Classics Horace
by
Randall McNeill
  • LAST REVIEWED: 29 June 2012
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0027

Introduction

Horace (Q. Horatius Flaccus, 65–8 BCE) was one of the foremost poets of what is traditionally known as the Golden Age of Latin literature, which roughly spanned the late Republican and the Augustan eras (c. 90 BCE–14 CE). He rose from obscure beginnings to become a close friend of the poet Virgil (P. Vergilius Maro) and a valued client and friend of the great literary patron C. Maecenas, ultimately attracting the personal attention and favor of the emperor Augustus, who commissioned him to write the commemorative hymn for the Secular Games of 17 BCE. Horace was celebrated in his own lifetime for his beautifully subtle, intricate, and technically polished poetry: his verse Satires, his predominantly iambic Epodes, his literary Epistles, and especially his lyric Odes. His popularity and influence continued throughout Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the 17th and 18th centuries, which ensured the survival of his published works into the modern day.

Biography

Horace says a great deal about himself and his life in his poetry, and his works represent the main source for any biographical account. Supplementary information is contained in the brief Vita that appears in the fragmentary De poetis ascribed to Suetonius, who served as head of the imperial archives under Trajan in the early 2nd century CE, and as such had access to Augustus’s correspondence; see Rostagni (Suetonius 1944) or Rolfe (Suetonius 1997). Horace’s extreme self-consciousness as an author, however, means that he constantly manipulates or masks the details of his “autobiography” for literary, rhetorical, or social-political effect; as a result, most scholars exercise caution when drawing conclusions about Horace’s “real” life and circumstances (and many strive to avoid the topic altogether). For recent contributions to the study of this issue, see the essays by Robin Nisbet and Stephen Harrison in Harrison 2007. For important and influential discussions of some of the interpretive issues involved, see Highet 1974 and Griffin 1985. For an overly simple biographical reading of Horace, see Levi 1998; more careful but still biographical is Mayer 1995. Horsfall 1998 typifies a more cautious approach.

  • Griffin, Jasper. 1985. Latin poets and Roman life. London: Duckworth.

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    On the question of “real life” in Latin poetry, see especially chapter 3 (pp. 48–64).

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    • Harrison, Stephen J., ed. 2007. The Cambridge companion to Horace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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      On Horace’s biography and issues of Horatian self-presentation, see the essays by R. G. M. Nisbet and Stephen. J. Harrison in part 1, pp. 7–35.

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      • Highet, Gilbert. 1974. Masks and faces in satire. Hermes 102:321–337.

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        A widely cited discussion of the problems involved in biographical interpretations of poetry.

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        • Horsfall, Nicholas. 1998. The first person singular in Horace’s Carmina. In Style and tradition: Studies in honour of Wendell Clausen. Edited by P. E. Knox and C. Foss, 40–54. Stuttgart, Germany: Teubner.

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          Emphasizes the rhetorical considerations of Horace’s poetic self-representations.

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          • Kiernan, V. G. 1998. Horace: Poetics and politics. New York: St. Martin’s.

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            A heavily biographical treatment of Horace’s poetry, to be used with caution.

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            • Levi, Peter. 1998. Horace: A life. New York: Routledge.

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              Takes a very old-fashioned approach, essentially ignoring all Horatian scholarship of the past fifty years. Somewhat naive in its willingness to accept everything Horace says at face value.

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              • Mayer, Roland. 1995. Horace’s moyen de parvenir. In Homage to Horace: A bimillennary celebration. Edited by Stephen J. Harrison, 279–295. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                Focuses on Horace’s accounts of his social advancement.

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                • Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus). 1944. Suetonio De poetis e biographi minori. Edited by Augusto Rostagni. Turin, Italy: Chiantore.

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                  The standard text for this particular work of Suetonius.

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                  • Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus). 1997. Suetonius. Edited by J. C. Rolfe; revised by G. P. Goold. 2d ed. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                    First published in 1914. Includes Latin text and facing translation. For the Vita of Horace, see vol. 2, pp. 460–467. For Suetonius’s reliability and sources of information, see the introduction by K. R. Bradley in vol. 1, pp. 1–34.

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                    General Overviews

                    The classic synoptic treatment in English of Horace and his poetry remains Fraenkel 1957. Concise general overviews are offered by Armstrong 1989 and Hills 2005. La Penna 1993, Schmidt 2002, and Holzberg 2009 represent comprehensive scholarly studies of Horatian poetics and the literary, political, and cultural contexts of Horace’s works. Horace also features prominently in Williams 1968. Harrison 2007 provides a good survey of the major issues and themes of current scholarship on Horace. Mariotti 1996–1998 comprises an enormously useful set of encyclopedic entries.

