In This Article Greek History: Hellenistic

  • Introduction
  • General Overviews
  • Reference Works
  • Series
  • Political History
  • The Wars of the Successors
  • Founders of Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • The Roman Expansion and the Decline of the Antigonids and the Seleucids (C. 217–133 BCE)
  • The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion (133–30 BCE)
  • The Institutions of the Hellenistic Poleis
  • The Institutions of the Federal States
  • Education

Classics Greek History: Hellenistic
by
Angelos Chaniotis
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0022

Introduction

The Hellenistic period, from the conquests of Alexander the Great (334 BCE) to the conquest of the Ptolemaic kingdom by Rome (30 BCE), marks the greatest expansion of Greek culture but also the beginning of a transformation of Greek political institutions, society, religion, and culture. Politically, this period saw the creation, conflicts, and decline of new kingdoms (Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Attalid, minor kingdoms in Asia Minor and the East), the domination of mainland Greece and the Aegean by the Antigonids of Macedonia and the federal states of the Aetolians and the Achaeans, and the expansion of Rome. Although the role of the poleis (Greek plural of “polis”) in “international” politics declined, the polis remained the predominant form of political organization, and many new poleis were founded. Major phenomena in social history are the preponderance of elites and benefactors, a stronger presence of women in public life, increased social complexity, and mobility. The incorporation of Egypt and of large areas in the East (up to the western border of India) into a political, economic, and social network resulted in an intensive exchange of ideas and mutual influence between the Greek and non-Greek cultures and in the development of new centers of culture. Because of the continual discovery of new texts (inscriptions and papyri), our understanding of this period changes faster and more substantially than that of earlier periods. For this reason, this bibliography lays emphasis on recent studies, in which one can find further bibliography and references to new source materials. English is not the lingua franca and not even the most important language for the study of Hellenistic history, and no profound study of the Hellenistic world should be attempted without reading knowledge of French, German, and Italian.

General Overviews

Because of the wide geographical range and complexity of Hellenistic history, no general overview covers all its aspects. Green 1990, Gehrke 2008, and Walbank 1993 include chapters on culture, and Shipley 2000 considers Hellenistic mentality. Gehrke 2008 is very useful for his critical overview of recent research. Green 1990 and Walbank 1993 are very good general introductions, suitable for undergraduate students; Préaux 1978 emphasizes the kingdoms (especially the Ptolemaic kingdom). Schneider 1967–1969 is a useful overview of cultural developments. Chaniotis 2005, although focusing on war, sketches the major developments in all aspects of the Hellenistic world. Droysen 1877–1878, with an emphasis on political history, has historical value.

  • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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    A survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic world (political institutions, society, economy, religion, art, literature).

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    • Droysen, Johann Gustav. 1877–1878. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 3 vols. 2d ed. Gotha: Perthes.

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      Reprinted with CD-ROM, Berlin: Directmedia, 2007. Droysen's work (1st edition, 1833–1843) marks the beginning of the study of Hellenistic history. Droysen coined the term “Hellenistic” to refer to the merging of Greek and Oriental cultures as a result of Alexander's conquest and, according to Droysen, of Alexander's intentions. Out of date in details, Droysen's work is still a classic.

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      • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 2008. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 4th edition. Munich: Oldenburg.

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        In addition to a narrative section, the author offers a critical discussion of research on the Hellenistic world and excellent bibliography.

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        • Green, Peter. 1990. Alexander to Actium: The historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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          Well-written general account of the period, not always up to date as regards recent research.

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          • Préaux, Claire. 1978. Le monde hellenistique: La Grèce et l'Orient de la mort d'Alexandre à la conquête romaine de la Grèce (323–146 av. J.-C.). 2 vols. Paris: Presses Univ. de France.

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            Excellent overview of the major developments by an expert on Ptolemaic Egypt, monarchy, and Hellenistic economy.

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            • Prost, Francis, ed. 2003. L'Orient méditerranéen de la mort d'Alexandre aux campagnes de Pompée. Pallas 62. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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              Seventeen essays by leading scholars who treat aspects of monarchy, economy, war, and culture (with emphasis on the Seleucids and the Attalids).

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              • Schneider, Carl. 1967–1969. Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus. 2 vols. Munich: Beck.

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                General survey of Hellenistic literature, science, and culture; although antiquated, it has not yet been replaced.

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                • Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge.

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                  It combines an up-to-date political history with a study of the major aspects of the Hellenistic world (political institutions, organization of kingdoms, society, economy, religion) and a particular emphasis on the history of ideas and Hellenistic mentality (e.g., negotiation of power, social identity).

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                  • Walbank, Frank W. 1993. The Hellenistic world. Revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                    A concise and authoritative account that outlines the political history and gives introductions to the basic aspects of the period; very useful as a first short introduction.

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                    Reference Works

                    Hellenistic history is covered by four volumes of the Cambridge ancient history and three useful companions, suitable for undergraduates (Bugh 2006, Erskine 2003, and Weber 2007). Schmitt and Vogt 2006 is a very useful small Hellenistic encyclopedia.

                    • Bugh, Glenn. R., ed. 2006. The Cambridge companion to the Hellenistic world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                      Fifteen essays covering important aspects of the period: political organization (kingdoms, federal states, cities), military organization, economy, family, literature, art, religion, philosophy, science, and technology.

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                      • Crook, J. A., Andrew Lintott, and Elizabeth Rawson, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume IX, part 1: The last age of the Roman Republic, 146–43 BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                        Although primarily treating Roman political history, useful for the study of the later Roman expansion.

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                        • Erskine, Andrew, ed. 2003. A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                          This comprehensive companion offers an outline of the political history, reliable overviews of important aspects (kingdoms, poleis, federal states, warfare, native populations, family, society, religion, philosophy, art, literature), insights into the periphery of the Hellenistic world, and essays on selected aspects (e.g. myth, piracy, landscape, medicine).

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                          • Lewis, David M., John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and Martin Ostwald, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume VI: The fourth century BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                            This volume illuminates the historical background of the Hellenistic world (the conquests and reign of Alexander, the periphery of the Greek world).

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                            • Schmitt, Hatto, and Ernst Vogt, eds. 2006. Lexikon des Hellenismus. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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                              Extremely useful for quick reference on all aspects of the Hellenistic world, with good bibliography.

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                              • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1989. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VIII: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                An up-to-date account of the early phases of the Roman expansion.

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                                • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VII, part 1: The Hellenistic world. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                  A detailed and reliable account of political history.

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                                  • Weber, Gregor, ed. 2007. Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus von Alexander bis Kleopatra. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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                                    Collection of essays that cover the main aspects of Hellenistic society, religion, and political institutions.

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                                    Series

                                    Hellenistic Culture and Society 1990–, Studi ellenistici 1984–, Studia Hellenistica 1942–, and Studies in Hellenistic Civilization 1990– all exclusively or primarily treat aspects of the Hellenistic world, and should be regularly consulted for new sources and bibliography.

                                    • Hellenistic Culture and Society. 1990–. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                      It features fifty titles (to 2009) covering most aspects of the Hellenistic world; the most important series for Hellenistic studies. Available online.

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                                      • Studia Hellenistica. 1942–. Leuven: Peeters, et al.

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                                        This series has produced more than forty volumes covering many aspects of the Hellenistic world, with emphasis on the Ptolemies and documentary papyri.

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                                        • Studi ellenistici. 1984–. Pisa: Giardini.

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                                          Founded by Biagio Virgilio, this series primarily consists of collective volumes without a focus on a specific subject. It occasionally publishes studies devoted to individual aspects of the Hellenistic world.

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                                          • Studies in Hellenistic Civilization. 1990–. Aarhus, Denmark, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                            This series has published (by 2009) nine volumes that treat kingship and palaces (5, 7), center and periphery (4), ethnicity in Ptolemaic Egypt (3), religion in the Seleucid kingdom (1), the history of Rhodes (6 and 9), values (8), and philosophy (2).

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                                            Sources

                                            The study of Hellenistic history is based on a large variety of contemporary and later literary sources (histories, comedies, novels, mimes, philosophical treatises), the continually increasing number of inscriptions, papyri (only from Egypt), cuneiform texts (only from Babylonia), coins, and archaeological material.

                                            Literary sources

                                            Of the works of contemporary historians, only extensive parts of Polybius survive, to be used with Walbank's commentary (Walbank 1957–1979) and supplemented by information in Livy. Diodorus offers summaries of earlier, no longer surviving sources, especially in books 17–20, which deal with the early Hellenistic period. Appian is important for the Roman expansion, Arrian for the conquests of Alexander. Plutarch's lives of Hellenistic statesmen and Roman generals (Demosthenes, Aleaxander, Phokion, Eumenes, Demetrios, Pyrrhos, Aratos, Agis and Kleomenes, Philipoimen, Flamininus, Aemilius Paulus, Marc Antony) derive from earlier sources. Pausanias also has many references to Hellenistic history (Bearzot 1992). English translations with the original texts of all major sources are available in the Loeb Classical Library from Harvard Univ. Press. The collection of the fragments of Hellenistic historians by Jacoby (Jacoby 1923–1958) is indispensable for this period, but not easily accessible to students with no knowledge of Greek. For two important historians of the period of the Successors, see Hornblower 1981 and Kebric 1977; for Diodorus's historical interests, see Sacks 1990.

                                            • Bearzot, Cinzia. 1992. Storia e storiografia ellenistica in Pausania il Periegeta. Venice: Il Cardo.

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                                              Collection and analysis of the information provided by the 2nd-century traveler Pausanias on Hellenistic local history.

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                                              • Hornblower, Jane. 1981. Hieronymus of Cardia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                Study of the evidence about the life and work of the major lost historian of the period of the Successors (and main source of Diodorus).

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                                                • I frammenti degli storici greci. 2002–. Tivoli: Edizioni Tored.

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                                                  This series, founded in 2002, aims at presenting the fragments of Greek historians, with testimonia concerning their work and comments. Relevant for the Hellenistic history are the second volume (2002), in which Donnatella Erdas treats the fragments of Krateros, and the third volume (2007), in which Virgilio Costa discusses the fragments of the local historian of Athens Phylochoros.

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                                                  • Jacoby, Felix, ed. 1923–1958. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Berlin: Weideman; Leiden: Brill.

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                                                    Almost all historians who wrote about Alexander and the Hellenistic period survive only in fragments, collected and exhaustively commented by Jacoby; supplementary volumes and indices were published in 1994–1999; there is an updated version online, available only to subscribers.

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                                                    • Kebric, Robert B. 1977. In the shadow of Macedon: Duris of Samos. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

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                                                      Comprehensive study of one of the sources of Plutarch for his lives of individuals of the early Hellenistic period.

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                                                      • Sacks, Kenneth. 1990. Diodorus Siculus and the first century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                                                        This study places Diodorus (a major source for Hellenistic history), his historical interests, and his methods in the context of the late Republic.

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                                                        • Walbank, Frank W. 1957–1979. A historical commentary on Polybius. Volume I: Commentary on Books I–VI. Volume II: Commentary on Books VII–XVIII. Volume III: Commentary on Books XIX–XL. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                          Polybius is one of the main sources for political history and especially for Roman expansion in the East. This authoritative and exhaustive commentary treats the historical and methodological questions connected with Polybius's histories and is indispensable reading.

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                                                          Inscriptions

                                                          Our knowledge of the Hellenistic period continually changes thanks to new epigraphic finds, for which one should consult the annual surveys in Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and Bulletin épigraphique and the new corpora, which appear mainly in the series Inscriptiones Graecae and Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien. McLean 2002 is a useful introduction to the epigraphy of this period. Bérard, et al. 2000 is an indispensable bibliographical guide. Collections of inscriptions dedicated to specific subjects are presented in the respective sections of this bibliography. The collected works of Holleaux 1938–1968, Robert 1969–1990, and Wilhelm 1974–1984 are models for the way inscriptions contribute to the study of Hellenistic history. See also Collections of Sources.

                                                          • Bérard, François, et al. 2000. Guide de l'épigraphiste: Bibliographie choisie des épigraphies antiques et médievales. 3d ed. Paris: Rue d'Ulm.

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                                                            Useful bibliography of epigraphic studies. Supplements appear on a regular basis online.

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                                                            • Bulletin épigraphique. In Revue des études grecques 1 (1888–).

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                                                              Annual critical review of epigraphic publications. Indispensable for historical studies of the Hellenistic period. Available online.

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                                                              • Holleaux, Maurice. 1938–1968. Études d'épigraphie et d'histoire grecques. Edited by Louis Robert. 6 vols. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                The studies of a great specialist of Hellenistic epigraphy are very instructive for the way inscriptions help us reconstruct Hellenistic history.

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                                                                • Inschriften der griechischen Städte aus Kleinasien. 1972–. Bonn: Habelt

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                                                                  Continually growing series of local corpora of inscriptions, indispensable for the study of Hellenistic Asia Minor; the volumes are in German, English, and French; most of them include translations of the texts. For the inscriptions from many important cities that are not part of this series (e.g., Aphrodisias, Miletos, Pergamon, Sardeis) one should consult Bérard, et al. 2000.

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                                                                  • Inscriptiones graecae. 1873–. Berlin: de Gruyter, et al.

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                                                                    Monumental but incomplete series presenting a collection of the inscriptions of Greece and the Aegean islands; the commentaries are in Latin; the texts are not translated. For local collections of inscriptions, which close some of the gaps, one should consult Bérard, et al. 2000.

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                                                                    • McLean, Bradley H. 2002. An introduction to Greek epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman periods from Alexander the Great down to the reign of Constantine (323 B.C.–A.D. 337). Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                      A practical handbook for students with no previous experience in epigraphy.

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                                                                      • Robert, Louis. 1969–1990. Opera minora selecta. 7 vols. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                                                                        Collection of epigraphic studies by the greatest epigrapher of the 20th century; many of them cover subjects of Hellenistic political, social, and cultural history.

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                                                                        • Supplementum epigraphicum graecum. 1923–. Leiden, et al.: Brill, et al.

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                                                                          Annual survey of new epigraphic publications, with emphasis on the presentation of new editions of inscriptions; the section “Varia” is a useful bibliographical guide.

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                                                                          • Wilhelm, Adolf. 1974–1984. Kleine Schriften. 10 vols. Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der DDR; Vienna: Verlag der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                            Collection of essays by a leading authority in Greek epigraphy and institutions; the reading of Wilhelm's works is perhaps the best (though not the easiest) introduction to the use of inscriptions for institutional history. Not for beginners.

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                                                                            Papyri

                                                                            Although papyri primarily concern the conditions in Ptolemaic Egypt, they are a valuable source for many aspects of Hellenistic society, economy, law, and culture. Bagnall 1995 is a useful introduction for historians, Pestman 1990 an introduction to documentary papyrology. The significance of papyri for historical studies is demonstrated by numerous works that exploit papyri for particular subjects, such as demography, administration, law, and social history. Such studies are mentioned in the respective sections of this bibliography (especially Egypt, Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, and Hellenistic Monarchy). Clarysse and Thompson 2006, Lenger 1980–1990, and Scholl 1990 are good examples of collections and of papyri for the treatment of historical subjects. The use of papyri is facilitated through the existence of electronic resources, notably APIS. Many papyri are written in the Egyptian language (“Demotic texts”); an introduction to Demotic studies is given by Depauw 1997.

                                                                            • APIS: The Advanced Papyrological Information System.

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                                                                              Enormously useful list of electronic resources in the study of papyri.

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                                                                              • Bagnall, Roger. 1995. Reading papyri, writing ancient history. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                Overview of the information contained in documentary papyri and how it can be used in ancient history (especially in the Imperial period).

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                                                                                • Clarysse, Willy, and Dorothy J. Thompson. 2006. Counting the people in Hellenistic Egypt, volume 1: Population registers (P.Count.). Volume 2: Historical studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  Excellent study of demography and society (family structures) based on papyrological sources.

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                                                                                  • Depauw, Mark. 1997. A companion to Demotic studies. Brussels: Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth.

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                                                                                    Introduction to the Egyptian Demotic texts; it gives a useful overview of the information contained in these texts.

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                                                                                    • Hoffmann, Friedhelm. 2000. Ägypten: Kultur und Lebenswelt in griechisch-römischer Zeit; Eine Darstellung nach den demotischen Quellen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                      German translation of a good selection of non-Greek (Demotic) documents concerning education, administration, private life, the administration of justice, religion, and science. The texts and the author's comments give valuable insights into the life of the native population in Ptolemaic Egypt; accessible to students.

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                                                                                      • Lenger, Marie-Thérèse. 1980–1990. Corpus des ordonnances des Ptolémées (C. Ord. Ptol.): Réédition avec suppléments. Bilan des additions et corrections (1964–1988): Compléments à la bibliographie. Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique.

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                                                                                        Collection of administrative regulations preserved in papyri; extremely important work of reference.

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                                                                                        • Pestman, Pieter W., Clarysse, Willy, and Zenon. 1981. A guide to the Zenon Archive. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                          Introduction to the most extensive Hellenistic archive; rather for specialists.

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                                                                                          • Pestman, Pieter W., and Martin David. 1990. The new papyrological primer. 5th edition. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                            General introduction to the technical aspects of papyrology, but also to the significance of papyri for historical studies.

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                                                                                            • Scholl, Reinhold. 1990. Corpus der Ptolemäischen Sklaventexte. 3 vols. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                              Collection of papyri concerning slavery in Ptolemaic Egypt.

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                                                                                              Cuneiform Texts

                                                                                              Because of the contradictory information provided by the literary sources concerning the chronology of the Hellenistic period, the evidence given by texts from Babylonia is very important, especially notes and chronicles concerning contemporary events, which give a non-Greek perspective on contemporary history (Grayson 1975, Sachs and Hunger 1988–2006, Glassner 2006). These texts are significant also because they give insights into society, economy, and culture of the indigenous population (Funck 1984, Oelsner 1986).

                                                                                              • Del Monte, Giuseppe F. 1997. Testi dalla Babilonia ellenistica, volume I: Testi cronografici. Studi Ellenistici 9. Pisa and Rome: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.

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                                                                                                Edition of annalistic sources, which occasionally refer to important events in the Seleucid kingdom. One of the backbones of Hellenistic chronology.

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                                                                                                • Funck, Bernd. 1984. Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit: Eine Untersuchung zu den spätbabylonischen Pfründentexten als Quelle für die Erforschung der sozialökonomischen Entwicklung der hellenistischen Stadt. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                  Study of cuneiform documents concerning financial transactions of the temples, as a source of information for economy (especially agriculture) and society in Uruk.

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                                                                                                  • Glassner, Jean-Jacques. 2006. Mesopotamian chronicles. Edited by Benjamin R. Foster. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                    Collection of chronicles (Akkadian and Sumerian texts with English translations and comments); very good introduction to the value of these chronicles as historical sources; numbers 29–36 concern Alexander's reign, the Successors, and the Seleucid kings (some of them also published in Grayson 1975). Translation of Chroniques mésopotamiennes (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1993).

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                                                                                                    • Grayson, A. K. 1975. Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin.

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                                                                                                      Collection of so-called late Babylonian chronicles (introduction, transcriptions, with English translations and comments); numbers 10–13a concern the Successors and the Seleucid kings; now superseded by Glassner 2006.

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                                                                                                      • Oelsner, Joachim. 1986. Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit. Budapest: Eötvös Univ.

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                                                                                                        Useful collection of sources (cuneiform texts) concerning society and culture in Hellenistic Babylonia.

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                                                                                                        • Sachs, Abraham J., and Hermann Hunger. 1988–2006. Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylonia. 3 vols. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                                                          Edition with English translations of Babylonian cuneiform tablets that contain astronomical obdservations, but often also short notes on historical events of the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                          Coins

                                                                                                          Among the archaeological sources, coins are of cardinal importance for studies of economy, administration, and (through the study of royal portraits, other images and legends) of ideology. Unfortunately, all major numismatic publications are extremely technical and not easily accessible to students. Howgego 1995 is the most accessible introduction. Collections of coins, especially of the kingdoms (e.g. Houghton, et al. 2002; Houghton, et al. 2008; Le Rider 2000; MacDonald 2005), but also of cities and federal states (e.g. Benner 2008) are important resources (Callataÿ 1997a). For good examples of how coins contribute to the study of history, see de Callataÿ 1997b on the Mithridatic wars.

                                                                                                          • Benner, Steve M. 2008. Achaian League coinage of the 3rd through 1st centuries B.C.E. Lancaster, PA and London: American Numismatic Society.

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                                                                                                            Catalogue of the coins of one of the major federal states. Available online.

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                                                                                                            • de Callataÿ, François. 1997a. Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires hellénistiques. Wetteren: Éditions Numismatique Romaine.

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                                                                                                              Catalogue of the coin issues of cities and kings in the Hellenistic period; useful work of reference.

