established series for such books (Cohen 2005, Storr 2001). A more involved, chronological overview of Freud’s conceptual and intellectual development is provided by Jean-Michel Quinodoz (Quinodoz 2008). The psychoanalyst and indeed daughter of the father of psychoanalysis, Anna Freud, also had her collection of the essential writings of Freud, originally published in 1986 and reprinted in 2005 (Freud 2005). Edited by Adam Phillips, The Freud Reader collects the new translations offered by Penguin (Freud 2006), a fresher alternative to Peter Gay’s scholarly and substantive collection of the Standard Edition translations in his own reader, first published in 1989 (Freud 1995). Appignanesi and Zaraté 2007 offers a lucid and accessible “graphic” guide to Freud, with brilliant illustrations, excerpts from Freud’s work, and summaries of his key ideas, in the form of a graphic novel. Most recently, Pick 2015 offers probably the briskest overview of Freudian thinking in the context of psychoanalytic history and intellectual currents.

                          • Appignanesi, Richard, and Oscar Zaraté. Introducing Freud: A Graphic Guide to the Father of Psychoanalysis. London: Icon, 2007.

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                            An idiosyncratic though compelling approach to Freud’s life and work, this introduction to Freud takes the form of a graphic novel or essay, with striking illustrations from Oscar Zaraté. The guide also features a dictionary of key technical terms.

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                            • Cohen, Josh. How to Read Freud. London: Granta, 2005.

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                              Cohen emphasizes the cultural and historical implications of Freud’s work. His highly literary frame of reference makes it especially useful for those from a non-psychoanalytic background working in the humanities.

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                              • Freud, Anna. The Essentials of Psycho-analysis. London: Vintage, 2005.

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                                Originally published in 1986. Three substantive collections of Freud’s writing are worth recognizing here, though they are animated by quite different impulses. Anna Freud’s The Essentials of Psycho-analysis collects, principally, the theoretical writings of Freud and is aimed at “lay” readers. Its title is notable for the conflation of psychoanalysis with the writings of Freud exclusively.

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                                • Freud, Sigmund. The Freud Reader. Edited by Peter Gay. London: W. W. Norton, 1995.

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                                  Originally published in 1989. Peter Gay’s The Freud Reader is organized thematically and includes comprehensive excerpts from key texts, reproducing the picture of Freud’s work offered in the Standard Edition (Freud 1999, cited under Freud in Context) and drawing on its translations.

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                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 22. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                    Freud himself was among the first to offer a summative picture of his work up to the early 1930s in the New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis from 1933; the 1989 edition of Strachey’s translation also has the advantage of a biographical sketch by Peter Gay (Freud 1995).

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                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “The Question of Lay Analysis.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 20. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                      Freud considers the nonclinical applications and implications of the insights of psychoanalysis in this essay from 1926.

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                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Two Encyclopaedia Entries on Psychoanalysis.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 23. By Sigmund Freud. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                        These short introductory pieces from 1923 outline Freud’s thinking prior to the considerable revisions and advances of the so-called second topography, inaugurated by The Ego and the Id later that year.

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                                        • Freud, Sigmund. The Penguin Freud Reader. Edited and with an Introduction by Adam Phillips. London: Penguin, 2006.

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                                          See p. xvii. The Penguin Freud Reader, edited by Adam Phillips, emphasizes the heterogeneity of Freud’s writing and pitches itself to the “curious,” offering no “house-style.” The volume presents Freud’s work as a set of compelling literary narratives, whose core concepts are open questions rather than ironclad theoretical dogmas.

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                                          • Pick, Daniel. Psychoanalysis: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2015.

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                                            Pick’s contribution situates Freudian theory more broadly within psychoanalysis than Storr 2001, a contribution to that same series, affording readers a sense of how Freud’s successors diverged from and adapted his thinking.

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                                            • Quinodoz, Jean-Michel. Reading Freud: A Chronological Exploration of Freud’s Writings. London: Routledge, 2008.

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                                              A more involved, chronological overview is provided by Jean-Michel Quinodoz, who divides Freud’s work into three parts: “The Discovery of Psychoanalysis” (1895–1910), “The Years of Maturity” (1911–1920), “Fresh Perspectives” (1920–1939).

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                                              • Storr, Anthony. Sigmund Freud: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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                                                Storr interweaves theoretical and clinical concepts with surprisingly rich biographical background for a volume of this size.

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                                                Writing Freud’s Life

                                                Freud’s life has been the subject of extensive commentary for the last half-century. Freud’s own magnum opus, Interpreting Dreams, might be taken as being as autobiographical as it is theoretical, with Freud examining in intimate detail the events of his own life in the course of his discussion of dreaming. The American poet H. D. offers a striking biographical portrait as one of Freud’s contemporaries (H. D. 2012). Ernest Jones’s seminal three-volume account (Jones 1953, Jones 1955, and Jones 1957) was especially instrumental in shaping the reputation and image of not just Freud but also psychoanalysis more broadly. An abridged version was published in 1961. Borch-Jakobsen and Shamdasani 2012 discusses Jones’s biography in terms of the “legend” of Freud. The French analyst Didier Anzieu offers a theoretical and biographical elaboration of many of the key sections of Interpreting Dreams in his magisterial Freud’s Self-Analysis, published in 1975 and translated into English in 1986 (Anzieu 1986). Freud’s work identifies the vitality and complexity of the relationships we have with others, and any survey of writing about Freud’s life should take note of this fact too; Michael Molnar’s book on the photo archive of the Freud Museum does so admirably in a recent collection of essays (Molnar 2014). Lisa Appignanesi and John Forrester’s Freud’s Women details the formative effects of Freud’s relationships with key women in his life (Appignanesi and Forrester 2005). Adam Phillips offers a characteristically light-touch account of the life of the young Freud (Phillips 2014). Historian Peter Gay offers what is still a substantive and contextually rich version of Freud’s life and work (Gay 1988). More recent versions of Freud’s life are available in Roudinesco 2016 and Whitebrook 2017.

                                                • Anzieu, Didier. Freud’s Self-Analysis. Translated by Peter Graham. Preface by M. Masud R. Khan. London: Hogarth, 1986.

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                                                  Anzieu’s study, though little regarded, offers a striking account of the theoretical and personal significance of Freud’s period of self-analysis, including his friendship with Wilhelm Fliess, from which would emerge the triptych of early psychoanalytic masterpieces: The Joke and Its Relation to the Unconscious, The Interpretation of Dreams, and the Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Originally published as L’auto-analyse de Freud et la découverte de la psychanalyse (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1959).

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                                                  • Appignanesi, Lisa, and John Forrester. Freud’s Women. London: W. W. Norton, 2005.

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                                                    In this co-authored book, Forrester and Appignanesi examine the lives of the women crucial to the shaping of Freud’s own thinking and personal life. They offer summative chapters on some of Freud’s key collaborators (Lou Andreas-Salomé, Helen Deutsch, and Marie Bonaparte) as well as his female patients and relationship with Anna, his daughter.

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                                                    • Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel, and Sonu Shamdasani. “The Jones Biography: The Definitive Form of the Legend.” In The Freud Files: An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis. By Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen and Sonu Shamdasani, 267–287. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

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                                                      An important commentary on Jones’s relationship with Anna Freud and his research partner Siegfried Bernfeld, with whom Jones worked on the three-volume biography. Shamdasani and Borch-Jacobsen explore the important place Jones’s biography has come to have in the imagination and reception of Freud’s work.

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                                                      • Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: W. W. Norton, 1988.

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                                                        More recently, cultural historian Peter Gay offers an engrossing and unconventional portrait of Freud in this book. Gay offers a broadly sympathetic project of Freud, reflecting equally on his Viennese cultural and historical milieu, as well as the complex psychic and personal dynamics of Freud’s relationships with his followers and acolytes, with Gay frequently turning to the language of psychoanalysis itself in his conception of the analyst.

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                                                        • H. D. Tribute to Freud. Introduction by Adam Phillips. Afterword by Norman Holmes Pearson. New York: New Directions, 2012.

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                                                          Originally published in 1956. The American poet Hilda Doolittle (H. D.) offers a contemporary and modernist account of the analyst in her Tribute to Freud, which, though less concerned with factual matters than more conventional biographies, is nonetheless rich and atmospheric.

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                                                          • Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud: The Formative Years and the Great Discoveries, 1856–1900. London: Basic Books, 1953.

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                                                            Running to some 430 pages, Jones’s first volume traces Freud’s family background, medical training, and discoveries of the 1890s in his pre-psychoanalytic work.

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                                                            • Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud: The Years of Maturity, 1901–1919. London: Basic Books, 1955.

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                                                              The second volume of Jones’s biography, which covers the period of Freud’s thinking up to the development of the second topography, World War I, and the development of metapsychology.

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                                                              • Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud: The Last Phase, 1919–1939. London: Basic Books, 1957.

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                                                                Examines Freud’s later works. The circumstances of Freud’s exile and death are of particular interest and they are a highlight of the work, despite Jones’s lackluster prose style.

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                                                                • Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Edited and Abridged by Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1964.

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                                                                  A considerably more accessible and abridged version of Jones’s rather more involved three-volume study, running to a mere six hundred pages as opposed to the cumulative 1,500 pages found in Jones 1953, Jones 1955, and Jones 1957. Includes an introduction by Lional Trilling.

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                                                                  • Molnar, Michael. Looking through Freud’s Photos. London: Karnac, 2014.

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                                                                    Molnar’s collection uses the photographic archive of the Freud Museum to sketch not only key moments in Freud’s life, but also the wider familial and professional relationships that shaped him. The resulting essays intertwine biography, psychoanalytic theory, and cultural history as well as offering insights into lesser-known figures in Freud’s life.

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                                                                    • Phillips, Adam. Becoming Freud: The Making of a Psychoanalyst. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014.

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                                                                      Phillips offers a truncated account of Freud’s life, concluding when he reaches the age of fifty in 1906. Phillips’s account is animated by theoretical questions about what it can mean to do biography or life-writing in the wake of Freud’s own work, which does so much to problematize any notion of a coherent narrative of selfhood and development.

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                                                                      • Roudinesco, Élisabeth. Freud: In His Time and Ours. Translated by Catherine Porter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

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                                                                        Roudinesco offers an even-handed and rich portrait of Freud, contrasting the revolutionary insights of his psychoanalytic ideas with the more conservative and even reactionary tendencies that resided inside the man himself. This Freud is one with many blind-spots, though rendered sympathetically, and Roudinesco draws on much fascinating archival material in the course of her arguments. Originally published as Sigmund Freud en son temps et dans le nôtre (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2014).

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                                                                        • Whitebrook, Joel. Freud: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/9781139025119Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Whitebrook’s study draws on many post-Freudian theoretical and intellectual approaches and insights to make a powerful case for the contemporary relevance and force of Freud’s thinking. This biography explicates Freud’s theories in light of contemporary concerns, as well as situating him in his own context. The study is remarkable too for its synthesis of critical writings on Freud, and the bibliography itself offers many treasures to researchers.

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                                                                          A Note on Translating Freud

                                                                          For some decades, the main translation of Freud’s work available was the Standard Edition, which compiled Freud’s writing into twenty-four volumes and was translated and edited by James Strachey and Alix Strachey (Freud 1999b). These volumes were republished in paperback by Penguin from the 1970s onward, the so-called Pelican Freud. Strachey’s translations were republished in paperback in their entirety by Vintage in 1999. Bettelheim has subjected the language of the Standard Edition to considerable scrutiny (Bettelheim 1982). A new English translation of Freud emerged in the early 2000s with the expiration of the Sigmund Freud copyrights, published by Penguin and with the psychoanalyst and essayist Adam Phillips as its general editor. The translations represented a radical departure from the terminological consistency and coherence of the Standard Edition. Phillips glosses his approach to this project in an essay in the London Review of Books (Phillips 2007) and the introduction to the Penguin Freud Reader (Freud 2006, cited under Overviews of Freud’s Work: Introductions and Readers). Parallel to this, Joyce Crick produced a new translation of The Interpretation of Dreams for Oxford University Press in 1999, which was the first translation to publish in full the original 1899 text (Freud 1999a). For the purposes of this bibliography, titles given will be those of the Standard Edition, except where the new translations offer a sufficiently significant alternative.

                                                                          • Bettelheim, Bruno. Freud and Man’s Soul: An Important Reinterpretation of Freudian Theory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.