                    • Armstrong, David. 1989. Horace. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                      A thoughtful and engaging introduction to the poet.

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                      • Fraenkel, Eduard. 1957. Horace. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                        A sensitive and at times highly personal study of Horace by one of the foremost classical scholars of the 20th century. Although the field of Horatian studies has made great progress since its publication, this continues to be a fundamental work. Reprinted in 2002.

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                        • Harrison, Stephen J., ed. 2007. The Cambridge companion to Horace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                          An extremely useful collection of essays by leading Horatian scholars.

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                          • Hills, Philip D. 2005. Horace. London: Duckworth for Bristol Classical Press.

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                            Especially good on the Odes and Horace’s political considerations.

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                            • Holzberg, Niklas. 2009. Horaz: Dichter und Werk. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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                              Examines and interprets the works of Horace with attention to their literary, historical, and intellectual contexts. In German.

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                              • La Penna, Antonio. 1993. Saggi e studi su Orazio. Florence, Italy: Sansoni.

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                                A collection of reprinted essays on Horace by an influential figure in Continental European Horatian scholarship. Part 1 reproduces La Penna’s monograph Orazio e la morale mondana europea (Florence, Italy: Sansoni, 1969). In Italian.

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                                • Mariotti, Scevola, ed. 1996–1998. Orazio: Enciclopedia oraziana. 3 vols. Rome: Istituto della enciclopedia italiana.

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                                  A lavish and comprehensive resource, but difficult to find outside of larger research library collections. In Italian.

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                                  • Schmidt, Ernst A. 2002. Zeit und Form: Dichtungen des Horaz. Heidelberg, Germany: Winter.

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                                    A wide-ranging examination of the Horatian corpus and its poetic, cultural, rhetorical, and political themes, with emphasis on issues of Horatian intertextuality and reception. In German.

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                                    • Williams, Gordon W. 1968. Tradition and originality in Roman poetry. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                      A monumental work of scholarship on the development and nature of Latin poetry. Includes extensive discussion of the interconnections between Horace and his literary predecessors and contemporaries.

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                                      Bibliographies

                                      At present one of the fullest and most current bibliographies for Horace is to be found in Harrison 2007. In addition, Kissel 1981, Kissel 1994, Doblhofer 1992, and especially Mariotti 1996–1998 are good for the years they cover. Online bibliographies of more recent scholarship are A Hellenistic bibliography maintained by Martine Cuypers and Horatius by Marc van der Poel. L’Année philologique remains the most complete record of Horatian scholarship in print and online, but it suffers from a persistent lag of two to three years.

                                      Works

                                      Horace’s works and their likely years of publication are as follows (in most cases the dates must be reconstructed from references in the texts to historical events and persons): Satires Book I, 35 BCE; Satires Book II and Epodes, 30 BCE; Odes Books I–III, 23 BCE; Epistles Book I, c. 20–19 BCE; Carmen Saeculare, 17 BCE; Odes Book IV, after 13 BCE; Epistles Book II, c. 11–10 BCE; and Ars Poetica, probably c. 10–8 BCE.

                                      Texts

                                      The Teubner edition of Shackleton Bailey (Horace 1985a) is now the standard text for Horace’s collected works, although the Oxford Classical Text of Wickham (Horace 1901, Horace 1912) is somewhat more readily available. Horace appears in two volumes in the Loeb Classical Library series, with text and facing translation. Of these, Rudd (Horace 2004) is a welcome replacement for the flawed edition of Bennett (Horace 1927), while Fairclough (Horace 1929) remains serviceable but needs updating. The German edition of Kiessling, et al. (Horace 1955–1957) has its adherents. Complete texts can also be found online at the Latin Library. Editions and commentaries for Horace’s individual works are listed under Commentaries.

                                      • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1901. Q. Horati Flacci opera. Edited by E. C. Wickham. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                        Reprinted in 2002. Includes apparatus criticus.

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                                        • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1912. Q. Horati Flacci opera. Edited by H. W. Garrod. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                          Reprinted in 2002. Includes apparatus criticus.

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                                          • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1927. Odes and Epodes. Edited by Charles E. Bennett. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                            Reprinted in 1978. Bennett’s translation has not aged well and is now replaced by Rudd’s (Horace 2004).

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                                            • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1929. Satires, Epistles, Ars Poetica. Edited by H. Rushton Fairclough. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                              Includes text and facing English translation, with minimal editorial and textual commentary.