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                                                                                                              • de Callataÿ, François. 1997b. L'Histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies. Louvain: Département d'Archéologie et d'Histoire de l'Art.

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                                                                                                                Masterly treatment of the contribution of numismatics to the study of the Mithridatic wars.

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                                                                                                                • Houghton, Arthur, and Catherine Lorber. 2002. Seleucid coins: A comprehensive catalogue, part 1. 2 vols. Lancaster, PA and London: American Numismatic Society.

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                                                                                                                  More than in other Hellenistic kingdoms, coinage is an important source of information for the reign of individual Seleucid kings, their ideology, and the extension of their power. Along with Houghton, Lorber and Hoover 2008, these volumes collect all the known coin types.

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                                                                                                                  • Houghton, Arthur, Catherine Lorber, and Oliver Hoover. 2008. Seleucid coins: A comprehensive catalogue, part 2. 2 vols. Lancaster, PA and London: American Numismatic Society.

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                                                                                                                    More than in other Hellenistic kingdoms, coinage is an important source of information for the reign of individual kings, their ideology, and the extension of their power. Along with Houghton and Lorber 2002, these volumes collect all the known coin types. Available online.

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                                                                                                                    • Howgego, Christopher. 1985. Ancient history from coins. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                      Short, readable introduction to the use of coins for historical studies (pp. 48–56, on the coinage of Alexander and the Hellenistic kingdoms).

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                                                                                                                      • Le Rider, Georges. 2000. Antioche de Syrie sous les Séleucids: Corpus des monnaies d'or et d'argent, I, De Séleucos I à Antiochos V: c. 300–161. Paris: Institut de France.

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                                                                                                                        Study of the coin types issued in the capital of the Seleucid kingdom; major resource for the study of Seleucid history and economy.

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                                                                                                                        • MacDonald, David. 2005. An introduction to the history and coinage of the kingdom of the Bosporus. Lancaster, PA and London: American Numismatic Society.

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                                                                                                                          Important contribution to the study of a powerful kingdom on the north shore of the Black Sea.

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                                                                                                                          • Mørkholm, Otto. 1991. Early Hellenistic coinage from the accession of Alexander to the peace of Apamea (336–188 BC). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                            Studies how coins contribute to our understanding of the development of Hellenistic kingdoms.

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                                                                                                                            Collections of Sources

                                                                                                                            Modern selections of sources in translation are useful for a first orientation both in the history of the period and in specific subjects. Austin 2006 is the most comprehensive; Bagnall and Derow 2004 emphasize papyri. Selections of inscriptions (Moretti 1967), sometimes dedicated to specific subjects (Sherk 1969; Welles 1934), are useful resources for political and social history.

                                                                                                                            • Austin, Michel M., ed. and trans. 2006. The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: A selection of ancient sources in translation. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                              The most comprehensive selection of sources in reliable translations (with brief introductory notes), including a representative number of inscriptions and papyri. Indispensable for the teaching of Hellenistic history.

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                                                                                                                              • Bagnall, Roger, and Peter Derow, eds. and trans. 2004. Historical sources in translation: The Hellenistic period. 2d ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                Representative selection of translations of inscriptions and papyri primarily concerning political and social history.

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                                                                                                                                • Moretti, Luigi, ed. 1967–1976. Iscrizioni storiche ellenistiche, 1: Attica, Peloponneso, Beozia. Grecia centrale e settentrionale. 2 vols. Florence: La Nuova Italia.

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                                                                                                                                  Selection of Hellenistic inscriptions, useful for political evehnts, institutions and social history.

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                                                                                                                                  • Sherk, Robert K., ed. 1969. Roman documents from the Greek East: Senatus consulta and epistulae to the age of Augustus. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Very important for the history of Roman expansion, the relations between Rome and the Hellenistic states, and the early history of Roman provincial administration.

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                                                                                                                                    • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                      Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of the relations between kings and cities. More material has come to light since 1934.

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                                                                                                                                      Political History

                                                                                                                                      The countless players in the political history of this period (kings, cities, federations, non-Greek states), the complex and continually changing alliances, the endemic wars, and the fragmentary nature of the sources make reconstruction of the political history very difficult. Until around 1980, The second volume considers bibliography until 1980, the first obviously not; perhaps “until the late 70s” Will 2003 (originally published 1979–1982) was the best survey; Errington 2008 is more current; Green 1990 is more detailed and readable, but not up to date. The Cambridge ancient history, volumes VII–VIII are indispensable works of reference. A good part of Hellenistic history is also the history of Roman expansion, for which Gruen 1984 and Harris 1979 offer different theoretical approaches (see also The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion for the latest phase). Eddy 1961 considers Hellenistic history from the perspective of the native populations. Good bibliography is provided by Gehrke 2008.

                                                                                                                                      • Eddy, Samuel K. 1961. The king is dead: Studies in the Near Eastern resistance to Hellenism, 334–31 BC. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                        Study of the reactions of Persians, other Iranians, native populations in Asia Minor, Jews, and Egyptians to the establishment of Hellenistic dynasties; although out of date in many details, it has not been replaced.

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                                                                                                                                        • Errington, R. Malcolm. 2008. A history of the Hellenistic world, 323–30 BC. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                          The most up-to-date account of the political events, but not as detailed as Will 2003.

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                                                                                                                                          • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 2008. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 4th edition. Munich: Oldenburg.

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                                                                                                                                            In addition to a narrative section, the author offers a critical discussion of research on the Hellenistic world and excellent bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                            • Green, Peter. 1990. Alexander to Actium: The historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                              Well-written general account of the period, not always up to date as regards recent research.

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                                                                                                                                              • Gruen, Erich S. 1984. The Hellenistic world and the coming of Rome. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                An excellent treatment of the relations between Rome and the Hellenistic states and of the evolution of Roman expansion and imperialism.

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                                                                                                                                                • Harris, William V. 1979. War and imperialism in Republican Rome, 327–70 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                  Groundbreaking study of Roman attitudes to war and expansion and of the causes of Roman expansion, with very good analysis of economic motives.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1989. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VIII: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    An up-to-date account of the early phases of the Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VII, part 1: The Hellenistic world. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      A detailed and reliable account of political history.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Will, Édouard. 2003. Histoire politique du monde hellénistique, 323–30 av. J.-C. 3d ed. Paris: Seuil.

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                                                                                                                                                        Detailed account of political history, taking into consideration both the literary sources and the inscriptions (published until c. 1980). Reprint of the editions of vols. 1 (1979) and 2 (1982). Some details need to be revised owing to recent epigraphic finds.

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                                                                                                                                                        Alexander the Great

                                                                                                                                                        The fascination exercised by Alexander's personality and achievements has produced a vast bibliography. The following is not representative of the history of studies on Alexander and all its trends; it primarily includes a selection of recent books, in which further bibliography can be found. Lewis et al. 1994 is a good place to start.

                                                                                                                                                        • Lewis, David M., John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and Martin Ostwald, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume VI: The fourth century BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                          This volume includes a detailed treatment of the conquests and reign of Alexander and their historical background.

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                                                                                                                                                          Sources for Alexander the Great

                                                                                                                                                          Contemporary sources for Alexander are scarce, since the works of contemporary historians survive only in fragments and are biased, and the information provided by later sources, among which Diodorus (1st century BCE), Iustinus (1st century BCE, based on Pompeius Trogus), Arrian (2nd century CE), Curtius Rufus (1st century CE), and Plutarch (late 1st century CE) are the most important, is not always reliable. Sources should always be used together with the critical commentaries and the critical assessments of modern biographers (see Biographies). The rather limited epigraphic sources primarily concern Alexander's relations with the Greek cities.

                                                                                                                                                          Collections of Sources

                                                                                                                                                          See Heckel and Yardley 2004 for the best collection of sources.

                                                                                                                                                          • Heckel, Waldemar, and J. C. Yardley, eds. and trans. 2004. Alexander the Great: Historical sources in translation. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                            Selection of the main Greek and Latin literary sources and several inscriptions in reliable translations; very useful to undergraduate students.

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                                                                                                                                                            Literary Sources

                                                                                                                                                            Contemporary historians survive only in fragments and are biased (fundamental is Pearson 1960; see also Hammond 1983 and Hammond 1993), and the information provided by later sources—the most important being Diodorus, Iustinus, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, and Plutarch—are not always reliable. Sources should always be used together with the critical commentaries and the critical assessments of modern biographers (see Biographies).

                                                                                                                                                            • Arrian (Flavius Arrianus). 1980–1995. A historical commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander. Edited by A. B. Bosworth. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              Commentary of the most comprehensive account of Alexander's campaigns, based primarily on the accounts of Ptolemy and Aristoboulos.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Curtius Rufus, Quintus. 1980–1994. A commentary on Q. Curtius Rufus' Historiae Alexandri Magni. Edited by J. E. Atkinson. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                                                                                                                                                                Detailed commentary of Alexander's history written in Latin by Curtius Rufus (1st century CE), who used earlier sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1983. Three historians of Alexander the Great: The so-called vulgate authors, Diodorus, Justin and Curtius, from Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Analysis of the work of historians who follow the “vulgate tradition,” which is characterized by a tendency toward exaggeration.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1993. Sources for Alexander the Great: An analysis of Plutarch's ‘Life’ and Arrian's ‘Anabasis Alexandrou’. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Critical analysis of two important narratives of Alexander's life (Plutarch) and campaign (Arrian), which were written more than four centuries after his death but used earlier, no longer extant accounts. Hammond's interpretations are controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Pearson, Lionel. 1960. The lost histories of Alexander the Great. New York: American Philological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Reprinted, Chicago: Ares, 2004. Fundamental study of the fragmentary historians of Alexander, the content of their work, their different approaches to Alexander, and their reliability.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Pédech, Paul. 1984. Historiens compagnons d'Alexandre (Callisthène, Onésicrite, Néarque, Ptolémée, Aristobule). Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Attempts to reconstruct how the contemporary historians who accompanied Alexander in his campaigns represented these events, often with exaggerations (Kallisthenes, Onesikritos); based on their fragments.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Plutarch (L. Mestrius Plutarchus). 1969. Alexander: A commentary. Edited by J. R. Hamilton. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Useful commentary of one of the most important sources for Alexander (also for his early life and personality).

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                                                                                                                                                                          Other Sources

                                                                                                                                                                          The rather limited epigraphic sources primarily concern Alexander's relations with the Greek cities (Heisserer 1980). Stewart 1993 gives an excellent acount of the iconographical sources (portraits, statues, coins).

                                                                                                                                                                          • Heisserer, A. J., ed. 1980. Alexander the Great and the Greeks: The epigraphic evidence. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Collection of the most important contemporary textual sources on Alexander: inscriptions that concern his relations to Greek cities (Alexander's letters, civic decrees, etc.).

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Stewart, Andrew. 1993. Faces of power: Alexander's image and Hellenistic politics. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The best discussion of the representation of Alexander in contemporary and later art.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Bibliographies

                                                                                                                                                                              The bibliography on Alexander the Great is vast. An easily accessible bibliography has been compiled by Heckel 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Heckel, Valdemar. 2005. Alexander the Great: A bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Very useful list of about 1,300 books and articles organized around the following subjects: monographs; sourcebooks and collections of articles; Alexander and India; military: organization and battles; sources: lost and extant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Biographies

                                                                                                                                                                                More than in other subjects of Hellenistic history, modern trends influence the way Alexander is viewed, and interpretations of his life oscillate between the views of the “maximalists” (e.g. Droysen 1877–1878), who attribute to Alexander great plans, and the “skeptics,” who are willing to accept only clearly documented and unequivocal evidence and focus on reconstructions of details, and between Alexander's admirers (e.g. Droysen 1877–1878, Lane Fox 1973, Hammond 1994) and those who demonize him (Bosworth 1988, Worthington 2004). Bosworth 1988, Cartledge 2004, and Wiemer 2005 are good introductions; Lane Fox 1973 is an original and well-written reconstruction, but some details need to be corrected on the basis of more recent research. One should also consult the Readers section on Alexander's life.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Bosworth, A. B. 1988. Conquest and empire: The reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed narrative of Alexander's campaigns and reign, with very negative appraisal of his personality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cartledge, Paul. 2004. Alexander the Great: The hunt for a new past. London: Macmillan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Well-written biography with critical review of the sources; also a good account of Alexander's later reception.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Droysen, Johann Gustav. 1877–1878. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 3 vols. 2d ed. Gotha: Perthes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Reprinted with CD-ROM, Berlin: Directmedia, 2007. The first volume is dedicated to Alexander, to whose plans Droysen attributed the merging of Greek and Oriental cultures. Out of date in details, Droysen's work is still a classic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Green, Peter. 1991. Alexander of Macedon, 356–323 B.C.: A historical biography. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Readable account of Alexander's life; suitable for undergraduate students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1994. Alexander the Great: King, commander and statesman. 2d ed. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent treatment of the Macedonian background and the military aspects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lane Fox, Robin. 1973. Alexander the Great. London: Allen Lane.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Reprinted, London: Penguin, 2005. Well-written biography, which inspired Oliver Stone's film Alexander and has had a great impact on the popular perception of Alexander; a very good treatment of myth's influence on Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Schachermeyr, Fritz. 1972. Alexander der Grosse: Das Problem seiner Persönlichkeit und seines Wirkens. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A monumental book with a very detailed—very subjective and at times idiosyncratic—reconstruction of Alexander's life and personality, with detailed discussion of the factors that may have shaped his personality (land, parents, myth); it cannot be ignored, but should be used with caution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich. 2005. Alexander der Grosse. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Up-to-date account, avoiding speculation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Worthington, Ian. 2004. Alexander the Great: Man and god. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Readable biography with a very critical and generally negative appraisal of Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Readers

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Because of the problems of the sources, the reconstructions of Alexander's life and the interpretations of his motivation and personality vary enormously. Several collections of essays (Badian 1976, Griffith 1966, Roisman 2004, and Worthington 2003) reflect the different trends and the problems of interpretation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Badian, Ernst, ed. 1976. Alexandre le Grand: Image et realité. Entretiens sur l'Antiquité Classique 22. Vandoeuvres and Geneva: Fondation Hardt. Yes, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collection of essays by leading experts who treat important aspects, providing critical assessment of scholarship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Griffith, G. T. 1966. Alexander the Great: The main problems. Cambridge, UK: Heffer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of sixteen essays dedicated to central problems of Alexander's life (sources, plans, details of the campaign, deification); despite the progress of research in later decades, most of these essays are still very instructive on the problems concerning the reconstruction and appraisal of Alexander's life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Roisman, Joseph, ed. 2004. Brill's companion to Alexander the Great. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of essays on different aspects of Alexander's life and rule; not exhaustive, but useful for first reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Worthington, Ian, ed. 2003. Alexander the Great: A reader. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of sources and modern interpretations, very useful for undergraduate students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reference Works

                                                                                                                                                                                                          For the study of Alexander, information concerning contemporary persons (family, companions, opponents) is essential; see Berve 1926 and Heckel 2006. Seibert 1985 is useful for the geography of the regions conquered by Alexander. Seibert 1972 is an excellent introduction to the main events and problems and the relevant sources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Berve, Helmut. 1926. Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage. 2 vols. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Groundbreaking study of persons connected with the conquests and the life of Alexander. For updated information, see Heckel 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Heckel, Waldemar. 2006. Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great: Prosopography of Alexander's empire. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Collection of biographical information concerning Alexander's court, allies, and enemies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Seibert, Jakob. 1972. Alexander der Grosse. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Very useful introduction to the study of Alexander's life and campaigns, with excellent overview of the sources and detailed account of the events and the main problems of interpretation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Seibert, Jakob. 1985. Die Eroberung des Perserreiches durch Alexander den Grossen auf kartographischer Grundlage. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Part of the cartographical series Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, this book presents useful maps of Alexander's campaigns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Thomas, Carol G. 2007. Alexander the Great in his world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Illustrates the historical background of Alexander's life in Macedonia, the world of the Greek poleis, and the Persian empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Campaign

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Although the military aspects of Alexander's campaign (weapons, tactics, organization of the army, reconstruction of battles) have been subject to very detailed discussions in books and articles, no consensus has been reached in most matters. Gehrke 2008 gives a useful bibliography. Engels 1978 treats the practical aspects of the campaign; Heckel 2008 and Lonsdale 2007 are good general introductions to the strategic and tactical aspects. The campaigns after the conquest of the Persian capitals (330–325 BCE), in the northeastern satrapies, and from there to Afghanistan and India are not only of great military interest and well documented, but also of crucial significance for understanding the king's personality and plans; Bosworth 1996, Holt 1988, and Holt 2005 are reliable reconstructions based on critical analysis of the sources.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bosworth, A. B. 1996. Alexander and the East: The tragedy of triumph. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very critical account of the violent campaign in Central Asia and Pakistan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Engels, Donald W. 1978. Alexander the Great and the logistics of the Macedonian army. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Attempt to reconstruct the practical aspects of Alexanders's campaign (especially food supply); the evidence is not always reliable, and parallels from other periods should be treated with caution.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 2008. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 4th edition. Munich: Oldenburg.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In addition to a narrative section on the campaigns of Alexander, the author offers a critical discussion of recent research and excellent bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Heckel, Waldemar. 2008. The conquests of Alexander the Great: Key conflicts of Classical Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The most up-to-date account of the campaigns, with emphasis on the military aspects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Holt, Frank L. 1988. Alexander the Great and Bactria. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Account of Alexander's campaign in northeast Iran (330–327 BCE), an enigmatic but important chapter of his life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Holt, Frank L. 2005. Into the land of bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reconstruction of the campaign Alexander's in the northeastern satrapies (329–327 BCE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lonsdale, David J. 2007. Alexander the Great: Lessons in strategy. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Interesting attempt to interpret Alexander's campaign from the perspective of strategic studies, attributing his success to his personality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alexander's Rule

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alexander died shortly after the end of his eastern campaign, without having the chance to rule; everything that concerns the administrative aspects of his rule (relations with the Greek cities, integration of conquered populations, foundation of cities) and his concept of monarchy (including the thorny question of his deification) has been and continues to be subject to controversy. The books mentioned in Biographies are good starting points. For relations with the Greeks, Heisserer 1980 has collected and discussed the relevant sources. The sources concerning the foundation of cities have been scrutinized by Fraser 1996. Badian 1996 gives a useful overview of the problems concerning Alexander's deification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Badian, Ernst. 1996. Alexander the Great between two thrones and heaven: Variations on an old theme. Subject and ruler: The cult of the ruling power in Classical Antiquity. Edited by Alastair Small, 11–26. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supp. 17. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Critical discussion of a very significant aspect of Alexander's monarchy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fraser, Peter M. 1996. Cities of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Critical review of the ancient sources that refer to about seventy cities allegedly founded by Alexander; Fraser argues that they were far fewer (only seven); this conclusion is not accepted by all modern historians, but the book is instructive for its method.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Heisserer, A. J. 1980. Alexander the Great and the Greeks: The epigraphic evidence. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of the most important contemporary textual sources on Alexander: inscriptions that concern his relations with Greek cities (Alexander's letters, civic decrees, etc.).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Le Rider, Georges. 2007. Alexander the Great: Coinage, finances, and policy. Translated by W. E. Higgins; preface by Glen W. Bowersock. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Masterly study of the coin issues of Alexander the Great as evidence for the financial and administartive structures of his empire. Translation of Alexandre le Grand: Monnaie, finances, politique (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2003).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reception

