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In This Article Greek History: Hellenistic

Classics Greek History: Hellenistic
by
Angelos Chaniotis

Introduction

The Hellenistic period, from the conquests of Alexander the Great (334 BCE) to the conquest of the Ptolemaic kingdom by Rome (30 BCE), marks the greatest expansion of Greek culture but also the beginning of a transformation of Greek political institutions, society, religion, and culture. Politically, this period saw the creation, conflicts, and decline of new kingdoms (Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Attalid, minor kingdoms in Asia Minor and the East), the domination of mainland Greece and the Aegean by the Antigonids of Macedonia and the federal states of the Aetolians and the Achaeans, and the expansion of Rome. Although the role of the poleis (Greek plural of “polis”) in “international” politics declined, the polis remained the predominant form of political organization, and many new poleis were founded. Major phenomena in social history are the preponderance of elites and benefactors, a stronger presence of women in public life, increased social complexity, and mobility. The incorporation of Egypt and of large areas in the East (up to the western border of India) into a political, economic, and social network resulted in an intensive exchange of ideas and mutual influence between the Greek and non-Greek cultures and in the development of new centers of culture. Because of the continual discovery of new texts (inscriptions and papyri), our understanding of this period changes faster and more substantially than that of earlier periods. For this reason, this bibliography lays emphasis on recent studies, in which one can find further bibliography and references to new source materials. English is not the lingua franca and not even the most important language for the study of Hellenistic history, and no profound study of the Hellenistic world should be attempted without reading knowledge of French, German, and Italian.

General Overviews

Because of the wide geographical range and complexity of Hellenistic history, no general overview covers all its aspects. Green 1990, Gehrke 2008, and Walbank 1993 include chapters on culture, and Shipley 2000 considers Hellenistic mentality. Gehrke 2008 is very useful for his critical overview of recent research. Green 1990 and Walbank 1993 are very good general introductions, suitable for undergraduate students; Préaux 1978 emphasizes the kingdoms (especially the Ptolemaic kingdom). Schneider 1967–1969 is a useful overview of cultural developments. Chaniotis 2005, although focusing on war, sketches the major developments in all aspects of the Hellenistic world. Droysen 1877–1878, with an emphasis on political history, has historical value.

  • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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    A survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic world (political institutions, society, economy, religion, art, literature).

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  • Droysen, Johann Gustav. 1877–1878. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 3 vols. 2d ed. Gotha: Perthes.

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    Reprinted with CD-ROM, Berlin: Directmedia, 2007. Droysen's work (1st edition, 1833–1843) marks the beginning of the study of Hellenistic history. Droysen coined the term “Hellenistic” to refer to the merging of Greek and Oriental cultures as a result of Alexander's conquest and, according to Droysen, of Alexander's intentions. Out of date in details, Droysen's work is still a classic.

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  • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 2008. Geschichte des Hellenismus. 4th edition. Munich: Oldenburg.

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    In addition to a narrative section, the author offers a critical discussion of research on the Hellenistic world and excellent bibliography.

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  • Green, Peter. 1990. Alexander to Actium: The historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Well-written general account of the period, not always up to date as regards recent research.

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  • Préaux, Claire. 1978. Le monde hellenistique: La Grèce et l'Orient de la mort d'Alexandre à la conquête romaine de la Grèce (323–146 av. J.-C.). 2 vols. Paris: Presses Univ. de France.

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    Excellent overview of the major developments by an expert on Ptolemaic Egypt, monarchy, and Hellenistic economy.

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  • Prost, Francis, ed. 2003. L'Orient méditerranéen de la mort d'Alexandre aux campagnes de Pompée. Pallas 62. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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    Seventeen essays by leading scholars who treat aspects of monarchy, economy, war, and culture (with emphasis on the Seleucids and the Attalids).

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  • Schneider, Carl. 1967–1969. Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus. 2 vols. Munich: Beck.

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    General survey of Hellenistic literature, science, and culture; although antiquated, it has not yet been replaced.

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  • Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge.

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    It combines an up-to-date political history with a study of the major aspects of the Hellenistic world (political institutions, organization of kingdoms, society, economy, religion) and a particular emphasis on the history of ideas and Hellenistic mentality (e.g., negotiation of power, social identity).

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  • Walbank, Frank W. 1993. The Hellenistic world. Revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    A concise and authoritative account that outlines the political history and gives introductions to the basic aspects of the period; very useful as a first short introduction.

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Reference Works

Hellenistic history is covered by four volumes of the Cambridge ancient history and three useful companions, suitable for undergraduates (Bugh 2006, Erskine 2003, and Weber 2007). Schmitt and Vogt 2006 is a very useful small Hellenistic encyclopedia.

  • Bugh, Glenn. R., ed. 2006. The Cambridge companion to the Hellenistic world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    Fifteen essays covering important aspects of the period: political organization (kingdoms, federal states, cities), military organization, economy, family, literature, art, religion, philosophy, science, and technology.

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  • Crook, J. A., Andrew Lintott, and Elizabeth Rawson, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume IX, part 1: The last age of the Roman Republic, 146–43 BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    Although primarily treating Roman political history, useful for the study of the later Roman expansion.

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  • Erskine, Andrew, ed. 2003. A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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    This comprehensive companion offers an outline of the political history, reliable overviews of important aspects (kingdoms, poleis, federal states, warfare, native populations, family, society, religion, philosophy, art, literature), insights into the periphery of the Hellenistic world, and essays on selected aspects (e.g. myth, piracy, landscape, medicine).

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  • Lewis, David M., John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and Martin Ostwald, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume VI: The fourth century BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This volume illuminates the historical background of the Hellenistic world (the conquests and reign of Alexander, the periphery of the Greek world).

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  • Schmitt, Hatto, and Ernst Vogt, eds. 2006. Lexikon des Hellenismus. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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    Extremely useful for quick reference on all aspects of the Hellenistic world, with good bibliography.

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  • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1989. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VIII: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    An up-to-date account of the early phases of the Roman expansion.

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  • Walbank, Frank W., Alan E. Astin, Martin W. Frederiksen, and Robert M. Ogilvie, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history, volume VII, part 1: The Hellenistic world. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    A detailed and reliable account of political history.

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  • Weber, Gregor, ed. 2007. Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus von Alexander bis Kleopatra. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

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    Collection of essays that cover the main aspects of Hellenistic society, religion, and political institutions.

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Series

Hellenistic Culture and Society 1990–, Studi ellenistici 1984–, Studia Hellenistica 1942–, and Studies in Hellenistic Civilization 1990– all exclusively or primarily treat aspects of the Hellenistic world, and should be regularly consulted for new sources and bibliography.

  • Hellenistic Culture and Society. 1990–. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    It features fifty titles (to 2009) covering most aspects of the Hellenistic world; the most important series for Hellenistic studies. Available online.

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    • Studia Hellenistica. 1942–. Leuven: Peeters, et al.

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      This series has produced more than forty volumes covering many aspects of the Hellenistic world, with emphasis on the Ptolemies and documentary papyri.

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      • Studi ellenistici. 1984–. Pisa: Giardini.

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        Founded by Biagio Virgilio, this series primarily consists of collective volumes without a focus on a specific subject. It occasionally publishes studies devoted to individual aspects of the Hellenistic world.

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        • Studies in Hellenistic Civilization. 1990–. Aarhus, Denmark, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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          This series has published (by 2009) nine volumes that treat kingship and palaces (5, 7), center and periphery (4), ethnicity in Ptolemaic Egypt (3), religion in the Seleucid kingdom (1), the history of Rhodes (6 and 9), values (8), and philosophy (2).

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          Sources

          The study of Hellenistic history is based on a large variety of contemporary and later literary sources (histories, comedies, novels, mimes, philosophical treatises), the continually increasing number of inscriptions, papyri (only from Egypt), cuneiform texts (only from Babylonia), coins, and archaeological material.

          Literary sources

          Of the works of contemporary historians, only extensive parts of Polybius survive, to be used with Walbank's commentary (Walbank 1957–1979) and supplemented by information in Livy. Diodorus offers summaries of earlier, no longer surviving sources, especially in books 17–20, which deal with the early Hellenistic period. Appian is important for the Roman expansion, Arrian for the conquests of Alexander. Plutarch's lives of Hellenistic statesmen and Roman generals (Demosthenes, Aleaxander, Phokion, Eumenes, Demetrios, Pyrrhos, Aratos, Agis and Kleomenes, Philipoimen, Flamininus, Aemilius Paulus, Marc Antony) derive from earlier sources. Pausanias also has many references to Hellenistic history (Bearzot 1992). English translations with the original texts of all major sources are available in the Loeb Classical Library from Harvard Univ. Press. The collection of the fragments of Hellenistic historians by Jacoby (Jacoby 1923–1958) is indispensable for this period, but not easily accessible to students with no knowledge of Greek. For two important historians of the period of the Successors, see Hornblower 1981 and Kebric 1977; for Diodorus's historical interests, see Sacks 1990.

          • Bearzot, Cinzia. 1992. Storia e storiografia ellenistica in Pausania il Periegeta. Venice: Il Cardo.

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            Collection and analysis of the information provided by the 2nd-century traveler Pausanias on Hellenistic local history.

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          • Hornblower, Jane. 1981. Hieronymus of Cardia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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            Study of the evidence about the life and work of the major lost historian of the period of the Successors (and main source of Diodorus).

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          • I frammenti degli storici greci. 2002–. Tivoli: Edizioni Tored.

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            This series, founded in 2002, aims at presenting the fragments of Greek historians, with testimonia concerning their work and comments. Relevant for the Hellenistic history are the second volume (2002), in which Donnatella Erdas treats the fragments of Krateros, and the third volume (2007), in which Virgilio Costa discusses the fragments of the local historian of Athens Phylochoros.

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            • Jacoby, Felix, ed. 1923–1958. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Berlin: Weideman; Leiden: Brill.

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              Almost all historians who wrote about Alexander and the Hellenistic period survive only in fragments, collected and exhaustively commented by Jacoby; supplementary volumes and indices were published in 1994–1999; there is an updated version online, available only to subscribers.

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            • Kebric, Robert B. 1977. In the shadow of Macedon: Duris of Samos. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

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              Comprehensive study of one of the sources of Plutarch for his lives of individuals of the early Hellenistic period.

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            • Sacks, Kenneth. 1990. Diodorus Siculus and the first century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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              This study places Diodorus (a major source for Hellenistic history), his historical interests, and his methods in the context of the late Republic.