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                                              • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1955–1957. Q. Horatius Flaccus. Edited by A. Kiessling, R. Heinze, and E. Burck. 3 vols. Berlin: Weidmann.

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                                                Includes text and commentary in German.

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                                                • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1985a. Q. Horati Flacci Opera. Edited by D. R. Shackleton Bailey. Stuttgart, Germany: Teubner.

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                                                  Features several bold conjectures but is now largely accepted as the standard text. Subsequent versions with corrections were published in 1991 and 1998. Includes apparatus criticus.

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                                                  • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1985b. Horatius: Opera. Edited by István Borzsák. Leipzig: Teubner.

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                                                    More conservative than the edition of Shackleton Bailey (Horace 1985a). Includes apparatus criticus.

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                                                    • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2004. Odes and Epodes. Edited and translated by Niall Rudd. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                      Includes text and facing English translation, with minimal editorial and textual commentary.

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                                                      • Latin Library. Q. Horatius Flaccus.

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                                                        Provides complete Latin text but no commentary or apparatus criticus. Convenient, but not a substitute for a critical text.

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                                                        Commentaries

                                                        The commentaries listed here are all excellent, having been written by learned and sensitive critics. Nisbet and Hubbard (Horace 1970–1978) and Nisbet and Rudd (Horace 2004) are indispensable for any serious study of Odes Books I–III. Fedeli and Ciccarelli (Horace 2008) provides commentary for Odes Book IV. Commentaries in English on Book IV are anticipated from Richard Thomas and Philip Hills. For those with German, the volumes of Syndikus (Horace 1972–1973) offer invaluable scholarly assistance. New commentaries on the Satires are also in progress for the Cambridge Greek and Latin series, from Emily Gowers (on Book I) and Kirk Freudenburg (on Book II).

                                                        English Translations

                                                        Horace is notoriously difficult to translate, given that so much of his poetic impact derives from his careful attention to sound, meter, and structure, the creation of vivid images through the unexpected juxtapositions of words, the mixture of different levels of diction and tone, and the deft manipulation of his audience’s expectations. Many of these techniques and effects are virtually impossible to render faithfully in English. Horace has often been translated, but with wide variation in accuracy and quality. That said, attractive literary (as opposed to literal) translations are available for all of Horace’s works. Especially recommended are Juster (Horace 2008) for the Satires, West (Horace 1997) for the Epodes and Odes, and Ferry (Horace 2002a) for the Epistles. Taken together, West (Horace 1995, Horace 1998, and Horace 2002c) provides the Latin text and stimulating commentaries as well as translations for the poems of Odes Books I–III.

                                                        • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1995. Odes I: Carpe diem. Translated by David Alexander West. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                          Includes text, translation, and brief commentary for each poem.

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                                                          • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1997. The complete Odes and Epodes. Translated by David Alexander West. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                            Includes the Carmen Saeculare. Widely considered to be one of the best translations of Horace currently available.

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                                                            • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1998a. Odes II: Vatis amici. Translated by David Alexander West. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                              Includes text, translation, and brief commentary for each poem.

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                                                              • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 1998b. The Odes of Horace. Translated by David Ferry. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

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                                                                Includes the Carmen Saeculare. Graceful and sensitive translations throughout.

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                                                                • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2002a. The Epistles of Horace. Translated by David Ferry. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

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                                                                  Includes the Ars Poetica. Also very fine.

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                                                                  • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2002b. Horace, the Odes: New translations by contemporary poets. Edited by J. D. McClatchy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                    Translations by thirty-five poets are mostly of a high standard, but they vary in their degree of fidelity to the original. Newcomers to Horace should exercise due care.

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                                                                    • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2002c. Odes III: Dulce periculum. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                      Includes text, translation, and brief commentary for each poem.

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                                                                      • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2005. The Satires of Horace and Persius. Edited by Niall Rudd, New York: Penguin.

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                                                                        Lively, accurate, and stimulating.

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                                                                        • Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus). 2008. The Satires of Horace. Translated by A. M. Juster. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                          Polished, clever, and remarkably close to the original, given the use of rhyme.

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                                                                          Scholarship

                                                                          The scholarly bibliography for the various works of Horace is vast. What follows is a highly abbreviated list of important scholarship on the individual works, intended primarily to serve as a starting point for further study. Noteworthy collections of papers and essays follow thereafter. General and thematic treatments are noted elsewhere under the relevant headings.