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Alexander's memory lived on in the legends of the areas that he conquered. Versions of the so-called Romance of Alexander exist in many languages. The most recent treatment of this subject is by Stoneman 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stoneman, Richard. 2008. Alexander the Great: A life in legend. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beautifully illustrated book about how Alexander's life fascinated later generations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Wars of the Successors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The complex political history of the forty or so years between Alexander's death and the consolidation of the main kingdoms (323–281 BCE) is dominated by the conflicts between his ambitious generals (the “Successors”). Seibert 1983 is the most detailed account of the events, but new finds and studies have modified many details and the chronology. Will 2003 and the more current Errington 2008 are good guides through this period; Bosworth 2002 discusses the institutional and ideological context, for which Anson 2004 is also important; but one should also consult treatments of the life of the main protagonists (Heckel 1992), for which see the section The Founders of the Hellenistic Kingdoms. The geographical context is studied by Orth 1993.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Anson, Edward M. 2004. Eumenes of Cardia: A Greek among Macedonians. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important for the early phase of the wars of the Successors (320–315 BCE) and for the legal and ideological issues connected with the succession of Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bosworth, A. B. 2002. The legacy of Alexander: Politics, warfare and propaganda under the Successors. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines not only the political and military events, but also their ideological background and the efforts of the Successors to legitimize their rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Errington, R. Malcolm. 2008. A history of the Hellenistic world, 323–30 BC. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The most up-to-date account of the political events, but not as detailed as Will 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Heckel, Waldemar. 1992. The marshals of Alexander's empire. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Useful introduction to the men who followed Alexander in his campaign and raised a claim to his throne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Heckel, Waldemar, and P. V. Wheatley. n.d. The Successors of Alexander: A Bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Regularly updated bibliography for the period of the Successors and its chronology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Orth, Wolfgang. 1993. Die Diadochenzeit im Spiegel der historischen Geographie: Kommentar zu TAVO-Karte B V 2 ‘Diadochenreiche (um 303 v. Chr.)’. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the geographical aspects of the period of the Successors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Seibert, Jakob. 1983. Das Zeitalter der Diadochen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A well-informed review of the literary sources for the early phase of the Hellenistic period (323–281 BCE) and the modern research; it focuses on political and military events.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Will, Édouard. 2003. Histoire politique du monde hellénistique, 323–30 av. J.-C. 3d ed. Paris: Seuil.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Detailed account of the political history, taking into consideration both the literary sources and the inscriptions. Some details need to be revised owing to recent epigraphic finds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Founders of Hellenistic Kingdoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            From 306 BCE onward the most powerful among the Successors received the title of king. Their rule set the foundations of Hellenistic monarchies and determined the relations between cities and kings. Antigonos and his son Demetrios Poliorketes (Billows 1990, Briant 1973, Wehrli 1968) attempted the unification of Alexander's empire under their rule, but they eventually founded the dynasty that ruled Macedonia and its possessions. Ptolemy I (Ellis 1994) and Seleukos I (Grainger 1990) founded the two most important kingdoms. For all these persons see also Heckel 1992.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Billows, Richard A. 1990. Antigonos the One-Eyed and the creation of the Hellenistic state. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Well-founded reappraisal of Antigonos as statesman and diplomat; important study of the process through which the political organization of the Hellenistic world was consolidated.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Briant, Pierre. 1973. Antigone le Borgne: Les débuts de sa carrière et les problèmes de l'assemblée macédonienne. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent treatment of the military and institutional background of Antigonos's early efforts to succeed Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ellis, Walter M. 1994. Ptolemy of Egypt. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Good overview of the life of the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt for three centuries, but also of a literary personality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Franco, Carlo. 1993. Il regno di Lisimaco: Strutture amministrative e rapporti con le città. Pisa: Giardini.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of the relations between the king of Thrace and the Greek cities in his realm; although Lysimachos's kingdom did not last, the study of his rule is paradigmatic for Hellenistic monarchy. See also Lund 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Grainger, John D. 1990. Seleukos Nikator: Constructing a Hellenistic kingdom. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The most comprehensive study of the founder of the Seleucid kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Heckel, Waldemar. 1992. The marshals of Alexander's empire. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Useful introduction to the men who followed Alexander in his campaign and raised a claim to his throne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lévêque, Pierre. 1957. Pyrrhos. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The best study of the adventurous life of the man who most closely resembled Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lund, Helen S. 1992. Lysimachus: A study in Hellenistic kingship. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A good analysis of how the rule of Lysimachos represents important features of Hellenistic monarchy; see also Franco 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wehrli, Claude. 1968. Antigone et Démétrios. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Detailed account of the wars and policies of the two Successors who attempted to unify Alexander's empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Political Relations in Greece in the 3rd Century BCE (C. 278–197 BCE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The period between the consolidation of the Hellenistic kingdoms (c. 281) and the end of the Antigonid kingdom (167 BCE) was marked by an unsuccessful but devastating invasion by Gauls (279–277 BCE), the efforts of the Antigonids of Macedonia to control cities in mainland Greece and in the Aegean islands (see The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece) in competition with the Ptolemies, the rise of the federal states of the Aetolians and the Achaeans, and the efforts of Greek poleis to maintain or regain autonomy. Bibliography on regional aspects of the history of this period is given in the section Regional History.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Invasion of the Gauls

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Galatian invasion (279–277 BCE) was the most traumatic experience of the Greeks after the Persian wars. Nachtergael 1997 analyzes how their expulsion from Greece was ideologically exploited by the Antigonids and the Aetolians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nachtergael, Georges. 1977. Les Galates en Grèce et les Sotéria de Delphes: Recherches d'histoire et d'épigraphie hellénistique. Brussels: Palais des Académies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent study of the impact of the Galation invasion of the early 3rd century BCE and its exploitation by Antigonos Gonatas and the Aitolian League, based on inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the 3rd century BCE Greece was under the shadow of the Antigonids. After his victory over the Gauls in 277 BCE, Antigonos Gonatas (see Gabbert 1997) not only established a dynasty in Macedonia and Thessaly but also controlled with his garrisons a large part of Greece and the Aegean islands (Buraselis 1982). Although this hegemony was shaken during the Chremonidean war (Heinen 1972), the Antigonids retained their influence until 197 BCE, often changing their allies. See also Regional History: Macedonia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Buraselis, Kostas. 1982. Das hellenistische Makedonien und die Ägäis: Forschungen zur Politik des Kassandros und der drei ersten Antigoniden im Ägäischen Meer und in Westkleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Excellent analysis of the foreign policy of the Antigonids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gabbert, Janice J. 1997. Antigonus II Gonatas: A political biography. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Up-to-date reconstruction of the policy of one of the protagonists of this period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Heinen, Heinz. 1972. Untersuchungen zur hellenistischen Geschichte des 3. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. zur Geschichte der Zeit des Ptolemaios Keraunos und zum Chremonideischen Krieg. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very good narrative of the complex conflicts between 281 and 260 BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Le Bohec, Sylvie. 1993. Antigone Dôsôn, roi de Macédoine. Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The study of the short reign of Antigonos Doson (229–221 BCE) is important for the expansion of Antigonid Macedonia in southern Greece and Asia Minor and the revival of Antigonid aspirations to lead a panhellenic alliance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Rise of the Aetolian League

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Because of its political influence after their victory over the Gauls, the federal state of the Aetolians is one of major players of 3rd-century political history. Scholten 2000 is the most up-to-date reconstruction of the political role of the Aetolians; Flacelière 1937 is more technical but offers a good analysis of the sources. For the institutions see Grainger 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Flacelière, Robert. 1937. Les Aitoliens à Delphes: Contribution à l'histoire de la Grèce centrale au 3. siècle av. J.-C. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reconstruction of the political significance of the Aetolians, based on a study of the epigraphic material; somewhat technical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Grainger, John D. 1999. The League of the Aitolians. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Comprehensive and reliable study of the federal institutions of the Aetolian Koinon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Scholten, Joseph B. 2000. The politics of plunder: Aitolians and their Koinon in the early Hellenistic era, 279–217 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Reliable reconstruction of the political impact of the Aetolian League on Hellenistic history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Rise of the Achaean League

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              From the mid-3rd century BCE until 146 BCE, the Achaean League was the most important political power in southern Greece; its changing alliances determined political history in this period. The lives of the two leading figures, Aratos (Walbank 1933) and Philopoemen (Errington 1969), are the best introduction to the political role of the Achaean League.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Errington, R. Malcolm. 1969. Philopoemen. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Detailed study of the life of the Achaean statesman Philopoemen, who influenced political life in Greece during the reign of Philip V and in the early phase of Roman expansion (c. 209–183 BCE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Walbank, Frank W. 1933. Aratos of Sicyon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Still readable reconstruction of the life and policy of the greatest non-royal political personality of the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Ptolemies and the Hellenistic World of the 3rd Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A large part of the political history of the 3rd century BCE is dominated by the conflicts of Ptolemaic Egypt with Antigonid Macedonia for influence in Greece, and with the Seleucids for the control of South Syria (Koile Syria). The essays in MacKechnie and Guillaume 2008 treat various aspects of the long reign of Ptolemy II (281–246 BCE), which is of crucial importance for the history and culture of this period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • McKechnie, Paul, and Philippe Guillaume, eds. 2008. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his world. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collection of essays that give a very good overview of the political and cultural impact of Ptolemy II's reign.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Seleucid Empire in the 3rd Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In addition to the continual conflict with the Ptolemies over the control of South Syria, the Seleucid empire faced dynastic conflicts until it recovered under the rule of Antiochos III. The existence of many cities within the realm of the Seleucids (especially in Asia Minor) makes the study of the diplomatic relations between cities and kings and the various forms of subordination the most interesting topic for this period. Orth 1977 studies this issue in the early 3rd century, and Ma 2002 provides a groundbreaking study for the later period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ma, John. 2002. Antiochos III and the cities of western Asia Minor. New edition. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of relations between king and poleis, with original observations on the ideology of monarchy and of the civic ideology of Hellenistic poleis. At the same time a solid reconstruction of political history c. 223–187 BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Orth, Wolfgang. 1977. Königlicher Machtanspruch und städtische Freiheit: Untersuchungen zu den politischen Beziehungen zwischen den ersten Seleukidenherrschern (Seleukos I., Antiochos I., Antiochos II.) und den Städten des westlichen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of relations between cities and Seleucid kings in the first half of the 3rd century BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Roman Expansion and the Decline of the Antigonids and the Seleucids (C. 217–133 BCE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Starting as what is sometimes described as “defensive imperialism,” the Roman expansion gradually brought the south Balkan region and Asia Minor under direct Roman domination (see Political History, Eckstein 2007, and Gruen 1984). Important episodes are the Second Macedonian War (200–197), which marked a change in the expansionist policy of Rome and the beginning of the end of the Antigonids (Pfeilschifter 2005); the loss of Asia Minor by the Seleucids in 188 BCE; the expansionist policy of Antiochos IV in the East (175–164 BCE), the last effort of the Seleucid empire to regain part of its power (Mittag 2006); the end of the Antigonid kingdom (167 BCE); the conquest of Greece by the Romans (146 BCE); the War of the Maccabees (164–129 BCE), which marked the end of Seleucid rule in Judea (Bar-Kochva 1989, Ehling 2008); and the rise of independent kingdoms in Iran and Afghanistan as a result of Seleucid decline (Lerner 1999). The complex political history of the late Seleucid empire, a history of dynastic conflicts and decline, is treated by Ehling 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1989. Judas Maccabaeus: The Jewish struggle against the Seleucids. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Balanced study of political developments in Judea that led to the Jewish revolt (164–129) and creation of a Jewish state under the dynasty of the Hasmoneans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eckstein, Arthur M. 2007. Mediterranean anarchy, interstate war, and the rise of Rome. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            How the conflicts among the Hellenistic states provoked Roman expansion; a stimulating analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Eddy, Samuel K. 1961. The king is dead: Studies in the Near Eastern resistence to Hellenism, 334–31 BC. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the reactions of native populations to the rule of Hellenistic dynasties; chapters 6 and 9 are relevant for this period (decline of the Seleucids in Asia Minor and Judea).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ehling, Kay. 2008. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der späten Seleukiden (164–63 v. Chr.): vom Tode des Antiochos IV. bis zur Einrichtung der Provinz Syria unter Pompeius. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Competent overview of the slow decline of the Seleucid empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gruen, Erich S. 1984. The Hellenistic world and the coming of Rome. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An excellent treatment of the relations between Rome and the Hellenistic states, the origins of Roman expansion, and the evolution of Rome into an imperial power.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lerner, Jeffrey D. 1999. The impact of the Seleucid decline on the eastern Iranian plateau: The foundations of Arsacid Parthia and Graeco-Bactria. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Very useful treatment of the rise of new states east of the Seleucid empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mittag, Peter Franz. 2006. Antiochos IV. Epiphanes: Eine politische Biographie. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Competent study of a very ambitious and controversial king (reigned 175–164 BCE), with whom the Seleucid ambitions of an empire died; also useful for the Roman policy in the East.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pfeilschifter, Rene. 2005. Titus Quinctius Flamininus: Untersuchungen zur römischen Griechenlandpolitik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of how Flamininus's policy toward Antigonid Macedonia and the Greek cities transformed the political organization of Greece and led the way to the continual Roman presence in the East.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sherk, Robert, ed. and trans. 1984. Rome and the Greek East to the death of Augustus. Cambridge, UK: Campbridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of Greek and Latin inscriptions (only English translations) that concern the Roman expansion from the late 3rd to the 1st century BCE; very useful to students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion (133–30 BCE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The establishment of Roman provincial administration in Greece (146 BCE) was followed by the abolition of the Attalid kingdom (133 BCE) and the creation of the province of Asia (129 BCE). From this period onward, Hellenistic history is closely connected with the history of the late Roman Republic. Kallet-Marx 1995 and Sherwin-White 1984 are the best general treatments of the latest phases of Roman expansion (also see Political History). An important episode of this period is the war of Aristonikos, which led to the creation of the province of Asia; numerous new epigraphic finds shed new light; the most recent treatment is in Daubner 2006). Other important developments include the Mithridatic wars (de Callataÿ 1997, McGing 1986), the Roman wars against pirates (Pohl 1993), and the rule of Cleopatra (Benne 2001).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Benne, Simon. 2001. Marcus Antonius und Kleopatra VII.: Machtausbau, herrscherliche Repräsentation und politische Konzeption. Göttingen: Duehrkohp and Radicke.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Up-to-date account of the reign of Cleopatra and the possible political concepts of Marc Antony and Cleopatra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Braund, David. 1984. Rome and the friendly king: The character of client kingship. London: Croom Helm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thorough study of one of the most important instruments of Roman imperial power: the creation or toleration of “client kings” in the periphery of its realm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • de Callataÿ, François. 1997. L'Histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies. Louvain: Département d‘Archéologie et d‘Histoire de l'Art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Masterly treatment of the contribution of numismatics to the study of the Mithridatic wars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Daubner, Frank. 2006. Bellum asiaticum: Der Krieg der Römer gegen Aristonikos von Pergamon und die Einrichtung der Provinz Asia. 2d ed. Munich: Utz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The most recent study of the Aristonikos war (133–129 BCE), taking into consideration new epigraphic finds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kallet-Marx, Robert M. 1995. Hegemony to empire: The development of the Roman imperium in the East from 148 to 62 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Competent treatment of the development of Roman rule and provincial administration in Greece, Asia Minor, and Syria.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • McGing, Brian C. 1986. The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator king of Pontos. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reliable study on the policies of the major opponent Rome's in the early 1st century BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pohl, Hartel. 1993. Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeer vom 3. Jahrhundert bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of Rome's wars against piracy in the context of Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sherwin-White, Adrian N. 1984. Roman foreign policy in the East 168 B.C. to A.D. 1. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reliable treatment of political events in Greece, Asia Minor, and the Near East until Augustus, taking into consideration the diplomatic relations between Rome and peripheral kingdoms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sullivan, Richard D. 1990. Near Eastern royalty and Rome: 100–30 B.C. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Treats the small Hellenistic kingdoms and the kingdoms in the periphery of the Hellenistic world in the context of Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Regional History

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Because of the abundance of source material from most areas of the Hellenistic world, the study of regional history is not less important than the study of large political networks. A few examples, selected on the basis of their representative and diverse character, cover the world of the poleis, the federal states, and the major kingdoms. The selection focuses on regions that were important for political history (Athens, Sparta, Aetolia, Epirus, Rhodes, the major kingdoms, Sicily), but also on regions from which the source material allows comprehensive studies of political institutions, society, and economy (Boiotia, Greek colonies of the Black Sea, Aegean islands, Crete, Asia Minor).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Athens

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although Athens lost its hegemonic position in the Greek world, it participated in many important political events (Chremonidean war, Second Macedonian war), and thanks to the abundant epigraphic sources Athens provides interesting paradigms for the study of the relations between kings and cities, the presence of foreign garrisons, and the political role of elites. Habicht 1997 is the most important synthesis, to be used together with his more detailed studies (Habicht 1979 and Habicht 1982). The chronology of the Hellenistic history of Athens is based on the dating of inscriptions, which was revolutionized by the studies of Tracy 1990, 1995, and 2003, who attributed texts to individual masons. For the political institutions see Grieb 2008; for religion in Hellenistic Athens see Religion; for foreigners see Foreigners; For the organization of the youth (ephebes) see Military Training; for the private associations see Cult Associations. For economy see Agriculture and Pastoral Economy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dreyer, Boris. 1999. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des spätklassischen Athen (322–ca. 203 v. Chr.). Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Detailed study of the Macedonian occupation of Athens; some of the results have been modified by later studies. See Habicht 1997 and Tracy 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Grieb, Volker. 2008. Hellenistische Demokratie: Politische Organisation und Struktur in freien griechischen Poleis nach Alexander dem Grossen. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Useful survey of evidence for the persistence of democratic institutions in Hellenistic Athens, pp. 27–138.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Habicht, Christian. 1979. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte Athens im 3. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important for the history of the Macedonian occupation of Athens and the Chremonidean war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Habicht, Christian. 1982. Studien zur Geschichte Athens in hellenistischer Zeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Excellent study of political history, based primarily on epigraphic material; important for the part played by prominent elite families.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Habicht, Christian. 1997. Athens from Alexander to Antony. Translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The best synthesis of the political and social history of Hellenistic Athens. The French translation by Denis Knoepfler, Athènes hellénistique: Histoire de la cité d'Alexandre le Grand à Marc Antoine (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2008) is up to date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schwenk, Cynthia J. 1985. Athens in the age of Alexander: The dated laws and decrees of the Lykourgan Era, 338–322 BC. Chicago: Ares.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The statesman Lykourgos introduced a series of important reforms, for which the inscriptions collected and discussed in this volume are the best source.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tracy, Stephen V. 1990. Attic letter-cutters of 229 to 86 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This and Tracy 2003 and 1995, admittedly rather technical, offer the chronological framework for the study of the political history of Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tracy, Stephen V. 1995. Athenian democracy in transition: Attic letter-cutters of 340 to 290 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This and Tracy 1990 and 2003 offer the chronological framework for the study of the political history of Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tracy, Stephen V. 2003. Athens and Macedon: Attic letter-cutters of 300 to 229 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This and Tracy 1990 and 1995 offers the chronological framework for the study of the political history of Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sparta