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                                                                            James Strachey’s translation of Freud has engendered considerable discussion and debate, with the first major revisionist account coming from this work. Bettelheim articulates some common objections to the Strachey translation, accusing it of medicalizing Freud’s liberal, humanistic discourse in favor of giving it a veneer of scientific respectability and authority, as well as disputing English renderings of many of the core terms.

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                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. Gesammelte Werke.

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                                                                              Those wishing to read Freud in German can find the Gesammelte Werke online, complete and unabridged.

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                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by Joyce Crick. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999a.

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                                                                                Crick’s translation, the first to be based on the original 1899 publication and not the substantively revised editions that appeared across Freud’s career, offers a powerful and readable picture of Freud’s thinking at the earliest stages of his psychoanalytic career as well as a vivid version of his lighter and more conversational prose style. Stripping away later editorial emendations and revisions allows Freud’s central theses to unfold more coherently.

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                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Translated from the German under the General Editorship of James Strachey. In collaboration with Anna Freud. Assisted by Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson. 24 vols. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                  The first and only complete translation of Freud’s writings into English, the so-called Standard Edition was translated and compiled by James Strachey in collaboration with Anna Freud, and published between 1956 and 1974. Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson also provided considerable assistance in the editing and translating of Freud’s works; the Standard Edition contains substantial editorial footnotes and commentaries before many of the key works discussed; thus, it has enormous value as an exegesis of Freud’s ideas as well as translation in its own right.The complete Standard Edition is accessible online through PEP-Web (Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing Web), a subscription-based collection of important psychoanalytic papers and documents.

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                                                                                  • Phillips, Adam. “After Strachey: Translating Freud.” London Review of Books 29.19 (2007): 36–38.

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                                                                                    The general editor of the new translations of Freud sets out the nature of the new project. Phillips commissioned translators with backgrounds in European literature, and he encouraged them to experiment with terminology and names for concepts, alongside editors whose principal interest was literary criticism. The project was animated by a desire to produce multiple versions of Freud that expressed the highly literary character of his work and the contradictions and inconsistencies in the theoretical edifice.

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                                                                                    Pre-psychoanalytic Writing

                                                                                    Freud’s writing before his publications of the late 1890s is characterized by Strachey and others as his pre-psychoanalytic work. It often indicates the myriad disciplines and ideas that Freud would come to synthesize in his psychoanalytic thinking, as well as the importance of his medical, biological, and neurological training in the shaping of psychoanalysis. His “Project” from 1895 explores the problems of conceiving a science of the mind (Freud 1999b). His writings on cocaine also signal many of the key themes concerning excitation and the body that Freud would later develop (Freud 2011). The Studies in Hysteria, co-authored with Josef Breuer, represent the first tentative steps toward a fully developed “talking cure” that would draw out the unconscious thoughts and feelings of the patient (Freud and Breuer 1999). Freud’s notes on Charcot’s lectures indicate his ambivalent relationship with the French master of hysteria (Freud 1999a).

                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “Extracts from Freud’s Footnotes to Charcot’s Tuesday Lectures.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 1. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                      These notes from Freud’s translation of Charcot’s Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System into German indicate the ways in which Freud began to break with Charcot’s thinking on the aetiology of hysteria, rejecting Charcot’s heredity hypothesis.

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                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Project for a Scientific Psychology.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 1. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                        The 1895 Project sees Freud attempt to integrate the insights of his burgeoning clinical and theoretical approach to the study of the psyche within the framework of contemporary neurology and biology and establish a fully scientific foundation for what would become psychoanalysis. The final section, for instance, tries to bring his investigations of hysteria in line with contemporary psychology. Freud’s book is nonetheless highly speculative. It also sets out the foundations of his “economic” understanding of the psyche.

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                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “On Coca.” In On Cocaine. Translated and Edited by David Carter. London: Hesperus, 2011.

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                                                                                          Freud’s early paper on the physical and psychic effects of cocaine is of historical interest to those wishing to see the fertile soil from which his psychoanalytic work would spring, including Freud’s interest in botany, and the nature of different psychic states, the borderline between healthy and pathological behavior, and the experience of bodily excitation.

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                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund, and Josef Breuer. “Studies in Hysteria.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 2. London: Vintage, 1999.

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                                                                                            The 1895 Studies were co-written with Freud’s collaborator Josef Breuer, whose work with the patient Bertha Pappenheim would be instrumental in the foundation of psychoanalysis. The five case studies offered set the stage for many key ideas in Freud’s later work. The introduction, written by Freud and Breuer in 1893, sketches out their initial ideas. The Studies explicitly posited that hysteria and neurotic symptoms were connected to a repressed trauma or memory in the patient’s personal history. The hysteric, they note, “suffers mainly from reminiscences.” The Studies saw Freud and Breuer developing the “cathartic method,” the founding principle of the modern “talking cure.”

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                                                                                            Interpreting the Unconscious

                                                                                            Freud’s early psychoanalytic works concentrated on the interpretation of dreams (Freud 1999b), small actions (Freud 1999d), slips of the tongue, and jokes (Freud 1999c), in both clinical and nonclinical contexts. Freud’s work is especially concerned with language and chains of association, which, when examined more closely, revealed repressed or unacceptable ideas or wishes, to which the subject was not privy. Thus, Freud is deeply concerned with the psychic dynamics of censorship and repression and how ideas might come to be represented to the conscious mind in compromised or ambivalent forms. This process of interpretation is explored especially exquisitely in Freud’s short paper “Screen Memories” (Freud 1999e). Fletcher 2013 gives special attention to Freud’s insights in the essay. The same processes are examined on a more personal and autobiographical level in The Interpretation of Dreams, which runs to over 600 pages. J. A. Underwood’s new translation of the latter offers an alternative to the Standard Edition version, with an excellent introduction by John Forrester (Freud 2006).

                                                                                            • Fletcher, John. “Part III: Screen Memories and the Return of Seduction.” In Freud and the Scene of Trauma. By John Fletcher, 153–202. New York: Fordham University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                              John Fletcher offers a considered commentary on Freud’s concept of the Screen memory, particularly in relation to Freud’s study of the paintings and writings of Leonardo da Vinci, in his own study of psychoanalysis and trauma.

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                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “Humour.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 20. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                Freud revisits the concerns of the Joke book in this short paper from 1928, which rethinks the economic model of joking from the perspective of the second topography, and that attempts to combine his interpretation of unconscious processes with a “global” picture of the psychic apparatus of ego, superego, and Id.

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                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “The Interpretation of Dreams.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 4, part I and Vol. 5, part II. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                  Without question Freud’s masterpiece, Die Traumdeutung (1899) blends autobiography, psychology, literary criticism, and hermeneutics. Most fundamentally, the volume argues for the dynamic character of dreams and their meaningfulness, situating the unique forms of representation—condensation and displacement—they draw upon within complex chains of associations and memories. It is the book that establishes psychoanalysis as an art of interpretation and close reading, and was a text that Freud would continually revise across his career, adding dozens of footnotes and composing new forewords.

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                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 8. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                    Examining the intersection of the unconscious and social life is a strikingly prescient way, Freud here examines the complex maneuvers through which forbidden thoughts or ideas are able to emerge into consciousness by means of the joke as a form. Especially striking in the book is the way Freud turns frequently to economic metaphors as ways of explaining the flow of libidinal tensions and discharges which the conscious and unconscious are continually in the process of divesting and reconciling.

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                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 6. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                      Alongside the Joke book, Freud here stages one of his most radical intellectual interventions, identifying the pathological threads that are woven throughout the most ordinary and apparently insignificant of actions: a slip of the tongue or a misremembered address. Freud begins to blur the line between the “healthy” and the “unhealthy” in the psyche, the normal and abnormal. It is here that he coins the term Fehlleistungen, the “faulty action,” or, as Strachey has it, “parapraxis.” Such unintended actions are better known as “Freudian slips.”

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                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Screen Memories.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 3. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                        In this short essay from 1899, Freud explores the complex chains of association and fragmentary surfaces of memory, using a similar analytic process to that explored in Interpreting Dreams that same year. In particular, “Screen Memories” explores how displacement might be at work in the most apparently innocent of childhood recollections, a process ultimately concealing experiences and desires from a later stage of maturity. For Freud, memory is always bound to desires of one kind or another: either regressive (returning to an infantile stage of development or scene) or anticipatory (postulating some hitherto unfulfilled wish).

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                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. Interpreting Dreams. Translated by J. A. Underwood. Introduction by John Forrester. London: Penguin, 2006.

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                                                                                                          The new Penguin translation by J. A. Underwood contains an especially compelling introduction by historian of psychoanalysis John Forrester, setting out four ways of understanding Freud’s project, and a translator’s preface that clarifies key aspects of Freud’s German. Another alternative to Strachey’s translation, by Joyce Crick, was published by Oxford University Press in 1999 (see Freud 1999a, cited under A Note on Translating Freud).

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                                                                                                          Case Studies

                                                                                                          Freud’s writing is often at its most literary and compelling in rich narratives of clinical experience that give psychoanalysis its special character. Freud himself remarked that his case histories were like short stories. We might note too that in his careful unpicking of clues and symptoms Freud’s writing is evocative of detective fiction, with the psychoanalyst as sleuth. Richard Appignanesi and Slawa Harasymowicz’s graphic novel adaptation of the case of Sergei Pankejeff illuminates the especially dramatic narrative twists and turns of Freud’s thinking in cases (Appignanesi and Harasymowicz 2012). Freud’s case histories set out examples of key theoretical principles: the “primal scene” in The Wolf Man (Freud 2002a) or the nature of obsessional neurosis in The Rat Man (Freud 1999c), or Phobia (in the case of Little Hans) (Freud 1999a). His examination of the memoir of Judge Daniel Paul Schreber offers a psychoanalytic characterization of psychosis (Freud 2002b). Freud’s clinical discussions set out the limits, lengths, and ends of psychoanalytic treatment as well as the practical problems of the consulting room. Freud’s analysis of Ida Bauer, “Dora.” crystallizes many of the political and theoretical questions centering on the interpretation of feminine sexuality, desire, and the category of fantasy (Freud 1999b, Freud 2013).

                                                                                                          • Appignanesi, Richard, and Harasymowicz, Slawa. The Wolf Man: Graphic Freud. London: SelfMadeHero, 2012.

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                                                                                                            This striking illustrated version of Freud’s famous case history intersperses selections from Freud’s original case history with original art and dialogue, as part of the Graphic Freud series. An excellent alternative route through one of Freud’s most significant clinical narratives.

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                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “Analysis of Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 10. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                              The case of “Little Hans” represents the first instance of psychoanalysis broaching the question of the analysis of children, albeit at one remove. Freud’s analysis of the horse phobia of the five-year-old child of the title was conducted by correspondence with the boy’s father, who described his fear of horses, its genesis, and background. The case is notable for the importance and place it gives to Freud’s notion of the Oedipus complex in its explanation of the boy’s symptoms.

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                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 7. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                The case of Dora (1905) was the first and perhaps most controversial of Freud’s sole-authored published case studies. We see fleshed out for the first time Freud’s developing method of treatment. Especially significant is the way the case sets out the complex understanding of symptomatology in psychoanalysis and the way such symptoms channel psychosexual energies, often in highly ambivalent ways. We too see Freud’s own struggles with his method: what forms of writing can contain this disturbing and complex material?

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                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 10. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                  Here Freud (1909) explores the psychopathology and symptomatology of obsessional neurosis, and the so-called Rat Man’s terrifying and gratuitous fantasies about rats chewing their way through the anus into his wife and father. The case is remarkable for grounding the ambivalent content of obsessional behaviors, in which loving and aggressive impulses shade into one another. Freud would use the second part of the essay to elaborate the concepts of rationalization and displacement, as well as other defense mechanisms.

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                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “From the History of an Infantile Neurosis [The ‘Wolfman’].” In The “Wolfman” and Other Cases. Translated by Adey Huish. Introduction by Gillian Beer. By Sigmund Freud, 203–320. London: Penguin, 2002a.

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                                                                                                                    Freud’s history of an infantile neurosis centers on the interpretation of Russian aristocrat Sergei Pankejeff’s childhood dream of being confronted by several wolves. Freud’s case explicitly examines the importance of the “primal scene” in psychosexual development: the fantasy of the copulation of mother and father that maps the psychic coordinates of our lives.