                                                                          Satires

                                                                          The Satires (or Sermones) comprise two books of poems in dactylic hexameter (ten in Book I, eight in Book II) on a large array of topics: philosophical diatribes, literary essays, dialogues, amusing anecdotes, purportedly autobiographical statements, and so on. As such, Horace’s Satires are a prime example of the self-conscious and wide-ranging literary genre of Latin verse satire. Rudd 1966 remains the only full-length study of both books of the Satires. Book I has received more scholarly attention than Book II; see especially Zetzel 1980, and more recently Schlegel 2005. Coffey 1976, Anderson 1982, and Freudenburg 2001 discuss Horace within the larger context of satire as a literary genre. Zetzel 2002 offers an interesting discussion of the Satires within some of the broader literary contexts of Augustan poetry.

                                                                          • Anderson, William S. 1982. Essays on Roman satire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                            For essays on Horace and the Satires, including extended analyses of two poems, see especially pp. 13–102.

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                                                                            • Coffey, Michael. 1976. Roman satire. London: Methuen.

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                                                                              A comprehensive overview of the genre, its practitioners, and variations.

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                                                                              • Freudenburg, Kirk. 2001. Satires of Rome: Threatening poses from Lucilius to Juvenal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                For essays on Horace’s Satires, primarily analyses of individual poems and groupings of poems, see pp. 15–124.

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                                                                                • Rudd, Niall. 1966. The Satires of Horace: A study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  Nine essays on thematic groupings of poems in Books I and II, plus an appendix on Horace, Juvenal, and Dryden. A second edition was published in 1982 by the Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                  • Schlegel, Catherine. 2005. Satire and the threat of speech: Horace’s Satires, Book 1. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                                    Focuses on generic and programmatic considerations in Horace’s self-fashioning.

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                                                                                    • Zetzel, James E. G. 1980. Horace’s Liber sermonum: The structure of ambiguity. Arethusa 13:59–77.

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                                                                                      A seminal article on the structure and arrangement of Satires Book I.

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                                                                                      • Zetzel, James E. G. 2002. Dreaming about Quirinus: Horace’s Satires and the development of Augustan poetry. In Traditions and contexts in the poetry of Horace. Edited by Anthony J. Woodman and Denis C. Feeney, 38–52. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                        Considers Satires Book I in light of its stylistic and literary critical ties to Callimachus and Virgil’s Eclogues.

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                                                                                        Epodes

                                                                                        The Epodes consist of seventeen poems in several meters (primarily iambic), composed between 42 and 30 BCE. Their subject matter varies widely, from poems about Rome’s civil wars to abusive and obscene sexual screeds. In their epodic metrical schemes and variations of subject and tone, these poems are heavily influenced by the Iamboi of Archilochus. For a long time the Epodes did not receive much attention apart from the political poems (1, 7, 9, and 16). Scholars have more recently begun to assess the importance of the collection as a whole; see Fitzgerald 1988, Oliensis 1991, Watson 1995, Watson 2003 and Lyne 2005.

                                                                                        Odes and Carmen Saeculare

                                                                                        Horace’s most famous work, the Odes (or Carmina), was initially published as a collection of three books of Latin verse in a wide range of Greek lyric meters, most of them never attempted before in Latin (thirty-eight poems in Book I, twenty in Book II, and thirty in Book III)—a staggering achievement. Horace released a fourth book of fifteen Odes some ten years later, reportedly at Augustus’s request. The Carmen Saeculare, which Horace composed for the emperor’s celebratory Secular Games of 17 BCE, is traditionally included in editions of the Odes. It is extraordinarily difficult to reduce the massive scholarly bibliography on the Odes to a short list. Wilkinson 1945 and Commager 1962 continue to hold much appeal, although their approaches and views were largely superseded in the 1990s by more recent theoretical approaches that focus primarily on issues of rhetorical and generic manipulation. Among these, Davis 1991, Ancona 1994, and Lowrie 1997 are especially important. Commentaries in English on Book IV of the Odes have not yet appeared, but these poems are well supported by the studies of Putnam 1986 and Johnson 2004. Also helpful is Santirocco 1986. Long dismissed as a work of court propaganda of little intrinsic interest, the Carmen Saeculare is drawing more attention in the wake of Putnam 2000.

                                                                                        • Ancona, Ronnie. 1994. Time and the erotic in Horace’s Odes. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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                                                                                          A thought-provoking examination of considerations of gender and the passage of time in Horace’s depiction of love and lovers.

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                                                                                          • Commager, Steele. 1962. The Odes of Horace: A critical study. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                            Thematic and interpretive essays from a New Critical perspective. Reprinted in 1995 (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press).