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Once a major power, Hellenistic Sparta was reduced to a significant power only on the Peloponnese. The social reforms of King Kleomenes (229–222 BCE), the expansionist policy of King Nabis in the late 3rd century BCE, and the conflict between Sparta and the Achaean League (see The Rise of the Achaean League) are important chapters of Hellenistic history. Cartledge and Spawforth 1989 offers the best treatment of this period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cartledge, Paul, and Antony Spawforth. 1989. Hellenistic and Roman Sparta: A tale of two cities. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most comprehensive treatment of post-Classical Sparta, with emphasis on social history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Boiotia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Because of the numerous epigraphic sources (especially from Oropos and Thespiai) and the references of Polybius to Boiotian affairs, Boiotia is one of the regions in which social and institutional developments can be studied in the Hellenistic period. Feyel 1942 and Roesch 1965 and Roesch 1982 are classic studies on particular aspects of the institution of the Boiotian Federation and its cities, as well as of political history (see also Corsten 1999); Étienne and Knoepfler 1976 exploit the epigraphic material from Hyettos. Lacking a comprehensive history of Hellenistic Boiotia, and because of the continual progress thanks to new finds (Knoepfler 1992), one should consult the annual review of new epigraphic finds and studies in the Bulletin épigraphique and the Supplementum epigraphicum graecum (see Inscriptions). All studies on Boiotia are based on epigraphy and are often very technical. For manumission of slaves see Darmezin 1999; for the leasing of land see Osborne 1988.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Corsten, Thomas. 1999. Vom Stamm zum Bund: Gründung und territoriale Organisation griechischer Bundesstaaten. Munich: Oberhummer Gesellschaft.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Up-to-date reconstruction of the development and organization of federal states in central Greece; Boiotia is treated on pp. 27–60, with references to the division of the Hellenistic federal state into districts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Darmezin, Laurence. 1999. Les affranchissements par consécration en Béotie et dans le monde grec hellénistique. Nancy: A.D.R.A.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of manumission practices, based on manumission records preserved in inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Étienne, Roland, and Denis Knoepfler. 1976. Hyettos de Béotie et la chronologie des archontes fédéraux entre 250 et 171 av. J.-C. Athens and Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exploits the inscriptions from Hyettos for a reconstruction of the complex history of Boiotia and its federal state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Feyel, Michel. 1942. Polybe et l'histoire de Béotie au IIIe siècle avant notre ère. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Excellent combination of literary (Polybius) and epigraphic sources for a reconstruction of Boiotian history in the 3rd century BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Knoepfler, Denis. 1992. Sept années de recherches sur l'épigraphie de la Béotie (1985–1991). Chiron 22:411–503.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Critical review of recent epigraphic research and its contribution to the knowledge of Boiotian history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Osborne, Robin. 1988. Social and economic implications of the leasing of land and property in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Chiron 18:279–323.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Systematic study of Boiotian inscriptions concerning the leasing of land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Roesch, Paul. 1965. Thespies et la confédération béotienne. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The contribution of inscriptions from Thespiai to the study of the structure and history of the Boiotian federal state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Roesch, Paul. 1982. Études béotiennes. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Masterly treatment of a large variety of subjects (political, social, and legal history) on the basis of inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Delphi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                One of the most important panhellenic sanctuaries and oracles and center of an international federation (the Amphictyony) with both religious and political functions, Delphi is also a major finding place of inscriptions. The study of the history and the documents of the Amphictyony is very important for the political, diplomatic, and religious history of this period. Lefèvre 1998 is the best study of its history and institutions; the development of the territory on the basis of an important dossier of inscriptions has been reconstructed by Rousset 2002. The significance of Delphi for the international propaganda has been shown by Nachtergael 1977.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lefèvre, François. 1998. L'amphictionie pyléo-delphique: Histoire et institutions. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The best account of the history of the Delphic Amphictyony and its involvement in political events (not only of the Hellenistic period).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nachtergael, Georges. 1977. Les Galates en Grèce et les Sotéria de Delphes: Recherches d'histoire et d'épigraphie hellénistique. Brussels: Palais des Académies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Excellent study the significance of Delphi for the international propaganda of both the Aetolians and the Antigonids the Galation invasion of the early 3rd century BCE; based on inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rousset, Denis. 2002. Le territoire de Delphes et la terre d'Apollon. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The historical topography of Delphi and adjacent areas, the development of the territory of the city of Delphi, and the development of the sacred land of Apollo's sanctuary from the Archaic to the Roman Imperial period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aetolia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Aetolian Confederacy was one of the major political players in Hellenistic Greece. Its structure and history are treated by Grainger 1999 and Scholten 2000 (cf. Flacelière 1937), and the institutions of this federal state by Corsten 1999 and Larsen 1968.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Corsten, Thomas. 1999. Vom Stamm zum Bund: Gründung und territoriale Organisation griechischer Bundesstaaten. Munich: Oberhummer Gesellschaft.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Up-to-date reconstruction of the development and organization of the federal state of Aetolia, pp. 133–159.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Flacelière, Robert. 1937. Les Aitoliens à Delphes: Contribution à l'histoire de la Grèce centrale au 3. siècle av. J.-C. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reconstruction of the political significance of the Aetolians, based on a study of the epigraphic material; somewhat technical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Grainger, John D. 1999. The League of the Aitolians, Leiden: Brill, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Comprehensive and reliable study of the federal institutions of the Aetolian Koinon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Larsen, Jakob A. O. 1968. Greek federal states: Their institutions and history. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Still the best general introduction for students, treating in a systematic way the development and structure of federal states (for Aetolia see especially pp. 195–215).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Scholten, Joseph B. 2000. The politics of plunder: Aitolians and their Koinon in the early Hellenistic era, 279–217 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reliable reconstruction of the political impact of the Aetolian League on Hellenistic history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Epeiros

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A significant power in northwest Greece, the state of the Epirotans underwent an interesting transformation from a kingdom to a federal state. Cabanes 1976 remains unsurpassed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cabanes, Pierre. 1976. L'Épire de la mort de Pyrrhos à la conquête romaine (272–167). Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Very good reconstruction of the political evolution and history of Epirus and its communities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Macedonia remained one of the great powers of the Hellenistic world until 168 BCE. Errington 1992 is a readable general overview; Hammond and Walbank 1988 is more detailed but could not take into consideration new finds, the result of very extensive archaeological research in Macedonia after c. 1977 (see Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and Bulletin épigraphique in Inscriptions). Hatzopoulos 1996 is a superb study of the institutions; Le Bohec 1985 is useful for the study of the court. For the Macedonian queens see Carney 2000. Military organization around 200 BCE is now better known thanks to new finds (Hatzopoulos 2001). For the political significance of the Antigonid dynasty see The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Carney, Elizabeth D. 2000. Women and monarchy in Macedonia. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Comprehensive study of the political part played by queens, especially during Alexander's reign and under the Successors.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Errington, R. Malcolm. 1992. A history of Macedonia. Translated by Catherine Errington. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Good general overview, including chapters on the Hellenistic period; primarily for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hammond, Nicholas G. L., and Frank W. Walbank. 1988. A history of Macedonia, volume III: 336–167 BC. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Still the best treatment of Hellenistic Macedonia, but some details need revision (see especially Hatzopoulos 1996).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hatzopoulos, Miltiadis B. 1996. Macedonian institutions under the kings: A historical and epigraphic study. 2 vols. Athens and Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Superb analysis of royal institutions, administration, the assembly, and the civic administration, making extensive use of new epigraphic finds. Available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hatzopoulos, Miltiadis B. 2001. L'organisation de l'armée macédonienne sous les Antigonides: Problèmes anciens et documents nouveaux. Athens and Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The military institutions of the Antigonids studied on the basis of new epigraphic finds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Le Bohec, Sylvie. 1985. Les philoi des rois Antigonides. Revue des Études Grecques 98:93–124.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the members of the court (philoi, ‘friends’) in Antigonid Macedonia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pontos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Usually overlooked, as part of the periphery of the Greek world the Black Sea offers extremely interesting source material. Grammenos and Petropoulos 2005–2007 gives good overviews for the individual sites; Oppermann 2004 covers only the west coast of the Black Sea, Bresson, et al. 2007 the north shore, and Burcu Ercuyas 2005 the south coast (see also Saprykin 1997). The trends of the most recent research are reflected by Bresson, et al. 2007 (but only for the north shore) and Gabrielsen and Lund 2007. Under the dynasty of the Mithridatids (Burcu Ercuyas 2005, McGing 1986) this region acquired great significance for the general Hellenistic history. Another major power was the Bosporan kingdom under the Spartokids (Fornasier and Böttger 2002, Gajdukevic 1971).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bresson, Alain, Askold Ivantchik, and Jean-Louis Ferrary, eds. 2007. Une koinè pontique: Cités grecques, sociétés indigènes et empires mondiaux sur le littoral nord de la Mer Noire. Bordeaux: Ausonius.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays on a large variety of subjects concerning history and culture on the north shore of the Black Sea; the volume reflects the most recent research and provides further bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Burcu Erciyas, Deniz. 2005. Wealth, aristocracy and royal propaganda under the Hellenistic kingdom of the Mithridatids in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The first attempt to exploit the rich material, especially from the Greek cities on the south coast of the Black Sea, for a study of the impact of the rule of the Mithridatids on society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fornasier, Jochen, and Burkhard Böttger, eds. 2002. Das Bosporanische Reich: Der Nordosten des Schwarzen Meeres in der Antike. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collection of essays that discuss recent developments in the study of the most important political power on the northeast shore of the Black Sea under the dynasty of the Spartokids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gabrielsen, Vincent, and John Lund, eds. 2007. The Black Sea in Antiquity: Regional and interregional economic exchanges. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of studies of the economic relationship between the Black Sea area and the Mediterranean (trade of wines, slaves, timber); it reflects current trends in the study of ancient economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gajdukevic, Viktor F. 1971. Das bosporanische Reich. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        General overview of the history of one important kingdom on the north and northeast shore of the Black Sea; the historical interpretation of the sources is not always convincing; for new finds see Fornasier and Böttger 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grammenos, Dimitris V., and Elias K. Petropoulos, eds. 2005–2007. Ancient Greek colonies in the Black Sea. 4 vols. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Richly illustrated collection of surveys of recent archaeological and historical research in the Black Sea area, mostly written by their excavators; the articles provide good bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • McGing, Brian C. 1986. The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator king of Pontos. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reliable study of the policies of the greatest king of Pontos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Oppermann, Manfred. 2004. Die westpontischen Poleis. Langenweissbach: Beier and Beran.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Very good overview of the history and archaeological finds in the Greek colonies in Thrace, Moesia, and Dacia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Saprykin, Sergej J. 1997. Heracleia Pontica and Tauric Chersonesus before Roman domination. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The best overview of the history of two very important cities of the Black Sea: Herakleia (in Bithynia, modern Turkey) and Chersonesos Taurica (north shore of the Black Sea).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aegean Islands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Because of the strategic position and the resources of the Aegean islands, the Antigonids and Ptolemies attempted to bring them under their control (Bagnall 1976, Buraselis 1982). But beyond political history, inscriptions give excellent opportunities to study society, institutions, economy, and culture. Brun 1996 is the best overview. For the economic networks of the Cyclades see Constantakopoulou 2007 and Delos. Stavrianopoulou 2006 is an excellent study of the social position of women. In addition to these more general surveys, there exist studies for individual islands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bagnall, Roger S. 1976. The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Systematic study of the administration of Ptolemaic possessions on some of the Aegean islands (Samos, Thera).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brun, Patrice. 1996. Les archipels égéens dans l'antiquité grecque (Ve-IIe siècles av. notre ère). Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Superb treatment of the specific features of political organization and economy in the world of the Greek islands.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Buraselis, Kostas. 1982. Das hellenistische Makedonien und die Ägäis: Forschungen zur Politik des Kassandros und der drei ersten Antigoniden im Ägäischen Meer und in Westkleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Excellent analysis of the presence of the Antigonids of Macedonia in the Aegean.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Constantakopoulou, Christy. 2007. The dance of the islands: Insularity, networks, the Athenian empire, and the Aegean world. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Although the book is primarily dedicated to the Classical period, the chapters on connectivity exploit Hellenistic material and give an excellent picture of economic life and mobility in this period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Étienne, Roland. 1990. Ténos II: Ténos et les Cyclades du milieu du IVe siècle av. J.-C. au milieu du IIIe siècle ap. J.-C. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Useful study of the political history of the Cyclades in the early Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stavrianopoulou, Eftychia. 2006. “Gruppenbild mit Dame”: Untersuchungen zur rechtlichen und sozialen Stellung der Frau auf den Kykladen im Hellenismus und in der römischen Kaiserzeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Superb analysis of changes in the legal and social position of women in the Aegean islands, from which many relevant inscriptions survive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Delos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thanks to the detailed accounts of the transactions conducted by the administrative authorities of the sanctuary of Delos, this small island offers a unique opportunity to study its economy (Brunet 1999, Feyel 2006, Osborne 1988, Rauh 1993, Reger 1994), the presence of foreigners, its society, and its religious practices (see Bruneau 1970, Engelmann 1975, Hasenohr 2003); Vial 1984 is a superb treatment of Hellenistic Delos. Because of the peculiar position of Delos (sacred island of Apollo, panhellenic religious center, under Athenian occupation for long periods), the conclusions of research on Delos cannot always be applied to other areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bruneau, Philippe. 1970. Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l'époque hellénistique et romaine. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thanks to the abundant source material from Delos, this book gives an excellent picture of the complex nature of Hellenistic religious activities (public and private cults, administration of sanctuaries, cult associations, foundations, cults of immigrants, festivals, magic).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brunet, Monique. 1999. Le paysage agraire de Délos dans l'antiquité. Journal des Savants: 1–50.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Very good overview of the nature and organization of agriculture on Delos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Engelmann, Helmut. 1975. The Delian aretalogy of Sarapis. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed analysis of an interesting text that concerns the establishment of Egyptian cults in Delos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Feyel, Christophe. 2006. Les artisans dans les sanctuaires grecs aux époques classique et hellénistique à travers la documentation financière en Grèce. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Excellent study of the organization of large building projects in Delos, based on the information provided by the accounts of the sanctuary.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hasenohr, Claire. 2003. Les Compitalia à Délos. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 127:167–249.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.3406/bch.2003.7128E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Demonstration of how a traditional Italian ritual was brought by Italian immigrants to Delos (2nd–1st centuries BCE) and merged with local traditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Osborne, Robin. 1988. Social and economic implications of the leasing of land and property in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Chiron 18:279–323.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Systematic study of accounts concerning the leasing of land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rauh, Nicholas K. 1993. The sacred bonds of commerce: Religion, economy, and trade society at Hellenistic Roman Delos. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An attempt to exploit the inscriptions of Delos for the study of trade (especially slave trade) and the presence of foreign (Italian) traders in the Hellenistic period; the interpretation of the archaeological evidence is controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Reger, Gary. 1994. Regionalism and change in the economy of independent Delos, 314–167 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on the Delian financial documents, Reger argues that the economy of Delos should not be studied as a local and regional entity; an excellent microscopic analysis. See also Osborne 1988 (for the leasing of land), Feyel 2006 (for building projects) and Rauh 1993 (on trade).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Vial, Claude. 1984. Délos indépendante (314–167 avant J.-C.): Étude d'une communauté civique et de ses institutions. Athens, Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Masterful synthesis of administration and society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rhodes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rhodes was an important economic and military power, a major diplomatic player during the Roman expansion, and in possession of territories on Asia Minor (between 188 and 167 BCE of the whole of Caria and Lycia). A huge number of inscriptions illuminate political history, society, and economy. Stamped jars used for the wine trade (amphoras) give the names of annual officials, thus helping modern research establish the chronology (Habicht 2003) and also study the development of wine exportation. Berthold 1984 is a good starting point. Gabrielsen, et al. 1999, although not a systematic survey, assembles studies that cover all important aspects. Gabrielsen 1997 is the best study of society; Wiemer 2002 gives a very good reconstruction of political history. Grieb 2008 is useful for the study of the constitution but overestimates the power of democracy. For economy see Bresson 1993.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Berthold, Richard M. 1984. Rhodes in the Hellenistic age. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Has not been replaced as a general treatment of Hellenistic Rhodes, but its readers should always consult Gabrielsen, et al. 1999, Gabrielsen 1997, and Wiemer 2002 for the results of more recent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bresson, Alain. 1993. La circulation des monnaies rhodiennes jusqu'en 166. Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne 19:119–169.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3406/dha.1993.2078E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An instructive case study of the circulation of Rhodian coins as an indicator of economic activities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Finkielsztejn, Gérald. 2001. Chronologie détaillée et révisée des eponyms amphoriques rhodiens, de 270 à 108 av. J-C. environ: Premier bilan. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reconstruction of the chronology of the Rhodian eponymous magistrates; extremely technical, but an important basis for the study of the Hellenistic wine trade. To be used in connection with Habicht 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gabrielsen, Vincent. 1997. The naval aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Excellent study of political institutions, society, and economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gabrielsen, Vincent, Per Bilde, Troels Engberg-Pedersen, Lisa Hannestadt, and Jan Zahle, eds. 1999. Hellenistic Rhodes: Politics, culture, and society. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of eleven essays that discuss the political organization, economy, and external relations of Hellenistic Rhodes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grieb, Volker. 2008. Hellenistische Demokratie: Politische Organisation und Struktur in freien griechischen Poleis nach Alexander dem Grossen. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focusing on the political institutions of Rhodes (pp. 263–353), the author argues that the democratic constitution was maintained in the Hellenistic period; he offers a useful survey of the evidence but underestimates the power of elite families.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Habicht, Christian. 2003. Rhodian amphora stamps and Rhodian eponyms. Revue des Études Anciennes105:541–578.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Masterful reconstruction of the chronology of Rhodian “eponymous” magistrates (c. 255–130 BCE), based on inscriptions and amphora stamps, with implications, more generally, for Hellenistic chronology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Higbie, Caroline. 2003. The Lindian Chronicle and the Greek creation of their past. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Very good analysis of an extremely interesting inscription, which reflects how Hellenistic Rhodians reconstructed their mythical and historical past.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich. 2002. Krieg, Handel und Piraterie: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des hellenistischen Rhodos. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than just a history of Rhodes's wars against pirates, this study offers insights into political, economic, and social history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lesbos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Although without major significance in Hellenistic political history, Lesbos is an instructive case of the impact of major events (Alexander's conquests, conflicts between Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman expansion) on Greek communities. See Labarre 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Labarre, Guy. 1996. Les cités de Lesbos aux époques hellénistique et impériale. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reconstruction of political and social history, with very useful collection of sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Samos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Until 322 occupied by the Athenians, later host to a Ptolemaic garrison, owner of land on the opposite coast of Asia Minor, Samos's historical experiences in the Hellenistic period are in many ways typical. Shipley 1987 gives a very good overview.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shipley, Graham. 1987. A history of Samos, 800–188 BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    General history of Samos, including the history of the island until the Roman expansion. The Hellenistic inscriptions, the main source for Samos, are now easily accessible in Inscriptiones graecae XII.6.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The epigraphic material from Kos (especially long lists of donors of money and honorary decrees for members of the elite) permits a study of society in Hellenistic Kos (Sherwin-White 1978), in particular the role of the elite in the organization of the defense (Baker 1991) and in the period of the Roman expansion (Buraselis 2000). Höghammer 2004 gives a very good overview of recent research; for the constitution see Grieb 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Baker, Patrick. 1991. Cos et Calymna 205–200a.C.: Esprit civique et défence nationale. Québec: Éditions du Sphinx.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Unusually rich source material is the basis of this discussion of the defense measures in Kos during a critical period of wars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Buraselis, Kostas. 2000. Kos between Hellenism and Rome: Studies on the political, institutional and social history of Kos from ca. the middle second century B.C. until Late Antiquity. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Masterful discussion of how Koan society responded to the fundamental changes caused by Roman expansion in the East.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grieb, Volker. 2008. Hellenistische Demokratie: Politische Organisation und Struktur in freien griechischen Poleis nach Alexander dem Grossn. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Useful overview of the political institutions of Kos, pp. 139–198; the author contends, not always convincingly, that Kos had a democratic constitution in the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Höghammar, Kerstin, ed. 2004. The Hellenistic polis of Kos: State, economy and culture. Proceedings of an international seminar organized by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, 11–13 May, 2000. Boreas 28. Uppsala: Univ. of Uppsala.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although not a systematic survey of Hellenistic Kos, this collection of studies reflects the present state of research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sherwin-White, Susan M. 1978. Ancient Cos: An historical study from the Dorian settlement to the imperial period. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thorough exploitation of the literary and epigraphic sources for the history and society of Kos (with a prosopography of Koans). Because of new discoveries, it should be used together with Höghammar 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Euboia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Because of its proximity to Boiotia and Athens and its strategic position, Hellenistic Euboia was for long periods dominated by the Antigonids, who established garrisons in Chalkis and Eretria. For this reason its history is of wider significance. Knoepfler 1991 and Knoepfler 2001 present an exhaustive, often very complex and technical analysis of the sources for Eretria, whose history is better known; for Chalkis see Picard 1979.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Knoepfler, Denis. 1991. La vie de Ménédème d'Érétrie de Diogène Laërce: Contribution à l'histoire et à la critique du texte des ‘Vies des philosophes’. Basel: Reinhardt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reconstruction of the political and social history of early Hellenistic Eretria through a study of the life of the philosopher Menedemos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Knoepfler, Denis. 2001. Décrets érétriens de proxénie et de citoyenneté. Lausanne: Payot.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than just an edition of honorific decrees of Hellenistic Eretria, this book covers exhaustively many aspects of political and social life in a Hellenistic city.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Picard, Olivier. 1979. Chalcis et la confédération Eubéene: Étude de numismatique et d'histoire, IVe-Ier siècle. Athens and Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Masterful demonstration of how a study of coins can contribute to political history and the study of institutions (in this case the history of Chalkis and the league of the Euboian cities).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crete

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As major suppliers of Hellenistic armies with mercenaries and continually engaged in wars and raids, the forty or so cities of Crete present a unique paradigm for the study of the interdependence of war and social history. No other Greek region has produced so many interstate agreements; they are the subject of Chaniotis 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chaniotis, Angelos. 1996. Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reconstruction of Cretan political, economic, and social life on the basis of the treaties between Cretan cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sicily

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      François, et al. 2006 and Lehmler 2005 are the best works on Sicily.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • François, Paul, Pierre Moret, and Sandra Péré-Noguès, eds. 2006. L'hellénisation en Méditerranée occidentale au temps des guerres puniques (260–180 av. J.-C.). Pallas 70. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of articles on Greek culture and its diffusion in the western Mediterranean, with several articles on Sicily; here one can find further bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lehmler, Caroline. 2005. Syrakus unter Agathokles und Hieron II: Die Verbindung von Kultur und Macht in einer hellenistischen Metropole. Frankfurt: Antike.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Studies culture in Syracuse during the monarchical rule of Agathocles and Hieron (late 4th–late 3rd centuries BCE), placing Sicily in the context of Hellenistic culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Asia Minor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No other area of the Hellenistic world has attracted as much original research interest in recent decades as has Asia Minor, because of the continual discovery of hundreds of inscriptions, for which one should consult the Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and the Bulletin épigraphique (see Inscriptions). The study of the history and institutions of the cities has made great progress, and the advance in research is represented by the collections in Bresson and Descat 2001 and Couvenhes and Fernoux 2004. Sartre 1995 is a superb general introduction; Dmitriev 2005 offers a good overview of the political institutions; Schuler 1998 treats in an excellent manner the world of the small villages. Because of old religious traditions, the position of sanctuaries in the changing world of Hellenistic Asia Minor is a phenomenon of great historical significance, uniquely represented by epigraphic finds concerning their legal status (see Sanctuaries). On slavery see Bussi 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bresson, Alain, and Raymond Descat, eds. 2001. Les cités d'Asie Mineure occidentale au IIe siècle a.C. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Seventeen studies addressing a variety of subjects, such as the relations of cites with the Seleucids, the Attalids, Rome and Rhodes, economy, and military history; they are a good demonstration of the rapid advance of knowledge through new epigraphic and archaeological finds. Focusing on the 2nd century, these studies also show the gradual transformation of Asia Minor after the retreat of the Seleucids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bussi, Silvia. 2001. Economia e demografia della schiavitù in Asia Minore ellenistico-romana. Milan: LED Edizioni Universitari.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thorough study of the numbers and economic functions of slaves in Asia Minor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Couvenhes, Jean-Christophe, and Henri-Louis Fernoux, eds. 2004. Les cités grecques et la guerre en Asie Mineure à l'époque hellénistique. Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The seven articles in this volume discuss how warfare affected various aspects of life in the Hellenistic cities of Asia Minor, offering insights into civic life and mentality (military training of ephebes, mercenaries, defense measures).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dmitriev, Sviatoslav. 2005. City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Good overview of the political institutions of the cities and the part played by the elite.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kobes, Jörn. 1996. ‘Kleine Könige’: Untersuchungen zu den Lokaldynastien im hellenistischen Kleinasien (323–188). St. Katharinen: Scripta-Mercaturae-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Useful account of the history of small dynasties in Hellenistic Asia Minor, before it became part of the Attalid kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Magie, David. 1950. Roman rule in Asia Minor to the end of the third century after Christ. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reprinted, Salem, NH: Ayer, 1988. A fundamental study of the history and political geography of Asia Minor; although primarily dedicated to the Imperial period, it also treats the situation in Asia Minor from 133 BCE to Augustus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sartre, Maurice. 1995. L'Asie Mineure et l'Anatolie d'Alexandre à Dioclétien, IVe siècle av. J.-C./IIIe siècle ap. J.-C. Paris: Armand Colin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The best general overview of the history of Asia Minor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Schuler, Christoph. 1998. Ländliche Siedlungen und Gemeinden im hellenistischen und römischen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent treatment of the political, legal, economic, social, and religious life of small villages; despite the close analysis of sources, suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pergamon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the course of the 3rd century, under the rule of the Attalids, the fortress of Pergamon developed into a powerful kingdom, which after 188 BCE controlled large parts of Asia Minor. Its history is important for the study of monarchy and of Roman expansion. Hansen 1971 still is a useful general history; Allen 1983 focuses on the political institutions and the administration of the kingdom. Virgilio 1993 treats the contemporary and later perception of this dynasty. The years of its greatest expansion under the shadow of Rome and its end (188–133 BCE) are studied by Hopp 1977.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Allen, R. E. 1983. The Attalid kingdom, a constitutional history. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Still the best treatment of the political institutions, making extensive use of epigraphic sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hansen, Esther V. 1971. The Attalids of Pergamon. 2d ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Has not been replaced as a comprehensive treatment of the dynasty of the Attalids, but is in many details out of date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hopp, Joachim. 1977. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzen Attaliden. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Detailed study of the political history and the wars of the last Attalids (188–133 BCE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Prost, Francis, ed. 2003. L'Orient méditerranéen de la mort d'Alexandre aux campagnes de Pompée. Pallas 62. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This collection of studies includes a discussion of Attalid queens (pp. 41–61) and Attalid cultural policy (pp. 357–377).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Virgilio, Biagio. 1993. Gli Attalidi di Pergamo: Fama, eredità, memoria. Studi ellenistici 5. Pisa: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Very good study of the ideology of the Attalids, the promotion of culture in their realm, and their later reputation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zimmermann, Martin. 1992. Untersuchungen zur historischen Landeskunde Zentrallykiens. Bonn: Habelt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thorough study of the political organization and the economy of Lycia (not only in the Hellenistic period).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bithynia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Among the minor Hellenistic kingdoms, Bithynia played an important role in the conflicts in Asia Minor and in the expansion of Rome. Vitucci 1953 is the only systematic study of the kingdom's history, but Fernoux 2004 presents a very good study of society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Fernoux, Henri-Louis. 2004. Notables et élites des cités de Bithynie aux époques hellénistiques et romaine (IIIe siècle av. J.-C.-IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.): Essai d'histoire sociale. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thorough study of the history of civic elites in Bithynia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vitucci, Giovanni. 1953. Il regno di Bitinia. Rome: Signorelli.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Still the only comprehensive study of the kingdom of Bithynia; new epigraphic finds and numismatic finds (see Asia Minor) need to be taken into consideration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Egypt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No other Hellenistic kingdom is as well known as Ptolemaic Egypt; in addition to literary and epigraphic sources, here the papyri (see Papyri) offer abundant information about administration, society, economy, religion, demography, and culture. General overviews are given by Bowman 1996, Hoelbl 1994 and Huss 2001. Bennet's online Bibliography is very useful and regularly updated. For more detailed studies, Peremans, et al. 1950– is an indispensable reference. Thompson 1988 gives an excellent picture of a very important region (Memphis); Véisse 2004 is a detailed account of revolts in the late 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. For the sources see Papyri. Administration, society, and economy are treated in the relevant sections of this bibliography: The Ptolemies and the Hellenistic World of the Third Century, Hellenistic Monarchy, Ptolemaic Administration, Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemaic economy, and Festivals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bennet, Chris. Bibliography: Ptolemaic dynasty and Hellenistic chronology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Useful bibliography for the Ptolemies and their world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bingen, Jean. 2007. Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, society, economy, culture. Edited by Roger Bagnall. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Collection of essays by one the leading experts; not for beginners, but valuable for detailed studies on a large range of subjects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt after the pharaohs: 332 BC–AD 642, from Alexander to the Arab conquest. 2d ed. London: British Museum Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent overview of Hellenistic Egypt, suitable for students; very good chapters on economy and society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Chauveau, Michel. 1997. L'Égypte au temps de Cléopâtre, 180–30 av. J.-C. Paris: Hachette.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  English translation by David Lorton, Egypt in the age of Cleopatra: History and society under the Ptolemies (Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 2000). Readable general overview of the period of general decline.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hoelbl, Günther. 1994. Geschichte des Ptolemäerreichs: Politik, Ideologie und religiöse Kultur von Alexander dem Großen bis zur römischen Eroberung. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    English translation by Tina Saavedra, A history of the Ptolemaic empire (London: Routledge, 2000). Reliable history of Hellenistic Egypt, with an emphasis on political history, the monarchy, and religion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Huss, Werner. 2001. Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit: 332–30 v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very detailed account of the political history of Ptolemaic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Peremans, Willy, et al. 1950–. Prosopographia Ptolemaica. Leuven: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Available online. A series founded by Willy Peremans and Edmond Van ‘t Dack in 1950, the Prosopographia Ptolemaica lists all inhabitants of Egypt between 300 and 30 BCE, attested in Greek, Egyptian, and Latin sources (literary sources, inscriptions, papyri). By 2002 it had issued ten volumes dedicated to the personnel of the civil and financial administration (1), the army and security forces (2), religious and legal officials (3), the court, the political administration and culture (6), economic activities and transportation (4–5), bearers of foreign ethnics (10), addenda (9), and indices (7–8).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Thompson, Dorothy J. 1988. Memphis under the Ptolemies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thorough treatment of administration, society, and economy in the heart of the Ptolemaic kingdom, based on papyri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Véísse, Anne-Emmanuelle. 2004. Les ‘révoltes égyptiennes’: Recherches sur les troubles intérieurs en Egypte du règne de Ptolémée III Evergète à la conquête romaine. Leuven: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough treatment of revolts in Egypt (3rd–1st centuries BCE), which are instructive for the weaknesses of the Ptolemaic dynasty, but also for existence of social unrest in the interior; very good analysis of both Greek and Egyptian documents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Alexandria

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Alexandria, the capital of Egypt, developed into the greatest cultural center of the Hellenistic world. Fraser 1972 is unsurpassed; Harris and Ruffini 2004 reflect the current trends of research.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fraser, Peter M. 1972. Ptolemaic Alexandria. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A superb treatment of society and culture in the Ptolemaic capital.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Harris, William V., and Giovanni Ruffini, eds. 2004. Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Proceedings of a conference containing several articles on Hellenistic Alexandria that reflect new approaches (e.g., demography, elite identity, art) and use new material (e.g., the recently edited poems of Poseidippos).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Syria and Mesopotamia (Seleucid Empire)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                For the greater part of the Hellenistic period, Syria, Mesopotamia, northern Iran, and parts of Afghanistan were parts of the Seleucid empire. Their history is, unfortunately, primarily known within the political history of the Seleucid dynasty; for this, Bouché-Leclercq 1913-1914 gives a detailed account, but Sherwin-White and Kuhrt 1993 gives a more general account, which takes into consideration economy, institutions, and local cultures. For political history see also The Seleucid Empire in the Third Century, The Roman Expansion and the Decline of the Antigonids and the Seleucids (c. 217–133 BCE), and The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion (133–30 BCE). For various aspects of Seleucid history see also Prost 2003. Grainger 1997 is very helpful as a reference. The organization of the army is treated by Bar-Kochva 1976. For the administration see Seleucid Administration; for the economy see Seleucid Economy; for the new cities see Royal Colonization. For the evidence provided by coins see Coins.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1976. The Seleucid army: Organization and tactics in the great campaigns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thorough study of the sources for a reconstruction of the structure of the army of the Seleucids in the 3rd and early 2nd centuries BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bouché-Leclercq, A. 1913–1914. Histoire des Séleucides (323–64 avant J.-C.). 2 vols. Paris: Leroux.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reprinted, Aalen: Scientia, 1978. Out of date in many details, but not yet replaced as a general political history of the Seleucid kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Funck, Bernd. 1984. Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit: Eine Untersuchung zu den spätbabylonischen Pfründentexten als Quelle für die Erforschung der sozialökonomischen Entwicklung der hellenistischen Stadt. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of cuneiform documents concerning financial transactions of the temples, as a source of information for economy (especially agriculture) and society in Uruk.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Grainger, John D. 1997. A Seleukid prosopography and gazetteer. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Very helpful as a reference, providing information about all the important individuals and places in Seleucid history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kreissig, Heinz. 1978. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Seleukidenreich: Die Eigentums- und Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          General study of economy and society in the Seleucid empire, with emphasis on land tenure (especially temple land) and slavery; valuable collection of evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oelsner, Joachim. 1986. Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit. Budapest: Eötvös Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Useful collection of sources (cuneiform texts) concerning society and culture in Hellenistic Babylonia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Prost, Francis, ed. 2003. L'Orient méditerranéen de la mort d'Alexandre aux campagnes de Pompée. Pallas 62. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Most essays in this collection of studies treat aspects of the Seleucid kingdom: monarchy (pp. 41–61, 221–259, 281–308) and society and culture (pp. 65–146, 263–280, 329–355).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sherwin-White, Susan M., and Amelie Kuhrt. 1993. From Samarkhand to Sardis: A new approach to the Seleucid empire. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The best introduction to all aspects of political, economic, social, and cultural history in the Seleucid empire, from Asia Minor to Afghanistan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Persis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The former heart of the Achaemenid empire presents an interesting paradigm of social and cultural transformation after the conquests of Alexander. Wiesehöfer 1994 is the best general account for the Hellenistic period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wiesehöfer, Joseph. 1994. Die “Dunklen Jahrhunderte” der Persis: Untersuchungen zu Geschichte und Kultur von Fars in frühhellenistischer Zeit (330–140 v. Chr.). Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Excellent overview of the political, social, and cultural history of the Persis (Iran), based on a very close study of the source material (including non-Greek documents).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bactria

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bactria (northwestern Afghanistan) was the easternmost region in which Greek settlements and culture were established. Our knowledge of the local rulers, who split from the Seleucid empire, is based on archaeological finds, coins, and inscriptions, and only a few literary sources. Tarn 1985 is a pioneering work, still readable, but Holt 1999 and Lerner 1999 are the most reliable recent accounts. Important financial documents and other finds were discovered during the excavation of the palace at Aï Khanoum (Rapin 1992). Recent studies rightly underline the importance of political developments and migrations in western China and Central Asia for the decline of the Greek-Bactrian kingdom and show the connectivity of the Hellenistic world with East Asia (Benjamin 2007, Posch 1995).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Benjamin, Craig G. R. 2007. The Yuezhi: Origin, migration and the conquest of northern Bactria. Turnhout: Brepols.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thorough analysis of nomad migrations from western China, their impact in Central Asia, and the end of Greek rule in Bactria; an innovative study that offers new insights on the study of the periphery of the Hellenistic world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Holt, Frank Lee. 1999. Thundering Zeus: The making of Hellenistic Bactria. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Up-to-date account of Greco-Bactrian history by the leading authority.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lerner, Jeffrey D. 1999. The impact of the Seleucid decline on the eastern Iranian plateau: The foundations of Arsacid Parthia and Graeco-Bactria. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Very useful treatment of the rise of new states east of the Seleucid empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Narain, Awadh Kisjore. 1967. The Indo-Greeks. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reprinted, Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press, 1980. Study of the development of the Greek-Bactrian kingdoms and their culture, with critique of Tarn 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Posch, Walter. 1995. Baktrien zwischen Griechen und Kuschan: Untersuchungen zu kulturellen und historischen Problemen einer Übergangsphase: mit einem textkritischen Exkurs zum Shiji 123. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Important contribution to the understanding of the end of Greek rule in Bactria from the perspective of the political history of Central Asia in the 2nd century BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rapin, Claude. 1992. La trésorerie du palais hellénistique d'Aï Khanoum: L'apogée et la chute du royaume grec de Bactriane. Fouilles d'Aï Khanoum VIII. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This volume, part of a series that presents the results of the excavations of the palace at Aï Khanoum, treats the financial documents found in the palace's treasury, which give a vivid picture of financial transactions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tarn, William W. 1985. The Greeks in Bactria and India. 3d ed. Updated with preface and new bibliography by Frank Lee Holt. Chicago: Ares.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Originally published in 1938, this book remains an important study of the political and cultural history of the easternmost Hellenistic states; to be used together with Narain 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Israel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The very word “Hellenistic” has its origins in Hellenistic Jewry, in the opposition between the Jews who accepted and those who rejected Greek influences. For this reason the history of Israel under Seleucid rule (until the revolt of the Maccabees), the history of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the Jewish Diaspora are central subjects of Hellenistic history. Tcherikover 1961, Bickerman 1988, and Gruen 1998 are representative of the different perspectives from which the interaction between Jews and Greeks has been seen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bickerman, Elias J. 1988. The Jews in the Greek age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fascinating account of Jewish social, economic, and intellectual life under the Seleucids; very useful for students and as a first introduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Grabbe, Lester L. 1992. From from Cyrus to Hadrian. 2 vols. Minneapolis: Fortress.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first volume contains a thorough survey of the sources for the culltural, religious, and social history of the Jews in the Hellenistic period and a critical discussion of the important problems in the history of Hellenistic Israel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gruen, Erich S. 1998. Heritage and Hellenism: The reinvention of Jewish tradition. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Based on a thorough study of the Jewish sources, Gruen reconstructs Jewish self-perception in the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hengel, Martin. 1974. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their encounter in Palestine during the early Hellenistic period. Translated by John Bowden. 2d ed. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A fundamental study of the impact of Greek rule in Judea (administration, economy, society), Greek cultural influences on the Jews, and the conflict between Palestinian Judaism and Hellenistic culture; a useful reference for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tcherikover, Avigdor. 1961. Hellenistic civilization and the Jews. Translated by S. Applebaum. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reprinted, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999. Groundbreaking study of Judaism in Palestine and in the Diaspora.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Institutions of the Hellenistic Poleis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The abundant source material, especially inscriptions, allows a close study of the political institutions of a large number of poleis (for the newly founded cities see Royal Colonization). Despite the generally democratic character of the institutions and the power of the assembly (Fröhlich 2004, Fröhlich and Müller 2005, Grieb 2008), political life was dominated by a wealthy elite, which gradually developed into a hereditary aristocracy (Dmitriev 2005). Socioeconomic conflicts resulted in attempts at constitutional reforms, the evidence for which has been collected by Bencivenni 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bencivenni, Alice. 2003. Progetti di riforme costituzionali nelle epigrafi grechi dei secoli IV-II a.C. Bologna: Lo Scarabeo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Constitutional reforms in the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dmitriev, Sviatoslav. 2005. City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Good overview of the political institutions of the cities and the part played by the elite.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fröhlich, Pierre. 2004. Les cités grecques et le contrôle des magistrats (IVe–Ier siècle avant J.-C.). Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Study of the legal and administrative measures for the control of magistrates; a pioneering study in the field of Hellenistic polis institutions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fröhlich, Pierre and Christel Müller, eds. 2005. Citoyenneté et participation à la basse époque hellénistique. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Collection of essays discussing various forms of participation of citizens and non-citizens in public life (assembly, council, ceremonies, army, benefactions, public funerals).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Grieb, Volker. 2008. Hellenistische Demokratie: Politische Organisation und Struktur in freien griechischen Poleis nach Alexander dem Grossen. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Focusing on the political institutions of a selection of poleis (Athens, Miletos, Kos, Rhodes), the author argues that the democratic constitution was maintained in the Hellenistic period; he offers a useful survey of the evidence, but with a tendency to underestimate the power of elite families.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ma, John. 2000. Fighting poleis of the Hellenistic world. In War and violence in ancient Greece. Edited by Hans van Wees, 337–376. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than just a study of the poleis' responses to war, this article discusses the basic values of Hellenistic poleis (autonomy, independence, civic identity).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Migeotte, Léopold. 1992. Les souscriptions publiques dans les cités grecques. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the phenomenon of public subscriptions, very important for the finances of Hellenistic poleis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Schmitt Pantel, Pauline. 1992. La cité au banquet: Histoire des repas publiques dans les cités grecques. Paris and Rome: École Française de Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent study of how public feasts were organized in Greek poleis (not only in the Hellenistic period) and of their significance for civic identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Institutions of the Federal States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The rise of federal states was one of the most significant political developments in the Hellenistic period. Larsen 1968 has not lost its value as a readable general introduction, but for new insights one should consult Corsten 1999. Best known are the institutions of the Aetolian League (see Aetolia), the Achaean League (Aymard 1938, Harter-Uibopuu 1998), the Boiotian Koinon (see Boiotia), and Akarnania (Dany 1999).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aymard, André. 1938. Les assemblées de la Confédération Achaienne. Bordeaux: Féret.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reprinted, Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1967. A classic study of the political significance and social background of the assembly of the Achaean League.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Corsten, Thomas. 1999. Vom Stamm zum Bund: Gründung und territoriale Organisation griechischer Bundesstaaten. Munich: Oberhummer Gesellschaft.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Up-to-date reconstruction of the development and organization of federal states in central Greece (not only in the Hellenistic period).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dany, Oliver. 1999. Akarnanien im Hellenismus: Geschichte und Völkerrecht in Nordwestgriechenland. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Thorough study of the history and institutions of the federal state of Akarnania and its members.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Harter-Uibopuu, Kaja. 1998. Das zwischenstaatliche Schiedsverfahren im Achäischen Koinon: Zur friedlichen Streitbeilegung nach den epigraphischen Quellen. Cologne: Böhlau.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of arbitration in the conflicts between members of the Achaean League (cf. Diplomacy and Interstate Relations).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Larsen, Jakob A. O. 1968. Greek federal states: Their institutions and history. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Still the best general introduction for students, treating in a systematic way the development and structure of federal states; federalism in the Hellenistic period is treated extensively (pp. 173–504).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hellenistic Monarchy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The most significant political development of the Hellenistic period is the establishment of new kingdoms, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East, and the development of monarchical rule with elaborate administration. This is why Hellenistic kingship is the subject most often treated in all general surveys of Hellenistic history (see General Overviews). For the major kingdoms, bibliography is given in the section Regional History (see the subsections Macedonia, Pontos, Pergamon, Bithynia, Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia, and Bactria). The following subsections focus on specific aspects of kingship: ideology of monarchy, ruler cult, court and “friends,” administration, and small kingdoms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Royal Ideology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Studies of Hellenistic kingship place great emphasis on the legitimacy and ideology of kingship, for which numismatic studies are very important (see Coins). Welles 1934 collects and discusses letters written by kings, which are one of the most important source of information for royal self-representation. Central themes in relevant studies are the image of the victorious king (Gehrke 1982, Chaniotis 2005), the self-representation of the king as benefactor (Bringmann 2000), ceremonial aspects (Ritter 1965), the king's relations to indigenous traditions (Huss 1994), relations between kings and cities (see Kings and Cities), and the ruler cult (see Ruler Cult).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bilde, Per, Troels Engberg-Pedersen, Lisa Hannestadt, and Jan Zahle, eds. 1996. Aspects of Hellenistic kingship. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of essays that treat various aspects of Hellenistic kingship, with emphasis on the image of the king.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bringmann, Klaus. 2000. Geben und nehmen: Monarchische Wohltätigkeit und Selbstdarstellung im Zeitalter des Hellenismus. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the significance of benefactions and reciprocity in the ideology of Hellenistic monarchy and in the relations between kings and cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic world includes a chapter on royal ideology (chapter 4, The interactive king: War and the ideology of Hellenistic monarchy, pp. 57–77).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 1982. Der siegreiche König: Überlegungen zur hellenistischen Monarchie. Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 64:247–277.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study of the charismatic nature of Hellenistic kingship and of the importance of the image of the victorious king.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Huss, Werner. 1994. Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester: Studien zur Geschichte des ptolemäischen Ägypten. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examination of the complex relations between the traditional Egyptian priests and the Ptolemaic kings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Koenen, Ludwig. 1993. The Ptolemaic king as a religious figure. In Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Edited by A. Bulloch, et al., 25–115. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent overview of the various religious functions of Ptolemaic kings (ruler cult, patronage over sanctuaries, incorporation of Egyptian elements).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ritter, Hans-Werner. 1965. Diadem und Königsherrschaft: Untersuchungen zu Zeremonien und Rechtsgrundlagen des Herrschaftsantritts bei den Persern, bei Alexander dem Grossen und im Hellenismus. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the ceremonial and legal aspects of the proclamation of kings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Virgilio, Biagio. 2003. Lancia, diadema e porpora: Il re e la regalità ellenistica. 2d ed. Pisa: Giardini.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Discussion of the various factors that legitimized monarchical rule and of the ideology of kingship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reprinted, Chicago: Ares, 1974. Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of royal self-representation. More material has come to light since 1934.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kings and Cities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The existence of many cities within kingdoms, especially in Seleucid Asia Minor, makes the study of the diplomatic and institutional relations between cities and kings and the various forms of subordination of cities to kings an important theme for the understanding of Hellenistic monarchy. Franco 1993 studies an early phase of the phenomenon; Orth 1977 studies the developments in the early 3rd century; Ma 1999 provides a groundbreaking study for the later period; for royal benefactions to cities see Ameling 1995. See also Ruler Cult.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ameling, Walter, ed. and trans. 1995. Schenkungen hellenistischer Herrscher an griechische Städte und Heiligtümer. Teil: Zeugnisse und Kommentare. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of literary texts and inscriptions (edition, translation, commentary) that provide information on donations and benefactions of Hellenistic kings to Greek cities and sanctuaries; useful for the study of monarchical ideology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Franco, Carlo. 1993. Il regno di Lisimaco: Strutture amministrative e rapporti con le città. Pisa: Giardini.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the relations between the king of Thrace and the Greek cities in his realm; although Lysimachos's kingdom did not last, the study of his rule is paradigmatic for Hellenistic monarchy. See also Lund 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ma, John. 1999. Antiochos III and the cities of western Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of the relations between king and poleis, with original observations on the ideology of monarchy and of the civic ideology of Hellenistic poleis. At the same time a solid reconstruction of political history c. 223–187 BCE. Enlarged paperback edition, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002; French translation by Serge Bardet, Antiochos III et les cités de l‘Asie Mineure occidentale, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Orth, Wolfgang. 1977. Königlicher Machtanspruch und städtische Freiheit: Untersuchungen zu den politischen Beziehungen zwischen den ersten Seleukidenherrschern (Seleukos I., Antiochos I., Antiochos II.) und den Städten des westlichen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the relations between cities and Seleucid kings in the first half of the 3rd century BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ruler Cult

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Although the cult of mortals was already practiced before the beginning of the Hellenistic period, the cult of kings, established both by cities and centrally by dynasties, became one of the most striking features of Hellenistic royal propaganda. Habicht 1970 is unsurpassed as the most thorough treatment of the basic features of the cults established by cities, but new epigraphic finds continually add information. For the centrally organized dynastic cult, Egypt provides the best paradigm (Melaerts 1998; see also Koenen under Royal Ideology). There is less evidence for the Seleucid dynastic cult (Van Nuffelen 2004).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Buraselis, Kostas and Aneziri, Sophia. 2004. Die hellenistische Herrscher Apotheose. In Thesaurus cultus et rituum antiquorum II. By Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, 172–186. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Short systematic overview of the ruler cult and its sources, excellent for quick reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Habicht, Christian. 1970. Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte. 2d ed. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The best study of the cult established by Hellenistic poleis for kings (form, aims, diffusion).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Koenen, Ludwig. 1993. The Ptolemaic king as a religious figure. In Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Edited by A. Bulloch, et al., 25–115. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Excellent overview of the various religious functions of Ptolemaic kings (ruler cult, patronage over sanctuaries, incorporation of Egyptian elements).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Melaerts, Henri, ed. 1998. Le culte du souverain dans l'Égypte ptolémaïque au IIIe siècle avant notre ère. Louvain: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of essays that treat various aspects of the establishment and development of dynastic cult in Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Van Nuffelen, Peter. 2004. Le culte royal de l'Empire des Séleucides: Une réinterpretation. Historia 52:278–301.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Attempts to reassess the significance of dynastic cult in the Seleucid empire, with useful collection of the more recent finds and further bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Court

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thanks to inscriptions and papyri, there is reliable information concerning the persons who constituted the closest advisors and officers—usually designated as philoi (“friends”)—in all major kingdoms (Savalli-Lestrade 1998). The hierarchy of the court and other officials is best known for Egypt (Mooren 1975 and Mooren 1977). The function of palaces is less well known; recent research on this subject is found in Hoepfner and Brands 1996 and Nielsen 1998. A specific phenomenon, cultural activities in the court in Alexandria, is studied by Weber 1993.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hoepfner, Wolfram, and Gunnar Brands, eds. 1996. Basileia: Die Paläste der hellenistischen Könige. Internationales Symposion in Berlin, 16.12.–20.12.1992, Mainz: Zabern.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of studies concerning Hellenistic palaces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mooren, Leon. 1975. The Aulic titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt: Introduction and prosopography. Brussels: Paleis der Academiën.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Important work of reference for the Ptolemaic court, the evolution of honorific titles, and the individuals who occupied the most important functions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mooren, Leon. 1977. La hiérarchie de cour ptolémaique: Contribution à l'étude des institutions et des classes dirigeantes à l'époque hellénistique. Leuven: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fundamental study of the structure of royal administration under the Ptolemies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nielsen, Ingen. 1998. Hellenistic palaces: Tradition and renewal. 2d ed. Aarhus, Denmark: Jutland Archaeological Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most comprehensive study of Hellenistic palaces, primarily from the archaeological perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Savalli-Lestrade, Ivana. 1998. Les philoi royaux dans l'Asie hellénistique. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Systematic study of the courtiers, their recruitment and functions in the kingdoms of the Attalids and the Seleucids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weber, Gregor. 1993. Dichtung und höfische Gesellschaft: Die Rezeption von Zeitgeschichte am Hof der ersten drei Ptolemäer. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of the cultural and social life in the court of the Ptolemies in Alexandria (3rd century BCE).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ptolemaic Administration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The administration of Ptolemaic Egypt is very well known because of the abundant documentary material. Because of the specific geographical conditions of the land of the Nile, the administrative structure of Egypt did not always correspond to that of other kingdoms. Most studies are technical; undergraduate students should first consult general overviews. For the persons who served in this administration, see Peremans, et al. 1950–.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bagnall, Roger S. 1976. The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Systematic study of the administration of Ptolemaic possession (especially Aegean islands, Cyprus, and the Levant).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kaltsas, Demokritos. 2001. Dokumentarische Papyri des 2. Jh. v. Chr. aus dem Herakleopolites (P.Heid. VIII). Heidelberg: Winter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Despite its cryptic title, this book deals with important documents that illuminate the Ptolemaic administration of justice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lenger, Marie-Thérèse. 1980–1990. Corpus des ordonnances des Ptolémées (C. Ord. Ptol.). Réédition avec suppléments. Bilan des additions et corrections (1964–1988): Compléments à la bibliographie. Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of administrative regulations preserved in papyri; extremely important work of reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oates, John F. 1995. The Ptolemaic basilikos grammateus. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists Supp. 8. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of one of the best-known functionaries, the “royal secretary,” who assisted the governors of the provinces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Peremans, Willy, et al. 1950–. Prospographia Ptolemaica. Leuven: Bibliotheca Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Available online. The Prosopographia Ptolemaica lists all inhabitants of Egypt between 300 and 30 BCE, attested in Greek, Egyptian and Latin sources (literary sources, inscriptions, papyri). Several volumes are dedicated to Ptolemaic administration: the personnel of the civil and financial administration (1), the army and security forces (2), religious and legal officials (3), the court and the political administration (6).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Thomas, John David. 1975–1982. The epistrategos in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. Opladen: Westdeutsches Verlagshaus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Systematic study of the evolution of the office of the epistrategos (commander of one of the main districts of Egypt: Upper Egypt, Middle Egypt, Thebais).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wolff, Hans Julius. 1978–2002. Das Recht der griechischen Papyri Ägyptens in der Zeit der Ptolemäer und des Prinzipats, I: Bedingungen und Triebkräfte der Rechtsentwicklung. Edited by Hans-Albrecht Rupprecht. II: Organisation und Kontrolle des privaten Rechtsverkehrs. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Systematic study of the legal system; very technical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seleucid Administration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The administration of the Seleucid kingdom inherited elements of the earlier Achaemenid administration (e.g., the satrapies) and introduced novelties (e.g., the “friends” of the king; see Savalli-Lestrade 1998). In addition to the classic study of Bikerman 1938 and the more up-to-date overview by Capdetrey 2007, one should consult studies concerning the relations between kings and cities (see Kings and Cities). For the organization of the army see Bar-Kochva 1976; for Seleucid royal economy see Aperghis 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Aperghis, Gerassimos G. 2004. The Seleukid royal economy: The finances and financial administration of the Seleukid empire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first attempt to offer a comprehensive interpretation of the measures taken by the Seleucid authorities for the control of economic activities; the results are controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1976. The Seleucid army: Organization and tactics in the great campaigns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thorough study of the sources for a reconstruction of the structure of the army of the Seleucids in the 3rd and early 2nd centuries BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bikerman, Elias J. 1938. Institutions des Séleucides, Paris: Geuthner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Still unsurpassed as a general treatment of Seleucid administration; excellent analysis of the source material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Capdetrey, Laurent. 2007. Le pouvoir séleucide: Territoire, administration, finances d'un rouyaume hellénistique (312–129 av. J.-C.). Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Very good overview of civic and military administration, the administration of territory, and public finances, based on recent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Savalli-Lestrade, Ivana. 1998. Les philoi royaux dans l'Asie hellénistique. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Systematic study of the courtiers, their recruitment and functions in the kingdom of the Seleucids.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Royal Colonization

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Following the example of Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic kings founded many and important cities, sometimes as major metropoleis (Grainger 1990), sometimes as towns of military settlers. The military and ideological aspects are examined by Billows 1995. Cohen 1995 and Cohen 2006 provides an excellent systematic survey of all new foundations; Cohen 1978 and Mueller 2006 study the specific features of Seleucid and Ptolemaic foundations, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Billows, Richard A. 1995. Kings and colonists: Aspects of Macedonian imperialism. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important study of the political, military, and ideological aspects of colonization under the Successors of Alexander.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cohen, Getzel M. 1978. The Seleucid colonies: Studies in founding, administration, and organization. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Although it focuses only on Seleucid colonies, this book gives a good general overview of the administration of Hellenistic cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cohen, Getzel M. 1995. The Hellenistic settlements in Europe, the islands, and Asia Minor. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Along with Cohen 1978 and 2006, gives an exhaustive survey of all newly founded cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cohen, Getzel M. 2006. The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea basin, and North Africa. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Along with Cohen 1978 and 1995, gives an exhaustive survey of all newly founded cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Grainger, John D. 1990. The cities of Seleukid Syria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Studies the important new foundations in Syria (Antioch, Apameia, Seulekeia, Laodikeia), which played an important role in the Hellenization of Syria but also in the trade between the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mueller, Katja. 2006. Settlements of the Ptolemies: City foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic world. Leuven: Peeters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Studies how new settlements founded by the Ptolemies served the administrative, military, and economic needs of the kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Small Kingdoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In addition to the major kingdoms, small kingdoms, usually created during a vacuum of power, played a significant part in the political history of the Hellenistic period, especially during the period of the Roman expansion. The study of these kingdoms also contributes to the understanding of monarchical rule. Braund 1984 studies the importance of such kingdoms as an instrument of Roman imperialism. For the small kingdoms in Asia Minor and the Near East, see Kobes 1996 and Sullivan 1990; see also Bactria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Braund, David. 1984. Rome and the friendly king: The character of client kingship. London: Croom Helm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thorough study of one of the most important instruments of Roman imperial power: the creation or toleration of “client kings” in the periphery of its realm.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kobes, Jörn. 1996. ‘Kleine Könige’: Untersuchungen zu den Lokaldynastien im hellenistischen Kleinasien (323–188). St. Katharinen: Scripta-Mercaturae-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Useful account of the history of small dynasties in Hellenistic Asia Minor, before it became part of the Attalid kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sullivan, Richard D. 1990. Near Eastern royalty and Rome: 100–30 B.C. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Treats the small Hellenistic kingdoms and the kingdoms in the periphery of the Hellenistic world in the context of Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interstate Relations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The creation of a “globalized” world intensified diplomatic relations between an increased number of states. The number and diversity of treaties grew, as did the complexity of interstate relations (Klose 1972), in particular after the beginning of Roman interventions (from the late 3rd century onward). Giovannini 2007 offers a very good general overview. Curty 1995 and Welles 1934 are important for the style of Hellenistic diplomatic contacts between cities and cities and kings. Important subjects of diplomacy (Treaties, International Arbitration, and Protection of Foreigners) are treated in separate subsections.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Curty, Olivier. 1995. Les parentés légendaires entre cités grecque: Catalogue raisonné des inscriptions contenant le terme syngeneia et analyse critique. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection and discussion of inscriptions attesting “kinship diplomacy” between cities; instructive for the style of diplomacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Giovannini, Adalberto. 2007. Les relations entre états dans le Grèce antique du temps d'Homère à l'intervention romaine (ca. 700–200 av. J.C.). Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The best systematic account of the methods, principles, and objects of Greek interstate relations, with a systematic treatment of ancient treaties (with a selection of examples in translation); the Hellenistic period is treated extensively; an important reference work, accessible to students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Klose, Peter. 1972. Die völkerrechtliche Ordnung der hellenistischen Staatenwelt in der Zeit von 280–168 v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Important study of the political relations between the Hellenistic states (kingdoms, cities, federal states) and Hellenistic “international law,” from the establishment of the Hellenistic kingdoms to Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially, Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of the language and style of Hellenistic diplomacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Treaties

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More treaties survive from the Hellenistic period than from earlier or later periods of Greek history. They are a very important source of information not only for political history but also for economy, society, and religion. The treaties of the late 4th and 3rd centuries BCE have been collected by Schmitt 1969; unfortunately, no analogous collection exists for the rest of the period. Chaniotis 1996 studies a large group of treaties from Crete, Gawantka 1975a particular and common type of treaty (isopliteia), and Rigsby 1996 the recognition of the inviolability of sanctuaries and cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chaniotis, Angelos, ed. and trans. 1996. Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Edition (with translation and commentary) of the most numerous group of Hellenistic treaties: those concluded between Cretan poleis; these texts are representative for the main types of treaties (alliance, mutual grant of citizenship, economic cooperation).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gawantka, Wilfried. 1975. Isopolitie: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der zwischenstaatlichen Beziehungen in der griechischen Antike. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Systematic (and often technical) study of a specific type of diplomatic relations between two cities: the mutual grant of citizenship and other privileges, subject to certain conditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rigsby, Kent J. 1996. Asylia: Territorial inviolability in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Collection of the evidence concerning the important institution of asylia (inviolability of cities and sanctuaries); important for the study of international law and diplomacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Schmitt, Hatto H., ed. 1969. Die Staatsverträge des Altertums: Dritter Band, Die Verträge der griechisch-römischen Welt von 338 bis 200 v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Edition (no translation) and commentary of the treaties between Greek cities, kings, kings and cities, and Hellenistic states and Rome from Philip II to the end of the 3rd century BCE. An important work of reference for political history and diplomacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              International Arbitration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Because of the numerous wars, interstate arbitration became one of the most important phenomena of Hellenistic diplomacy. The relevant evidence has been collected and discussed by Ager 1996 and Magnetto 1997 (cf. Harter-Uibopuu 1998 for the Achaean confederation).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ager, Sheila L. 1996. Interstate arbitrations in the Greek world, 337–90 B.C. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Includes a systematic study of arbitrations and comments (but not translations) of the relevant documents. To be consulted together with Magnetto 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2004. Justifying territorial claims in Classical and Hellenistic Greece: The beginnings of international law. In Law and courts in ancient Greece. Edited by Edward Harris and Lene Rubenstein, 185–213. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the principles on which territorial claims were based in Hellenistic diplomacy and international arbitration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Harter-Uibopuu, Kaja. 1998. Das zwischenstaatliche Schiedsverfahren im Achäischen Koinon: Zur friedlichen Streitbeilegung nach den epigraphischen Quellen. Cologne: Böhlau.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of arbitration in the conflicts between members of the Achaean League.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Magnetto, Anna. 1997. Gli arbitrati interstatali greci: Introduzione, testo critico, traduzione, commento e indici. Volume II, Dal 337 al 196a.C. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Commented collection of sources concerning ancient arbitration (cf. Ager 1996).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Protection of Foreigners

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The increased mobility in the Hellenistic world resulted in an increased awareness of the problems connected with the presence of foreigners and the protection of their rights. Gauthier 1972 is the most important study of this subject (Marek 1994). Bielman 1994 is devoted to the treatment of prisoners of war and captives of pirates.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bielman, Anne. 1994. Retour à la liberté: Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of inscriptions, almost exclusively from the Hellenistic period, which concern the liberation of war prisoners and captives of pirates; very useful for the study of piracy and international law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gauthier, Philippe. 1972. Symbola: Les étrangers et la justice dans les cités grecques. Nancy: Université de Nancy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Unsurpassed study of the legal treatment of foreigners in the Greek cities and of the treaties that regulated this; somewhat technical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Marek, Christian. 1994. Die Proxenie. Frankfurt: Lang.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The most comprehensive and thorough study of the status of the proxenos (originally, a citizen of a city who supports the citizens of the foreign city, which has awarded him the title of proxenos; in the Hellenistic period, the recipient of various privileges as reward for services to a foreign community).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Society