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            • Walbank, Frank W. 1957–1979. A historical commentary on Polybius. Volume I: Commentary on Books I–VI. Volume II: Commentary on Books VII–XVIII. Volume III: Commentary on Books XIX–XL. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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              Polybius is one of the main sources for political history and especially for Roman expansion in the East. This authoritative and exhaustive commentary treats the historical and methodological questions connected with Polybius's histories and is indispensable reading.

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            Inscriptions

            Our knowledge of the Hellenistic period continually changes thanks to new epigraphic finds, for which one should consult the annual surveys in Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and Bulletin épigraphique and the new corpora, which appear mainly in the series Inscriptiones Graecae and Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien. McLean 2002 is a useful introduction to the epigraphy of this period. Bérard, et al. 2000 is an indispensable bibliographical guide. Collections of inscriptions dedicated to specific subjects are presented in the respective sections of this bibliography. The collected works of Holleaux 1938–1968, Robert 1969–1990, and Wilhelm 1974–1984 are models for the way inscriptions contribute to the study of Hellenistic history. See also Collections of Sources.

            • Bérard, François, et al. 2000. Guide de l'épigraphiste: Bibliographie choisie des épigraphies antiques et médievales. 3d ed. Paris: Rue d'Ulm.

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              Useful bibliography of epigraphic studies. Supplements appear on a regular basis online.

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            • Bulletin épigraphique. In Revue des études grecques 1 (1888–).

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              Annual critical review of epigraphic publications. Indispensable for historical studies of the Hellenistic period. Available online.

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            • Holleaux, Maurice. 1938–1968. Études d'épigraphie et d'histoire grecques. Edited by Louis Robert. 6 vols. Paris: Boccard.

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              The studies of a great specialist of Hellenistic epigraphy are very instructive for the way inscriptions help us reconstruct Hellenistic history.

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            • Inschriften der griechischen Städte aus Kleinasien. 1972–. Bonn: Habelt

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              Continually growing series of local corpora of inscriptions, indispensable for the study of Hellenistic Asia Minor; the volumes are in German, English, and French; most of them include translations of the texts. For the inscriptions from many important cities that are not part of this series (e.g., Aphrodisias, Miletos, Pergamon, Sardeis) one should consult Bérard, et al. 2000.

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              • Inscriptiones graecae. 1873–. Berlin: de Gruyter, et al.

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                Monumental but incomplete series presenting a collection of the inscriptions of Greece and the Aegean islands; the commentaries are in Latin; the texts are not translated. For local collections of inscriptions, which close some of the gaps, one should consult Bérard, et al. 2000.

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                • McLean, Bradley H. 2002. An introduction to Greek epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman periods from Alexander the Great down to the reign of Constantine (323 B.C.–A.D. 337). Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                  A practical handbook for students with no previous experience in epigraphy.

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                • Robert, Louis. 1969–1990. Opera minora selecta. 7 vols. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                  Collection of epigraphic studies by the greatest epigrapher of the 20th century; many of them cover subjects of Hellenistic political, social, and cultural history.

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                • Supplementum epigraphicum graecum. 1923–. Leiden, et al.: Brill, et al.

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                  Annual survey of new epigraphic publications, with emphasis on the presentation of new editions of inscriptions; the section “Varia” is a useful bibliographical guide.

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                  • Wilhelm, Adolf. 1974–1984. Kleine Schriften. 10 vols. Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der DDR; Vienna: Verlag der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                    Collection of essays by a leading authority in Greek epigraphy and institutions; the reading of Wilhelm's works is perhaps the best (though not the easiest) introduction to the use of inscriptions for institutional history. Not for beginners.

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                  Papyri

                  Although papyri primarily concern the conditions in Ptolemaic Egypt, they are a valuable source for many aspects of Hellenistic society, economy, law, and culture. Bagnall 1995 is a useful introduction for historians, Pestman 1990 an introduction to documentary papyrology. The significance of papyri for historical studies is demonstrated by numerous works that exploit papyri for particular subjects, such as demography, administration, law, and social history. Such studies are mentioned in the respective sections of this bibliography (especially Egypt, Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, and Hellenistic Monarchy). Clarysse and Thompson 2006, Lenger 1980–1990, and Scholl 1990 are good examples of collections and of papyri for the treatment of historical subjects. The use of papyri is facilitated through the existence of electronic resources, notably APIS. Many papyri are written in the Egyptian language (“Demotic texts”); an introduction to Demotic studies is given by Depauw 1997.

                  Cuneiform Texts

                  Because of the contradictory information provided by the literary sources concerning the chronology of the Hellenistic period, the evidence given by texts from Babylonia is very important, especially notes and chronicles concerning contemporary events, which give a non-Greek perspective on contemporary history (Grayson 1975, Sachs and Hunger 1988–2006, Glassner 2006). These texts are significant also because they give insights into society, economy, and culture of the indigenous population (Funck 1984, Oelsner 1986).

                  • Del Monte, Giuseppe F. 1997. Testi dalla Babilonia ellenistica, volume I: Testi cronografici. Studi Ellenistici 9. Pisa and Rome: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.

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                    Edition of annalistic sources, which occasionally refer to important events in the Seleucid kingdom. One of the backbones of Hellenistic chronology.

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                  • Funck, Bernd. 1984. Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit: Eine Untersuchung zu den spätbabylonischen Pfründentexten als Quelle für die Erforschung der sozialökonomischen Entwicklung der hellenistischen Stadt. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    Study of cuneiform documents concerning financial transactions of the temples, as a source of information for economy (especially agriculture) and society in Uruk.

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                  • Glassner, Jean-Jacques. 2006. Mesopotamian chronicles. Edited by Benjamin R. Foster. Leiden: Brill.

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                    Collection of chronicles (Akkadian and Sumerian texts with English translations and comments); very good introduction to the value of these chronicles as historical sources; numbers 29–36 concern Alexander's reign, the Successors, and the Seleucid kings (some of them also published in Grayson 1975). Translation of Chroniques mésopotamiennes (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1993).

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                  • Grayson, A. K. 1975. Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin.

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                    Collection of so-called late Babylonian chronicles (introduction, transcriptions, with English translations and comments); numbers 10–13a concern the Successors and the Seleucid kings; now superseded by Glassner 2006.

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                  • Oelsner, Joachim. 1986. Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit. Budapest: Eötvös Univ.

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                    Useful collection of sources (cuneiform texts) concerning society and culture in Hellenistic Babylonia.

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                  • Sachs, Abraham J., and Hermann Hunger. 1988–2006. Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylonia. 3 vols. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                    Edition with English translations of Babylonian cuneiform tablets that contain astronomical obdservations, but often also short notes on historical events of the Hellenistic period.

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                  Coins

                  Among the archaeological sources, coins are of cardinal importance for studies of economy, administration, and (through the study of royal portraits, other images and legends) of ideology. Unfortunately, all major numismatic publications are extremely technical and not easily accessible to students. Howgego 1995 is the most accessible introduction. Collections of coins, especially of the kingdoms (e.g. Houghton, et al. 2002; Houghton, et al. 2008; Le Rider 2000; MacDonald 2005), but also of cities and federal states (e.g. Benner 2008) are important resources (Callataÿ 1997a). For good examples of how coins contribute to the study of history, see de Callataÿ 1997b on the Mithridatic wars.

                  Collections of Sources

                  Modern selections of sources in translation are useful for a first orientation both in the history of the period and in specific subjects. Austin 2006 is the most comprehensive; Bagnall and Derow 2004 emphasize papyri. Selections of inscriptions (Moretti 1967), sometimes dedicated to specific subjects (Sherk 1969; Welles 1934), are useful resources for political and social history.

                  • Austin, Michel M., ed. and trans. 2006. The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: A selection of ancient sources in translation. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    The most comprehensive selection of sources in reliable translations (with brief introductory notes), including a representative number of inscriptions and papyri. Indispensable for the teaching of Hellenistic history.

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                  • Bagnall, Roger, and Peter Derow, eds. and trans. 2004. Historical sources in translation: The Hellenistic period. 2d ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

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                    Representative selection of translations of inscriptions and papyri primarily concerning political and social history.

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                  • Moretti, Luigi, ed. 1967–1976. Iscrizioni storiche ellenistiche, 1: Attica, Peloponneso, Beozia. Grecia centrale e settentrionale. 2 vols. Florence: La Nuova Italia.

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                    Selection of Hellenistic inscriptions, useful for political evehnts, institutions and social history.

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                  • Sherk, Robert K., ed. 1969. Roman documents from the Greek East: Senatus consulta and epistulae to the age of Augustus. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                    Very important for the history of Roman expansion, the relations between Rome and the Hellenistic states, and the early history of Roman provincial administration.

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                  • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                    Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of the relations between kings and cities. More material has come to light since 1934.

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                  Political History

                  The countless players in the political history of this period (kings, cities, federations, non-Greek states), the complex and continually changing alliances, the endemic wars, and the fragmentary nature of the sources make reconstruction of the political history very difficult. Until around 1980, The second volume considers bibliography until 1980, the first obviously not; perhaps “until the late 70s” Will 2003 (originally published 1979–1982) was the best survey; Errington 2008 is more current; Green 1990 is more detailed and readable, but not up to date. The Cambridge ancient history, volumes VII–VIII are indispensable works of reference. A good part of Hellenistic history is also the history of Roman expansion, for which Gruen 1984 and Harris 1979 offer different theoretical approaches (see also The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion for the latest phase). Eddy 1961 considers Hellenistic history from the perspective of the native populations. Good bibliography is provided by Gehrke 2008.

                  Alexander the Great

                  The fascination exercised by Alexander's personality and achievements has produced a vast bibliography. The following is not representative of the history of studies on Alexander and all its trends; it primarily includes a selection of recent books, in which further bibliography can be found. Lewis et al. 1994 is a good place to start.

                  • Lewis, David M., John Boardman, Simon Hornblower, and Martin Ostwald, eds. 1994. The Cambridge ancient history. volume VI: The fourth century BC. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    This volume includes a detailed treatment of the conquests and reign of Alexander and their historical background.

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                  Sources for Alexander the Great

                  Contemporary sources for Alexander are scarce, since the works of contemporary historians survive only in fragments and are biased, and the information provided by later sources, among which Diodorus (1st century BCE), Iustinus (1st century BCE, based on Pompeius Trogus), Arrian (2nd century CE), Curtius Rufus (1st century CE), and Plutarch (late 1st century CE) are the most important, is not always reliable. Sources should always be used together with the critical commentaries and the critical assessments of modern biographers (see Biographies). The rather limited epigraphic sources primarily concern Alexander's relations with the Greek cities.