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                                                                                            • Davis, Gregson. 1991. Polyhymnia: The rhetoric of Horatian literary discourse. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                              Surveys the rhetorical strategies and generic appropriations that inform Horace’s creation of his lyric persona.

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                                                                                              • Johnson, Timothy S. 2004. A symposion of praise: Horace returns to lyric in Odes IV. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                                                Focuses on the communal interplay of poet and audience in the panegyric and symposiatic lyrics that make up this book of the Odes.

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                                                                                                • Lowrie, Michèle. 1997. Horace’s narrative Odes. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                  Focuses on issues of narrative and genre in the Odes. Useful, although the theoretical discussion becomes indigestible at times.

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                                                                                                  • Putnam, Michael C. J. 1986. Artifices of eternity: Horace’s Fourth Book of Odes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                    A wide-ranging and scholarly reading of the fifteen poems in Odes Book IV.

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                                                                                                    • Putnam, Michael C. J. 2000. Horace’s Carmen Saeculare: Ritual magic and the poet’s art. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                      Argues that the Carmen Saeculare should be appreciated as a powerful and successful work of poetry.

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                                                                                                      • Santirocco, Matthew S. 1986. Unity and design in Horace’s Odes. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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                                                                                                        Analyzes the careful structure and organization of Odes Books I–III.

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                                                                                                        • Wilkinson, L. P. 1945. Horace and his lyric poetry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                          By now outdated in its critical approach, but nevertheless a thoughtful and sensitive reading of Horace.

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                                                                                                          Epistles and Ars Poetica

                                                                                                          The Epistles and Ars Poetica are best thought of as three separate but connected works. Book I of the Epistles consists of twenty verse compositions in dactylic hexameter and takes the form of a collection of letters to friends, associates, and passing acquaintances of Horace, mostly dealing with philosophical and social topics. Book II contains only two long letters in hexameters, discussing primarily literary themes; the first of these is addressed to the emperor Augustus. The Ars Poetica (also known as the Letter to the Pisones or occasionally as Epistles II.3) is an even longer verse letter in hexameters, addressed to a father and two sons of the Piso family and taking the form of a didactic manual on the composition of poetry. In general, the Epistles have not received as much scholarly attention as some of Horace’s other works. The detailed and magisterial studies of Brink 1963, Brink 1971, and Brink 1982 are invaluable for any study of Epistles Book II and the Ars Poetica, but newcomers to Horace may find them difficult. McGann 1969 and De Pretis 2002 provide thoughtful discussions of Epistles Book I; Feeney 2002 does the same for Epistles II.1 (the letter to Augustus). Poem-by-poem examinations of the two books of Epistles are undertaken in Kilpatrick 1986 and Kilpatrick 1990. For the Ars Poetica, see Russell 1973.

                                                                                                          • Brink, C. O. 1963. Horace on poetry: Prolegomena to the literary Epistles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                            Primarily focuses on elucidating the critical tradition to which the Ars Poetica responds.

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                                                                                                            • Brink, C. O. 1971. Horace on poetry: The “Ars Poetica.” Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                              Further analysis of the literary criticism of the Ars Poetica.

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                                                                                                              • Brink, C. O. 1982. Horace on poetry: Epistles Book II: The Letters to Augustus and Florus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                The third volume of Brink’s great study, focusing on Book II of the Epistles.

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                                                                                                                • De Pretis, Anna. 2002. “Epistolarity” in the first book of Horace’s Epistles. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias.

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                                                                                                                  A good discussion of the epistolary genre and other literary issues in Epistles Book I.

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                                                                                                                  • Feeney, Denis C. 2002. VNA CVM SCRIPTORE MEO: Poetry, principate, and the traditions of literary history in the epistle to Augustus. In Traditions and contexts in the poetry of Augustus. Edited by Anthony J. Woodman and Denis C. Feeney, 172–187. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                    A very useful overview of Epistles II.1 and what it says about the interplay of literary and political history in the Augustan period.

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                                                                                                                    • McGann, M. J. 1969. Studies in Horace’s first book of Epistles. Brussels: Latomus.

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                                                                                                                      Interprets Epistles Book I from a New Critical perspective.

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                                                                                                                      • Kilpatrick, Ross S. 1986. The poetry of friendship: Horace, Epistles I. Edmonton: Univ. of Alberta Press.

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                                                                                                                        Interpretive essays on each poem. Latin text is not provided.

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                                                                                                                        • Kilpatrick, Ross S. 1990. The poetry of criticism: Horace, Epistles II and Ars Poetica. Edmonton: Univ. of Alberta Press.