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A history of Hellenistic society that would consider a wide range of social phenomena (status, interactions between social groups, social values and emotions, gender roles, etc.) and all the areas of the Hellenistic world has never been written, although this is the only period of Greek history for which the source material would allow such an enterprise. There are, however, good regional studies, especially for Ptolemaic Egypt (see Society in Ptolemaic Egypt) and the Seleucid empire (see Society in the Seleucid Empire), but also for some of the Aegean islands and for Asia Minor (see Society in Greece and Asia Minor). The following bibliography focuses on the social phenomena that have attracted the greatest interest: the role of elites and benefactors (Civic Elite and Benefactors), the condition of the lower social strata (Dependent Populations, Slaves, and Freedmen), family (Family and Marriage), foreigners (Foreigners), and women (Women). Several subjects of social relevance, such as education in the gymnasium, military organization, private associations, and professional specialization, are treated in separate sections: Military Organization and Warfare, Education, Professional Specialists, and Cult Associations. Rostovtzeff 1941 was a bold attempt to draw a general picture and has never been surpassed. For orientation, a student should first read the relevant chapters in Chaniotis 2005, Erskine 2003, and Shipley 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic society (formation of elites, pp. 29–43; youth, 44–56; professional soldiers, 78–101; women, 102–114; economy, religion, art, and literature).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Erskine, Andrew, ed. 2003. A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Comprehensive companion to Hellenistic history. Several chapters treat aspects of society (chapter 15, “Town and country in Egypt”; chapter 19, “Family”; chapter 23, “Slave-trade”).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rostovtzeff, M. 1941. The social and economic history of the Hellenistic world. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This monumental and very influential work remains the only attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of economy and society in the Hellenistic period. One of its advantages is the effort to use both textual and archaeological sources; one weakness is an anachronistic approach to ancient economy. Reprinted 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An excellent introduction to the Hellenistic world; social phenomena and social structures are discussed throughout the volume (armies and emigration, pp. 54–58; civic society and socioeconomic change, 86–106; the Spartan “revolutions” and their aftermath, 140–148; Ptolemaic Egypt, 192–201, 213–224; literature and social identity, 235–270).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Society in Greece and Asia Minor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Most regional studies (cited under Regional History) include chapters on social history. Here we present a small selection of representative studies. Gabrielsen 1997 and Sherwin-White 1978 are instructive on the function of elites in Greek cities; Papazoglou 1997 and Schuler 1998 are good introductions to the situation of the indigenous populations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gabrielsen, Vincent. 1997. The naval aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Excellent study of the roles of aristocracy in political life, society, religion, and economy in Hellenistic Rhodes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1997. Laoi et paroikoi: Recherches sur la structure de la société hellénistique. Belgrade: Université de Belgrade.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Classic study of the position of dependent populations (especially indigenous populations) in Hellenistic Greece and Asia Minor; important for the study of lower social strata.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Schuler, Christoph. 1998. Ländliche Siedlungen und Gemeinden im hellenistischen und römischen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent treatment of the political, legal, economic, social, and religious life of small villages; despite the close analysis of sources, suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sherwin-White, Susan M. 1978. Ancient Cos: An historical study from the Dorian settlement to the Imperial period. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough exploitation of the literary and epigraphic sources for the history and society of Kos (with a prosopography of Koans).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Society in Ptolemaic Egypt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Because of the information provided by the papyri (see Papyri), many aspects of social organization and life can be studied better in Egypt than in any other Hellenistic area; Clarysse and Thompson 2006 is a superb demonstration of this through a study of population registers. While Lewis 1986 presents an excellent overview of the life of Greeks (Fraser 1972 on society in Ptolemaic Alexandria), Hoffmann 2000 gives insights into society and life of the indigenous population on the basis of Demotic (non-Greek) documents. See also Women and Education.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Biezuńska-Małowist, Iza. 1974. L'esclavage dans l'Égypte gréco-romaine I: Période ptolémaïque. Wroclaw: Zaklad Narod. Imienia Ossolinskich Wyd.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of slavery in Hellenistic Egypt; useful survey of the sources, but the one-sided influence of Marxist ideology is clear in the analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brashear, William M. 1993. Vereine im griechisch-römischen Ägypten. Konstanz: Universitäts-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Study of the function of private associations in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clarysse, Willy, and Dorothy J. Thompson. Counting the people in Hellenistic Egypt. volume 1: Population registers (P.Count.). Volume 2: Historical studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Excellent study of demography and society (family structures) based on papyrological sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fraser, Peter M. 1972. Ptolemaic Alexandria. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A superb treatment of society and culture in the Ptolemaic capital.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hoffmann, Friedhelm, ed. and trans. 2000. Ägypten: Kultur und Lebenswelt in griechisch-römischer Zeit: Eine Darstellung nach den demotischen Quellen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      German translation of a good selection of non-Greek (Demotic) documents concerning among other things educationa and private life. The texts and the author's comments give valuable insights into the life of the native population in Ptolemaic Egypt; accessible to students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lewis, Naphtali. 1986. Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt: Case studies in the social history of the Hellenistic world. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Groundbreaking study of social organization and everyday life in Ptolemaic Egypt, based on a close analysis of papyri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Scholl, Reinhold. 1990. Corpus der Ptolemäischen Sklaventexte. 3 vols. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of the papyri concerning slavery in Ptolemaic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Thompson, Dorothy J. 1988. Memphis under the Ptolemies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough treatment of administration, society, and economy in the heart of the Ptolemaic kingdom, based on papyri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Society in the Seleucid Empire

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Seleucid Syria presents a paradigmatic case of a multiethnic and multicultural society. The information provided by the cuneiform texts (see Cuneiform Texts) is of great value; see especially Funck 1984, Kreissig 1978, and Oelsner 1986. Sherwin-White and Kuhrt 1993 give a very good general introduction.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Funck, Bernd. 1984. Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit: Eine Untersuchung zu den spätbabylonischen Pfründentexten als Quelle für die Erforschung der sozialökonomischen Entwicklung der hellenistischen Stadt. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of cuneiform documents concerning financial transactions of the temples, as a source of information for economy and society in Uruk.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kreissig, Heinz. 1978. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Seleukidenreich: Die Eigentums- und Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                General study of economy and society in the Seleucid empire, with emphasis on land tenure (especially temple land) and slavery; valuable collection of evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Oelsner, Joachim. 1986. Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit. Budapest: Eötvös Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Useful collection of sources (cuneiform texts) concerning society and culture in Hellenistic Babylonia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sherwin-White, Susan M., and Amelie Kuhrt. 1993. From Samarkhand to Sardis: A new approach to the Seleucid empire. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The best introduction to all aspects of economic, social, and cultural history in the Seleucid empire, from Asia Minor to Afghanistan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Civic Elite and Benefactors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The majority of the sources cited provide information for the life, public roles, and economic activities of the civic elites (Fernoux 2004, Quass 1993) and the elite of the kingdoms (see Court). The epigraphic evidence suggests the gradual development of an elite based on wealth into an almost hereditary aristocracy (for a short overview see Hamon 2007). The leading position of the elites was founded in their contributions as benefactors (a groundbreaking study is Gauthier 1985). For Athens, see Habicht 1982, for Rhodes see Gabrielsen 1997. Most of the relevant studies consider both the Hellenistic and the Imperial periods, since the Imperial period continues the Hellenistic trends.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fernoux, Henri-Louis. 2004. Notables et élites des cités de Bithynie aux époques hellénistiques et romaine (IIIe siècle av. J.-C.-IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.): Essai d'histoire sociale. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thorough study of the history of civic elites in Bithynia (Asia Minor).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gabrielsen, Vincent. 1997. The naval aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Excellent study of the roles of aristocracy in political life, society, religion, and economy in Hellenistic Rhodes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gauthier, Philippe. 1985. Les cités grecques et leurs bienfaiteurs (IVe-Ier siècle avant J.-C.): Contribution à l'histoire des institutions. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The most influential study of the role of benefactors in the Hellenistic cities; very important for understanding the “aristocratization” of Hellenistic society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Habicht, Christian. 1982. Studien zur Geschichte Athens in hellenistischer Zeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Excellent study of the political history, based primarily on epigraphic material; important for the part played by important families of the elite.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hamon, Patrice. 2007. Élites dirigeantes et processus d'aristocratisation à l'époque hellénistique. In Aristocratie antique: Modèles et exemplarité sociale. Edited by Henri-Louis Fernoux and Christian Stein, 79–100. Dijon: Université de Dijon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Overview of the transformation of elites into a hereditary aristocracy; short, to the point, and up to date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Quass, Friedemann. 1993. Die Honoratiorenschicht in den Städten des griechischen Ostens: Untersuchungen zur politischen und sozialen Entwicklung in hellenistischer und römischer Zeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most detailed study of the various political and other functions of civic elites, their origins, and their development from the early Hellenistic to the Imperial period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dependent Populations, Slaves, Freedmen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Some of the phenomena that make the Hellenistic period a separate period of Greek social history are connected with the social position of various categories of individuals of limited freedom. For the study of slavery, Schäfer and Deisler 2004 offers a useful bibliography. Blavatskaja, et al. 1972 is the most comprehensive study of the source material, but the analysis is not always reliable; Bussi 2001 presents a more up-to-date study, but only for Asia Minor; for the material from Egypt, which is not representative for the entire Hellenistic world because of the local peculiarities, see Biezuńska-Małowist 1974 and Scholl 1990. In the Greek world, manumission became increasingly common, especially from the late 3rd century BCE on (Darmezin 1999, Zelnick-Abramovitz 2005). In the new Hellenistic kingdoms, dependent populations, subject to the payment of tribute but also to limitations on movement, had greater economic significance (Briant 1982).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Biezuńska-Małowist, Iza. 1974. L'esclavage dans l'Égypte gréco-romaine I: Période ptolémaïque. Wroclaw: Zaklad Narod. Imienia Ossolinskich Wyd.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of slavery in Hellenistic Egypt; useful survey of the sources, but the one-sided influence of Marxist ideology is clear in the analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Blavatskaja, T. V., E. S. Golubcova, and A. I. Pavlovskaja. 1972. Die Sklaverei in den hellenistischen Staaten im 3.-1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Translated by Maria Bräuer-Pospelova, et al. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Though still useful because of the collection of source material, this book reflects the official Soviet ideology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Briant, Pierre. 1982. Rois, tributs et paysans: Études sur les formations tributaires du Moyen-Orient ancien. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Groundbreaking study of the economic functions and legal status of dependent population in the Near East; because of the examination of conditions in the Achaemenid empire, this book shows the influence of earlier traditions on Hellenistic society and economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bussi, Silvia. 2001. Economia e demografia della schiavitù in Asia Minore ellenistico-romana. Milan: LED Edizioni Universitari.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thorough study of the numbers and economic functions of slaves in Asia Minor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Darmezin, Laurence. 1999. Les affranchissements par consécration en Béotie et dans le monde grec hellénistique. Nancy: A.D.R.A.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of manumission practices based on manumission records preserved in inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1997. Laoi et paroikoi: Recherches sur la structure de la société hellénistique. Belgrade: Université de Belgrade.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Classic study of the position of dependent populations (especially indigenous populations) in Hellenistic Greece and Asia Minor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Schäfer, Dorothea, and Johannes Deisler. 2004. Bibliographie zur antiken Sklaverei. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Useful bibliography on ancient slavery.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Scholl, Reinhold, ed. 1990. Corpus der Ptolemäischen Sklaventexte. 3 vols. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of papyri concerning slavery in Ptolemaic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Zelnick-Abramovitz, Rachel. 2005. Not wholly free: The concept of manumission and the status of manumitted slaves in the ancient world. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thorough study of manumission, including a discussion of the Hellenistic evidence from mainland Greece; a systematic study that can serve as a general reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Family and Marriage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hellenistic family and marriage practices were subject to change because of increased mobility, changes in the status of women (see Women), and the multiethnic character of large areas of the Hellenistic world. Vérilhac and Vial 1998 offers the best description of these changes and a very good systematic study.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Günther, Linda-Marie. 2007. Familien und Geschlechterverhältnisse. In Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus von Alexander bis Kleopatra. Edited by Gregor Weber, 118–138. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Short, informative overview of the evolution of family in the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Vatin, Claude. 1970. Recherches sur le mariage et la condition de la femme mariée à l‘époque hellénistique. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Important study on the legal position of married women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Vérilhac Anne-Marie, and Claude Vial. 1998. Le mariage gre: Du VIe siècle av. J.-C. à l'époque d'Auguste. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The most comprehensive study on the development and legal context of marriage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreigners

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Because of increased mobility, the status and the rights of foreigners are among the important issues of Hellenistic social history. Much evidence survives from Athens and has been treated by Adak 2003 (foreigners as benefactors) and Niku 2007 (legal status). For a particular phenomenon, the presence of Italian traders, see Hatzfeld 1919, Müller and Hasenohr 2002, and Rauh 1993. Gauthier 1972 remains the best treatment of the legal rights of foreigners in Hellenistic cities (see also Protection of Foreigners).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Adak, Mustafa. 2003. Metöken als Wohltätet Athens: Untersuchungen zum sozialen Austausch zwischen ortsansässigen Fremden und der Bürgergemeinde in klassischer und hellenistischer Zeit (ca. 500–150 v. Chr.). Munich: Tuduv.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Systematic study of the (mainly Hellenistic) evidence for foreigners as benefactors in Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gauthier, Philippe. 1972. Symbola: Les étrangers et la justice dans les cités grecques. Nancy: Université de Nancy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Unsurpassed study of the legal treatment of foreigners in the Greek cities and of the treaties that regulated this; somewhat technical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hatzfeld, Jean. 1919. Les trafiquants italiens dans l'Orient hellénique. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Reprinted, New York: Arno, 1975. Groundbreaking study of the trade activities of Italian merchants in Hellenistic Greece; see also Müller and Hasenohr 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Müller, Christel, and Claire Hasenohr, eds. 2002. Les Italiens dans le monde grec: IIe siècle av. J.-C.-Ier siècle ap. J.-C. Circulation, activités, intégration, Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays covering many aspects of the economic activities of Italian merchants in the late Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Niku, Maria. 2007. The official status of the foreign residents in Athens, 322–120 B.C. Helsinki: Finnish Archaeological Institute in Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thorough study of the development of the status of foreigners over the course of the Hellenistic period in Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rauh, Nicholas K. 1993. The sacred bonds of commerce: Religion, economy, and trade society at Hellenistic Roman Delos. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of the information provided by the inscriptions of Delos for the presence of Italian traders in the Hellenistic period; the interpretation of the archaeological evidence is controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Women

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The increasing interest in women's and gender studies has had an impact on the study of Hellenistic society. An early tendency to overestimate the social and public roles of women has been reassessed by van Bremen 1996 and Stavrianopoulou 2006, who offer excellent discussions of the sources. Bagnall and Cribiore 2006, Bielman 2002, and Rowlandson 1998 are good collections of sources. Pomeroy 1984 is a readable overview of the life of women in Egypt.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bagnall, Roger S., and Raffaella Cribiore. 2006. Women's letters from ancient Egypt, 300 BC–AD 800. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      After an introdution to letter-writing and the life of women in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, the authors present reliable translations of letters written by women; an excellent source of information for all aspects of the life of women; ideal for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bielman, Anne, ed. 2002. Femmes en public dans le monde hellénistique, IVe–Ier s. av. J.-C. Paris: Sédès.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of inscriptions concerning the life of women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pomeroy, Sarah B. 1984. Women in Hellenistic Egypt from Alexander to Cleopatra. New York: Schocken.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pioneering work on the social and legal conditions of women; readable and useful for undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rowlandson, Jane, ed. and trans. 1998. Women and society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A sourcebook. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Very good selection of papyri concerning the life of women, with translations and commentaries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stavrianopoulou, Eftychia. 2006. “Gruppenbild mit Dame”: Untersuchungen zur rechtlichen und sozialen Stellung der Frau auf den Kykladen im Hellenismus und in der römischen Kaiserzeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Superb analysis of the changes in the legal and social position of women in the Aegean islands, from which many relevant inscriptions survive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • van Bremen, Riet. 1996. The limits of participation: Women and civic life in the Greek East in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A pioneering study of the history of women, with a very balanced assessment of the roles of women in public life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Vatin, Claude. 1970. Recherches sur le mariage et la condition de la femme mariée à l‘époque hellénistique. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important study on the legal position of married women; to be consulted together with Stavrianopoulou 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Despite the abundance and diversity of source material (inscriptions, papyri, coins, amphoras, etc.), the study of Hellenistic economy is not yet satisfactory, with the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt. At the level of the individual polis, Delos has been thoroughly studied (see Delos). Long dominated by ideological combat, the study of Hellenistic economy is today strongly oriented toward the publication of corpora of evidence (e.g., amphora stamps, lamps, tiles, coins, pottery, inscriptions), which improves the opportunities for better assessment of economic activities. The volumes Archibald, et al. 2001; Archibald, et al. 2005; and Bresson 2006 reflect this change, give a very good overview of current trends, questions, and methods, and provide bibliography. Important financial documents have been found in the palace at Aï Khanoum (see Bactria).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Archibald, Zofia H., John Davies, and Vincent Gabrielsen, eds. 2005. Making, moving, and managing: The new world of ancient economies, 323–31 BC. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collection of essays dedicated especially to trade and manufacture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Archibald, Zofia H., John Davies, Vincent Gabrielsen, and Graham J. Oliver, eds. 2001. Hellenistic economies. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of essays concerning various aspects of the economy of the cities and the kingdoms; the volume also considers the periphery of the Hellenistic world and marks a sound shift from ideological wars on the nature of ancient economy to a study of the source material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bresson, Alain, ed. 2006. Approches de l'écomonie hellénistique. Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges: Musée Archéologique.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of essays reflecting current trends in the study of Hellenistic economy; useful bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Overviews

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rostovtzeff 1941, at the time a pioneering work, is out of date in details but still inspiring. Bresson 2007–2008 is a very good general introduction to Greek economy. Reger 2003, von Reden 2007, and Scheidel et al. 2007 now provide readable introductions. Chaniotis 2005 discusses the impact of the continual wars on economy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bresson, Alain. 2007–2008. L'économie de la Grèce des cités (fin VIe–Ier siècle a.C.), I: Les structures et la production. II: Les espaces de l'échange. 2 vols. Paris: Colin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent overview of all aspects of economic life in the Greek cities, with lengthy discussion of Hellenistic developments and very thorough analysis of the sources; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brun, Patrice, ed. 2007. Économies et societés en Grèce classique et hellénistique: Actes du colloque de la SOPHAU, Bordeaux, 30–31 mars 2007. Pallas 74. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fifteen articles, giving a representative overview of current trends in the study of Hellenistic economy, such as agriculture (pp. 31–41), leasing of land (43–76), financial transactions (93–112), coinage (129–159), public finances (179–200), migration (213–236), and the economy in the cities of the Aegean islands (237–291).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On pp. 115–142, a survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Davies, John. 2006. Hellenistic economies. In The Cambridge companion to the Hellenistic world. Edited by Glenn R. Bugh, 73–92. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Very good overview of the major economic trends of the Hellenistic period; useful for a first orientation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Reger, Gary. 2003, The economy. In A companion to the Hellenistic world. Edited by Andew Erskine, 331–353. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Short, readable survey of Hellenistic economy; suitable as a first introduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rostovtzeff, M. 1941. The social and economic history of the Hellenistic world. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This monumental and very influential work remains the only attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of economy and society in the Hellenistic period. One of its advantages is the effort to use both textual and archaeological sources; a weakness is an anachronistic approach to ancient economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Scheidel, Walter, Ian Morris, and Richard P. Saller, eds. 2007. The Cambridge economic history of the Greco-Roman world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521780537E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Three chapters are dedicated to the Hellenistic world: Robartus J. van der Spek, “The Hellenistic Near East,” pp. 409–433; Joseph G. Manning, “Hellenistic Egypt,” 434–459; Gary Reger, “Hellenistic Greece and Western Asia Minor,” 460–483. Extremely useful introduction, suitable for non-specialists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • von Reden, Sitta. 2007. Wirtschaftliches Wachstum und institutioneller Wandel. In Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus von Alexander bis Kleopatra. Edited by Gregor Weber, 177–201. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stimulating survey of the general economic trends and the administrative measures taken for the promotion of the economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agriculture and Pastoral Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agriculture and pastoralism, which in the Hellenistic period remained the most important ecoomic activities, are usually treated as part of more general histories of ancient agricultural practices. Isager and Skydsgaard 1992 offers an accessible introduction. Amouretti 1994 gives a useful overview of recent research. The technical aspects of viticulture are discussed by Amouretti 1988. One of the most important subjects is land tenure, which can be primarily studied on the basis of inscriptions (see Delos); good examples are provided by Lambert 1997 (Athens), Osborne 1988 (leasing of land), Schuler 2004 (Asia Minor), and Walser 2008 (Ephesos); for land tenure in Egypt see Manning 2003. For the economic importance of sacred land in Asia Minor and in Mesopotamia see Sanctuaries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amouretti, Marie-Claire. 1988. La viticulture antique: Contraintes et choix techniques. Revue des Études Anciennes 90:5–17.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the techniuques of ancient wine production.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amouretti, Marie-Claire. 1994. L'agriculture de la Grèce antique: Bilan des recherches de la dernière décenie. Topoi 4:69–94.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Very useful bibliographical overview of recent research on agriculture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chandezon, Christophe. 2003. L'élevage en Grèce (fin Ve-fin Ier s. a.C.): L'apport des sources épigraphiques. Bordeaux: Ausonius.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Systematic study of pastoral economy in Classical and Hellenistic Greece, based on literary sources and inscriptions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Isager, Signe, and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. 1992. Ancient Greek agriculture: An introduction. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Short, readable introduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lambert, Stephen D. 1997. Rationes centesimarum: Sales of public land in Lykourgan Athens. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important study of the documentary evidence for land tenure in late 4th-century BCE Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Manning, Joseph G. 2003. Land and power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The structure of land tenure. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The best study of the measures of the Ptolemaic administration concerning land tenure (land given to military settlers, sacred land).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Osborne, Robin. 1988. Social and economic implications of the leasing of land and property in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Chiron 18:279–323.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Systematic study of documents (especially from Athens, Delos, and Boiotia) concerning the leasing of land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schuler, Christoph. 2004. Landwirtschaft und königliche Verwaltung im hellenistischen Kleinasien. Topoi 6:509–543.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the institutional background of agriculture in Asia Minor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Walser, Andreas Victor. 2008. Bauern und Zinsnehmer: Politik, Recht und Wirtschaft im frühhellenistischen Ephesos. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thorough discussion of an important inscription that provides information on land tenure and loans in early Hellenistic Ephesos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Professional Specialists