                  Collections of Sources

                  See Heckel and Yardley 2004 for the best collection of sources.

                  • Heckel, Waldemar, and J. C. Yardley, eds. and trans. 2004. Alexander the Great: Historical sources in translation. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                    Selection of the main Greek and Latin literary sources and several inscriptions in reliable translations; very useful to undergraduate students.

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                  Literary Sources

                  Contemporary historians survive only in fragments and are biased (fundamental is Pearson 1960; see also Hammond 1983 and Hammond 1993), and the information provided by later sources—the most important being Diodorus, Iustinus, Arrian, Curtius Rufus, and Plutarch—are not always reliable. Sources should always be used together with the critical commentaries and the critical assessments of modern biographers (see Biographies).

                  • Arrian (Flavius Arrianus). 1980–1995. A historical commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander. Edited by A. B. Bosworth. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                    Commentary of the most comprehensive account of Alexander's campaigns, based primarily on the accounts of Ptolemy and Aristoboulos.

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                  • Curtius Rufus, Quintus. 1980–1994. A commentary on Q. Curtius Rufus' Historiae Alexandri Magni. Edited by J. E. Atkinson. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                    Detailed commentary of Alexander's history written in Latin by Curtius Rufus (1st century CE), who used earlier sources.

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                  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1983. Three historians of Alexander the Great: The so-called vulgate authors, Diodorus, Justin and Curtius, from Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    Analysis of the work of historians who follow the “vulgate tradition,” which is characterized by a tendency toward exaggeration.

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                  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1993. Sources for Alexander the Great: An analysis of Plutarch's ‘Life’ and Arrian's ‘Anabasis Alexandrou’. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    Critical analysis of two important narratives of Alexander's life (Plutarch) and campaign (Arrian), which were written more than four centuries after his death but used earlier, no longer extant accounts. Hammond's interpretations are controversial.

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                  • Pearson, Lionel. 1960. The lost histories of Alexander the Great. New York: American Philological Association.

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                    Reprinted, Chicago: Ares, 2004. Fundamental study of the fragmentary historians of Alexander, the content of their work, their different approaches to Alexander, and their reliability.

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                  • Pédech, Paul. 1984. Historiens compagnons d'Alexandre (Callisthène, Onésicrite, Néarque, Ptolémée, Aristobule). Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                    Attempts to reconstruct how the contemporary historians who accompanied Alexander in his campaigns represented these events, often with exaggerations (Kallisthenes, Onesikritos); based on their fragments.

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                  • Plutarch (L. Mestrius Plutarchus). 1969. Alexander: A commentary. Edited by J. R. Hamilton. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                    Useful commentary of one of the most important sources for Alexander (also for his early life and personality).

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                  Other Sources

                  The rather limited epigraphic sources primarily concern Alexander's relations with the Greek cities (Heisserer 1980). Stewart 1993 gives an excellent acount of the iconographical sources (portraits, statues, coins).

                  Bibliographies

                  The bibliography on Alexander the Great is vast. An easily accessible bibliography has been compiled by Heckel 2005.

                  Biographies

                  More than in other subjects of Hellenistic history, modern trends influence the way Alexander is viewed, and interpretations of his life oscillate between the views of the “maximalists” (e.g. Droysen 1877–1878), who attribute to Alexander great plans, and the “skeptics,” who are willing to accept only clearly documented and unequivocal evidence and focus on reconstructions of details, and between Alexander's admirers (e.g. Droysen 1877–1878, Lane Fox 1973, Hammond 1994) and those who demonize him (Bosworth 1988, Worthington 2004). Bosworth 1988, Cartledge 2004, and Wiemer 2005 are good introductions; Lane Fox 1973 is an original and well-written reconstruction, but some details need to be corrected on the basis of more recent research. One should also consult the Readers section on Alexander's life.

                  Readers

                  Because of the problems of the sources, the reconstructions of Alexander's life and the interpretations of his motivation and personality vary enormously. Several collections of essays (Badian 1976, Griffith 1966, Roisman 2004, and Worthington 2003) reflect the different trends and the problems of interpretation.

                  Reference Works

                  For the study of Alexander, information concerning contemporary persons (family, companions, opponents) is essential; see Berve 1926 and Heckel 2006. Seibert 1985 is useful for the geography of the regions conquered by Alexander. Seibert 1972 is an excellent introduction to the main events and problems and the relevant sources.

                  The Campaign

                  Although the military aspects of Alexander's campaign (weapons, tactics, organization of the army, reconstruction of battles) have been subject to very detailed discussions in books and articles, no consensus has been reached in most matters. Gehrke 2008 gives a useful bibliography. Engels 1978 treats the practical aspects of the campaign; Heckel 2008 and Lonsdale 2007 are good general introductions to the strategic and tactical aspects. The campaigns after the conquest of the Persian capitals (330–325 BCE), in the northeastern satrapies, and from there to Afghanistan and India are not only of great military interest and well documented, but also of crucial significance for understanding the king's personality and plans; Bosworth 1996, Holt 1988, and Holt 2005 are reliable reconstructions based on critical analysis of the sources.

                  Alexander's Rule

                  Alexander died shortly after the end of his eastern campaign, without having the chance to rule; everything that concerns the administrative aspects of his rule (relations with the Greek cities, integration of conquered populations, foundation of cities) and his concept of monarchy (including the thorny question of his deification) has been and continues to be subject to controversy. The books mentioned in Biographies are good starting points. For relations with the Greeks, Heisserer 1980 has collected and discussed the relevant sources. The sources concerning the foundation of cities have been scrutinized by Fraser 1996. Badian 1996 gives a useful overview of the problems concerning Alexander's deification.

                  • Badian, Ernst. 1996. Alexander the Great between two thrones and heaven: Variations on an old theme. Subject and ruler: The cult of the ruling power in Classical Antiquity. Edited by Alastair Small, 11–26. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supp. 17. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                    Critical discussion of a very significant aspect of Alexander's monarchy.

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                  • Fraser, Peter M. 1996. Cities of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                    Critical review of the ancient sources that refer to about seventy cities allegedly founded by Alexander; Fraser argues that they were far fewer (only seven); this conclusion is not accepted by all modern historians, but the book is instructive for its method.

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                  • Heisserer, A. J. 1980. Alexander the Great and the Greeks: The epigraphic evidence. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                    Collection of the most important contemporary textual sources on Alexander: inscriptions that concern his relations with Greek cities (Alexander's letters, civic decrees, etc.).

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                  • Le Rider, Georges. 2007. Alexander the Great: Coinage, finances, and policy. Translated by W. E. Higgins; preface by Glen W. Bowersock. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

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                    Masterly study of the coin issues of Alexander the Great as evidence for the financial and administartive structures of his empire. Translation of Alexandre le Grand: Monnaie, finances, politique (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2003).

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                  Reception

                  Alexander's memory lived on in the legends of the areas that he conquered. Versions of the so-called Romance of Alexander exist in many languages. The most recent treatment of this subject is by Stoneman 2008.

                  The Wars of the Successors

                  The complex political history of the forty or so years between Alexander's death and the consolidation of the main kingdoms (323–281 BCE) is dominated by the conflicts between his ambitious generals (the “Successors”). Seibert 1983 is the most detailed account of the events, but new finds and studies have modified many details and the chronology. Will 2003 and the more current Errington 2008 are good guides through this period; Bosworth 2002 discusses the institutional and ideological context, for which Anson 2004 is also important; but one should also consult treatments of the life of the main protagonists (Heckel 1992), for which see the section The Founders of the Hellenistic Kingdoms. The geographical context is studied by Orth 1993.

                  Founders of Hellenistic Kingdoms

                  From 306 BCE onward the most powerful among the Successors received the title of king. Their rule set the foundations of Hellenistic monarchies and determined the relations between cities and kings. Antigonos and his son Demetrios Poliorketes (Billows 1990, Briant 1973, Wehrli 1968) attempted the unification of Alexander's empire under their rule, but they eventually founded the dynasty that ruled Macedonia and its possessions. Ptolemy I (Ellis 1994) and Seleukos I (Grainger 1990) founded the two most important kingdoms. For all these persons see also Heckel 1992.

                  Political Relations in Greece in the 3rd Century BCE (C. 278–197 BCE)

                  The period between the consolidation of the Hellenistic kingdoms (c. 281) and the end of the Antigonid kingdom (167 BCE) was marked by an unsuccessful but devastating invasion by Gauls (279–277 BCE), the efforts of the Antigonids of Macedonia to control cities in mainland Greece and in the Aegean islands (see The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece) in competition with the Ptolemies, the rise of the federal states of the Aetolians and the Achaeans, and the efforts of Greek poleis to maintain or regain autonomy. Bibliography on regional aspects of the history of this period is given in the section Regional History.

                  The Invasion of the Gauls

                  The Galatian invasion (279–277 BCE) was the most traumatic experience of the Greeks after the Persian wars. Nachtergael 1997 analyzes how their expulsion from Greece was ideologically exploited by the Antigonids and the Aetolians.

                  • Nachtergael, Georges. 1977. Les Galates en Grèce et les Sotéria de Delphes: Recherches d'histoire et d'épigraphie hellénistique. Brussels: Palais des Académies.

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                    Excellent study of the impact of the Galation invasion of the early 3rd century BCE and its exploitation by Antigonos Gonatas and the Aitolian League, based on inscriptions.

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                  The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece

                  In the 3rd century BCE Greece was under the shadow of the Antigonids. After his victory over the Gauls in 277 BCE, Antigonos Gonatas (see Gabbert 1997) not only established a dynasty in Macedonia and Thessaly but also controlled with his garrisons a large part of Greece and the Aegean islands (Buraselis 1982). Although this hegemony was shaken during the Chremonidean war (Heinen 1972), the Antigonids retained their influence until 197 BCE, often changing their allies. See also Regional History: Macedonia.

                  The Rise of the Aetolian League

                  Because of its political influence after their victory over the Gauls, the federal state of the Aetolians is one of major players of 3rd-century political history. Scholten 2000 is the most up-to-date reconstruction of the political role of the Aetolians; Flacelière 1937 is more technical but offers a good analysis of the sources. For the institutions see Grainger 1999.

                  The Rise of the Achaean League

                  From the mid-3rd century BCE until 146 BCE, the Achaean League was the most important political power in southern Greece; its changing alliances determined political history in this period. The lives of the two leading figures, Aratos (Walbank 1933) and Philopoemen (Errington 1969), are the best introduction to the political role of the Achaean League.