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                                                                                                                          Interpretive essays on each poem. Latin text is not provided.

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                                                                                                                          • Russell, D. A. 1973. Ars Poetica. In Horace. Edited by C. D. N. Costa, 113–134. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                            Reprinted in Ancient literary criticism, edited by A. Laird (pp. 325–345. New York: Oxford Univ. Press). Places the Ars Poetica in the context of ancient literary criticism.

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                                                                                                                            Collections of Papers

                                                                                                                            The original essays in Rudd 1993, Harrison 1995, and Woodman and Feeney 2002 provide a good overview of the progress of Horatian studies over the past fifteen years. Anderson 1999 assembles a number of older articles from the various journals in which they first appeared. Collections of important essays on the Satires and Epistles (Freudenburg 2009) and the Odes and Epodes (Lowrie 2009) are available as part of the Oxford Readings in Classical Studies series.

                                                                                                                            • Anderson, William S., ed. 1999. Why Horace? A collection of interpretive essays. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci.

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                                                                                                                              Reprints of twenty-four articles on Horace (most of them on individual Odes), along with a new essay by the editor.

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                                                                                                                              • Freudenburg, Kirk, ed. 2009. Horace: Satires and Epistles. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                Reprints of nineteen articles on Horace, including five in new English translations.

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                                                                                                                                • Harrison, Stephen J., ed. 1995. Homage to Horace: A bimillenary celebration. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                                                  Eighteen essays on a range of Horatian topics, primarily analyses of individual poems from the Odes and discussions of literary, rhetorical, and historical themes. An important and influential collection.

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                                                                                                                                  • Lowrie, Michèle, ed. 2009. Horace: Odes and Epodes. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Reprints of nineteen articles on Horace, including several in new English translations.

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                                                                                                                                    • Rudd, Niall, ed. 1993. Horace 2000: A celebration. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays by leading scholars on central issues and questions of interpretation.

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                                                                                                                                      • Woodman, Anthony J., and Denis C. Feeney, eds. 2002. Traditions and contexts in the poetry of Horace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                        Twelve essays on literary and literary-historical topics in the Epodes, Satires, Odes, Epistles, and Carmen Saeculare.

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                                                                                                                                        Horace and His Literary Predecessors

                                                                                                                                        Much important scholarship has been devoted to Horace’s complex artistic relationship with his Greek and Roman antecedents in the poetic genres of iambic (notably Archilochus and Hipponax), lyric (especially Alcaeus, Pindar, and Catullus), and satire (Lucilius), as well as to Horace’s adaptation of the Alexandrian poetics of Callimachus. Many of the works cited elsewhere in this bibliography address these issues extensively (including Williams 1968 under General Overviews and Davis 1991 under Odes and Carmen Saeculare). Barchiesi 2001 and Feeney 1993 provide good introductions to Horace’s responses to Greek iambic and lyric poetry, respectively, while the essays in Paschalis and Putnam 2002 focus on the connections of individual poems in the Odes, Epodes, and Epistles to a wide range of works by Archaic and Hellenistic Greek poets. Ferri 1993 considers the influence of the poet Lucretius on the Satires and especially the Epistles, among other interpretive issues. Freudenburg 1993 is very good on literary criticism in the Satires, while Putnam 2006 examines the artistic relationship of Horace to Catullus, his predecessor in the nascent genre of Latin lyric poetry.

                                                                                                                                        • Barchiesi, Alessandro. 2001. Horace and iambos: The poet as literary historian. In Iambic ideas: Essays on a poetic tradition from Archaic Greece to the late Roman Empire. Edited by A. Cávarzere, A. Aloni, and A. Barchiesi, 141–164. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

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                                                                                                                                          Discusses the Epodes in relation to Archaic Greek poetry.

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                                                                                                                                          • Feeney, Denis C. 1993. Horace and the Greek lyric poets. In Horace 2000: A celebration. Edited by Niall Rudd, 41–63. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                            A clearly written and engaging overview of Horace’s relationship to the canonical poets of Greek lyric.

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                                                                                                                                            • Ferri, Rolando. 1993. I dispiaceri di un epicureo. Pisa, Italy: Giardini.

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                                                                                                                                              On the epistolary form and the relationship of Epistles Book I to the poetry of Lucretius and the genre of epigram, see especially chapter 2, “Lettere di un maestro di campagna,” pp. 59–143. In Italian.

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                                                                                                                                              • Freudenburg, Kirk. 1993. The walking muse: Horace on the theory of satire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                Considers the Satires in terms of several literary and theoretical traditions, including diatribe, comedy, and Aristotelian and Callimachean literary criticism.