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                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. The Schreber Case. Translated by Andrew Webber. Introduction by Colin McCabe. London: Penguin, 2002b.

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                                                                                                                      Freud’s 1911 study here tackles the question of what psychoanalysis can say about psychosis, and formulates the nature of its psychopathology accordingly. Indeed, it is in this case that Freud begins to map the relationship of language to psychopathology. Freud’s case history is unusual in that he did not analyze Judge Daniel Paul Schreber himself but rather based his conclusions on Schreber’s extensive memoirs, making this case history an early instance of psychoanalytic literary criticism.

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                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. A Case of Hysteria (Dora). Translated by Anthea Bell. Introduction and Notes by Ritchie Robertson. Oxford: Oxford World’s Classics, 2013.

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                                                                                                                        Anthea Bell’s new translation makes for an illuminating comparison with that of Strachey (Freud 1999b). Robertson’s introduction contextualizes Freud’s treatment of Ida Bauer with the bourgeois Jewish milieu of fin de siècle Vienna, as well as more broadly within Freud’s abandonment of the seduction hypothesis.

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                                                                                                                        Gender and Sexuality

                                                                                                                        The question of sexual difference and the production of gendered subjects is at the heart of all of Freud’s writing. Likewise, sexuality and its vicissitudes are the primary motivator of human behavior in Freud’s picture of subjectivity and shadow all of the writings listed in this article. Nonetheless, these texts foreground especially the problematics of socialization into adult sexuality and the contradictory, amorphous landscape of Freud’s characterization of gender, particularly femininity (Freud 1999b, Freud 1999d). His late work An Outline of Psychoanalysis examines the dynamics of the Oedipus complex (Freud 2003). The ambivalent forms of attachment we develop to objects in our sexual lives are examined by Freud in his paper on fetishism (Freud 1999c); his three essays collected under the heading The Psychology of Love (Freud 2006); and the short case history “A Child Is Being Beaten” (Freud [1919]). His most substantive statement, continually revised across his career, is the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Freud 1999h).

                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “The Economic Problem of Masochism.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 11. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                          This key paper from 1924 examines the dynamics of pleasure and pain in light of the insights of The Ego and the Id and Freud’s burgeoning interest in the drives in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Freud explores, through the tension between the pleasure principle, reality principle, and death drive, the forms masochism takes in sexual life. For Freud, ultimately, masochism represents a portion of the death instinct that has not been made palatable to the libido by turning it outward into its opposite, sadism, or the desire for destruction. Instead, masochism is the death drive turned back on the subject and invested with pleasure.

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                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund. “Femininity.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 22. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                            The third of Freud’s New Introductory Lectures, the paper on femininity has come to be regarded as one of Freud’s most definitive, difficult, and controversial statements on feminine sexuality and women’s psychosexual development. Most striking is the multifarious and heterogeneous character of women’s psychic lives, and the complexity of their relationship to masochistic and aggressive impulses, as well as the myriad possibilities arising from women’s negotiation of the Oedipus complex. Freud’s bold attempts at theorizing nonetheless lead us to realize that his work as absolutely at the limits of its understanding when broaching the subject of feminine sexuality.

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                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “Fetishism.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                              Freud’s short paper (1927) on the fetish describes succinctly the ambivalence inherent in neurotic symptoms, particularly the notion of fetishistic disavowal. The fetish object or scenario describes the complex relationship of the subject to castration: it both acknowledges castration, anticipating and responding to the fact of sexual difference while also foreclosing it. The fetish both reveals and conceals knowledge of castration at the same time.

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                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “On the Universal Tendency to Debasement in the Sphere of Love.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 11. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                Freud’s 1912 paper explores the ambivalent attachment of men to erotic objects they hold close. In Freud’s argument, men are unable to love where they desire and to desire where they love. This is so owing to the conspicuous overvaluation of their wives or spouses, a form of idealization that holds them at a distance from their own incestuous desires, whose maternal character they evoke. Conversely, men are able to experience sexual satisfaction only with “debased” objects, such as prostitutes or mistresses, as these are distant from the domestic sphere.

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                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 19. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                                                  Freud considerably revises his position from the Three Essays where male and female sexual development were simply seen as analogous, with the latter replicating the former. Most importantly, Freud identifies the extraordinary complexity of the socialization of girls into adult sexuality and the myriad difficulties entailed in that journey; this has consequences for the genesis of the Superego in women and the range of object-choices available to them. Freud also offers a considerable elaboration of the concept of penis envy.

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                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “A Special Type of Object Choice Made by Men.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 11. London: Vintage, 1999f.

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                                                                                                                                    In this 1910 paper Freud examines one of the deadlocks of male psychosexual development, and it is a key theoretical and clinical statement of the vicissitudes of the Oedipus complex, which Freud would explicitly formulate in this period. In particular, Freud explores the sublimation of the boy’s desires toward the father, and the ambivalent construction of his own attitude toward his mother, both idealizing her and denigrating her in phantasy by comparing her to the figure of the prostitute.

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                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “The Taboo of Virginity.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 11. London: Vintage, 1999g.

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                                                                                                                                      In “The Taboo of Virginity,” written in 1918, Freud explores the pressure that “civilized” sexual morality puts on sexual expression and the ambivalent stance of the culture of feminine sexuality. Freud questions why virginity is so highly valued and indeed idealized in some cultures, in an anthropological mode echoing Totem and Taboo (1913). Freud goes on to argue that women figure in a range of male anxieties connected to castration and the Oedipus complex, and that virginity represents a special intensification of male rivalries with the father, as well as women’s sexual attachment to such a figure.

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                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 7. London: Vintage, 1999h.

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                                                                                                                                        The Three Essays are Freud’s most substantive picture of human sexuality, first appearing in 1905, but continually revised and expanded to include later concepts. Its continual revisions are suggestive of the endlessly shifting movement of sexuality itself. The essay is divided into sections on “Infantile Sexuality,” “The Transformations of Puberty,” and the “Summary.” In the course of its arguments, it touches on topics as diverse as female homosexuality, perversion, and sexual difference. The importance of this work is indicated in the fact that it was one of the first of Freud’s works to be translated into English, by A. A. Brill in 1910.

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                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. An Outline of Psychoanalysis. Translated by Helena Ragg-Kirkby. Introduction by Malcolm Bowie. London: Penguin, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                          In An Outline Freud takes a more pessimistic stance in arguing that the Oedipus complex can never be resolved; rather, it is subject to minor modulations and alterations; it also attempts to incorporate Freud’s views on destructive and aggressive drives (Trieb) into a conception of the Oedipus complex.

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                                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund. “A Child Is Being Beaten.” In The Psychology of Love. Translated by Shaun Whiteside. Introduction by Jeri Johnson. By Sigmund Freud, 279–306. London: Penguin, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                            Freud’s disconcerting 1919 analysis of his daughter Anna’s masturbation fantasies affords a compelling picture of the complex dynamics of language, fantasy, and selfhood, as well as exploring the complex interaction of sadistic, masochistic, and voyeuristic impulses in sexual life. The brilliance of the paper is in the way it explores the conjunction of pleasure and suffering in erotic life.

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                                                                                                                                            The Metapsychology

                                                                                                                                            The year 1915 and the period leading it up to it saw Freud publish his most ambitious, and indeed most challenging, theoretical statements yet. Freud’s so-called metapsychology saw him formulate the basic structures of mental functioning in dense and highly speculative terms. “The Unconscious” of 1915 presented Freud’s most comprehensive digestion of his own thinking on the topic so far, as well as key reflections on the nature of psychosis (Freud 1999e, Eigen 2004). This was followed by “Repression” the same year, which articulated the dynamic character of mental structures (Freud 1999d). “Mourning and Melancholia” from 1917 also emphasized the highly ambivalent character of internal life (Freud 1999b). Darian Leader describes the salient points of Freud’s argument, from a Lacanian perspective (Leader 2008). Along with “Instincts and Their Vicissitudes” (1915), these papers signaled the beginning of a more sustained investigation in Freud’s work into the problems of aggression and the nature of object-relating in the psyche. Freud had originally intended on collecting “Repression,” “Instincts…,” “The Unconscious,” “A Metapsychological Supplement to the Theory of Dreams,” and “Mourning and Melancholia” together in a volume titled Preliminaries to a Metapsychology; instead, the first three appeared in Volume 3 of the Internationale Zeitschrift für ärtzliche Psychoanalyse in 1915 (Freud 2001). The “Metapsychological Supplement” appeared in Volume 4 of the latter journal in 1917, alongside “Mourning and Melancholia.” “Instincts and Their Vicissitudes” is available in an updated translation under the more evocative title “Drives and Their Fates” (Freud 2001).

                                                                                                                                            • Eigen, Michael. “The Core of Psychosis.” In The Psychotic Core. By Michael Eugen, 1–36. London: Karnac, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                              Originally published in 1993. Freud’s characterization of psychosis, a key part of his theory of the unconscious, has attracted considerable criticism, and Eigen offers an overview of the key debates in his 1994 book, later republished. For Freud, in psychosis it is similarity at the level of words themselves that structures the patient’s pathology, whereas in neurosis symptoms are to be understood by the relationships between the things the words signify themselves.

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                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “A Metapsychological Supplement to the Theory of Dreams.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                                                It is here that Freud reconsiders the formation of dream content in light of his thinking about the dynamic structure of the unconscious. Here Freud points to a complex tension between the residue of the day that finds its way into dreaming and thus articulates a preconscious dream-wish. Dreaming thus tries to maintain an uneasy balance between the ego’s wish to return to a uterine primary narcissism and the freeing up of disturbing instinctual impulses that this wish must entail; human beings find contentment in neither waking nor sleeping.

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                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “Mourning and Melancholia.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                                                  “Mourning and Melancholia” postulates a number of key psychoanalytic principles centered on the interpretation and nature of symptomatology as well as arguing explicitly for the ambivalent nature of all object-relating. For Freud, no affectionate attachment can exist without at least a minimal cultivation of aggression. Relatedly, Freud examines the importance of identification in object-relating. Written during World War I, the essay brings to the fore Freud’s interest in destructiveness and aggression in the psyche, setting the groundwork for the second topography and theory of the drives.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “Negation.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 19. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                                                    Here Freud describes one of the principal dynamics of the work of repression, frequently manifested in the language of his patients. Negation, the process whereby a patient moots and dismisses an idea at the same time, is indicative of the ambivalent character of unconscious knowledge: something is both “known” and “not known” at the same time. “Negation” in a clinical setting is evidence, Freud suggests, of “taking cognisance of what is repressed.”

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                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “Repression.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 15. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                                      Freud elaborates his ideas about the defense mechanisms and psychical dynamics of repression in his later paper “Negation” (1925). Freud’s concise essay explores the essence of repression, a cornerstone of his theory: “turning something away, and keeping it at a distance, from the conscious.” For Freud, this process attempts to fend off instinctual impulses, and it is attached to ideas, feelings, and trains of thought associated with them. These ideas and their derivates are available only to the conscious mind because, by being transformed or distorted—turned into their opposites or transformed into anxiety—Freud stresses the dynamic and mobile character of repression.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “The Unconscious.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 15. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                                                                        It is in this key paper that Freud posits the unconscious as the substantive agency of mental processing and explores the dynamic character of the relationship between the mental systems of conscious (Cs), preconscious (Pcs), and unconscious. Indeed, Freud attempts to clarify what is meant by describing emotions or affects as “unconscious,” and he suggests this misconstrues what the unconscious is: the realm of ideas (affects, for Freud, are modes of discharge) and representations. Freud also considers the relationship of psychosis and neurosis to unconscious modes of representation.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “Drives and Their Fates.” In The Unconscious. Translated by Graham Frankland. Introduction by Mark Cousins. By Sigmund Freud, 11–32. London: Penguin, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                          Freud attempts in this 1915 paper to define and describe what he considers to be one of the most basic concepts in psychoanalysis: Trieb, the translation of which is a matter of considerable controversy. The nuances of this debate are outline in Strachey’s original preface to the Standard Edition version and in the more recent new translation, which opts for “Drives and Their Fates”. The paper examines the nature of “drive” or “instinct” in relationship to the pleasure principle, stimulation and excitement, and how it is that drives interact with the objects that facilitate their limitless quest for satisfaction.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Leader, Darian. The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia, and Depression. London: Hamish Hamilton, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                            See pp. 24–49. Leader offers a clear outline of Freud’s basic arguments in his paper on mourning, inflected by a Lacanian perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                            The Second Topography

                                                                                                                                                            Freud’s “first” topographical model described the relationship and dynamics of the conscious, unconscious, and preconscious. Freud’s earlier thinking concentrated on understanding and describing the movement between these respective realms, and the forces of censorship and distortion that negotiated transitions between them. But as Freud grew increasingly interested in the question of the drives and the libidinal forces at play in the psyche, this model has been described alternatively as being supplemented, superseded, or nuanced by the “second” topography, which concerns itself with the action of the key agencies that make up the mental apparatus: the ego, the superego, and the id (das Ich, das über-Ich, and das Es), discussed in The Ego and the Id from 1923 (Freud 1999b). Instead of seeing the unconscious as a single location in the psyche, the second topography repositions it as a descriptor of certain kinds of mental processes, located across different psychic realms and agencies. Elements of the superego and ego could be described as being unconscious, for instance. But this stage of Freud’s work represented a bold, though incomplete, attempt at synthesizing the earlier interpretations of various kinds of psychic material (dreams, slips of the tongue, etc.) and a broader, more structural conception of the mind. This is most comprehensively set out in Freud’s New Introductory Lectures, from the 1930s (Freud 1999c). The second topography sees the theorization of the concepts of Narcissism (Freud 1999d, Freud 2003), and the self-annihilating impulses of the Death Drive, going “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” (Freud 1999a).