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A high degree of professional specialization already existed in the Classical period. In the Hellenistic period, the social contexts and functions and the economic roles of three groups have been studied thoroughly because of the abundance of sources (inscriptions): artists of the theater (“Dionysiac artists”; see Aneziri 2003 and Le Guen 2001), craftsmen working in large building projects (Feyel 2006), and physicians (Massar 2005).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aneziri, Sophia. 2003. Die Vereine der dionysischen Techniten im Kontext der hellenistischen Gesellschaft. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Systematic study of the social and political role of professional associations of theater artists (cf. Le Guen 2001).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Feyel, Christophe. 2006. Les artisans dans les sanctuaires grecs aux époques classique et hellénistique à travers la documentation financière en Grèce. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Excellent study of the organization of large building projects and of the socioeconomic position of craftsmen (late 5th–2nd centuries BCE); for the Hellenistic period Feyel exploits the accounts from Delos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Le Guen, Brigitte, ed. and trans. 2001. Les associations de technites dionysiaques à l'époque hellénistique. Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection and translation of the sources concerning professional associations of theater artists; for a more detailed study of this material see Aneziri 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Massar, Natacha. 2005. Soigner et servir: Histoire sociale et culturelle de la médecine grecque à l'époque hellénistique Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the social and public role of physicians in the Hellenistic cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Monetary Transactions (Banks and Loans)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Because of the existence of large economic networks, the intensification of trade, the large circulation of money, and the financial needs of both individuals and communities, the operation of banks (Bogaert 1998-1999; Bogaert 1994) and the problem of loans (Migeotte 1984) are important subjects of Hellenistic economic history. Coins are one of the most important sources for relevant studies, provided that they are found in context; Bresson 1993 and Marcellesi 2000 exemplify studies of the circulation of coins based on substantial material (see also Coins).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bogaert, Raymond. 1994. Trapezitica aegyptiaca: Recueil de recherches sur la banque en Égypte gréco- romaine. Florence: Gonelli, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collection of essays by the leading scholar in the study of banks in Hellenistic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bogaert, Raymond. 1998–1999. Les opérations des banques de l'Égypte ptolémaïque. Ancient Society 29:49–145.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2143/AS.29.0.630054E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Excellent overview of banking activities in Hellenistic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bresson, Alain. 1993. La circulation des monnaies rhodiennes jusqu'en 166. Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne 19:119–169.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3406/dha.1993.2078E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An instructive case study of the circulation of coins as an indicator of economic activities (the case of Hellenistic Rhodes).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marcellesi, Marie-Christine. 2000. Commerce, monnaies locales et monnaies communes dans les états hellénistiques. Revue des Études Grecques 113:326–358.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Useful overview of the circulation of coins of different origins in the Hellenistic cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Migeotte, Léopold. 1984. L'emprunt public dans les cités grecques: Recueil des documents et analyse critique. Québec: Sphinx.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough study of public loans in the Hellenistic cities, with a collection of the relevant sources (mostly inscriptions). See also Walser 2008 (cited under Pastoral Economy, for Ephesos).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • von Reden, Sitta. 2007. Money in Ptolemaic Egypt from the Macedonian conquest to the end of the third century BC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the impact of the gradual introduction of coined money on the economy of Ptolemaic Egypt and the monetization in the 3rd century BCE (wages, rents, credit, banking, taxes); based on papyrological and numismatic evidence; an innovative study, but some views concerning the degree of monetization are controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trade

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hellenistic trade was not only an economic phenomenon, but also an important factor in interstate relations, especially during the period of Roman expansion and the establishment of Italian traders (Hatzfeld 1919, Müller and Hasenohr 2002). Much emphasis has been placed on the connection between trade and the political relations between states (Marasco 1988; Hellenistic piracy and the slave trade are important aspects of this theme (Gabrielsen 2001). Hellenistic Rhodes is one of the best examples of Hellenistic trade, and the source material is instructive for the social and political context of trade (see Rhodes). By contrast, quantitative assessments of trade activity are still not possible, because important sources, such as inscriptions, coins, and amphora stamps, have barely been the object of systematic study; the collective volumes edited by Archibald, Davies, and Gabrielsen 2005, Bresson 2006, and Gabrielsen and Lund 2007 provide bibliography on these subjects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Archibald, Zofia H., John Davies, and Vincent Gabrielsen, eds. 2005. Making, moving, and managing: The new world of ancient economies, 323–31 BC. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of essays dedicated especially to trade and manufacture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bresson, Alain, ed. 2006. Approches de l'écomonie hellénistique. Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges: Musée Archéologique 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Collection of essays reflecting current trends in the study of Hellenistic economy; useful bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gabrielsen, Vincent. 2001. Economic activity, maritime trade, and piracy in the Hellenistic Aegean. Revue des Études Anciennes 103:219–240.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Excellent study of the interdependence of trade and piracy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gabrielsen, Vincent, and John Lund, eds. 2007. The Black Sea in Antiquity: Regional and interregional economic exchanges. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Collection of studies of the economic relationship between the Black Sea area and the Mediterranean (trade in wines, slaves, and timber); it reflects current trends in the study of ancient economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hatzfeld, Jean. 1919. Les trafiquants italiens dans l'Orient hellénique. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Groundbreaking study of trade activities of Italian merchants in Hellenistic Greece; see also Müller and Hasenohr 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marasco, Gabriele. 1988. Economia, commerci e politica nel Mediterraneo fra il III e il II secolo a.C. Florence: Università di Firenze.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Throrough study of the political context of trade in the early phases of the Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Müller, Christel, and Claire Hasenohr, eds. 2002. Les Italiens dans le monde grec: IIe siècle av. J.-C.-Ier siècle ap. J.-C. Circulation, activités, integration. Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Collection of essays covering many aspects of the economic activities of Italian merchants in the late Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rauh, Nicholas K. 1993. The sacred bonds of commerce: Religion, economy, and trade society at Hellenistic Roman Delos. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An attempt to exploit the inscriptions of Delos for the study of trade (especially slave trade) and the presence of foreign (Italian) traders in the Hellenistic period; the interpretation of the archaeological evidence is controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Reger, Gary. 2003. Aspects of the role of merchants in the political life of the Hellenistic world. In Mercanti e politica nel mondo antico. Edited by Carlo Zaccagnini, 165–197. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Useful overview of the sociopolitical position of merchants, especially in Hellenistic cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ptolemaic Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Various aspects of economy in Ptolemaic Egypt can be studied thanks to the information contained in the papyri; however, the situation in Egypt was very different from that of the other areas of the Hellenistic world owing to the peculiar geographical conditions, notably the inundation of the land by the Nile. The best study is still that of Préaux 1939; Bonneau 1993 studies water management, of crucial importance for understanding Egyptian agriculture. For a short general overview see Manning 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bonneau, Danielle. 1993. Le régime administratif de l'eau du Nil dans l'Égypte grecque, romaine et byzantine. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thorough study of the administrative mesures for water management in Ptolemaic and later Egypt; very important for the study of agriculture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Manning, Joseph G. 2003. Land and power in Ptolemaic Egypt. The structure of land tenure. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The best study of the measures of the Ptolemaic administration concerning land tenure (land given to military settlers, sacred land).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Manning, Joseph G. 2007. Hellenistic Egypt. In The Cambridge economic history of the Greco-Roman world. Edited by Walter Scheidel, Ian Morris, and Richard P. Saller, 434–459. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521780537E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Extremely useful, short general introduction to Ptolemaic economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Préaux, Claire. 1939. L'économie royale des Lagides. Brussels: Fondation Égytologique Reine Élisabeth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reprinted, New York: Arno, 1979. Masterful study of all the aspects of the Ptolemaic economy; still unsurpassed, athough some details have been modified by more recent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sandy, D. Brent. 1989. The production and use of vegetable oils in Ptolemaic Egypt. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A very good demonstration of how the documentary papyri allow the study of an important sector of agricultural production and of the interventions of the central administration.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Seleucid Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The economy of the second major Hellenistic kingdom is less known than that of the Ptolemaic kingdom, because of the lack of sources. Aperghis 2004 is a bold attempt to interpret the information provided primarily by coinage. Chankowski and Duyrat 2005 collects case studies from different areas of the kingdom, providing insights into the different conditions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aperghis, Gerassimos G. 2004. The Seleukid royal economy: The finances and financial administration of the Seleukid empire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The first attempt to offer a comprehensive interpretation of the measures taken by the Seleucid authorities for the control of economic activities; the results are controversial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Chankowski, Véronique, and Frédérique Duyrat, eds. 2005. Le roi et l'économie: Autonomies locales et structures royales dans l'économie de l'empire séleucide. Actes des rencontres de Lille, 23 juin 2003, et d'Orléans, 29–30 janvier 2004. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient Méditerranéen.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Collection of articles that study the interaction between the central royal administration and the local economic centers; instructive case studies show the heterogeneity of the Seleucid empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Military Organization and Warfare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In every historical period, military organization is a reflection of social organization and closely connected with sociopolitical conditions. Chaniotis 2005 treats the social aspects of Hellenistic warfare (see also Ma 2000), and Couvenhes and Fernoux 2004 collects studies on the impact of war in Asia Minor. Ducrey 1999 studies an important social and cultural aspect of warfare: the treatment of prisoners.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic world (political institutions, society, economy, religion, art, literature).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Couvenhes, Jean-Christophe, and Henri-Louis Fernoux, eds. 2004. Les cités grecques et la guerre en Asie Mineure à l'époque hellénistique. Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The seven articles of this volume discuss how warfare affected various aspects of life in the Hellenistic cities of Asia Minor, offering insights into civic life and mentality (military training of ephebes, mercenaries, defense measures).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ducrey, Pierre. 1999. Le traitement des prisonniers de guerre dans la Grèce antique des origines à la conquête romaine. 2d ed. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The best overview of the treatment of war prisoners, which also covers the Hellenistic period; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ma, John. 2000. Fighting poleis of the Hellenistic world. In War and violence in ancient Greece. Edited by Hans van Wees, 337–376. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than just a study of the poleis' responses to war, this article discusses the basic values of Hellenistic poleis (autonomy, independence, civic identity).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Armies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Launey 1987 still is the best introduction to Hellenistic armies. Bar-Kochva 1976 presents a systematic study of one of the greatest Hellenistic armies; for the army of the Antigonids see Hatzopoulos 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1976. The Seleucid army: Organization and tactics in the great campaigns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thorough study of the sources for a reconstruction of the structure of the army of the Seleucids in the 3rd and early 2nd centuries BCE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hatzopoulos, Miltiadis B. 2001. L'organisation de l'armée macédonienne sous les Antigonides. Problèmes anciens et documents nouveaux. Athens and Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The military institutions of the Antigonids studied on the basis of new epigraphic finds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Launey, Marcel. 1987. Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques. Revised ed., expanded and updated by Yvon Garlan, Philippe Gauthier, and Claude Orrieux. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The most comprehensive and systematic study of the institutional and military background of armies, both of cities and of kingdoms, with special emphasis on mercenaries and on the social aspects of military service. Originally published in 1949–1951.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Military Training

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The primarily epigraphic evidence for military training has been collected in a series of recent studies concerning the institution of the gymnasion (Gauthier and Hatzopoulos 1993, Kah and Scholz 2004). For the Athenian institution of ephebeia see Pélékidis 1962.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gauthier, Philippe, and Miltiadis B. Hatzopoulos, eds. 1993. La loi gymnasiarchique de Beroia. Athens and Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Edition of an important document that concerns the operation of the gymnasium in Beroia (Macedonia); the editor's commentary is an excellent introduction to education, athletic, and military training in the Hellenistic gymnasion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kah, Daniel, and Peter Scholz, eds. 2004. Das hellenistische Gymnasion: Wissenskultur und gesellschaftlicher Wandel. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Valuable collection of studies concerning the various roles of the Hellenistic gymnasia; it includes chapters on military training (Daniel Kah, “Militärische Ausbildung im hellenistischen Gymnasion,” pp. 47–90; Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, “La formation militaire dans les gymnases hellénistiques,” pp. 91–95; Leonhard Burckhardt, “Die attische Ephebie in hellenistischer Zeit,” pp. 193–206).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pélékidis, Chrysis. 1962. Histoire de l'éphébie attique des origines à 31 avant Jésus-Christ. Paris: Boccard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important study of the civic and military training of Athenian youth, but not up to date (see Kah and Scholz 2004).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Military Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The most important advances in military technology, the construction of city walls and the art of siege, have attracted much attention. Garlan 1974 presents a masterful analysis of one of the most important sources for the art of siege; Pimouguet-Pédarros 2000 studies the fortifications of Caria (Asia Minor) and provides useful bibliography. The island of Kos provides an instructive paradigm for defense measures in a Hellenistic city (Baker 1991). Marsden 1969 and Marsden 1971 are indispensable for the study of artillery devices.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Baker, Patrick. 1991. Cos et Calymna 205–200a.C.: Esprit civique et défence nationale. Québec: Éditions du Sphinx.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Unusually rich source material is the basis of this discussion of the defense measures in Kos during a critical period of wars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Garlan, Yvon. 1974. Recherches de poliorcétique grecque. Paris: École Française d'Athenes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Edition and profound analysis of a military treatise (Mechanics) of Philon of Byzantion; a fundamental work for the study of the art of siege.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marsden, Eric William. 1969. Greek and Roman artillery: Historical development. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reprinted, 1999. A classic work of reference for military technology, especially from the early 4th century BCE on.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marsden, Eric William, ed. and trans. 1971. Greek and Roman artillery: Technical treatises. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of sources (with translation, comments, and diagrams) concerning Hellenistic and Roman artillery.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pimouguet-Pédarros, Isabelle. 2000. Archéologie de la défense: Histoire des fortifications antiques de Carie. Époques classique et hellénistique. Besançon: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough study of fortifications in Caria (Asia Minor); an up-to-date study of Hellenistic military technology with good bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Piracy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Piracy was a specific form of warfare, with significant impact on economy, society, and politics; various aspects of piracy are studied by Bielman 1994 (liberation of prisoners), Brulé 1978 (Cretan pirates), Pohl 1993 (Roman wars against pirates), and Wiemer 2002 (Rhodian wars against pirates).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bielman, Anne. 1994. Retour à la liberté: Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Collection of inscriptions, almost exclusively from the Hellenistic period, which concern the liberation of war prisoners and captives of pirates; very useful for the study of piracy and international law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brulé, Pierre. 1978. La piraterie crétoise hellénistique. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Systematic study of the activities of Cretan pirates in the Hellenistic period; important for the study of the social context of piracy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • De Souza, Philip. 1999. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Good overview of ancient piracy, with extensive treatment of Hellenistic piracy; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pohl, Hartel. 1993. Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeer vom 3. Jahrhundert bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of Rome's wars against piracy in the context of Roman expansion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich. 2002. Krieg, Handel und Piraterie: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des hellenistischen Rhodos. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than just a history of Rhodes's wars against pirates, this study offers insights into political, economic, and social history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Education

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Unlike the preceding periods of Greek history, in which education can be studied only in Athens and to some extent in Sparta and Crete, the Hellenistic period provides abundant material from the entire Hellenistic world; the best example is the law concerning the function of the gymnasium in Beroia (Macedonia), edited with commentary by Gauthier and Hatzopoulos 1993; Pélékidis 1962 still is the most comprehensive study of the civic and military training of young men in Athens. An excellent overview of the epigraphic and archaeological evidence is given by Kah and Scholz 2004. The education and organization of young men in Ptolemaic Egypt, on the basis of papyri, has been reconstructed by Legras 1999. Cribiore 2001 and Morgan 1998 are excellent overviews of ancient education, also suitable for students.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cribiore, Raffaella. 2001. Gymnastics of the mind: Greek education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Superb reconstruction of education in Ptolemaic Egypt, based primarily on the evidence of the papyri.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gauthier, Philippe, and Miltiadis B. Hatzopoulos, eds. 1993. La loi gymnasiarchique de Beroia. Athens and Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Edition of an important document that concerns the operation of the gymnasium in Beroia (Macedonia); the editor's commentary is an excellent introduction to education, athletic, and military training in the Hellenistic gymnasion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kah, Daniel, and Peter Scholz, eds. 2004. Das hellenistische Gymnasion: Wissenskultur und gesellschaftlicher Wandel. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Valuable collection of studies concerning the social, political, military, and cultural role of the Hellenistic gymnasia; extremely useful as a work of reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Legras, Bernard. 1999. Néotês: Recherches sur les jeunes grecs dans l'Égypte ptolémaique et romaine. Geneva: Droz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Education and social organization of young men in Ptolemaic Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Morgan, Teresa. 1998. Literate education in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent overview of the fundaments of education in the Hellenistic period; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pélékidis, Chrysis. 1962. Histoire de l'éphébie attique des origines à 31 avant Jésus-Christ. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important study of the civic and military training of the Athenian youth, but not up to date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Religion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hellenistic religion saw several innovations, such as the introduction of new cults (especially Egyptian and Oriental cults), the merging of different religious traditions (syncretism), the prominent part played by private foundations and private cult associations, a vivid interest in magic, and the advance of the idea of a superior god. A comprehensive history of Hellenistic religion still remains to be written. Nilsson 1961, still the broadest introduction, does not reflect more recent trends, especially as regards the sociocultural context of religion; Chaniotis 2007 and Potter 2003 are suitable as short general overviews. Chaniotis 2005 studies how wars changed Hellenistic religion. Mikalson 1998 is closer to the current trends of research and suitable for students, but studies only Athens (see Bruneau under Delos). Parker 2005 is a very good, more general introduction to Greek religion, but, again, it covers only Athens. Versnel 1990 is the best example of studying Hellenistic religion as religious mentality.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bruneau, Philippe. 1970. Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l'époque hellénistique et romaine. Paris: Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thanks to the abundant source material from Delos, this book gives an excellent picture of the complex nature of Hellenistic religious activities (public and private cults, administration of sanctuaries, cult associations, foundations, cults of immigrants, festivals, magic).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A survey of how wars shaped Hellenistic religion (pp. 143–165): dedicatory practices, cult transfer, miracles and other supernatural phenomena, violence against sanctuaries, ritual dynamics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2007. Religion und Mythos in der hellenistischen Welt. In Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus. Edited by Gregor Weber, 139–157. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Main trends of the period are sketched through the study of a small selection of contemporary texts (religion as personal experience, abstract ideas, emotionality, competition among cult places) and placed in the social context of the Hellenistic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mikalson, Jon D. 1998. Religion in Hellenistic Athens. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Excellent overview of all aspects of religion in Hellenistic Athens; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nilsson, Martin P. 1961. Geschichte der griechischen Religion II: Die hellenistische und römische Zeit. 2d ed. Munich: Beck.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reprinted, 1988. Still the most comprehensive introduction the Hellenistic religion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Parker, Robert. 2005. Polytheism and society at Athens. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Excellent survey of all aspects of religion in Athens (not exclusively in Hellenistic times), at the same time a very good introduction to Greek religion; suitable for students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Potter, David. 2003. Hellenistic religion. In A companion to the Hellenistic world. Edited by Andew Erskine, 407–430. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Short, readable survey of Hellenistic religion; suitable as a first introduction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An excellent introduction to the Hellenistic world; chapter 5 (“Religion and philosophy,” pp. 153–191) is a good general overview.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Versnel, Hendrick S. 1990. Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman religion, 1: Ter unus— Isis, Dionysos, Hermes, three studies in henotheism. Leiden: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Groundbreaking study of a major trend of Hellenistic religious mentality: the worship of a superior god. See also Religious Mentality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Collections of Sources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Austin 2006 has a large number of literary texts and inscriptions, and also a few papyri, that give a vivid picture of Hellenistic religious trends. Le Guen-Pollet 1991 covers part of the Hellenistic period. The most important sources for the new trends in the Hellenistic period are the numerous cult regulations. They have been collected by Sokolowski 1955, 1962, and 1969 and Lupu 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Austin, Michel M., ed. and trans. 2006. The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: A selection of ancient sources in translation. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The most comprehensive selection of sources in reliable translations (with brief introductory notes), including a representative number of inscriptions and papyri. Indispensable for the teaching of Hellenistic history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Le Guen-Pollet, Brigitte, ed. and trans. 1991. La vie religieuse dans le monde grec du Ve au IIIe siècle avant notre ère: Choix de documents épigraphiques traduits et commentés. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Useful selection of inscriptions in French translation.

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