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                                                                                                                                                • Paschalis, Michael, and Michael C. J. Putnam, eds. 2002. Horace and Greek lyric poetry. Rethymnon: Univ. of Crete.

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                                                                                                                                                  A collection of nine essays by noted scholars on Horace’s interaction with Greek lyric poetry of the Archaic and Hellenistic periods.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Putnam, Michael C. J. 2006. Poetic interplay: Catullus and Horace. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    A sympathetic and insightful study of the many interconnections of language, tone, and theme between Horace and Catullus.

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                                                                                                                                                    Receptions of Horace

                                                                                                                                                    Horace claims to have been disappointed by the initial reaction to his first three books of Odes, but it is clear from the responses of younger poets such as Propertius and Ovid that their impact was immediate and enormous. Although Horace’s tour de force effectively killed its own genre (it appears that no author attempted thereafter to compose a large body of Latin lyric poems), the Odes had a lasting effect on techniques of poetic composition in a wide range of literary forms. Horace’s Satires and Epistles were similarly influential; Persius and Juvenal, for instance, respond extensively to Horace in their verse satires. Like Virgil, Horace became a canonical author almost in his own lifetime, and his works retained their status as standard school texts throughout Antiquity and beyond. For Horace’s reception in the medieval period, see Quint 1988. For Horace in the Renaissance, see Ludwig 1993. Essays in Martindale and Hopkins 1993 survey the transmission and reception of Horace in Britain from the Renaissance through the 18th century. Harrison 2007b provides an interesting discussion of the place of Horace in 19th-century British culture. In addition, see especially vol. 3 of Mariotti 1996–1998, the relevant sections of Harrison 2007a, and now Houghton and Wyke 2009.

                                                                                                                                                    • Freudenburg, Kirk. 2001. Satires of Rome: Threatening poses from Lucilius to Juvenal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      Addresses the responses of Persius and Juvenal to Horace as part of an interesting examination of the social dynamics and resonance of satire.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Harrison, Stephen J., ed. 2007a. The Cambridge companion to Horace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        On the reception of Horace, see the essays by R. J. Tarrant, K. Friis-Jensen, M. J. McGann, D. Money, and S. J. Harrison in Part 4, pp. 277–346.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Harrison, Stephen J. 2007b. Horace and the construction of the Victorian gentleman. Helios 33:207–222.

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                                                                                                                                                          Discusses the place of Horace in 19th-century British culture.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Highet, Gilbert. 1949. The classical tradition: Greek and Roman influences on Western literature. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            A celebrated account of the influence of Classical literature on the Western literary tradition. Reprinted in 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Houghton, L. B. T., and Maria Wyke, eds. 2009. Perceptions of Horace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              A collection of seventeen essays by noted scholars on Horatian personae and their reception from Antiquity through the Victorian era.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Ludwig, Walther. 1993. Horazrezeption in der Renaissance oder die Renaissance des Horaz. In Horace: L’oeuvre et les imitations: Un siècle d’interpretation. Edited by Walther Ludwig, 305–371. Entretiens Hardt 49. Geneva, Switzerland: Fondation Hardt.

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                                                                                                                                                                Discusses the reception of Horace in the Renaissance. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Mariotti, Scevola, ed. 1996–1998. Orazio: Enciclopedia oraziana. 3 vols. Rome: Istituto della enciclopedia italiana.

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                                                                                                                                                                  A lavish and comprehensive resource, but difficult to find outside larger research library collections. For receptions of Horace, see entries in vol. 3, “La fortuna, l’esegesi, l’attualità.” In Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Martindale, Charles, and David Hopkins, eds. 1993. Horace made new: Horatian influences on British writing from the Renaissance to the twentieth century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Twelve essays on the influence of Horace on British literature since the 16th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Quint, Maria-Barbara. 1988. Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Horaz-Rezeption. Frankfurt, Germany: Lang.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the reception of Horace in the Middle Ages. In German.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Horace and Philosophy

                                                                                                                                                                      The relationship of Horace to philosophy is extensive yet elusive. He frequently resorts to philosophical commonplaces in his poetry, but does not adhere to the precepts of any one philosophical school; within his works can be found elements of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Cynicism, among other schools. Horace alludes to a number of philosophers by name, but some of these are otherwise unknown and may be fictitious (particularly in the Satires). Epicureanism ultimately comes to dominate in his later poetry, but Horace is arguably useful from a philosophical standpoint precisely because he provides a portrait of an educated layman who samples from various schools rather than engaging with philosophy in a systematic way. For an excellent discussion of this aspect of Horace’s poetry, see Rudd 1993. Of the other works listed below, Mayer 1986 and Mayer 2005 are skeptical about Horace’s philosophical depth, while Moles 2002 and Turpin 1998 are more supportive.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Mayer, Roland. 1986. Horace’s Epistles I and philosophy. American Journal of Philology 107:55–73.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Argues that Horace’s engagement with philosophy is casual, uncommitted, and inconsistent.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Mayer, Roland. 2005. Sleeping with the enemy: Satire and philosophy. In The Cambridge companion to Roman satire. Edited by Kirk Freudenburg, 146–159. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Argues that the Romans (Horace included) typically approached Greek philosophy with wariness and skepticism.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Moles, John. 2002. Poetry, philosophy, politics, and play, Epistles I. In Traditions and contexts in the poetry of Horace. Edited by Anthony J. Woodman and Denis C. Feeney, 141–157. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Argues that the Epistles are in fact profoundly philosophical works, especially in their meditations on questions of involvement and withdrawal from public life.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Rudd, Niall. 1993. Horace as a moralist. In Horace 2000: A Celebration. Edited by Niall Rudd, 64–88. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Addresses the wide-ranging and flexible quality of Horace’s philosophizing throughout his poetic corpus.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Turpin, William. 1998. The Epicurean parasite: Horace, Satires 1.1–3. Ramus 27:127–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Examines elements of Epicureanism in the first three poems of Satires Book I.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Horace and the Augustan Roman World

                                                                                                                                                                                Although much of the current work on Horace focuses on separate studies of his individual works (as noted previously), several scholars have investigated the complete Horatian corpus as part of an ongoing attempt to understand Horace within the context of the rhetorical practices and social, political, and economic circumstances of Augustan Rome. Earlier analyses of Horace’s politics addressed the question of whether Horace could fairly be characterized as a propagandist for Augustus and his new regime (see, for example, the classic discussion in Syme 1939, the relevant essays in Woodman and West 1984, and Kennedy 1992), but the discussion has more recently shifted to other topics. For examinations of Horace’s sophisticated strategies of rhetorical self-presentation, see Oliensis 1998 and McNeill 2001; Lyne 1995 considers similar issues from a specifically political perspective. On the important subject of literary patronage and Horace’s relationships with Maecenas and Augustus, see Bowditch 2001, White 1993, and the relevant essays in Gold 1982.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Bowditch, Phebe Lowell. 2001. Horace and the gift economy of patronage. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Reexamines the workings of Augustan literary patronage by reading Horace in the light of contemporary anthropological theories of the symbolic value of gift exchange.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gold, Barbara K., ed. 1982. Literary and artistic patronage in ancient Rome. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Eight essays by leading scholars, primarily on social and political aspects of literary patronage in late Republican and Imperial Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kennedy, Duncan F. 1992. “Augustan” and “anti-Augustan”: Reflections on terms of reference. In Roman poetry and propaganda in the age of Augustus. Edited by Anton Powell, 26–58. London: Bristol Classical Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Argues for a more nuanced consideration of the rhetorical responses and ideological relationships of the Augustan poets to the political realities of the new regime.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lyne, R. O. A. M. 1995. Horace: Behind the public poetry. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        A stimulating if somewhat idiosyncratic attempt to uncover “the real Horace” from the artificial personae that he adopts in his political poetry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • McNeill, Randall L. B. 2001. Horace: Image, identity, and audience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Considers key aspects of Horatian self-presentation in terms of the poet’s management of the expectations of his various audiences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oliensis, Ellen. 1998. Horace and the rhetoric of authority. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An important study of the techniques Horace employs to construct and protect his literary self-images.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Syme, Ronald. 1939. The Roman revolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Reprinted in 2002. A celebrated and influential work in classical studies. See especially the chapter on Augustus’s “Organization of Opinion,” pp. 459–475.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • White, Peter. 1993. Promised verse: Poets in the society of Augustan Rome. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                An enormously useful and thought-provoking discussion of the social, political, and cultural dimensions of literary production and patronage under Augustus. Horace features prominently throughout.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Woodman, Anthony J., and David West, eds. 1984. Poetry and politics in the age of Augustus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  For the Epodes as reflecting Horace’s progression from critic to supporter of Octavian (the future Augustus), see R. G. M. Nisbet, “Horace’s Epodes and History,” pp. 1–18. For the political context and propagandistic impact of Satires Book I, see I. M. Le M. DuQuesnay, “Horace and Maecenas: The Propaganda Value of Sermones I,” pp. 19–58.

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