                                                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “Beyond the Pleasure Principle.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 18. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                                                              “Beyond the Pleasure Principle,” published in 1920, represents a considerable advance in Freud’s conception of the structure of the psyche, blending biology, case study, and speculative metapsychology to formulate a new sense of the destructiveness at work inside living beings: the relentless, destructive striving of Trieb, otherwise conceived as the “death drive,” or Thanatos. Freud here extends his reflections on traumatic neuroses and the repetition compulsions that he began to explore during World War I and after.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “The Ego and the Id.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 19. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                                                                Here Freud would attempt to join up the structural opposition of conscious and unconscious with a theory of the psychic apparatus: the ego, superego, and Id, and the paper represents a significant complication of his earlier understanding of the psyche, particularly with regard to Freud’s introduction of the concepts of life and death drives (translated rather contentiously by Strachey as “instincts”). The essay is especially notable for its formulation of a dynamic relationship between ego and Id.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 22. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                                                                  The 1933 lectures represent Freud’s extension of the 1917 Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, which themselves began to synthesize elements of his metapsychology. They include key restatements of his earlier thinking—the first lecture, on dreams—as well as considering the relationship of science to religion and what the drive for knowledge in science means from a psychoanalytical perspective (“The Question of a Weltanschauung”). More specifically, it presents Freud’s most complex diagram of the psychic apparatus as informed by the relationship of Ego-Id-Superego, in “The Dissection of the Psychical Personality.”

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “On Narcissism: An Introduction.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                                                    The paper is especially significant in that it blurs the boundary between pathological and non-pathological phenomena in the psyche as it posits the necessity of narcissism in establishing and maintaining a coherent ego of one kind or other; it is “secondary narcissism” that Freud identifies with megalomaniacs and psychotics. The paper is also notable for introducing the concept of the ego-ideal, the speculative self-image around which identity is constantly forming.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “On the Introduction of Narcissism.” In Beyond the Pleasure Principle and Other Writings. Translated by John Reddick. Introduction by Mark Edmundson. By Sigmund Freud, 1–30. London: Penguin, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                      The translator’s preface to this new translation, by John Reddick, of “Zur Einführung der Narzissmus” contains a fruitful discussion of the ambiguities and theoretical nuances inherent in Freud’s title.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Art and Aesthetics

                                                                                                                                                                      Poetry, drama, and myth supplied Freud with some his most evocative metaphors for the structure and nature of human psychic life, most especially drawing on Oedipus Rex by Sophocles and Hamlet by William Shakespeare in furnishing him his theory of incestuous desires and taboos within the family. Freud’s work is also punctuated with frequent references to the writing of German romanticism, particularly the poetry of Heinrich Heine and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. But Freud also mooted psychoanalytic readings of famous artworks and artists, including a study of Jensen’s Gradiva (Freud 1999b), Dostoyevsky’s fiction (Freud 1999c), and Leonardo da Vinci (Freud 1999d), as well as positing theories of creativity, representation, and meaning in light of his ideas about the unconscious mind. An exemplary instance of this would be his oft-cited essay “The Uncanny” (Freud 1999g), which has been the subject of considerable commentary by Nicholas Royle (Royle 2003). We might turn also to his essay “Character Types” (Freud 1999f), or to a discussion of the concept of “Transience” in artistic appreciation (Freud 1999e). Freud’s writings are collected in one useful volume with a foreword by Neil Hertz (Freud 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. Writings on Art and Literature. Foreword by Neil Hertz. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Freud’s writings on art and literature are collected together in this volume, which draws on the Standard Edition translations by Strachey. Hertz’s introductory essay offers a compelling discussion of Freud’s interpretive approach and framework for applying psychoanalytic ideas to artworks and texts. The collection also contains a number of essays not included in this subsection, and it makes for excellent further reading.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “Creative Writers and Daydreaming.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 9. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                                                                          In this relatively early essay Freud argues for the importance of play and phantasy in our experience of artworks, particularly the novel, and the process of transformation by which writers might render repressed ideas, desires, and thoughts acceptable to our conscious experience as readers by means of their craft. The essay represents a key advance in Freud’s consideration of how cultural and libidinal forces are often awkwardly intertwined.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund. “Delusion and Dream in Jensen’s Gradiva.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 9. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                                                                            In this essay Freud explores the unconscious attachment of the protagonist Hanold to his childhood love Zoë, which is repressed and revealed through his fascination with a bas-relief of a young woman walking (“Gradiva”), and a dream about the destruction of Pompeii. Freud’s analysis draws on a number of key tropes in his work: the ambivalent nature of symptomatology (Zoë is both the cause and the resolution of his illness), Freud’s fascination with archaeology (the profession of the protagonist), and the curative value of the desublimation of repressed sexual desires (Hanold’s illness is cured by the realization of his erotic attachment to Zoë/Gradiva’s feet).

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “Dostoyevsky and Parricide.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Freud’s last considerable intervention in literary matters, this essay appeared in a scholarly collection on The Brothers Karamazov. Freud offers a largely biographical reading of Dostoyevsky’s writing in relation to epilepsy and gambling; he also reiterates his thesis that parricide and incest are the cornerstones of key works in the European tradition of art.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 11. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Freud’s controversial psychobiography of Leonardo da Vinci postulated, by means of a close reading of his artworks, diaries, and record of a dream, the presence of homosexual impulses in the artist, reflected in concealed form in his output. While Freud’s arguments are not necessarily well regarded by professional art historians and critics [citation], the case does nonetheless represent an early attempt to integrate aesthetic and psychoanalytic questions, particularly when it comes to the sublimation of infantile sexuality into artworks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “On Transience.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Freud’s short essay written in the midst of World War I offers an elegiac reflection on the great cost of the war and features the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and the analyst Lou Andreas-Salomé, though they are not explicitly named in the piece. The paper offers a brief outline of Freud’s ideas about mourning, which would be published two years later in 1917, but significantly links the work of mourning to questions about aesthetic and cultural appreciation and production.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “Some Character-Types Met with in Psychoanalytic Work.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 17. London: Vintage, 1999f.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This essay, though ostensibly concerned with illustrating common features of neurotic patients, proceeds by offering readings of Shakespeare (Richard III and Macbeth) and Henrik Ibsen (Rosmersholm). The paper explores the possibilities for using psychoanalytic modes of reading and insights to illuminate literary concepts such as character.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “The Uncanny.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 17. London: Vintage, 1999g.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Freud’s peculiar essay of 1919 is a key psychoanalytic statement on the nature of aesthetics. By placing E. T. A. Hoffmann and Freud’s etymological analysis of Heimlich/Unheimlich at its center, The Uncanny is notable for the way it makes explicit the contradictory and multivalent meanings embedded in speech as well as the work of repression identifiable in literary language. It is a key document for psychoanalytically inflected critics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Royle, Nicholas. The Uncanny. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Royle’s cultural and theoretical history of the concept of the uncanny draws out the extraordinary richness of Freud’s short essay. Indeed, Royle indicates its importance in relation to other key Freudian concepts (the “death drive,” telepathy) as well as its “applications” in myriad areas of cultural activity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Psychoanalysis, Culture, Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                        Psychoanalytic theory has been historically criticized for concentrating on the question of individual pathology to the exclusion of social and political factors. More nuanced critiques have taken a similar tack, suggesting that such factors are, in Freud’s theory, reduced to mere elaboration of individual pathological structures albeit on a larger scale. Yet Freud’s work continually returns to the question of how culture and political life might be analyzed by reference to psychoanalytic categories, and Freud himself, who died in exile fleeing Nazism, was by no means insulated from the political turmoil of his moment. Indeed, Freud’s anthropological, cultural, and religious commentary often work to deconstruct ideas of progress, civilization, and the certainties of liberal political modernity. The critique of the latter is at its most exemplary in his paper “Group Psychology” (Freud 1999d) and Civilization and Its Discontents (Freud 1999a, Freud 2002). The new translation of the former, introduced by Jacqueline Rose, examines the political implications of Freud’s thinking in exemplary detail (Freud 2009). Freud explores religion and the nature of religious experience in The Future of an Illusion (Freud 1999c), and examines the Jewish ethno-religious myth of Moses in Moses and Monotheism (Freud 1999e). This anthropological bent is also to be found the earlier Totem and Taboo (Freud 1999g). The two wars that punctuate and bookend Freud’s career are examined in his letters to Einstein, under the title of “Why War?” (Freud 1999h) and his ‘Thoughts for the Time on War and Death” (Freud 1999f). While his interventions may sometimes appear highly idiosyncratic—even eccentric—there is no denying their peculiar force.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “Civilisation and Its Discontents.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Published in 1930. In one of Freud’s most pessimistic contributions to an understanding of social and cultural life he explores the questions from where does the vicious domineering character of the superego come, and the antagonistic relationship of sexuality and aggression to civilization: the former two comprising the “uneasiness” (das Unbehagen) in civilized life (in der Kultur). For Freud the unrelenting and impersonal face of conscience and law is not simply that which is externally imposed, from “outside”; rather, it is nothing less than the rerouting of our own violent and destructive impulses against ourselves.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund. “‘Civilised’ Sexual Morality and Modern Nervous Illness.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 9. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            In this paper of 1908 Freud discusses the complex tension among repression, sexuality, and social morality, coming to the conclusion that neurotic illness and social life were intimately interconnected. His later work would go on to significantly complicate his ideas here about sublimation and the nature of sexual satisfaction, especially in “The Tendency to Debasement in Love” (1912).