                  The Ptolemies and the Hellenistic World of the 3rd Century

                  A large part of the political history of the 3rd century BCE is dominated by the conflicts of Ptolemaic Egypt with Antigonid Macedonia for influence in Greece, and with the Seleucids for the control of South Syria (Koile Syria). The essays in MacKechnie and Guillaume 2008 treat various aspects of the long reign of Ptolemy II (281–246 BCE), which is of crucial importance for the history and culture of this period.

                  The Seleucid Empire in the 3rd Century

                  In addition to the continual conflict with the Ptolemies over the control of South Syria, the Seleucid empire faced dynastic conflicts until it recovered under the rule of Antiochos III. The existence of many cities within the realm of the Seleucids (especially in Asia Minor) makes the study of the diplomatic relations between cities and kings and the various forms of subordination the most interesting topic for this period. Orth 1977 studies this issue in the early 3rd century, and Ma 2002 provides a groundbreaking study for the later period.

                  • Ma, John. 2002. Antiochos III and the cities of western Asia Minor. New edition. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                    Study of relations between king and poleis, with original observations on the ideology of monarchy and of the civic ideology of Hellenistic poleis. At the same time a solid reconstruction of political history c. 223–187 BCE.

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                  • Orth, Wolfgang. 1977. Königlicher Machtanspruch und städtische Freiheit: Untersuchungen zu den politischen Beziehungen zwischen den ersten Seleukidenherrschern (Seleukos I., Antiochos I., Antiochos II.) und den Städten des westlichen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                    Study of relations between cities and Seleucid kings in the first half of the 3rd century BCE.

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                  The Roman Expansion and the Decline of the Antigonids and the Seleucids (C. 217–133 BCE)

                  Starting as what is sometimes described as “defensive imperialism,” the Roman expansion gradually brought the south Balkan region and Asia Minor under direct Roman domination (see Political History, Eckstein 2007, and Gruen 1984). Important episodes are the Second Macedonian War (200–197), which marked a change in the expansionist policy of Rome and the beginning of the end of the Antigonids (Pfeilschifter 2005); the loss of Asia Minor by the Seleucids in 188 BCE; the expansionist policy of Antiochos IV in the East (175–164 BCE), the last effort of the Seleucid empire to regain part of its power (Mittag 2006); the end of the Antigonid kingdom (167 BCE); the conquest of Greece by the Romans (146 BCE); the War of the Maccabees (164–129 BCE), which marked the end of Seleucid rule in Judea (Bar-Kochva 1989, Ehling 2008); and the rise of independent kingdoms in Iran and Afghanistan as a result of Seleucid decline (Lerner 1999). The complex political history of the late Seleucid empire, a history of dynastic conflicts and decline, is treated by Ehling 2008.

                  The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion (133–30 BCE)

                  The establishment of Roman provincial administration in Greece (146 BCE) was followed by the abolition of the Attalid kingdom (133 BCE) and the creation of the province of Asia (129 BCE). From this period onward, Hellenistic history is closely connected with the history of the late Roman Republic. Kallet-Marx 1995 and Sherwin-White 1984 are the best general treatments of the latest phases of Roman expansion (also see Political History). An important episode of this period is the war of Aristonikos, which led to the creation of the province of Asia; numerous new epigraphic finds shed new light; the most recent treatment is in Daubner 2006). Other important developments include the Mithridatic wars (de Callataÿ 1997, McGing 1986), the Roman wars against pirates (Pohl 1993), and the rule of Cleopatra (Benne 2001).

                  Regional History

                  Because of the abundance of source material from most areas of the Hellenistic world, the study of regional history is not less important than the study of large political networks. A few examples, selected on the basis of their representative and diverse character, cover the world of the poleis, the federal states, and the major kingdoms. The selection focuses on regions that were important for political history (Athens, Sparta, Aetolia, Epirus, Rhodes, the major kingdoms, Sicily), but also on regions from which the source material allows comprehensive studies of political institutions, society, and economy (Boiotia, Greek colonies of the Black Sea, Aegean islands, Crete, Asia Minor).

                  Athens

                  Although Athens lost its hegemonic position in the Greek world, it participated in many important political events (Chremonidean war, Second Macedonian war), and thanks to the abundant epigraphic sources Athens provides interesting paradigms for the study of the relations between kings and cities, the presence of foreign garrisons, and the political role of elites. Habicht 1997 is the most important synthesis, to be used together with his more detailed studies (Habicht 1979 and Habicht 1982). The chronology of the Hellenistic history of Athens is based on the dating of inscriptions, which was revolutionized by the studies of Tracy 1990, 1995, and 2003, who attributed texts to individual masons. For the political institutions see Grieb 2008; for religion in Hellenistic Athens see Religion; for foreigners see Foreigners; For the organization of the youth (ephebes) see Military Training; for the private associations see Cult Associations. For economy see Agriculture and Pastoral Economy.

                  Sparta

                  Once a major power, Hellenistic Sparta was reduced to a significant power only on the Peloponnese. The social reforms of King Kleomenes (229–222 BCE), the expansionist policy of King Nabis in the late 3rd century BCE, and the conflict between Sparta and the Achaean League (see The Rise of the Achaean League) are important chapters of Hellenistic history. Cartledge and Spawforth 1989 offers the best treatment of this period.

                  Boiotia

                  Because of the numerous epigraphic sources (especially from Oropos and Thespiai) and the references of Polybius to Boiotian affairs, Boiotia is one of the regions in which social and institutional developments can be studied in the Hellenistic period. Feyel 1942 and Roesch 1965 and Roesch 1982 are classic studies on particular aspects of the institution of the Boiotian Federation and its cities, as well as of political history (see also Corsten 1999); Étienne and Knoepfler 1976 exploit the epigraphic material from Hyettos. Lacking a comprehensive history of Hellenistic Boiotia, and because of the continual progress thanks to new finds (Knoepfler 1992), one should consult the annual review of new epigraphic finds and studies in the Bulletin épigraphique and the Supplementum epigraphicum graecum (see Inscriptions). All studies on Boiotia are based on epigraphy and are often very technical. For manumission of slaves see Darmezin 1999; for the leasing of land see Osborne 1988.

                  Delphi

                  One of the most important panhellenic sanctuaries and oracles and center of an international federation (the Amphictyony) with both religious and political functions, Delphi is also a major finding place of inscriptions. The study of the history and the documents of the Amphictyony is very important for the political, diplomatic, and religious history of this period. Lefèvre 1998 is the best study of its history and institutions; the development of the territory on the basis of an important dossier of inscriptions has been reconstructed by Rousset 2002. The significance of Delphi for the international propaganda has been shown by Nachtergael 1977.

                  • Lefèvre, François. 1998. L'amphictionie pyléo-delphique: Histoire et institutions. Paris: Boccard.

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                    The best account of the history of the Delphic Amphictyony and its involvement in political events (not only of the Hellenistic period).

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                  • Nachtergael, Georges. 1977. Les Galates en Grèce et les Sotéria de Delphes: Recherches d'histoire et d'épigraphie hellénistique. Brussels: Palais des Académies.

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                    Excellent study the significance of Delphi for the international propaganda of both the Aetolians and the Antigonids the Galation invasion of the early 3rd century BCE; based on inscriptions.

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                  • Rousset, Denis. 2002. Le territoire de Delphes et la terre d'Apollon. Paris: Boccard.

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                    The historical topography of Delphi and adjacent areas, the development of the territory of the city of Delphi, and the development of the sacred land of Apollo's sanctuary from the Archaic to the Roman Imperial period.

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                  Aetolia

                  The Aetolian Confederacy was one of the major political players in Hellenistic Greece. Its structure and history are treated by Grainger 1999 and Scholten 2000 (cf. Flacelière 1937), and the institutions of this federal state by Corsten 1999 and Larsen 1968.

                  Epeiros

                  A significant power in northwest Greece, the state of the Epirotans underwent an interesting transformation from a kingdom to a federal state. Cabanes 1976 remains unsurpassed.

                  Macedonia

                  Macedonia remained one of the great powers of the Hellenistic world until 168 BCE. Errington 1992 is a readable general overview; Hammond and Walbank 1988 is more detailed but could not take into consideration new finds, the result of very extensive archaeological research in Macedonia after c. 1977 (see Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and Bulletin épigraphique in Inscriptions). Hatzopoulos 1996 is a superb study of the institutions; Le Bohec 1985 is useful for the study of the court. For the Macedonian queens see Carney 2000. Military organization around 200 BCE is now better known thanks to new finds (Hatzopoulos 2001). For the political significance of the Antigonid dynasty see The Hegemony of the Antigonids in Greece.

                  Pontos

                  Usually overlooked, as part of the periphery of the Greek world the Black Sea offers extremely interesting source material. Grammenos and Petropoulos 2005–2007 gives good overviews for the individual sites; Oppermann 2004 covers only the west coast of the Black Sea, Bresson, et al. 2007 the north shore, and Burcu Ercuyas 2005 the south coast (see also Saprykin 1997). The trends of the most recent research are reflected by Bresson, et al. 2007 (but only for the north shore) and Gabrielsen and Lund 2007. Under the dynasty of the Mithridatids (Burcu Ercuyas 2005, McGing 1986) this region acquired great significance for the general Hellenistic history. Another major power was the Bosporan kingdom under the Spartokids (Fornasier and Böttger 2002, Gajdukevic 1971).

                  • Bresson, Alain, Askold Ivantchik, and Jean-Louis Ferrary, eds. 2007. Une koinè pontique: Cités grecques, sociétés indigènes et empires mondiaux sur le littoral nord de la Mer Noire. Bordeaux: Ausonius.

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                    Collection of essays on a large variety of subjects concerning history and culture on the north shore of the Black Sea; the volume reflects the most recent research and provides further bibliography.

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                  • Burcu Erciyas, Deniz. 2005. Wealth, aristocracy and royal propaganda under the Hellenistic kingdom of the Mithridatids in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Leiden: Brill.

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                    The first attempt to exploit the rich material, especially from the Greek cities on the south coast of the Black Sea, for a study of the impact of the rule of the Mithridatids on society.

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                  • Fornasier, Jochen, and Burkhard Böttger, eds. 2002. Das Bosporanische Reich: Der Nordosten des Schwarzen Meeres in der Antike. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

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                    Collection of essays that discuss recent developments in the study of the most important political power on the northeast shore of the Black Sea under the dynasty of the Spartokids.

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                  • Gabrielsen, Vincent, and John Lund, eds. 2007. The Black Sea in Antiquity: Regional and interregional economic exchanges. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                    Collection of studies of the economic relationship between the Black Sea area and the Mediterranean (trade of wines, slaves, timber); it reflects current trends in the study of ancient economy.