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “The Future of an Illusion.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 21. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Published in 1927. Here Freud stages a bullish critique of religious experience, which ought to be considered in light of his by then established concept of the superego, even if he does not make reference to it in this particular study. For Freud, religious belief functions as a form of wish fulfillment and a means of containing the destructive, cannibalistic, and incestuous urges of the individual, which threaten the fabric of the social order.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “Group Psychology of the Analysis of the Ego.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 18. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Freud’s most explicitly political intervention drawing psychoanalytic theory, Group Psychology describes the nature of the social tie as experienced and imagined by the Ego. Freud responds in particular to Gustave Le Bon’s work on crowds, and, in his discussion, it is the concepts of identification and ambivalence that are at the forefront of his understanding of groups, as well as his ideas on primitive human beings and the primal horde.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “Moses and Monotheism.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 23. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Published in 1939. Freud offers one of his most unusual blends of genre, combining case study with history, theology, and archaeology. The enormously contentious claim Freud stakes is that there was not one father of the Jewish people but rather two; and, furthermore, that he was an Egyptian. This difficult and unwieldy book shows Freud not only trying to bring psychoanalytic ideas to bear on cultural and historical formations, but also trying to navigate his ambivalent feelings about his own Jewish background.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “Thoughts for the Time on War and Death.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Vintage, 1999f.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Freud’s essay, written in the midst of World War I, saw his mood shift away from the relative excitement he felt at the outset of the war. For Freud, the horrors of the war demonstrated that the human psyche has been living beyond its means in its attitude toward death: human beings need to start to recognize the essential place of death in life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “Totem and Taboo: Resemblances between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 13. London: Vintage, 1999g.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freud’s experimental blending of psychopathology and anthropology argues, in four essays, that the mental lives of “primitive peoples” are analogous to the mental life of the neurotic. In a more sociological mode, Freud posits that community is formed on the basis of prohibition and guilt: the murder and consuming of the primal father by his sons, and their subsequent remorse, results in the making of a totem, which then functions to police what objects are sexually available. Freud also considers the role of ambivalence and projection as unconscious attitudes toward rulers and leaders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Why War?” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 22. London: Vintage, 1999h.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Freud and Einstein’s correspondence in the 1930s on the prospect of another European conflict forced Freud to bring to bear many of his sociological and anthropological insights of the late 1920s and 1930s on to the contemporary political situation. Freud’s response to Einstein’s internationalist and pacifist cosmopolitanism is gloomy: human beings are irremediably destructive. This violence used to settle conflicts it that on which civilization is founded and which it hypocritically struggles to repudiate or disavow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund. “Civilization and Its Discontents.” In Civilization and Its Discontents. Translated by David McLintock. Introduction by Leo Bersani. By Sigmund Freud, 1–82. London: Penguin, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Leo Bersani’s introduction to the new translation deconstructs with considerable nuance the putative opposition Freud offers between “life” and “death” drives in the essay.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund. “Mass Psychology and the Analysis of the ‘I.’” In Mass Psychology and Other Writings. Translated by J. A. Underwood. Introduction by Jacqueline Rose. By Sigmund Freud, 15–100. London: Penguin, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Underwood’s translation opens up the political context of Freud’s essay, which is rather downplayed in the more neutral “Group” of Strachey’s version (Freud 1999d), underscoring the looming threat of “the mass” (die Massen), which Freud himself found rather disturbing. Rose’s introduction discusses the importance of Freud’s essay in thinking about the nature of 20th-century political life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Practicing Psychoanalysis

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freud’s insights might be applicable to a range of intellectual and theoretical areas of activity, but ultimately they are derived from his experiences as a doctor and clinician. Psychoanalysis is a method of treatment as much as a set of intellectual questions. Freud confronts the fundamental nature of the psychoanalytic relationship between doctor and analysand in his papers on “Love in Transference” (Freud 1999c, Freud 2002), and he explores the pace and ending of treatment in “Analysis Terminable and Interminable” (Freud 1999a); as does his short essay from 1913, “On Beginning the Treatment” (Freud 1999d). One of Freud’s most important accounts of symptomatology can be found in Inhibitions, Symptoms, Anxiety (Freud 1999b); the narrative shape of psychoanalytic treatment, and the progress a patient might hope to make, are outlined in “Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through” (Freud 1999e).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund. “Analysis Terminable and Interminable.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 23. London: Vintage, 1999a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Freud here broaches the question of what “cure” in psychoanalysis might look like, and the clinical criteria on which the doctor might draw in considering when to end treatment. The paper raises the question of what psychic health might look like, and, indeed, whether “getting better”—the dissolution of symptoms—might actually be a form of defensive mechanism itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund. “Inhibitions, Symptoms, Anxiety.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 20. London: Vintage, 1999b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Freud’s book is significant for its exploration and theorization of anxiety as a neurotic symptom and its complex relation to internal and external causes, such as traumatic events. Freud theorizes that anxiety is a transformation of libidinal energy that both announces and represses a traumatic event at the same time, trauma here being understood as an excess of excitations that the ego is unable to process.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund. “Observations on Transference-Love (Further Recommendations on the Technique of Analysis III).” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 12. London: Vintage, 1999c.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freud directly tackles one of the most provocative contentions of his work: that psychoanalytic treatment is possible only if the patient should fall in love with the doctor and, in doing so, reproduce the developmental conflicts that undergird their psychic existence, resolving them thereby. The paper is remarkable in that it raises many of the ethical and moral questions about the nature of psychoanalytic treatment, the question of the authority of the analyst, and the boundaries of the analyst-analysand relationship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund. “On Beginning the Treatment.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 12. London: Vintage, 1999d.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Here Freud discusses the material foundations of the course of psychoanalytic treatment: time and money. The patient is to see the doctor regularly, without fail, four or five times a week; payment must be made when sessions are missed, with Freud explaining the rationale for this most fundamental of psychoanalytic structures. Here we are offered considerable insights into Freud’s method of treatment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund. “Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 12. London: Vintage, 1999e.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freud identifies one of the key features of the mental life of the neurotic: the compulsion to repeat. This compulsion would be one that Freud would later come to conceive in light of his understanding of the death drive, seeing at work, in resistances to treatment, the intransigence of the patient’s unconscious life. For Freud, clinical work proceeds by aiming to transform, by means of the transference, repeating into remembering.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund. “Observations on Love in Transference.” In Wild Analysis. Translated by Alan Bance. Introduction by Adam Phillips. By Sigmund Freud, 65–80. London: Penguin, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Alan Bance’s introduction to his alternative, newer translation in the Penguin version of Freud’s writings reflects on the quite different dimension of “transference love” implied in the original German, and the way that Strachey’s translation attempts to inscribe a considerable distinction between analytic and non-analytic forms of attachment. In short, the new translation calls into question the assumed “artificiality” of the transference-relationship, and thus opens up the risks inherent in analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Corresponding with Freud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Freud was an avid letter writer, and his correspondence with a number of figures in the psychoanalytic movement offers researchers considerable insight into the shaping and formulation of his key ideas. The selection cited here is far from exhaustive, but it seeks to include his exchanges with analysts and thinkers with whom he would eventually come into conflict and who had an especially formative effect on his work (Freud and Fliess 1985, Freud and Pfeiffer 1985, Freud and Jung 1994, Freud and Jones 1995, Freud and Ferenczi 2000a, Freud and Ferenczi 2000b, Freud and Ferenczi 2000c, Freud and Abraham 2002).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freud, Sigmund, and Karl Abraham. The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham, 1907–1925. Edited by Ernst Falzeder. Translated by Caroline Schwarzacher. London: Karnac, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The first complete and unabridged version of Freud’s letters to his collaborator, since the partial version published by Hogarth in 1965. The comprehensive preface discusses the publication of Freud’s correspondence with other analysts in general, as well as the key gaps in psychoanalytic history (and the controversies and disputes constituting it) that this new edition of the letters seeks to fill out.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Freud, Sigmund, and Sándor Ferenczi. The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, 1908–1914. Edited by Ernst Falzeder and Eva Brabant. Translated by Peter Hoffer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is the first volume of Freud’s letters to his acolyte and follower Sándor Ferenczi, with whom Freud would eventually split over questions of analytic technique and respective understandings of the nature of trauma and abuse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Freud, Sigmund, and Sándor Ferenczi. The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, 1914–1919. Edited by Ernst Falzeder and Eva Brabant. Translated by Peter Hoffer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The second volume of Freud’s letters to Ferenczi covers the period of Freud’s composition of the metapsychology and their mutual experiences of World War I. This period is also one of extraordinary openness between Ferenczi and Freud, whom the latter analyzed sporadically between 1915 and 1916.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Freud, Sigmund, and Sándor Ferenczi. The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sándor Ferenczi, 1920–1933. Edited by Ernst Falzeder and Eva Brabant. Translated by Peter Hoffer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000c.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This final volume of letters covers the period that saw Freud and Ferenczi’s relationship deteriorate over their differences in understanding of technique. Ferenczi’s collaboration with Otto Rank had come to express the importance of “living through” (Erlebnis) over remembering and self-knowledge, conflicting with Freud’s sense of the purposes of psychoanalytic therapy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Freud, Sigmund, and Wilhelm Fliess. The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1887–1904. Edited by Jeffrey Masson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freud’s letters to Wilhelm Fleiss cover the early period of his work, and they illustrate the transition his thinking makes from his pre-psychoanalytic writing to the triumvirate of The Interpretation of Dreams, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious, and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud, Sigmund, and Ernest Jones. The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908–1939. Edited by R. Andrew Paskauskas. Introduction by Riccardo Steiner. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Freud’s correspondence with Ernest Jones, from 1908 to 1939, collects nearly seven hundred letters, telegrams, and postcards, with an introduction provided by Riccardo Steiner, a prominent Freudian archivist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Freud, Sigmund, and C. G. Jung. The Freud/Jung Letters: The Correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung Introduction by William McGuire. Translated by R. F. C. Hull and Ralph Manheim. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An abridged edition of the Freud/Jung correspondence, whose letters vividly dramatize the latter’s intellectual apprenticeship to, and eventual dispute with, the former. The letters cover the period 1906–1913. This is the most accessible version currently published, and ideal for researchers seeking an overview of their personal and theoretical relationship. Princeton University Press also has published an unabridged version of all 360 letters, featuring considerable scholarly apparatus, from 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Freud, Sigmund, and Ernst Pfeiffer. Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salomé: Letters. Edited by Ernst Pfeiffer. Translated by William Robson-Scott and Elaine Robson-Scott. London: W. W. Norton, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Freud’s exchanges with Lou Andreas-Salomé, a compelling writer and psychoanalytic thinker in her own right, are published here by W.W. Norton. The edition features an overview of Andreas-Salomé’s life by Ernst Pfeiffer, which sketches her cultural milieu.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Archives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Important research materials relating to Freud’s life and writing are split between London and the United States. The archives and collections cited here pertain to Freud’s correspondence, his personal library, his drafts and manuscripts, and his large collection of antiquities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freud Museum London.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Freud Museum in Maresfield Gardens in London’s leafy Hampstead district is where Freud fled Nazism in late 1938 to, as he put it, “die in freedom.” It is a key research resource for scholars working on Freud’s life. The website itself offers a superb overview of not only the collections, but also material that outlines key aspects of Freud’s life, work, and thought. The museum also houses important archives (correspondence, photographs, notebooks, and other documents) belonging to Freud’s daughter Anna, a dominant figure in the propagation of Freud’s legacy in the period after World War II, and the psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi, one of Freud’s key interlocutors with whom he would eventually split over questions of trauma and clinical practice. An exhibition of the Ferenczi archive is available to view online; the Anna Freud collection is also searchable on the museum webpage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Freud Museum—About Us—Collections.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freud collected an enormous number of antique statues and figurines, with the final collection numbering over 2,000 individual objects. The statues reflect Freud’s interests in ancient civilizations (the Assyrians, the Egyptians, the Greeks) and his fascination with the discipline of archaeology, upon which he draws frequently as a metaphor for the work of the psychoanalyst. The museum website has high-resolution digital photographs of a selection of antiquities in his collection available for view online; the museum itself has a comprehensive searchable digital index of all the objects in the collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sigmund Freud’s Personal Library

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freud’s library (Archives and Special Collections: Columbia University) is an under-utilized resource for researchers interested in the history of psychoanalysis, and, although he was not an avid annotator or writer of marginalia compared to other authors, the approximately 1,600 books at Maresfield Gardens offer considerable insights into his intellectual and aesthetic tastes across his career. Literary texts make up a considerable portion of the library, alongside writings on figures such as Moses and Leonardo da Vinci, as well as the expected scientific volumes and treatises on neurology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Sigmund Freud Archives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Library of Congress in Washington, DC, houses the Sigmund Freud Papers (Sigmund Freud Papers: Library of Congress), an enormous collection of Freud papers and documents, itself managed by the Sigmund Freud Archives, an independent organization that manages the Freud intellectual legacy and estate. A finding aid for navigating the over 48,000 individual items (correspondence, interviews, patient records and notes, legal documents, newspaper and magazine clippings, etc.) is available through the website. The Library of Congress also archives correspondence relating to the Freud family (Oliver Freud, Harry Freud, Rosa Freud) that sets out the circumstances of the emigration of the Freuds from Austria to elsewhere in the world, their financial affairs and arrangements, and recollections of Sigmund Freud himself. As of February 2017, the Library of Congress has made available online the fully digitized collection, funded by the Polonsky Foundation, and this achievement represents a landmark event in the history of research into psychoanalysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Commentary on Freud’s Archives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Given the powerful investment psychoanalysis has in thinking about our complex relationship to the past—in particular, what can be recovered and what is lost to the past—it is unsurprising that Freud’s archives have been the topic of some reflection among commentators on psychoanalysis. Jacques Derrida explores the metaphor of the archive in his Freud Museum lecture (Derrida 1996); a subsequent symposium reflects on Derrida’s book and the museum as a Freud repository (Freud Museum 2014). Sander Gilman edited a collection of essays discussing Freud’s library (Gilman 1994); Ro Spankie explores the objects on Freud’s desk in a recent short book (Spankie 2015). John Forrester and Richard Armstrong as well as Lynn Gamwell and Richard Wells all offer examinations of Freud’s practices as a collector of antiquities and art (Forrester 1998, Gamwell and Wells 1989, Armstrong 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Armstrong, Richard H. A Compulsion for Antiquity: Freud and the Ancient World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In this recent volume, Richard H. Armstrong discusses Freud’s interest in collecting antiquities, and the collection he assembled, in the context of his broader interest in the classical world, derived from his particular social milieu and his Gymnasium education (“The Archaeology of Freud’s Archaeology”).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression. Translated by Eric Prenowitz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Jacques Derrida’s book is based on a lecture given at the Freud Museum itself (“The Concept of the Archive: A Freudian Impression”), and considers the nature and meaning of archiving and memory through Freud’s concept of the death drive. The book is an exemplary post-structuralist consideration of the implications of Freud’s thinking on these topics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Forrester, John. “Collector, Naturalist, Surrealist.” In Dispatches from the Freud Wars: Psychoanalysis and Its Passions. By John Forrester, 107–137. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Forrester’s essays contextualize Freud’s collecting habits with key professional and personal incidents in his biography, and they offer many enriching contemporary accounts of Freud’s collecting habits. Forrester goes on to explore the inherent connection of Freud’s methodology and intellectual pursuits to his interest in collecting and the resonances between collecting (metaphorically and literally) and the emerging surrealist aesthetic of the period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freud Museum. “Twenty Years of Archive Fever.” International Symposium, London, 2014. London: Freud Museum, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A symposium reflecting on the legacy of Derrida’s paper twenty years after its original presentation was held at the museum in 2014. Recordings of the contributions of the panelists, who include a range of psychoanalytic scholars, are available through the museum website.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gamwell, Lynn, and Richard Wells, eds. Sigmund Freud and Art: His Personal Collection of Antiquities. New York: Abrams, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays from a range of contributors that accompanied a major tour of Freud’s major antiquities, offering an introduction to key objects in Freud’s collection and an overview of his collecting habits.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gilman, Sander L., ed. Reading Freud’s Reading. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gilman’s collection of essays from a range of contributor’s discusses the contents of Freud’s library, its history, and his habits as a reader and a buyer of books, down to particular annotations and reading traces to be found in the contents of his library.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spankie, Ro. Sigmund Freud’s Desk: An Anecdoted Guide. London: Freud Museum London, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spankie offers an idiosyncratic yet compelling narrative of the objects Freud gathered close to him, particular the sixty-five clustered on his desk, ranging from smoking paraphernalia to small statuettes and writing implements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Responding to Freud

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The second half of this article offers an overview of the various intellectual and critical fields to which Freud’s work has been of importance. While psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic ideas have had enormous reach in the humanities and social sciences, for reasons of brevity and clarity the following sections will examine engagements with Freud and his texts specifically, giving priority to thinkers, historians, and critics who read and interpret Freud’s texts and life directly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Freud Wars

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Freud’s own character and approach came under special scrutiny in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a period now characterized as the “Freud Wars.” Freud (and psychoanalysis) had been vociferously criticized on intellectual, moral, and scientific grounds since he began publishing his work, particularly in the context of survivors of sexual abuse and the “recovered memory” movement of the 1980s (Crews 1997). The question of “repressed” memories and fantasies reopened the most controversial aspects of Freud’s characterization of psychosexual development and its implications for feminist and psychiatric politics. Decades earlier, Karl Popper would be among the first to attack Freud’s methods on account of their un-falsifiability and unscientific approach (Popper 2002). Hans Eysenck would reprise and develop these arguments in one of the opening salvos of the Freud Wars, Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (Eysenck 2004), followed by Webster’s work a decade later (Webster 2005). Grünbaum’s philosophical critique of Freud’s work, contemporaneous with Eysenck, took particular aim at Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutic understanding of psychoanalysis (Grünbaum 1985, Ricoeur 1970). The resulting responses and debates have stimulated considerable reconsideration of the “proper” place of psychoanalysis: is it possessed of medical, psychiatric, political, critical, or humane value? Many of these questions are addressed by Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen and Sonu Shamdasani in a range of works (Borch-Jacobsen 1988, Borch-Jacobsen and Shadasani 2011). Frederick Crews launched the Freud Wars proper with an article in the New York Review of Books in 1993, stimulating a range of responses (Crews 1993). Janet Malcolm offers a vivid picture of internal psychoanalytic disputes from the 1980s (Malcolm 2002). John Forrester provides a spirited analysis of the implications of the Freud Wars in a 1998 collection (Forrester 1998). These vociferous arguments have inspired many rigorous investigations into Freud, his methods, and his circle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Borch-Jacobson, Mikkel. The Freudian Subject. Translated by Catherine Porter. Foreword by François Roustang. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The author examines the radical nature of Freud’s postulation of the nature of the ego as it relates to wider social life. Though initially published in French in 1982 before the Freud Wars proper, it was revised substantially in 1992 and Borch-Jacobson is regarded as a key psychoanalytic polemicist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Borch-Jacobson, Mikkel, and Sonu Shamdasani. The Freud Files: An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Borch-Jacobson and Shamdasani offer a coherent and compelling overview of the Freud Wars and reflect on Freud’s continuing cultural significance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Crews, Frederick. “The Unknown Freud.” The New York Review of Books, 18 November 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Frederick Crews published a review of four books attacking Freud “The Unknown Freud” in the New York Review of Books in November 1993. This review essay itself produced a lengthy and stubborn exchange between the critics of Freud and his defenders, resulting in a substantial body of writing that is of considerable interest to historians of psychoanalysis as well as intellectual historians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Crews, Frederick, ed. The Memory Wars: Freud’s Legacy in Dispute. London: Granta, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Crews’s collection reprints and contextualizes the articles and letters from the New York Review of Books that “The Unknown Freud” stimulated (Crews 1993). Of particular importance is Crews’s “The Revenge of the Repressed,” a review in two parts, that explores the controversy over “recovered memories” and the understanding of sexual abuse in North American psychiatry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Eysenck, Hans. Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. London: Transaction, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A controversial and generally poorly received polemic, first published in 1985, that nonetheless provides a key elaboration and revision of the attacks on Freud’s work as unscientific seen in Popper and others. Eysenck engages closely with Freud’s method of dream interpretation and attempts to debunk it. He also attacks Ernest Jones’s biography of Freud, accusing Jones of mythologizing the psychoanalyst, as well as claiming that Anna O suffered from an organic rather than neurotic illness. This second edition was published in 2004 and includes a preface by Sybil Eysenck, his widow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Forrester, John. Dispatches from the Freud Wars: Psychoanalysis and Its Passions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An excellent account of the exchanges and attacks launched in the Freud Wars. For Forrester, the dispute over Freud is no mere fashionable squabble; rather, it reaches into some of the most fundamental questions of truth and subjectivity raised in recent history, and his essays are adept at indicating the far-reaching implications of the Freud Wars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Grünbaum, Adolf. Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grünbaum offers a rigorous philosophical critique of Freud’s thinking and writing, though with considerable nuance, attacking Karl Popper as a poor reader of Freud and indeed an inadequate philosopher of science. Grünbaum also takes aim at Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutic and linguistic understanding of psychoanalysis in Ricoeur 1970.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Malcolm, Janet. In the Freud Archives. New York: New York Review of Books, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Janet Malcolm’s work of journalistic nonfiction paints an extraordinary picture of disputes inside psychoanalysis in the 1980s: whether psychoanalysis and its archive should be public-facing or secretive; Freud’s alleged suppression and abandonment of the seduction theory; and the unconscious dynamics of psychoanalytic institutions themselves. Malcolm’s book explores the arguments that raged, and the interpersonal dynamics that inflected them, over what material could and could not be made available to the community of Freud scholars. Malcolm’s work provides a vital context for researchers interested in the historiography of psychoanalysis; includes a new afterword.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Popper, Karl. “Science as Falsification.” In Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. By Karl Popper. London: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Originally published in 1963. A much-criticized essay, though the first major attack on Freud’s methodology which points to the apparently unfalsifiable character of Freud’s claims, alongside what Popper sees as the similarly untenable claims of Marxist economics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ricoeur, Paul. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Translated by Denis Savage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ricoeur’s major work published in 1965 work, and translated into English in 1970, attempts to bring the insights of psychoanalysis in line with the so-called linguistic turn in philosophy and critical theory. Ricoeur suggests Freud’s work describes not a scientific method but rather a “semantics of desire” and should be understood principally as offering an archaeology of repressed meanings and wishes. Ricoeur’s outlook is less biologistic and Darwinian and rather more Nietzschean.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Webster, Richard. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis. Oxford: Orwell, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Webster’s book, originally published in 1995, reprises a number of Eysenck’s arguments and extends them accordingly. Webster’s particular thesis is that Freud’s life and work does not really aspire to scientific credibility or acceptance but is rather a form of messianism and structured rather more like a religion than an academic discipline. Freud’s followers, particularly his biographer Ernest Jones, have been complicit in the cultivation of Freud as a Messiah figure.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Feminism, Gender Studies, and Queer Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                To say Freud’s work has attracted substantial commentary from feminist thinkers of diverse kinds would be a considerable understatement. The feminist debate over Freud has involved a number of key strands: whether the psychoanalytic account of psychosexual development—the journey by which a girl becomes a woman—is prescriptive and thus an articulation of patriarchy; whether Freud’s project returned to the hysteric psychic dignity by recognizing the meaningfulness of her speech, contra the spectacle of Charcot, or whether Freud’s therapy and writing actually occlude the voices and experiences of the women he analyzed, with particular emphasis on the place of the “seduction theory” in his work; or whether Freud’s dismantling of the autonomous liberal subject might become a key weapon in the arsenal of feminist critique. Early substantive critiques of Freud’s characterization of women’s psychosexual development can be found in Karen Horney and Simone de Beauvoir (Horney 1967, Beauvoir 2011). Juliet Mitchell’s study offered key summaries of, and original arguments about, feminist critiques of Freud (Mitchell 2000). Jacqueline Rose and Mary Jacobus offered post-structuralist feminist readings of femininity within psychoanalysis; Rose’s collection of essays in particular still resonates convincingly (Rose 2005, Jacobus 1986). Toril Moi, Hélène Cixous, and Catherine Clément offer more particular Lacanian and post-structuralist considerations of one of Freud’s most controversial case studies (Bernheimer and Kahane 1990). Freud’s characterization of human sexuality as polymorphous and perverse and open to extraordinary phantasmic elaboration and playfulness has encouraged a number thinkers to consider, though hardly unequivocally, the capacity his thinking has for destabilizing the forms and boundaries of heteronormative sexuality. Indeed, such work shows with special force how Freud himself is pulled between offering prescriptive and normalizing versions of sexual maturity and gender identity, on the one hand, and a more open, expansive, and radical picture, on the other. Berlant, Sedgwick, and Ahmed offer superb interventions in Freud’s thinking from the perspective of contemporary Queer theory (Berlant 2012, Ahmed 2006, Sedgwick 2003). Such readings extend Judith Butler’s deconstruction of the relationship of sex and gender in psychoanalysis (Butler 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ahmed, Sara. “Sexual Orientation.” In Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others. By Sara Ahmed, 65–108. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sara Ahmed offers a thoughtful consideration of Freud’s problematic construction of queerness and lesbianism in her Queer Phenomenology, exploring the dynamics of identification and gendered object-choice as postulated by Freud in “The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman,” developing a series of queer and lesbian critiques of Freud, notably that of Diana Fuss.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauvoir, Simone de. “The Psychoanalytical Point of View.” In The Second Sex. Translated by Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier. By Simone de Beauvoir, 38–52. London: Vintage, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Originally published in 1949. A thoroughgoing and early critique of Freud’s version of feminine sexuality, taking aim, in particular, at the maturational model of femininity (which she claims he essentially derives from men, negating the specificity of women’s experience), and the transcendent position afforded to the phallus. Her arguments are more broadly integrated into an existentialist critique of Freud’s thinking, and she also critiques his disregard for the historical and social elements in the construction of womanhood.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Berlant, Lauren. “Psychoanalysis and the Formalism of Desire.” In Desire/Love. By Lauren Berlant, 19–45. Brooklyn, NY: Punctum, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Berlant turns to Freud explicitly to consider how the forms desire takes might impact on our ideas of normativity, legitimacy, and sympathy about sexuality in the social and political spheres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bernheimer, Charles, and Claire Kahane, eds. In Dora’s Case: Freud – Hysteria – Feminism. York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See Catherine Clément and Hélène Cixous, “The Untenable” (pp. 276–293), and Toril Moi, “Representation of Patriarchy: Sexuality and Epistemology in Freud’s Dora” (pp. 181–199). The case of Dora has been of special interest to feminist critics. This collection of essays reopen the case, from deconstructive and Lacanian perspectives. Toril Moi, Hélène Cixous, and Catherine Clément offer especially insightful revisionist accounts of one of Freud’s most famous cases.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Butler, Judith. “Freud and the Melancholia of Gender.” In Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. By Judith Butler, 78–88. London: Routledge, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Judith Butler’s classic discussion considers the Freudian categories of cathexis, identification, mourning, and melancholia as they function in the constitution of gender identity, culminating in Butler’s radical conception of “heterosexual melancholia.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Horney, Karen. Feminine Psychology. London: W.W. Norton, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Horney’s collection of fourteen papers written between 1922 and 1937 form one of the earliest and significant critiques of Freud’s characterization of feminine psychosexual development and subjectivity, and her arguments advance from a psychoanalytic perspective. She critiques the centrality of the nuclear family to cultural life and its corrosive effect on women’s mental lives; she also launches a substantive attack on the concept of penis envy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jacobus, Mary. “Is There a Woman in This Text?” In Reading Woman: Essays in Feminist Criticism. By Mary Jacobus, 83–109. London: Methuen, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Continuing this tradition, Jacobus figures the relationship of language, authority, and gender through a reading of Freud’s essay on Jensen’s Gradiva; Rachel Bowlby also turns to this essay in her study of the relationship of women, writing, and psychoanalysis in Still Crazy After All These Years (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2010).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mitchell, Juliet. “Feminism and Freud.” In Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis. By Juliet Mitchell, 295–363. London: Basic Books, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1970 saw the publication of key attacks on Freud’s normative and reactionary versions of femininity from Shulamith Firestone, Kate Millett, and Germaine Greer. Juliet Mitchell’s Psychoanalysis and Feminism (1974), reissued and revised in 2000, offers an exemplary overview of feminist critiques of Freud. Includes a new introduction by the author.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rose, Jacqueline. Sexuality in the Field of Vision. London: Verso, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rose blends a post-structuralist consideration of language and difference with a comprehensive reading of Lacan to construct a picture of Freud’s work that draws forth its critical importance for feminist thinking. Written in dialogue with Mitchell’s Psychoanalysis and Feminism, Rose’s collection has been periodically reissued. The introduction, “Feminism and the Psychic” (pp. 1–24), and chapter 1, “Dora: Fragment of an Analysis” (pp. 27–48), offer especially explosive considerations of key parts of Freud’s work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. “Paranoid Reading and Reparative Reading.” In Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. By Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, 123–152. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s work channels powerful psychoanalytic impulses to consider the place of homosexuality, queerness, and affect in literary experience. Sedgwick turns an especially ingenious reading of Freud’s Schreber case toward questions of “paranoid” and “reparative” reading in Touching Feeling, and confronts, using Freud, the Ricoeurian tradition of critical suspicion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Structuralist and Post-structuralist Responses