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                  • Gajdukevic, Viktor F. 1971. Das bosporanische Reich. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    General overview of the history of one important kingdom on the north and northeast shore of the Black Sea; the historical interpretation of the sources is not always convincing; for new finds see Fornasier and Böttger 2002.

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                  • Grammenos, Dimitris V., and Elias K. Petropoulos, eds. 2005–2007. Ancient Greek colonies in the Black Sea. 4 vols. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                    Richly illustrated collection of surveys of recent archaeological and historical research in the Black Sea area, mostly written by their excavators; the articles provide good bibliography.

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                  • McGing, Brian C. 1986. The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator king of Pontos. Leiden: Brill.

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                    Reliable study of the policies of the greatest king of Pontos.

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                  • Oppermann, Manfred. 2004. Die westpontischen Poleis. Langenweissbach: Beier and Beran.

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                    Very good overview of the history and archaeological finds in the Greek colonies in Thrace, Moesia, and Dacia.

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                  • Saprykin, Sergej J. 1997. Heracleia Pontica and Tauric Chersonesus before Roman domination. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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                    The best overview of the history of two very important cities of the Black Sea: Herakleia (in Bithynia, modern Turkey) and Chersonesos Taurica (north shore of the Black Sea).

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                  Aegean Islands

                  Because of the strategic position and the resources of the Aegean islands, the Antigonids and Ptolemies attempted to bring them under their control (Bagnall 1976, Buraselis 1982). But beyond political history, inscriptions give excellent opportunities to study society, institutions, economy, and culture. Brun 1996 is the best overview. For the economic networks of the Cyclades see Constantakopoulou 2007 and Delos. Stavrianopoulou 2006 is an excellent study of the social position of women. In addition to these more general surveys, there exist studies for individual islands.

                  Delos

                  Thanks to the detailed accounts of the transactions conducted by the administrative authorities of the sanctuary of Delos, this small island offers a unique opportunity to study its economy (Brunet 1999, Feyel 2006, Osborne 1988, Rauh 1993, Reger 1994), the presence of foreigners, its society, and its religious practices (see Bruneau 1970, Engelmann 1975, Hasenohr 2003); Vial 1984 is a superb treatment of Hellenistic Delos. Because of the peculiar position of Delos (sacred island of Apollo, panhellenic religious center, under Athenian occupation for long periods), the conclusions of research on Delos cannot always be applied to other areas.

                  Rhodes

                  Rhodes was an important economic and military power, a major diplomatic player during the Roman expansion, and in possession of territories on Asia Minor (between 188 and 167 BCE of the whole of Caria and Lycia). A huge number of inscriptions illuminate political history, society, and economy. Stamped jars used for the wine trade (amphoras) give the names of annual officials, thus helping modern research establish the chronology (Habicht 2003) and also study the development of wine exportation. Berthold 1984 is a good starting point. Gabrielsen, et al. 1999, although not a systematic survey, assembles studies that cover all important aspects. Gabrielsen 1997 is the best study of society; Wiemer 2002 gives a very good reconstruction of political history. Grieb 2008 is useful for the study of the constitution but overestimates the power of democracy. For economy see Bresson 1993.

                  Lesbos

                  Although without major significance in Hellenistic political history, Lesbos is an instructive case of the impact of major events (Alexander's conquests, conflicts between Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman expansion) on Greek communities. See Labarre 1996.

                  Samos

                  Until 322 occupied by the Athenians, later host to a Ptolemaic garrison, owner of land on the opposite coast of Asia Minor, Samos's historical experiences in the Hellenistic period are in many ways typical. Shipley 1987 gives a very good overview.

                  Kos

                  The epigraphic material from Kos (especially long lists of donors of money and honorary decrees for members of the elite) permits a study of society in Hellenistic Kos (Sherwin-White 1978), in particular the role of the elite in the organization of the defense (Baker 1991) and in the period of the Roman expansion (Buraselis 2000). Höghammer 2004 gives a very good overview of recent research; for the constitution see Grieb 2008.

                  • Baker, Patrick. 1991. Cos et Calymna 205–200a.C.: Esprit civique et défence nationale. Québec: Éditions du Sphinx.

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                    Unusually rich source material is the basis of this discussion of the defense measures in Kos during a critical period of wars.

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                  • Buraselis, Kostas. 2000. Kos between Hellenism and Rome: Studies on the political, institutional and social history of Kos from ca. the middle second century B.C. until Late Antiquity. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

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                    Masterful discussion of how Koan society responded to the fundamental changes caused by Roman expansion in the East.

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                  • Grieb, Volker. 2008. Hellenistische Demokratie: Politische Organisation und Struktur in freien griechischen Poleis nach Alexander dem Grossn. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                    Useful overview of the political institutions of Kos, pp. 139–198; the author contends, not always convincingly, that Kos had a democratic constitution in the Hellenistic period.

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                  • Höghammar, Kerstin, ed. 2004. The Hellenistic polis of Kos: State, economy and culture. Proceedings of an international seminar organized by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, 11–13 May, 2000. Boreas 28. Uppsala: Univ. of Uppsala.

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                    Although not a systematic survey of Hellenistic Kos, this collection of studies reflects the present state of research.

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                  • Sherwin-White, Susan M. 1978. Ancient Cos: An historical study from the Dorian settlement to the imperial period. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

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                    Thorough exploitation of the literary and epigraphic sources for the history and society of Kos (with a prosopography of Koans). Because of new discoveries, it should be used together with Höghammar 2004.

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                  Euboia

                  Because of its proximity to Boiotia and Athens and its strategic position, Hellenistic Euboia was for long periods dominated by the Antigonids, who established garrisons in Chalkis and Eretria. For this reason its history is of wider significance. Knoepfler 1991 and Knoepfler 2001 present an exhaustive, often very complex and technical analysis of the sources for Eretria, whose history is better known; for Chalkis see Picard 1979.

                  • Knoepfler, Denis. 1991. La vie de Ménédème d'Érétrie de Diogène Laërce: Contribution à l'histoire et à la critique du texte des ‘Vies des philosophes’. Basel: Reinhardt.

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                    Reconstruction of the political and social history of early Hellenistic Eretria through a study of the life of the philosopher Menedemos.

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                  • Knoepfler, Denis. 2001. Décrets érétriens de proxénie et de citoyenneté. Lausanne: Payot.

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                    More than just an edition of honorific decrees of Hellenistic Eretria, this book covers exhaustively many aspects of political and social life in a Hellenistic city.

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                  • Picard, Olivier. 1979. Chalcis et la confédération Eubéene: Étude de numismatique et d'histoire, IVe-Ier siècle. Athens and Paris: École Française d'Athènes.

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                    Masterful demonstration of how a study of coins can contribute to political history and the study of institutions (in this case the history of Chalkis and the league of the Euboian cities).

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                  Crete

                  As major suppliers of Hellenistic armies with mercenaries and continually engaged in wars and raids, the forty or so cities of Crete present a unique paradigm for the study of the interdependence of war and social history. No other Greek region has produced so many interstate agreements; they are the subject of Chaniotis 1996.

                  Sicily

                  François, et al. 2006 and Lehmler 2005 are the best works on Sicily.

                  • François, Paul, Pierre Moret, and Sandra Péré-Noguès, eds. 2006. L'hellénisation en Méditerranée occidentale au temps des guerres puniques (260–180 av. J.-C.). Pallas 70. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                    Collection of articles on Greek culture and its diffusion in the western Mediterranean, with several articles on Sicily; here one can find further bibliography.

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                  • Lehmler, Caroline. 2005. Syrakus unter Agathokles und Hieron II: Die Verbindung von Kultur und Macht in einer hellenistischen Metropole. Frankfurt: Antike.

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                    Studies culture in Syracuse during the monarchical rule of Agathocles and Hieron (late 4th–late 3rd centuries BCE), placing Sicily in the context of Hellenistic culture.

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                  Asia Minor

                  No other area of the Hellenistic world has attracted as much original research interest in recent decades as has Asia Minor, because of the continual discovery of hundreds of inscriptions, for which one should consult the Supplementum epigraphicum graecum and the Bulletin épigraphique (see Inscriptions). The study of the history and institutions of the cities has made great progress, and the advance in research is represented by the collections in Bresson and Descat 2001 and Couvenhes and Fernoux 2004. Sartre 1995 is a superb general introduction; Dmitriev 2005 offers a good overview of the political institutions; Schuler 1998 treats in an excellent manner the world of the small villages. Because of old religious traditions, the position of sanctuaries in the changing world of Hellenistic Asia Minor is a phenomenon of great historical significance, uniquely represented by epigraphic finds concerning their legal status (see Sanctuaries). On slavery see Bussi 2001.

                  • Bresson, Alain, and Raymond Descat, eds. 2001. Les cités d'Asie Mineure occidentale au IIe siècle a.C. Paris: Boccard.

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                    Seventeen studies addressing a variety of subjects, such as the relations of cites with the Seleucids, the Attalids, Rome and Rhodes, economy, and military history; they are a good demonstration of the rapid advance of knowledge through new epigraphic and archaeological finds. Focusing on the 2nd century, these studies also show the gradual transformation of Asia Minor after the retreat of the Seleucids.

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                  • Bussi, Silvia. 2001. Economia e demografia della schiavitù in Asia Minore ellenistico-romana. Milan: LED Edizioni Universitari.

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                    Thorough study of the numbers and economic functions of slaves in Asia Minor.

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                  • Couvenhes, Jean-Christophe, and Henri-Louis Fernoux, eds. 2004. Les cités grecques et la guerre en Asie Mineure à l'époque hellénistique. Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais.

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                    The seven articles in this volume discuss how warfare affected various aspects of life in the Hellenistic cities of Asia Minor, offering insights into civic life and mentality (military training of ephebes, mercenaries, defense measures).

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                  • Dmitriev, Sviatoslav. 2005. City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                    Good overview of the political institutions of the cities and the part played by the elite.

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                  • Kobes, Jörn. 1996. ‘Kleine Könige’: Untersuchungen zu den Lokaldynastien im hellenistischen Kleinasien (323–188). St. Katharinen: Scripta-Mercaturae-Verlag.

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                    Useful account of the history of small dynasties in Hellenistic Asia Minor, before it became part of the Attalid kingdom.

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                  • Magie, David. 1950. Roman rule in Asia Minor to the end of the third century after Christ. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ Univ. Press.

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                    Reprinted, Salem, NH: Ayer, 1988. A fundamental study of the history and political geography of Asia Minor; although primarily dedicated to the Imperial period, it also treats the situation in Asia Minor from 133 BCE to Augustus.

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                  • Sartre, Maurice. 1995. L'Asie Mineure et l'Anatolie d'Alexandre à Dioclétien, IVe siècle av. J.-C./IIIe siècle ap. J.-C. Paris: Armand Colin.

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                    The best general overview of the history of Asia Minor.

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                  • Schuler, Christoph. 1998. Ländliche Siedlungen und Gemeinden im hellenistischen und römischen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                    Excellent treatment of the political, legal, economic, social, and religious life of small villages; despite the close analysis of sources, suitable for students.

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                  Pergamon

                  In the course of the 3rd century, under the rule of the Attalids, the fortress of Pergamon developed into a powerful kingdom, which after 188 BCE controlled large parts of Asia Minor. Its history is important for the study of monarchy and of Roman expansion. Hansen 1971 still is a useful general history; Allen 1983 focuses on the political institutions and the administration of the kingdom. Virgilio 1993 treats the contemporary and later perception of this dynasty. The years of its greatest expansion under the shadow of Rome and its end (188–133 BCE) are studied by Hopp 1977.

                  Bithynia

                  Among the minor Hellenistic kingdoms, Bithynia played an important role in the conflicts in Asia Minor and in the expansion of Rome. Vitucci 1953 is the only systematic study of the kingdom's history, but Fernoux 2004 presents a very good study of society.

                  Egypt

                  No other Hellenistic kingdom is as well known as Ptolemaic Egypt; in addition to literary and epigraphic sources, here the papyri (see Papyri) offer abundant information about administration, society, economy, religion, demography, and culture. General overviews are given by Bowman 1996, Hoelbl 1994 and Huss 2001. Bennet's online Bibliography is very useful and regularly updated. For more detailed studies, Peremans, et al. 1950– is an indispensable reference. Thompson 1988 gives an excellent picture of a very important region (Memphis); Véisse 2004 is a detailed account of revolts in the late 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. For the sources see Papyri. Administration, society, and economy are treated in the relevant sections of this bibliography: The Ptolemies and the Hellenistic World of the Third Century, Hellenistic Monarchy, Ptolemaic Administration, Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemaic economy, and Festivals.

                  Alexandria

                  Alexandria, the capital of Egypt, developed into the greatest cultural center of the Hellenistic world. Fraser 1972 is unsurpassed; Harris and Ruffini 2004 reflect the current trends of research.

                  Syria and Mesopotamia (Seleucid Empire)

                  For the greater part of the Hellenistic period, Syria, Mesopotamia, northern Iran, and parts of Afghanistan were parts of the Seleucid empire. Their history is, unfortunately, primarily known within the political history of the Seleucid dynasty; for this, Bouché-Leclercq 1913-1914 gives a detailed account, but Sherwin-White and Kuhrt 1993 gives a more general account, which takes into consideration economy, institutions, and local cultures. For political history see also The Seleucid Empire in the Third Century, The Roman Expansion and the Decline of the Antigonids and the Seleucids (c. 217–133 BCE), and The Last Phase of the Roman Expansion (133–30 BCE). For various aspects of Seleucid history see also Prost 2003. Grainger 1997 is very helpful as a reference. The organization of the army is treated by Bar-Kochva 1976. For the administration see Seleucid Administration; for the economy see Seleucid Economy; for the new cities see Royal Colonization. For the evidence provided by coins see Coins.

                  • Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1976. The Seleucid army: Organization and tactics in the great campaigns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    Thorough study of the sources for a reconstruction of the structure of the army of the Seleucids in the 3rd and early 2nd centuries BCE.

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                  • Bouché-Leclercq, A. 1913–1914. Histoire des Séleucides (323–64 avant J.-C.). 2 vols. Paris: Leroux.

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                    Reprinted, Aalen: Scientia, 1978. Out of date in many details, but not yet replaced as a general political history of the Seleucid kingdom.

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                  • Funck, Bernd. 1984. Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit: Eine Untersuchung zu den spätbabylonischen Pfründentexten als Quelle für die Erforschung der sozialökonomischen Entwicklung der hellenistischen Stadt. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    Study of cuneiform documents concerning financial transactions of the temples, as a source of information for economy (especially agriculture) and society in Uruk.

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                  • Grainger, John D. 1997. A Seleukid prosopography and gazetteer. Leiden: Brill.

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                    Very helpful as a reference, providing information about all the important individuals and places in Seleucid history.

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                  • Kreissig, Heinz. 1978. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Seleukidenreich: Die Eigentums- und Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    General study of economy and society in the Seleucid empire, with emphasis on land tenure (especially temple land) and slavery; valuable collection of evidence.

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                  • Oelsner, Joachim. 1986. Materialien zur babylonischen Gesellschaft und Kultur in hellenistischer Zeit. Budapest: Eötvös Univ.

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                    Useful collection of sources (cuneiform texts) concerning society and culture in Hellenistic Babylonia.

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                  • Prost, Francis, ed. 2003. L'Orient méditerranéen de la mort d'Alexandre aux campagnes de Pompée. Pallas 62. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                    Most essays in this collection of studies treat aspects of the Seleucid kingdom: monarchy (pp. 41–61, 221–259, 281–308) and society and culture (pp. 65–146, 263–280, 329–355).

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                  • Sherwin-White, Susan M., and Amelie Kuhrt. 1993. From Samarkhand to Sardis: A new approach to the Seleucid empire. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    The best introduction to all aspects of political, economic, social, and cultural history in the Seleucid empire, from Asia Minor to Afghanistan.

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                  Persis

                  The former heart of the Achaemenid empire presents an interesting paradigm of social and cultural transformation after the conquests of Alexander. Wiesehöfer 1994 is the best general account for the Hellenistic period.

                  • Wiesehöfer, Joseph. 1994. Die “Dunklen Jahrhunderte” der Persis: Untersuchungen zu Geschichte und Kultur von Fars in frühhellenistischer Zeit (330–140 v. Chr.). Munich: Beck.

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                    Excellent overview of the political, social, and cultural history of the Persis (Iran), based on a very close study of the source material (including non-Greek documents).

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                  Bactria

                  Bactria (northwestern Afghanistan) was the easternmost region in which Greek settlements and culture were established. Our knowledge of the local rulers, who split from the Seleucid empire, is based on archaeological finds, coins, and inscriptions, and only a few literary sources. Tarn 1985 is a pioneering work, still readable, but Holt 1999 and Lerner 1999 are the most reliable recent accounts. Important financial documents and other finds were discovered during the excavation of the palace at Aï Khanoum (Rapin 1992). Recent studies rightly underline the importance of political developments and migrations in western China and Central Asia for the decline of the Greek-Bactrian kingdom and show the connectivity of the Hellenistic world with East Asia (Benjamin 2007, Posch 1995).

                  • Benjamin, Craig G. R. 2007. The Yuezhi: Origin, migration and the conquest of northern Bactria. Turnhout: Brepols.

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                    Thorough analysis of nomad migrations from western China, their impact in Central Asia, and the end of Greek rule in Bactria; an innovative study that offers new insights on the study of the periphery of the Hellenistic world.

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                  • Holt, Frank Lee. 1999. Thundering Zeus: The making of Hellenistic Bactria. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press.

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                    Up-to-date account of Greco-Bactrian history by the leading authority.

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                  • Lerner, Jeffrey D. 1999. The impact of the Seleucid decline on the eastern Iranian plateau: The foundations of Arsacid Parthia and Graeco-Bactria. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                    Very useful treatment of the rise of new states east of the Seleucid empire.

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                  • Narain, Awadh Kisjore. 1967. The Indo-Greeks. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                    Reprinted, Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press, 1980. Study of the development of the Greek-Bactrian kingdoms and their culture, with critique of Tarn 1985.

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                  • Posch, Walter. 1995. Baktrien zwischen Griechen und Kuschan: Untersuchungen zu kulturellen und historischen Problemen einer Übergangsphase: mit einem textkritischen Exkurs zum Shiji 123. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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                    Important contribution to the understanding of the end of Greek rule in Bactria from the perspective of the political history of Central Asia in the 2nd century BCE.

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                  • Rapin, Claude. 1992. La trésorerie du palais hellénistique d'Aï Khanoum: L'apogée et la chute du royaume grec de Bactriane. Fouilles d'Aï Khanoum VIII. Paris: Boccard.

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                    This volume, part of a series that presents the results of the excavations of the palace at Aï Khanoum, treats the financial documents found in the palace's treasury, which give a vivid picture of financial transactions.

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                  • Tarn, William W. 1985. The Greeks in Bactria and India. 3d ed. Updated with preface and new bibliography by Frank Lee Holt. Chicago: Ares.

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                    Originally published in 1938, this book remains an important study of the political and cultural history of the easternmost Hellenistic states; to be used together with Narain 1967.

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                  Israel

                  The very word “Hellenistic” has its origins in Hellenistic Jewry, in the opposition between the Jews who accepted and those who rejected Greek influences. For this reason the history of Israel under Seleucid rule (until the revolt of the Maccabees), the history of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the Jewish Diaspora are central subjects of Hellenistic history. Tcherikover 1961, Bickerman 1988, and Gruen 1998 are representative of the different perspectives from which the interaction between Jews and Greeks has been seen.

                  • Bickerman, Elias J. 1988. The Jews in the Greek age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                    Fascinating account of Jewish social, economic, and intellectual life under the Seleucids; very useful for students and as a first introduction.

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                  • Grabbe, Lester L. 1992. From from Cyrus to Hadrian. 2 vols. Minneapolis: Fortress.

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                    The first volume contains a thorough survey of the sources for the culltural, religious, and social history of the Jews in the Hellenistic period and a critical discussion of the important problems in the history of Hellenistic Israel.

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                  • Gruen, Erich S. 1998. Heritage and Hellenism: The reinvention of Jewish tradition. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    Based on a thorough study of the Jewish sources, Gruen reconstructs Jewish self-perception in the Hellenistic period.

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                  • Hengel, Martin. 1974. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their encounter in Palestine during the early Hellenistic period. Translated by John Bowden. 2d ed. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress.

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                    A fundamental study of the impact of Greek rule in Judea (administration, economy, society), Greek cultural influences on the Jews, and the conflict between Palestinian Judaism and Hellenistic culture; a useful reference for students.

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                  • Tcherikover, Avigdor. 1961. Hellenistic civilization and the Jews. Translated by S. Applebaum. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

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                    Reprinted, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999. Groundbreaking study of Judaism in Palestine and in the Diaspora.