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Freud’s work put the concepts of repression and the unconscious at the center of human experience, describing a subject who is never complete, or fully present to themselves. Psychoanalysis examines the faintly visible structures that shape human lives, and consequently it advances a range of questions about how lives are to be lived and traditional concepts of agency, meaning, and intention are called into question. As a consequence, Freud’s work has been subject to enormous commentary from writers associated with structuralism and post-structuralism. Michel Foucault situated Freud alongside Marx and Nietzsche as the inventor of a new kind of method for conceiving and producing the self (Foucault 1998). Jacques Derrida explores Freud’s critique of self-presence in his masterpiece Writing and Difference (Derrida 2001b). A range of post-structuralist readings from the French intellectual tradition are collected in a special issue of Yale French Studies from 1972, including Derrida’s famous commentary on “The Purloined Letter” (Mehlman 1973). Jacques Lacan’s “Return to Freud,” a major reconsideration of Freud’s writing in light of the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and Alexander Kojéve’s lectures on G. F. W. Hegel, is exemplified in his Seminar XI (Lacan 1998). Bruce Fink offers a detailed exegesis of Lacan’s relationship to Freud (Fink 2004). Deleuze and Guattari’s “schizoanalysis” provides a radically revisionist account of key ideas in Freud in Anti-Oedipus (Deleuze and Guattari 2009). Kristeva and Irigaray advance their own idiosyncratic feminist responses to Freud’s writing on sexuality and gender (Irigaray 1985, Kristeva 1982). Slavoj Žižek has become well known for his post-Althusserian blending of Marx and Hegel with the insights of Freud, resulting in an eccentric if no less compelling version of ideology critique (Žižek 1989). Jacques Derrida’s writing on Freud is voluminous but never less than virtuosic, exploring myriad philosophical and critical problems (Derrida 2001a). Samuel Weber’s exquisite monograph The Legend of Freud has been republished in an expanded edition and works in a similarly deconstructive mode to that of Derrida (Weber 2000).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari,. “Psychoanalysis and Familialism: The Holy Family.” In Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Preface by Michel Foucault. By Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, 57–75. London: Penguin, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In this work Deleuze and Guattari stage a full-frontal assault on Freud’s apparent political and ideological reductionism and his mischaracterization of psychosis; instead, they postulate a “schizoanalysis” based on a reading of Freud’s Schreber case, and they argue the unconscious is a “desiring-machine” that is productive and not founded, as in Lacan’s version, on castration and lack.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Derrida, Jacques. “Freud and the Scene of Writing.” In Writing and Difference. Translated by Alan Bass. By Jacques Derrida, 246–291. London: Routledge, 2001a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This essay in the seminal Writing and Difference offers a keen consideration of the metaphor of writing and inscription in Freud’s work and offers a characteristic elaboration of Freud’s thinking in terms of Derrida’s core notion of “the metaphysics of presence.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Derrida, Jacques. “Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences.” In Writing and Difference. Translated by Alan Bass. By Jacques Derrida, 278–294. London: Routledge, 2001b.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Derrida positions Freud’s critique of self-presence alongside Nietzsche’s and Heidegger’s dismantling of the history of Western metaphysics to highlight the philosophical implications of his work for the de-centering project of post-structuralism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fink, Bruce. Lacan to the Letter: Reading Écrits Closely. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fink, one of Lacan’s most prominent translators, offers a detailed overview of the relationship of his writing to Freud in his fine-grained reading of Lacan’s impenetrable Écrits in this book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Foucault, Michel. “Nietzsche, Freud, Marx.” In Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology. Edited by James Faubion. Translated by Robert Hurley. By Michel Foucault, 269–278. New York: New Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foucault identified Freud alongside Marx and Nietzsche as thinkers who invented radically novel approaches to interpretation and meaning, de-centering and problematizing the forms of knowledge and expression on which the tradition of Western thought tried to settle.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Irigaray, Luce. “The Little Girl Is (Only) a Little Boy.” In Speculum of the Other Woman. Translated by Gillian C. Hill. By Luce Irigaray, 25–33. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Luce Irigaray deconstructs Freud’s paper on Femininity at the outset of this book, ostensibly taking apart Freud’s phallocentrism and identifying the blind spots in his version of feminine psychosexual development; Freud’s work claims, in her view, “The Little Girl Is {Only) a Little Boy.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror. Translated by Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kristeva’s writing is deeply embedded in psychoanalytic and post-structuralist conceptions of language and desire; in Powers of Horror we see explicit discussion of Freud’s case of Little Hans and the nature of phobic structures as well as an exploration of the Freudian concepts of narcissism and repression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, XI: The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. Edited by Jacques Alain-Miller and translated by Alan Sheridan. London: W.W. Norton, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lacan’s seminar here sets out the core concepts of his theoretical “Return to Freud”: the unconscious, repetition, transference, and Drive. Especially striking is Lacan’s revisionist and suspicious questioning of psychoanalytic authority, particularly in relation to the founding father, Sigmund Freud.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mehlman, Jeffrey, ed. Special Issue: French Freud: Structural Studies in Psychoanalysis. Yale French Studies 48 (1973).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jeffrey Mehlman’s translation of the articles in this issue of Yale French Studies makes available in English key essays on Freud and psychoanalysis by Jean Laplanche, Jacques Lacan, and Jacques Derrida; Mehlman’s short introductory note is especially useful in setting the critical scene.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Weber, Samuel. “The Meaning of the Thallus.” In The Legend of Freud. By Samuel Weber, 101–120. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Working in an analogous deconstructive mode to Derrida, Weber’s book is a landmark in post-structuralist considerations of the psychoanalyst, bringing Freud’s work into sustained dialogue with myriad thinkers. This is an expanded version of the original text. “The Meaning of the Thallus” contains an especially striking discussion of the question of meaning and interpretation in Freud alongside highly original close readings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Žižek, Slavoj. “How Did Marx Invent the Symptom?” In The Sublime Object of Ideology. By Slavoj Žižek, 11–54. London: Verso, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Zizek here discusses the significance of the dream work in unmasking ideological structures at the outset of his most original and innovative book, offering a provocative conjunction of post-Althusserian Marxist ideology critique with Freudian theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Psychoanalysis and Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Freud’s work is so concerned with the image of the individual as they stand in relation to myriad kinds of social pressures and processes, so it is unsurprising that his writing has attracted considerable attention from political movements and thinkers of various kinds, who draw on his insights in equally diverse ways. Indeed, Freud himself lived through tumultuous times, his career punctuated by major conflicts and ending with the rise of European fascism, and Roazen and Brunner examine Freud’s political contexts and legacies in detail (Brunner 2001, Roazen 1990). The following works describe salient moments in the co-option of Freud’s thinking into different critical and political positions, to give an indication of the versatility of his writing. The Frankfurt School Marxists were among the first to turn to Freud’s work in their analysis of fascism, particularly T. W. Adorno (Adorno, 2001; Martin 1996). Sherry Turkle explores the politics of the “French Freud” in the context of the upheavals of May 1968 in a classic study (Turkle 1992). Jacqueline Rose’s work explores the relationship of Freud’s thinking to nationalism, war, and political communities of myriad stripes (Rose 1993, Rose 1998). A recent and provocative exploration of the relationship of Freud’s ideas to myriad aspects of political life in the 20th and 21st centuries is to be found in Zaretsky’s Political Freud (Zaretsky 2015). Pick and ffytche 2016, an edited collection, explores the variegated encounters of psychoanalysis with totalitarianism. A recent article by ffytche explores the resonances Freud’s work has had for the neoconservative right in the United States (ffytche 2013).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Adorno, T. W. “Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda.” In The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. Edited and with an introduction by J. M. Bernstein, 132–157. London: Routledge, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Originally published in 1951. Theodor Adorno made considerable use of Freud in his analysis of late capitalism, particularly in his analysis of fascism, where he engages with Karen Horney and Erich Fromm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brunner, José. Freud and the Politics of Psychoanalysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Freud’s imbrication in the medical, racial, and scientific politics of his time is brilliantly outlined in this volume; especially striking is the emphasis placed on Freud’s identity as a Jew in fin-de-siècle Vienna in the wake of 19th-century racial pseudoscience, and Brunner’s exploration of Freud’s ambivalent relationship to authoritarian politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • ffytche, Matt. “Freud and the Necons: The Narrative of a Political Encounter from 1949–2000.” Psychoanalysis and History 15.1 (2013): 5–44.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matt ffytche’s article offers a clear case for the appeal Freud might hold for those on the neoconservative right in the United States; ffytche argues that Civilisation and Its Discontents constitutes an “ideological landmark” for writers such as Kristol, Podhoretz, and Strauss, emerging from the writing of Lionel Trilling, among others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Martin, Jay. “The Integration of Psychoanalysis.” In The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute for Social Research, 1923–1950. By Jay Martin, 86–112. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freud’s influence was keenly felt among the Frankfurt School, and Jay sketches the integration of Freud’s thought with the sociological critique of Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse. Jay goes on to outline the debate between Fromm and Marcuse that emerged from their consideration of Freud.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pick, Daniel, and Matt ffytche, eds. Psychoanalysis in the Age of Totalitarianism. London: Routledge, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The relationship of Freud’s thought, and psychoanalysis more broadly, to the prevailing totalitarian climate of the 20th century is given a thorough treatment in this edited collection, which ranges geographically and historically.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Roazen, Paul. Encountering Freud: The Politics and Histories of Psychoanalysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Roazen offers a history of psychoanalysis, but one that further explores the importance and meaning of psychoanalysis, and particularly Freud, in a variety of national contexts, and the implications Freud’s ideas about normality and deviancy had in the disciplines of law and psychology as well as their ramifications for thinking about class and society more generally.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rose, Jacqueline. Why War: Psychoanalysis, Politics, and the Return to Melanie Klein. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rose’s collection of essays describes the insights Freud’s work affords in analysis of capital punishment, war, feminism, and nationhood. The title essay examines, in particular, Freud’s correspondence with Einstein and his “Thoughts for the Time. . .” from 1915.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rose, Jacqueline. States of Fantasy. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198183273.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rose continues the line of thought from Rose 1993, broaching the question of Israel and reflecting on the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in post-apartheid South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkle, Sherry. Psychoanalytic Politics: Jacques Lacan and Freud’s French Revolution. London: Free Association Books, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Turkle offers one of the first introductions to the work of Jacques Lacan in English, and it is notable for the way it imagined the political aspects of Freud’s ideas in the context of the upheavals of May 1968 in France, and the production of the “French Freud,” channeled through Lacan and Debord, among others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Zaretsky, Eli. Political Freud: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231172448.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Zaretsky offers a recent account of the impact of Freud’s thinking on political life. This far-ranging study touches on the importance Freud has had in conceptualizations of the Holocaust, racial politics, the War on Terror, and the New Left.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Freud in a Global Context

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Though Freud is sometimes characterized as the exemplary painter of western European bourgeois existence, his writing resonated in colonial and postcolonial contexts throughout the 20th century; psychoanalysis has a truly global existence, and new scholarship is beginning to reflect this fact. Freud’s Jewishness and the complex relationship to European culture this entails is now receiving proper examination. Freud himself lived through a period that saw intensification of the kinds of racial politics that found their precedent in the colonial racist regimes of the 19th century; therefore, it is understandable that his destabilization of normative notions of subjectivity has been of considerable interest to postcolonial and anti-colonial writers (Khanna 2003). The writing of Frantz Fanon describes one of the most original and complex encounters among psychoanalysis, imperialism, and race, and an excellent overview is offered in Hook and Truscott 2013. Freud’s Jewishness and complex relationship with Jewish identity have been subject to considerable and illuminating commentary (Roazen 2001, Slavet 2009). At the same time, myriad aspects of Freud’s own imagining of race, ethnicity, and religion have come under scrutiny (Loomba 2005, Spivak 1993). Edward Said’s Freud Museum lecture describes Freud’s ambivalent relationship to the European “center” and the political implications of his conception of Jewishness (Said 2004). Many critics and historians have begun to explore the reception and dissemination of Freud’s work in various geopolitical contexts, including South America, India, Russia, and Australasia (Gallo 2010, Hartnack 2001, Derrida 2007, Plotkin 2000, Miller 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Derrida, Jacques. “Geopsychoanalysis ‘and the Rest of the World.’” In Psyche: Inventions of the Other. Vol. 1. Edited by Peggy Kamuf and Elizabeth G. Rottenberg, 318–343. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A number of studies have tried to expand the historiographical and political frame in which Freud’s work might be placed. Indeed, Jacques Derrida anticipates this national and political broadening of scope in mooting the question of the US and Eurocentric institutional character of psychoanalysis in the essay cited here.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gallo, Rubén. Freud’s Mexico: Into the Wilds of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gallo explores the influence of Freud on literary and therapeutic cultures, as well as Freud’s own understanding of Mexico and its place in his life and writing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hartnack, Christiane. Psychoanalysis in Colonial India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hartnack explores the institution of psychoanalysis and its uneasy relationship with empire, but, more specifically, she discusses the correspondence of Freud with Girindrasekhar Bose, the first president of the Indian Psychoanalytic Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hook, Derek, and Ross Truscott. “Fanonian Ambivalence: On Psychoanalysis and Postcolonial Critique.” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 33.3 (2013): 155–169.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/a0033557Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hook and Truscott offer a compelling description of Martinique-born doctor, philosopher and activist Frantz Fanon’s stretching and transformation of core concepts in Freud as regards his project of liberation, and this serves as an excellent entry point into Fanon’s writing itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Khanna, Rajanna. Dark Continents: Psychoanalysis and Colonialism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1215/9780822384588Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Khanna offers an overview of the relationship of psychoanalysis to colonialism, through a compelling reading of the political trajectory of Freud’s career. Khanna also offers a striking postcolonial take on the place of Hamlet in Freud’s thinking.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Loomba, Ania. “Psychoanalysis and Colonial Subjects.” In Colonialism/Postcolonialism. 2d ed. 115–127. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Freud’s writing in Totem and Taboo has long put him at odds with critics who accuse him of resorting to essentialist primitivism and depersonalizing blackness; Loomba explores those arguments here.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miller, Martin Alan. Freud and the Bolsheviks: Psychoanalysis in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Miller discusses the cultural and institutional politics of psychoanalysis in Russia, before and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Especially compelling is the exploration of the ambivalent stance taken by Soviet authorities and academics toward psychoanalysis in the early and later stages of Soviet consolidation. Miller’s volume is notable for its inclusion of newly translated letters between Freud and an early Russian analyst, Nikolai Osipov.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Plotkin, Mariano Ben. Freud in the Pampas: The Emergence and Development of a Psychoanalytic Culture in Argentina. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Plotkin’s study discusses the rise of psychoanalysis in Argentina, and the versions of Freud’s work that emerged from that context, exploring the relationship of psychoanalysis to psychiatry and wider political and cultural developments in the latter part of the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Roazen, Paul. “Moses.” In The Historiography of Psychoanalysis. By Paul Roazan, 415–418. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roazen outlines what is at stake in acknowledging or recognizing Freud’s Jewishness and how that, in turn, structures his metropolitan Viennese experience. Roazen’s discussion also includes a considerable overview of key writing on Freud’s Jewish background.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Said, Edward. Freud and the Non-European. London: Verso, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Said uses Freud’s final completed work, Moses and Monotheism, to unpack Freud’s highly ambivalent relationship to the European “center” and to reflect on the heterogeneous nature of national belonging and subjectivity; Freud thus becomes a key plank in Said’s arguments about the claims made by both Palestinians and Israelis to the land. Includes an introduction by Christopher Bollas and a response by Jacqueline Rose.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slavet, Eliza. Racial Fever: Freud and the Jewish Question. New York: Fordham University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Slavet, following Yerushalmi’s brilliant 1991 study of Freud, explores the role of Moses in Freud’s intellectual exploration of Jewishness, connecting it to the concepts of transference and exploring ideas about intergenerational memory and telepathy. Her book thus goes beyond a simple biographical account of what Freud thought of Jewish culture himself or his personal relationship to it, recasting Jewishness in intellectual terms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spivak, Gayatri. “Echo.” New Literary History 24.1 (1993): 17–43.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gayatri Spivak puts Freud’s understanding of narcissism to work in a deconstructive context to consider how feminism and decolonization might be intertwined, in a virtuoso reading of the Echo and Narcissus myth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freud and Literary Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The importance of literature in Freud’s formulation of his ideas, from Antiquity to the writings of Shakespeare to the principles underlying romanticism, has been thoroughly documented (Frankland 2000). Rudnytsky and Starobinski offer two involved explorations of the Oedipal paradigm in Freud’s literary sources (Rudnytsky 1992, Starobinski 1989). The literature discussing the merits, methods, and pitfalls of Freudian approaches to criticism is voluminous, so the selection here aims to point out substantial theoretical and methodological statements on bringing literature and psychoanalysis together, as well as historical accounts of the place of the literary in Freud’s own work. Malcolm Bowie discusses the complex interplay of literary text and psychoanalytic theory in his study of Freud and Proust (Bowie 1988). Mary Jacobus explores a Freudian account of the nature of reading literary texts; Maud Ellmann enumerates the myriad psychoanalytic approaches to reading (Jacobus 1999, Ellmann 1994). Nicholas Royle’s discussion of telepathy and Freud is a highly idiosyncratic take on questions of meaning and the experience of the literary text (Royle 1991). Psychoanalytic understandings of the process of interpretation are explored by Felman and Jameson (Felman 1977, Jameson 1982); Harold Bloom’s polemical Freudian take on the nature of poetic influence and creation still remains a classic (Bloom 1997). Peter Brooks’s Reading for the Plot argues for the value of Freud’s thinking in understanding narrative structure (Brooks 1992).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bloom, Harold. “Tessera or Completion and Antithesis.” In The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. By Harold Bloom, 49–76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Harold Bloom’s explicitly Freudian account of literary inheritance and creativity, though controversial, is nonetheless a classic thesis and entails a sustained reading of Freud’s paper the “Family Romance.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bowie, Malcom. Freud, Proust and Lacan: Theory as Fiction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bowie’s stages a rich dialogue between the “theoretical” and the “literary,” and, in doing so, he complicates our understanding of what it might mean to “apply” psychoanalytic theory to literary texts when psychoanalysis problematizes the position and authority of “theory” itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Brooks’s book-length study derives a Freudian approach to narrative theory from a reading of Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and it is notable for a compelling exploration of the death-drive in the plotting and design of Dickens’s Great Expectations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ellmann, Maud, ed. Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism. London: Longman, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The contributions in this volume indicate the diversity of psychoanalytic and theoretical approaches to literary criticism that Freud’s work has generated; Ellmann’s introduction elucidates psychoanalytic divagations from Freud’s thought as well as illuminating which of his key ideas animate critical work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Felman, Shoshana. “‘Turning the Screw of Interpretation.” Yale French Studies 55–56 (1977): 97–207.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Felman’s much-anthologized essay on Henry James and Freud sets out many of the fundamental principles and questions of what it means to conduct a Freudian reading, positing an anoretic approach that emphasizes the importance of ellipses and repression. See also Barbara Johnson, “The Frame of Reference: Poe, Lacan, Derrida,” Yale French Studies 55–56 (1977): 457–505, and Peter Brooks, “Freud’s Masterplots,” Yale French Studies 55–56 (1977): 280–300.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Frankland, Graham. Freud’s Literary Culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511485763Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Frankland explores the highly literary “unconscious” of Freud’s psychoanalytic thinking, particularly his commitment to classical literature and German romanticism. Frankland’s exploration of the place of Goethe’s Mephistopheles (from his Faust) in Freud’s writing is especially compelling.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jacobus, Mary. Psychoanalysis and the Scene of Reading. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198184348.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Based on Jacobus’s Clarendon lectures, this monograph ranges across literary contexts and other psychoanalytic thinkers, but Jacobus situates Freud at the center, in exploring the nature of reading and meaning-making processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jameson, Fredric. “On Interpretation: Literature as a Socially Symbolic Act.” In The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. By Fredric Jameson, 17–102. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In a more Marxist mode, Jameson points to the importance of Freud’s hermeneutic system in analyzing culture and ideology in this chapter on interpretation, seeing a movement “from Freud to Northrop Frye.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Royle, Nicholas. Telepathy and Literature. London: Blackwell, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Royle draws on Freud’s less-regarded fascination with telepathy, in a Derridean mode, to explore the relationship among reader, text, and the production of meaning.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rudnytsky, Peter L. Freud and Oedipus. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rudnytsky explores the special place accorded to the protagonist of the drama by Sophocles in Freud’s thinking, contextualizing Freud’s interest in the myth in light of his biography and 19th-century German intellectual culture. Rudnytsky particularly argues that it is Sophocles himself who foreshadows many of Freud’s key insights.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Starobinski, Jean. “Hamlet and Oedipus.” In The Living Eye. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. By Jean Starobinski, 148–170. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This classic essay discusses the important place of Shakespeare’s play in Freud’s conception of the subject, particular with regard to a figure who did not murder his father and marry his mother, extending and complicating our sense of the Oedipus complex.

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