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                  The Institutions of the Hellenistic Poleis

                  The abundant source material, especially inscriptions, allows a close study of the political institutions of a large number of poleis (for the newly founded cities see Royal Colonization). Despite the generally democratic character of the institutions and the power of the assembly (Fröhlich 2004, Fröhlich and Müller 2005, Grieb 2008), political life was dominated by a wealthy elite, which gradually developed into a hereditary aristocracy (Dmitriev 2005). Socioeconomic conflicts resulted in attempts at constitutional reforms, the evidence for which has been collected by Bencivenni 2003.

                  The Institutions of the Federal States

                  The rise of federal states was one of the most significant political developments in the Hellenistic period. Larsen 1968 has not lost its value as a readable general introduction, but for new insights one should consult Corsten 1999. Best known are the institutions of the Aetolian League (see Aetolia), the Achaean League (Aymard 1938, Harter-Uibopuu 1998), the Boiotian Koinon (see Boiotia), and Akarnania (Dany 1999).

                  Hellenistic Monarchy

                  The most significant political development of the Hellenistic period is the establishment of new kingdoms, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East, and the development of monarchical rule with elaborate administration. This is why Hellenistic kingship is the subject most often treated in all general surveys of Hellenistic history (see General Overviews). For the major kingdoms, bibliography is given in the section Regional History (see the subsections Macedonia, Pontos, Pergamon, Bithynia, Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia, and Bactria). The following subsections focus on specific aspects of kingship: ideology of monarchy, ruler cult, court and “friends,” administration, and small kingdoms.

                  Royal Ideology

                  Studies of Hellenistic kingship place great emphasis on the legitimacy and ideology of kingship, for which numismatic studies are very important (see Coins). Welles 1934 collects and discusses letters written by kings, which are one of the most important source of information for royal self-representation. Central themes in relevant studies are the image of the victorious king (Gehrke 1982, Chaniotis 2005), the self-representation of the king as benefactor (Bringmann 2000), ceremonial aspects (Ritter 1965), the king's relations to indigenous traditions (Huss 1994), relations between kings and cities (see Kings and Cities), and the ruler cult (see Ruler Cult).

                  • Bilde, Per, Troels Engberg-Pedersen, Lisa Hannestadt, and Jan Zahle, eds. 1996. Aspects of Hellenistic kingship. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                    Collection of essays that treat various aspects of Hellenistic kingship, with emphasis on the image of the king.

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                  • Bringmann, Klaus. 2000. Geben und nehmen: Monarchische Wohltätigkeit und Selbstdarstellung im Zeitalter des Hellenismus. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    Study of the significance of benefactions and reciprocity in the ideology of Hellenistic monarchy and in the relations between kings and cities.

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                  • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                    This survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic world includes a chapter on royal ideology (chapter 4, The interactive king: War and the ideology of Hellenistic monarchy, pp. 57–77).

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                  • Gehrke, Hans-Joachim. 1982. Der siegreiche König: Überlegungen zur hellenistischen Monarchie. Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 64:247–277.

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                    A study of the charismatic nature of Hellenistic kingship and of the importance of the image of the victorious king.

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                  • Huss, Werner. 1994. Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester: Studien zur Geschichte des ptolemäischen Ägypten. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                    Examination of the complex relations between the traditional Egyptian priests and the Ptolemaic kings.

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                  • Koenen, Ludwig. 1993. The Ptolemaic king as a religious figure. In Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Edited by A. Bulloch, et al., 25–115. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    Excellent overview of the various religious functions of Ptolemaic kings (ruler cult, patronage over sanctuaries, incorporation of Egyptian elements).

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                  • Ritter, Hans-Werner. 1965. Diadem und Königsherrschaft: Untersuchungen zu Zeremonien und Rechtsgrundlagen des Herrschaftsantritts bei den Persern, bei Alexander dem Grossen und im Hellenismus. Munich: Beck.

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                    Study of the ceremonial and legal aspects of the proclamation of kings.

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                  • Virgilio, Biagio. 2003. Lancia, diadema e porpora: Il re e la regalità ellenistica. 2d ed. Pisa: Giardini.

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                    Discussion of the various factors that legitimized monarchical rule and of the ideology of kingship.

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                  • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                    Reprinted, Chicago: Ares, 1974. Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of royal self-representation. More material has come to light since 1934.

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                  Kings and Cities

                  The existence of many cities within kingdoms, especially in Seleucid Asia Minor, makes the study of the diplomatic and institutional relations between cities and kings and the various forms of subordination of cities to kings an important theme for the understanding of Hellenistic monarchy. Franco 1993 studies an early phase of the phenomenon; Orth 1977 studies the developments in the early 3rd century; Ma 1999 provides a groundbreaking study for the later period; for royal benefactions to cities see Ameling 1995. See also Ruler Cult.

                  • Ameling, Walter, ed. and trans. 1995. Schenkungen hellenistischer Herrscher an griechische Städte und Heiligtümer. Teil: Zeugnisse und Kommentare. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

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                    Collection of literary texts and inscriptions (edition, translation, commentary) that provide information on donations and benefactions of Hellenistic kings to Greek cities and sanctuaries; useful for the study of monarchical ideology.

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                  • Franco, Carlo. 1993. Il regno di Lisimaco: Strutture amministrative e rapporti con le città. Pisa: Giardini.

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                    Study of the relations between the king of Thrace and the Greek cities in his realm; although Lysimachos's kingdom did not last, the study of his rule is paradigmatic for Hellenistic monarchy. See also Lund 1992.

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                  • Ma, John. 1999. Antiochos III and the cities of western Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                    Study of the relations between king and poleis, with original observations on the ideology of monarchy and of the civic ideology of Hellenistic poleis. At the same time a solid reconstruction of political history c. 223–187 BCE. Enlarged paperback edition, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002; French translation by Serge Bardet, Antiochos III et les cités de l‘Asie Mineure occidentale, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2004.

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                  • Orth, Wolfgang. 1977. Königlicher Machtanspruch und städtische Freiheit: Untersuchungen zu den politischen Beziehungen zwischen den ersten Seleukidenherrschern (Seleukos I., Antiochos I., Antiochos II.) und den Städten des westlichen Kleinasien. Munich: Beck.

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                    Study of the relations between cities and Seleucid kings in the first half of the 3rd century BCE.

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                  Ruler Cult

                  Although the cult of mortals was already practiced before the beginning of the Hellenistic period, the cult of kings, established both by cities and centrally by dynasties, became one of the most striking features of Hellenistic royal propaganda. Habicht 1970 is unsurpassed as the most thorough treatment of the basic features of the cults established by cities, but new epigraphic finds continually add information. For the centrally organized dynastic cult, Egypt provides the best paradigm (Melaerts 1998; see also Koenen under Royal Ideology). There is less evidence for the Seleucid dynastic cult (Van Nuffelen 2004).

                  • Buraselis, Kostas and Aneziri, Sophia. 2004. Die hellenistische Herrscher Apotheose. In Thesaurus cultus et rituum antiquorum II. By Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, 172–186. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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                    Short systematic overview of the ruler cult and its sources, excellent for quick reference.

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                  • Habicht, Christian. 1970. Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte. 2d ed. Munich: Beck.

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                    The best study of the cult established by Hellenistic poleis for kings (form, aims, diffusion).

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                  • Koenen, Ludwig. 1993. The Ptolemaic king as a religious figure. In Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Edited by A. Bulloch, et al., 25–115. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    Excellent overview of the various religious functions of Ptolemaic kings (ruler cult, patronage over sanctuaries, incorporation of Egyptian elements).

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                  • Melaerts, Henri, ed. 1998. Le culte du souverain dans l'Égypte ptolémaïque au IIIe siècle avant notre ère. Louvain: Peeters.

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                    Collection of essays that treat various aspects of the establishment and development of dynastic cult in Egypt.

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                  • Van Nuffelen, Peter. 2004. Le culte royal de l'Empire des Séleucides: Une réinterpretation. Historia 52:278–301.

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                    Attempts to reassess the significance of dynastic cult in the Seleucid empire, with useful collection of the more recent finds and further bibliography.

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                  Court

                  Thanks to inscriptions and papyri, there is reliable information concerning the persons who constituted the closest advisors and officers—usually designated as philoi (“friends”)—in all major kingdoms (Savalli-Lestrade 1998). The hierarchy of the court and other officials is best known for Egypt (Mooren 1975 and Mooren 1977). The function of palaces is less well known; recent research on this subject is found in Hoepfner and Brands 1996 and Nielsen 1998. A specific phenomenon, cultural activities in the court in Alexandria, is studied by Weber 1993.

                  Ptolemaic Administration

                  The administration of Ptolemaic Egypt is very well known because of the abundant documentary material. Because of the specific geographical conditions of the land of the Nile, the administrative structure of Egypt did not always correspond to that of other kingdoms. Most studies are technical; undergraduate students should first consult general overviews. For the persons who served in this administration, see Peremans, et al. 1950–.

                  • Bagnall, Roger S. 1976. The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt. Leiden: Brill.

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                    Systematic study of the administration of Ptolemaic possession (especially Aegean islands, Cyprus, and the Levant).

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                  • Kaltsas, Demokritos. 2001. Dokumentarische Papyri des 2. Jh. v. Chr. aus dem Herakleopolites (P.Heid. VIII). Heidelberg: Winter.

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                    Despite its cryptic title, this book deals with important documents that illuminate the Ptolemaic administration of justice.

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                  • Lenger, Marie-Thérèse. 1980–1990. Corpus des ordonnances des Ptolémées (C. Ord. Ptol.). Réédition avec suppléments. Bilan des additions et corrections (1964–1988): Compléments à la bibliographie. Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique, 1990.

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                    Collection of administrative regulations preserved in papyri; extremely important work of reference.

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                  • Oates, John F. 1995. The Ptolemaic basilikos grammateus. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists Supp. 8. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

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                    Study of one of the best-known functionaries, the “royal secretary,” who assisted the governors of the provinces.

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                  • Peremans, Willy, et al. 1950–. Prospographia Ptolemaica. Leuven: Bibliotheca Univ.

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                    Available online. The Prosopographia Ptolemaica lists all inhabitants of Egypt between 300 and 30 BCE, attested in Greek, Egyptian and Latin sources (literary sources, inscriptions, papyri). Several volumes are dedicated to Ptolemaic administration: the personnel of the civil and financial administration (1), the army and security forces (2), religious and legal officials (3), the court and the political administration (6).

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                  • Thomas, John David. 1975–1982. The epistrategos in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. Opladen: Westdeutsches Verlagshaus.

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                    Systematic study of the evolution of the office of the epistrategos (commander of one of the main districts of Egypt: Upper Egypt, Middle Egypt, Thebais).

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                  • Wolff, Hans Julius. 1978–2002. Das Recht der griechischen Papyri Ägyptens in der Zeit der Ptolemäer und des Prinzipats, I: Bedingungen und Triebkräfte der Rechtsentwicklung. Edited by Hans-Albrecht Rupprecht. II: Organisation und Kontrolle des privaten Rechtsverkehrs. Munich: Beck.

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                    Systematic study of the legal system; very technical.

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                  Seleucid Administration

                  The administration of the Seleucid kingdom inherited elements of the earlier Achaemenid administration (e.g., the satrapies) and introduced novelties (e.g., the “friends” of the king; see Savalli-Lestrade 1998). In addition to the classic study of Bikerman 1938 and the more up-to-date overview by Capdetrey 2007, one should consult studies concerning the relations between kings and cities (see Kings and Cities). For the organization of the army see Bar-Kochva 1976; for Seleucid royal economy see Aperghis 2004.

                  Royal Colonization

                  Following the example of Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic kings founded many and important cities, sometimes as major metropoleis (Grainger 1990), sometimes as towns of military settlers. The military and ideological aspects are examined by Billows 1995. Cohen 1995 and Cohen 2006 provides an excellent systematic survey of all new foundations; Cohen 1978 and Mueller 2006 study the specific features of Seleucid and Ptolemaic foundations, respectively.

                  Small Kingdoms

                  In addition to the major kingdoms, small kingdoms, usually created during a vacuum of power, played a significant part in the political history of the Hellenistic period, especially during the period of the Roman expansion. The study of these kingdoms also contributes to the understanding of monarchical rule. Braund 1984 studies the importance of such kingdoms as an instrument of Roman imperialism. For the small kingdoms in Asia Minor and the Near East, see Kobes 1996 and Sullivan 1990; see also Bactria.

                  Interstate Relations

                  The creation of a “globalized” world intensified diplomatic relations between an increased number of states. The number and diversity of treaties grew, as did the complexity of interstate relations (Klose 1972), in particular after the beginning of Roman interventions (from the late 3rd century onward). Giovannini 2007 offers a very good general overview. Curty 1995 and Welles 1934 are important for the style of Hellenistic diplomatic contacts between cities and cities and kings. Important subjects of diplomacy (Treaties, International Arbitration, and Protection of Foreigners) are treated in separate subsections.

                  • Curty, Olivier. 1995. Les parentés légendaires entre cités grecque: Catalogue raisonné des inscriptions contenant le terme syngeneia et analyse critique. Geneva: Droz.

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                    Collection and discussion of inscriptions attesting “kinship diplomacy” between cities; instructive for the style of diplomacy.

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                  • Giovannini, Adalberto. 2007. Les relations entre états dans le Grèce antique du temps d'Homère à l'intervention romaine (ca. 700–200 av. J.C.). Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                    The best systematic account of the methods, principles, and objects of Greek interstate relations, with a systematic treatment of ancient treaties (with a selection of examples in translation); the Hellenistic period is treated extensively; an important reference work, accessible to students.

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                  • Klose, Peter. 1972. Die völkerrechtliche Ordnung der hellenistischen Staatenwelt in der Zeit von 280–168 v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                    Important study of the political relations between the Hellenistic states (kingdoms, cities, federal states) and Hellenistic “international law,” from the establishment of the Hellenistic kingdoms to Roman expansion.

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                  • Welles, Charles Bradford, ed. and trans. 1934. Royal correspondence in the Hellenistic period: A study in Greek epigraphy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                    Collection, critical edition, translation, and commentary of letters written by Hellenistic kings (especially, Antigonids, Seleucids, and Attalids). Very important for the study of the language and style of Hellenistic diplomacy.

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                  Treaties

                  More treaties survive from the Hellenistic period than from earlier or later periods of Greek history. They are a very important source of information not only for political history but also for economy, society, and religion. The treaties of the late 4th and 3rd centuries BCE have been collected by Schmitt 1969; unfortunately, no analogous collection exists for the rest of the period. Chaniotis 1996 studies a large group of treaties from Crete, Gawantka 1975a particular and common type of treaty (isopliteia), and Rigsby 1996 the recognition of the inviolability of sanctuaries and cities.

                  • Chaniotis, Angelos, ed. and trans. 1996. Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit. Stuttgart: Steiner.

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                    Edition (with translation and commentary) of the most numerous group of Hellenistic treaties: those concluded between Cretan poleis; these texts are representative for the main types of treaties (alliance, mutual grant of citizenship, economic cooperation).

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                  • Gawantka, Wilfried. 1975. Isopolitie: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der zwischenstaatlichen Beziehungen in der griechischen Antike. Munich: Beck.

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                    Systematic (and often technical) study of a specific type of diplomatic relations between two cities: the mutual grant of citizenship and other privileges, subject to certain conditions.

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                  • Rigsby, Kent J. 1996. Asylia: Territorial inviolability in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    Collection of the evidence concerning the important institution of asylia (inviolability of cities and sanctuaries); important for the study of international law and diplomacy.

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                  • Schmitt, Hatto H., ed. 1969. Die Staatsverträge des Altertums: Dritter Band, Die Verträge der griechisch-römischen Welt von 338 bis 200 v. Chr. Munich: Beck.

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                    Edition (no translation) and commentary of the treaties between Greek cities, kings, kings and cities, and Hellenistic states and Rome from Philip II to the end of the 3rd century BCE. An important work of reference for political history and diplomacy.

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                  International Arbitration

                  Because of the numerous wars, interstate arbitration became one of the most important phenomena of Hellenistic diplomacy. The relevant evidence has been collected and discussed by Ager 1996 and Magnetto 1997 (cf. Harter-Uibopuu 1998 for the Achaean confederation).

                  Protection of Foreigners

                  The increased mobility in the Hellenistic world resulted in an increased awareness of the problems connected with the presence of foreigners and the protection of their rights. Gauthier 1972 is the most important study of this subject (Marek 1994). Bielman 1994 is devoted to the treatment of prisoners of war and captives of pirates.

                  • Bielman, Anne. 1994. Retour à la liberté: Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Paris: Boccard.

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                    Collection of inscriptions, almost exclusively from the Hellenistic period, which concern the liberation of war prisoners and captives of pirates; very useful for the study of piracy and international law.

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                  • Gauthier, Philippe. 1972. Symbola: Les étrangers et la justice dans les cités grecques. Nancy: Université de Nancy.

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                    Unsurpassed study of the legal treatment of foreigners in the Greek cities and of the treaties that regulated this; somewhat technical.

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                  • Marek, Christian. 1994. Die Proxenie. Frankfurt: Lang.

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                    The most comprehensive and thorough study of the status of the proxenos (originally, a citizen of a city who supports the citizens of the foreign city, which has awarded him the title of proxenos; in the Hellenistic period, the recipient of various privileges as reward for services to a foreign community).

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                  Society

                  A history of Hellenistic society that would consider a wide range of social phenomena (status, interactions between social groups, social values and emotions, gender roles, etc.) and all the areas of the Hellenistic world has never been written, although this is the only period of Greek history for which the source material would allow such an enterprise. There are, however, good regional studies, especially for Ptolemaic Egypt (see Society in Ptolemaic Egypt) and the Seleucid empire (see Society in the Seleucid Empire), but also for some of the Aegean islands and for Asia Minor (see Society in Greece and Asia Minor). The following bibliography focuses on the social phenomena that have attracted the greatest interest: the role of elites and benefactors (Civic Elite and Benefactors), the condition of the lower social strata (Dependent Populations, Slaves, and Freedmen), family (Family and Marriage), foreigners (Foreigners), and women (Women). Several subjects of social relevance, such as education in the gymnasium, military organization, private associations, and professional specialization, are treated in separate sections: Military Organization and Warfare, Education, Professional Specialists, and Cult Associations. Rostovtzeff 1941 was a bold attempt to draw a general picture and has never been surpassed. For orientation, a student should first read the relevant chapters in Chaniotis 2005, Erskine 2003, and Shipley 2000.

                  • Chaniotis, Angelos. 2005. War in the Hellenistic world: A social and cultural history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                    A survey of how wars shaped the Hellenistic society (formation of elites, pp. 29–43; youth, 44–56; professional soldiers, 78–101; women, 102–114; economy, religion, art, and literature).

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                  • Erskine, Andrew, ed. 2003. A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                    Comprehensive companion to Hellenistic history. Several chapters treat aspects of society (chapter 15, “Town and country in Egypt”; chapter 19, “Family”; chapter 23, “Slave-trade”).

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                  • Rostovtzeff, M. 1941. The social and economic history of the Hellenistic world. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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                    This monumental and very influential work remains the only attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of economy and society in the Hellenistic period. One of its advantages is the effort to use both textual and archaeological sources; one weakness is an anachronistic approach to ancient economy. Reprinted 1986.

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                  • Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge.

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                    An excellent introduction to the Hellenistic world; social phenomena and social structures are discussed throughout the volume (armies and emigration, pp. 54–58; civic society and socioeconomic change, 86–106; the Spartan “revolutions” and their aftermath, 140–148; Ptolemaic Egypt, 192–201, 213–224; literature and social identity, 235–270).

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                  Society in Greece and Asia Minor

                  Most regional studies (cited under Regional History) include chapters on social history. Here we present a small selection of representative studies. Gabrielsen 1997 and Sherwin-White 1978 are instructive on the function of elites in Greek cities; Papazoglou 1997 and Schuler 1998 are good introductions to the situation of the indigenous populations.

                  Society in Ptolemaic Egypt

                  Because of the information provided by the papyri (see Papyri), many aspects of social organization and life can be studied better in Egypt than in any other Hellenistic area; Clarysse and Thompson 2006 is a superb demonstration of this through a study of population registers. While Lewis 1986 presents an excellent overview of the life of Greeks (Fraser 1972 on society in Ptolemaic Alexandria), Hoffmann 2000 gives insights into society and life of the indigenous population on the basis of Demotic (non-Greek) documents. See also Women and Education.

                  • Biezuńska-Małowist, Iza. 1974. L'esclavage dans l'Égypte gréco-romaine I: Période ptolémaïque. Wroclaw: Zaklad Narod. Imienia Ossolinskich Wyd.

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                    Study of slavery in Hellenistic Egypt; useful survey of the sources, but the one-sided influence of Marxist ideology is clear in the analysis.

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                  • Brashear, William M. 1993. Vereine im griechisch-römischen Ägypten. Konstanz: Universitäts-Verlag.

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                    Study of the function of private associations in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt.