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Classics Topography of Athens
by
Jeffrey M. Hurwit

Introduction

The ancient city-state (or polis) of Athens was contiguous with the region known as Attica, a large, triangular peninsula extending southeastward from the Greek mainland into the Aegean Sea. In the western angle of Attica, on a coastal plain surrounded by four mountains (Hymettos, Pentelikon, Parnes, and Aigaleos), lay the city itself. Although the modern city has thickly spread up the slopes of the mountains as well as to the sea, the study of Athenian topography concentrates on the monuments, buildings, and spaces of the ancient urban core, an area roughly 3 square kilometers surrounding the Acropolis and defended in the Classical period by a wall some 6.5 kilometers in length. Athens is the ancient Greek city that we know best, and it is unquestionably the Greek city whose art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and political history have had the greatest impact on the Western tradition and imagination. As a result, “Athenian” is sometimes considered synonymous with “Greek.” It is not. In many respects, Athens was exceptional among Greek city-states, not typical: it was a very different place from, say, Thebes or Sparta. Still, the study of Athens, its monuments, and its culture needs no defense, and the charge of “Athenocentrism” is a hollow indictment when one stands before the Parthenon or holds a copy of Sophocles’ Antigone. This article will refer to the following periods in the history of Athens and Greece (the dates are conventional): late Bronze, or Mycenaean, Age (1550–1100 BCE); Dark Age (1100–760 BCE); Archaic (760–480 BCE); Classical (480–323 BCE); Hellenistic (323 –31 BCE); and Roman (31 BCE–c. 475 CE).

General Overviews

Travlos 1971 remains essential for its encyclopedic entries, photos, plans, and bibliographies and can be profitably consulted on virtually every site or topic listed in this bibliography. Wycherley 1978, though somewhat out-of-date, is notable for its breadth, accessibility, and use of ancient sources. The detailed watercolor reconstructions of the city and its monuments in Connolly and Dodge 1998 usefully aid the imagination. Camp 2001 and Goette 2001 are clear and informative guides, incorporating much recent research. Discoveries made throughout the city during the recent construction of the Metro are beautifully presented in Stampolides and Parlama 2000, and Bouras and Korres 2003 impressively treats the history of the city from Antiquity to the present. Recent strong scholarly interest in Roman Athens is reflected in such collections as Vlizos 2008. The website The Ancient City of Athens is a superb resource.

  • The Ancient City of Athens.

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    Created by Kevin Glowacki, this website is well organized, informative, and reliable, with extensive image galleries, descriptions, bibliographies, and links to other websites. Especially useful for students at all levels.

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  • Bouras, Charalampos, and M. Korres, eds. 2003. Athens: From the Classical period to the present day (5th century B.C.–A.D. 2000). New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll.

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    A handsomely produced, multiauthored volume with essays on the architecture, sculpture, history, and philosophy of ancient Athens, but especially valuable for its many chapters on its post-Antique and modern history.

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  • Camp, John M. 2001. The archaeology of Athens. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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    Part 1 is a comprehensive historical survey of the major sites and monuments of Athens and Attica from the prehistoric to late Roman periods. Part 2 contains excellent, concise site summaries, with useful bibliographies. Well illustrated.

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  • Connolly, Peter, and Hazel Dodge. 1998. The ancient city: Life in Classical Athens and Rome. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Ideal for students, but especially useful to everyone for its rich and often informative watercolor reconstructions. Part 1 (pp. 9–101) treats Athens.

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  • Goette, Hans Rupprecht. 2001. Athens, Attica, and the Megarid: An archaeological guide. Rev. ed. London and New York: Routledge.

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    Succinct and very useful. The first half focuses on the major sites and monuments of ancient Athens, but with entries on the museums, gardens, and monasteries of the modern city as well. The rest surveys Attica beyond Athens, including entries on Megara, Perachora, and the islands of the Saronic Gulf.

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  • Stampolides, N., and L. Parlama, eds. 2000. Athens: The city beneath the city: Antiquities from the Metropolitan Railway excavations. London and New York: Harry N. Abrams.

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    The well-produced catalogue of an exhibition of finds from excavations undertaken throughout Athens during the construction of the new Metro.

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  • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York: Praeger.

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    Still a fundamental text with a wealth of summaries, photographs, drawings, and plans of virtually every major feature and monument of the ancient cityscape. The extensive bibliographies are updated in J. Travlos, Bildlexikon zur Topographie des antiken Attika (Tübingen, Germany: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, 1988), pp. 23–51.

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  • Vlizos, S., ed. 2008. E Athena kata te Romaike Epokhe: Prosphates anakalypseis, nees ereunes. Athens, Greece: Benaki Museum.

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    (From the modern Greek: Athens during the Roman period: Recent discoveries, new evidence.) Scholarly papers (mostly in Greek, a few in German and English) presented at an international symposium held in 2006.

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  • Wycherley, R. E. 1978. The stones of Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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    An eminently readable synthesis of the development of ancient Athens, with chapters on general features (e.g., walls, theaters, gymnasia, building stones), major sites, and the principal monuments.

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Reference Works

Boersma 1970, though out-of-date, can still be profitably consulted for details of major projects, but Travlos 1971 remains the foundation. Goette 2001 and the second part of Camp 2001 (site summaries) are relatively up-to-date, authoritative, and convenient places to start. Binder 2001 is monumental, but not easily accessible.

  • Binder, J. 2001. The monuments and sites of Athens as they were seen, described, and investigated from 1102 to 1997. Private imprint.

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    Detailed and informative catalogue available in the libraries of the American and British Schools in Athens.

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  • Boersma, J. S. 1970. Athenian building policy from 561/0 to 405/4 B.C. Scripta Archaeologica Groningana 4. Groningen, The Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoff.

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    A useful if outdated survey of 150 years of Athenian architecture. Historical chapters are followed by a catalogue of sites and individual projects.

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  • Camp, John M. 2001. The archaeology of Athens. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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    Part 1 is a comprehensive historical survey of the major sites and monuments of Athens and Attica from the prehistoric to late Roman periods. Part 2 contains excellent summaries of the major sites, with useful bibliographies. Well illustrated.

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  • Goette, Hans Rupprecht. 2001. Athens, Attica, and the Megarid: An archaeological guide. Rev. ed. London and New York: Routledge.

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    Succinct and very useful. The first half focuses on the major sites and monuments of ancient Athens, but with entries on the museums, gardens, and monasteries of the modern city as well. The rest surveys Attica beyond Athens, including Megara, Perachora, and the islands of the Saronic Gulf.

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  • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York and Washington, DC: Praeger.

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    Still a fundamental text with a wealth of summaries, photographs, drawings, and plans.

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Journals

Articles reporting new discoveries or interpreting Athenian sites and monuments regularly appear in many journals in a variety of languages, but the following are among the most important.

Primary Sources and Antiquarian Studies

The topography and monuments of Athens were subject to description and comment in Antiquity itself; Jahn, et al. 1976 usefully collects the ancient sources. Probably in the 3rd century BCE, for example, Herakleides Kretikos (On the Cities in Greece, Book 1.1–2) contrasted the narrow, winding streets and cheap houses of the city with its splendid theater, pleasant gymnasia, and the magnificent temple, the so-called Parthenon. In the early 2nd century, Polemon (or Polemo) of Troy wrote four (lost) books just on the dedications found on the Acropolis (Strabo 9.1.16), and the Athenian Heliodoros wrote a guide (fifteen books long) on works of art on the Acropolis (also lost). The geographer Strabo visited the city in the early empire, though he barely mentions the Old Temple of Athena Polias (the Erechtheion), the Parthenon, and Pheidias’s statue within (Geography Book 9.1.15–19). Plutarch in his Life of Perikles (c. 100 CE) gives an engaging (if not always reliable) account of the Periklean building program. But by far the most important ancient source is Pausanias, who devotes the first book of his Description of Greece (written c. 150–175 CE) to Attika and Athens, and whose account of the city’s monuments (though sometimes inaccurate or inscrutable) is still the best place to start. Mallouchou-Tufano 1994 and Kreeb 2003 usefully survey such “early travelers” as the Italian pilgrim Niccolo da Martoni, who in 1395 visited the city on his way back from Palestine, estimated there were a thousand houses in the city, and took decent notes on the Acropolis. In the early Renaissance, such buildings as the Parthenon and the Philopappos Monument were praised (rightly) and drawn (inaccurately) by Ciriaco d’Ancona, the “founding father” of archaeology, who visited twice in 1436 and 1444 (Ciriaco d’Ancona 2003). Other early travelers included the Turk Evliya Chelebi, who toured the Acropolis in 1667 and considered the Parthenon the most beautiful mosque in the world (“marvelous and luminous”), and George Wheler, who in 1676 called the building the “most beautiful piece of Antiquity remaining in the World.” A far more valuable witness was the artist known as Jacques Carrey, who (attached to a French embassy to the Ottomans) drew the sculptures that remained on the Parthenon in 1674, thirteen years before the devastating explosion of 1687: his drawings are priceless (Bowie and Thimme 1971). And in the 18th century the studies and engravings of Julien-David Le Roy and the more accurate work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett—their measurements are precise, and their drawings sometimes record buildings that no longer survive, such as the Temple on the Ilissos—helped kindle the European Greek Revival (Le Roy 2004; Stuart and Revett 1762–1816).

  • Bowie, T., and D. Thimme, eds. 1971. The Carrey drawings of the Parthenon sculptures. Bloomington and London: Indiana Univ. Press.

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    Republishes, with photos of the surviving sculptures set beside them, drawings attributed to Jacques Carrey, which were originally published in H. Omont, Athènes au XVIIe siècle (Paris: E. Leroux, 1898). The Carrey drawings and this publication are invaluable.

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  • Ciriaco d’Ancona. 2003. Later travels. Edited by E. D. Bodnar. I Tatti Renaissance Library 10. Cambridge, UK, and London: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    An edition and translation of Ciriaco’s letters written from 1443 to 1449. Letter 3 (pp. 15–21) contains his description of the “temple of Minerva by Phidias.”

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  • Jahn, O., A. Michaelis, E. Thiersch-G, P. Stevens, and J. Travlos. 1976. The Acropolis of Athens as described by Pausanias, other writers, inscriptions and archaeological evidence. A Collection of the Testimonia from the Original Greek and Latin Sources of Archeological Editions. Chicago: Ares.

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    Useful reprint of the 1901 edition of a compendium of ancient sources first published in 1860 as Pausaniae descriptio arcis Athenarum.

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  • Kreeb, M. 2003. The antiquities of Athens through the eyes of foreign travelers. In Athens: From the Classical period to the present day (5th century B.C.–A.D. 2000). Edited by Charalampos Bouras, 342–369. Newcastle, DE: Oak Knoll.

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    Excellent study, well-illustrated, of the “early travelers” and their impact.

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  • Le Roy, J. D. 2004. Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.

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    Translated by D. Britt as The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2004). Le Roy visited Athens in 1755 and (beating out J. Stuart and N. Revett, who had stayed in Athens in 1751–1753 but whose volumes were delayed) published the first modern study of Greek architecture, with engravings and plans of Athenian buildings like the Parthenon and Erechtheion that excited the Western imagination. First published in 1758; second edition 1770.

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  • Mallouchou-Tufano, F. 1994. The Parthenon from Cyriacus of Ancona to Fréderic Boissonas: Description, research, and depiction. In The Parthenon and its impact in modern times. Edited by P. Tournikiotis, 162–199. Athens, Greece: Melissa.

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    Comprehensive, well-illustrated survey of the “early travelers” and their experiences and descriptions of Athens up to the era of photography.

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  • Pausanias. Periegesis tes Hellados.

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    J. G. Frazer’s translation and commentary, Pausanias’ Description of Greece (London: Macmillan, 1898), is outdated but is still regarded as fundamental. N. Papachatzis’s modern Greek edition and commentary, Pausaniou Ellados Periegesis (Athens, Greece: Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1974), is well illustrated and more up-to-date. P. Levi’s translation, Pausanias: Guide to Greece, Vol. 2 (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1979), is perhaps the most accessible in English. Book 1 describes Attica, chapters 2 through 30 the city itself. Though Pausanias leaves out much, digresses often, and errs or confuses occasionally, his guide is fundamental and its information on the whole reliable.

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  • Stuart, J., and N. Revett. The antiquities of Athens. 4 vols. London: Haberkorn, 1762–1816.

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    The first three volumes have been reproduced in a smaller format by Princeton Architectural Press (New York, 2008). This foundational work publishes invaluable drawings, descriptions, and commentaries on the monuments of the city as they existed in the late 18th century. Far superior to any earlier account (explicitly criticizing Le Roy 2004 for inaccuracies).

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The City Wall

Although the summit of the late Bronze Age Acropolis was defended by a wall of massive “Cyclopean masonry” and another wall (called either the Pelasgikon or Pelargikon in our sources; cf. Thucydides 2.17.1) probably protected the citadel’s west slope (Iakovidis 1983), it is not clear whether any part of the lower city was fortified before the Archaic period (c. 760–480 BCE). We infer the existence of a 6th-century gated city wall, or peribolos, from literary sources such as Thucydides, who notes, for example, that “little of the city wall was left standing” after the Persian sack of Athens in 480–479 (1.89.3; cf. 1.93.1–2; 6.57.1–3). Still, archaeological evidence for the Archaic city wall is strangely absent, and so its course is hypothetical (Lauter-Bufé and Lauter 1975). Whatever its extent, it was hastily replaced at Themistokles’ initiative in the early 470s, with Athenian men, women, and children (Thucydides, I.90.3) frantically using all available materials to construct a new wall some 6.5 kilometers long, enclosing an area of about 3 square kilometers. Knigge 1991, pp. 49–55, surveys the best-preserved stretch of this Themistoklean Wall, extending almost 200 meters across the Kerameikos excavation site; illustrations in Connolly and Dodge 1998, pp. 16–21, usefully picture a wall of mud brick (7–8 meters high) above a stone base about 2.5 meters thick and 1 meter high. The base contained many marble monuments from Archaic graves destroyed by the Persians. Stretches of the Themistoklean Wall and fifteen of its gates are found elsewhere in Athens (near the Olympieion, for example, or in the basements of various modern office buildings). Knigge 1991, Wycherley 1978, and Travlos 1971 together describe the wall’s long history of repairs, rebuildings, and additions. For example, during the Peace of Nikias (421–416), a low stone outerwork (proteichisma) was built to keep potential attackers from the main wall, and a defensive ditch or moat was dug in front of that. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, the wall was razed (404), but it was rebuilt a decade later under Konon with, ironically, Persian funds. Major repairs or thorough rebuildings that raised the level of the wall were undertaken several times later. But the course of the original Themistoklean Wall remained the basic line of Athenian defense until the 3rd century CE, when, after the Herulian destruction (267 CE), a shorter circuit defined a much more constricted area around and to the north of the Acropolis. Significantly, the old Classical Agora, no longer the focus of Athenian life, was left undefended, and the Roman Agora now became the administrative center of the city.

  • Connolly, Peter, and Hazel Dodge. 1998. The ancient city: Life in classical Athens and Rome. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    A clear treatment of the city walls and gates, especially useful for its illustrations and reconstructions. See especially pp. 16–21.

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  • Iakovidis, S. 1983. Late Helladic citadels on mainland Greece. Monumenta Graeca et Romana 4. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill.

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    Surveys the remains and chronology of the upper and lower fortifications of the Acropolis. See especially pp. 79–86.

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  • Knigge, U. 1991. The Athenian Kerameikos: History, monuments, excavations. Athens, Greece: Krenes.

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    A careful, phase-by-phase description of the history of the city wall (as known in the Kerameikos) and the Sacred and Dipylon Gates. See especially pp. 49–73.

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  • Lauter-Bufé, H., and H. Lauter. 1975. Die vorthemistokleische Stadtmauer Athens nach philologischen und archäologischen Quellen. Archdologischer Anzeiger 1:1–9.

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    Useful survey of the literary and paltry archaeological evidence for the pre-Persian city wall.

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  • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York: Praeger.

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    A detailed historical and archaeological account of the walls and gates up to the era of Justinian (who closed Athens’s philosophical schools but rebuilt its defenses, converting the city into a fort), with a full bibliography and many plans and photographs of surviving stretches of the fortifications. See, in particular, pp. 158–179 and 301.

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  • Wycherley, R. E. 1978. The stones of Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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    An accessible survey of the evidence for walls from the Bronze Age to the 19th century, particularly useful for its comprehensiveness. See especially pp. 7–25.

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The Long Walls

Conwell 2008 is the most recent and comprehensive study of the walls built to link Classical Athens to the Bay of Phaleron and to the harbors of the Peiraieus (itself defended by a wall begun in the late 490s, once again at the initiative of Themistokles). These so-called Long Walls (aka “the Legs”) essentially turned Athens into a coastal city and protected a large slice of the Attic plain between the city and the sea. Under Kimon (in the 460s) one wall was begun from Mouseion Hill to Phaleron (5 kilometers distant) and another from the base of the Pnyx Hill to the Peiraieus (6 kilometers away). Under Perikles those walls were finished and a third wall was built parallel to the original Peiraieus wall, creating a fortified corridor (nearly 170 meters wide) to the sea. The Phaleric Wall went out of use sometime between 431 and 404, but overall the Long Walls worked, and the Spartans, winners of the Peloponnesian War, demanded that they be dismantled in 404 (flute girls played as the walls fell). The parallel Peiraieus walls were, however, rebuilt in the early 4th century (395–386).

The Kerameikos

In the Classical period, the large district known as the Kerameikos (literally, “Potter’s Quarter”) extended from the northwest corner of the Agora to the gymnasium (and school of Platonic philosophy) known as the Academy (a distance of 1.5 kilometers): the area thus spanned the city wall built at Themistokles’ initiative after 479–478, at which point the district was divided into an “inner” and “outer” Kerameikos that, according to Thucydides (2.34.5), was the most beautiful suburb of Athens. But, in fact, the term “Kerameikos” is loosely applied, and various sources use it to refer to the industrial quarter of the city, where potters’ shops abounded, or to the major cemetery outside the Sacred and Dipylon Gates, or even to the Agora. The site, its monuments, and the wealth of the finds made during the excavations conducted by the German Archaeological Institute are thoroughly published in the monograph series Kerameikos: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen, Volumes 1–18. Knigge 1991 is the best single overview of the very complicated site and its long history; Knell 2000 is a good update for the 4th century. The earliest true cemetery is Mycenaean, the latest graves are Roman, but the cemetery flourished in the Geometric, Archaic, and Classical periods. The excavated area (about 38,500 square meters), in the lowlands of the Eridanos River (polluted even in Antiquity; see Strabo 9.1.19), is marked by a number of tumuli (funeral mounds) and crossed by roads lined with graves. Splitting off from the Sacred Way about 100 meters past the Sacred Gate is the Street of the Tombs (near its start is the impressive cenotaph of Dexileos; a little farther down was the plot of Koroibos with its famous stela marking the grave of Hegeso). Clairmont 1983 studies the varied evidence concerning the broad road (dromos) starting at the Dipylon Gate, marked by boundary stones and lined on both sides by tombs, that evidently comprised the Demosion Sema. This was the state burial ground, where lay some of Athens’s most famous citizens (such as Perikles) and the mass graves (polyandria) of its war dead (the Demosion Sema was probably not concentrated in one spot along the dromos but was distributed over a number of locations). Goette 2009 published a series of sculptured reliefs from these state tombs. Between the Sacred and Dipylon Gates, within the Themistoklean Wall, was the Pompeion, a larger rectangular building with a peripteral court, where the Panathenaic procession was marshaled (Hoepfner 1976). Important discoveries continue, such as a cache of Archaic sculpture from the area of the Sacred Gate (Niemeier 2002) and a mass grave for victims of the plague that decimated the Athenian population beginning in 430 BCE (Baziotopoulou-Valavani 2002).

  • Akten des Internationalen Symposions Die Ausgrabungen im Kerameikos: Bilanz und Perspektiven: Athen, 27.–31. Januar 1999. 2001. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung 114. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: von Zabern.

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    Important collection of essays on material from the Kerameikos (vases, sculptures, inscriptions, painted stelae) as well as a report (by J. Strouszeck, pp. 283–290) on recent excavations in the dromos (Demosion Sema).

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  • Baziotopoulou-Valavani, E. 2002. A mass burial from the Kerameikos. In Excavating classical culture: Recent archaeological discoveries in Greece. Edited by M. Stamatopoulou and M. Yeroulanou, 187–201. Studies in Classical Archaeology I. BAR International Series 1031. Oxford: Beazley Archive and Archaeopress.

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    Publication of finds from a mass grave for some 150 Athenian adults and infants who were evidently victims of the plague that struck Athens at the start of the Peloponnesian War (430–426 BCE). Provides archaeological confirmation of literary descriptions of the plague and its effects (e.g., Thucydides 2.47–52). Paper first delivered at a symposium held in Oxford, 24–26 March 2001.

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  • Clairmont, C. W. 1983. Patrios Nomos, public burial in Athens during the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.: The archaeological, epigraphic-literary, and historical evidence. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

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    Major publication of the historical, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence for state tombs and associated rituals.

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  • Goette, H. R. 2009. Images in the Athenian “Demosion Sema.” In Art in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Edited by O. Palagia, 188–206. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    A study of the iconography of a series of battle reliefs from the state burial ground (or grounds).

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  • Hoepfner, W. 1976. Das Pompeion und seine Nachfolger-Baute. Kerameikos: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen 10. Munich: Hirmer.

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    Thorough publication of the remains and function of the Pompeion and nearby structures.

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  • Kerameikos: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen. 18 vols. Berlin and Munich: Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

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    These fundamental volumes publish the results of the excavations of the cemetery undertaken by the German Archaeological Institute since 1913. A number of volumes deal specifically with the topography of the site—e.g., Hoepfner 1976 (Volume 10) and E. Künze-Götte, Die Nekropole von der Mitte des 6. bis zum ende des 5.Jahrhunderts (Volume 7).

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    • Knell, H. 2000. Athen im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Eine Stadt verändert ihr Gesicht: Archäologisch-kulturgeschichtliche Betrachtungen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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      Good analyses of the late Classical cemetery, its grave monuments, and the Pompeion. See especially pp. 23–54.

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    • Knigge, U. 1991. The Athenian Kerameikos: History, monuments, excavations. Athens, Greece: Krenes.

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      A handy and detailed guide by a leading scholar of the site.

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    • Niemeier, W. D. 2002. Der Kuros vom heilgen Tor: Überraschende Neufunde archaischer Skulptur im Kerameikos in Athen. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie: Sonderbände der Antiken Welt. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: von Zabern.

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      The admirably prompt publication of important Archaic funerary sculpture, including a kouros stylistically similar to works from Sounion now in the National Museum (Athens) and the famous New York kouros, discovered at the Sacred Gate in 2002.

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    The Agora

    The monuments and material excavated by the American School of Classical Studies since 1931 are thoroughly published in the ongoing monograph series The Athenian Agora. A comprehensive summary is found in the fourteenth volume of the series (Thompson and Wycherley 1972), but more up-to-date treatments and useful guides include Camp 1986, Camp and Mauzy 2009, and Camp and Mauzy 2010. The website Athenian Agora Excavations is a fine resource for students and scholars alike. The area of the Classical Agora—the civic and commercial center of the city but also a locus for athletic contests and theatrical performances—was originally a burial ground and manufacturing district. More than 150 late Bronze, Geometric, and early Archaic graves have been uncovered; there are remains from such industrial establishments as a 6th-century bronze foundry; and plentiful evidence for early ceramic shops explains why this area (like the extensive industrial quarter to the northwest) could occasionally be called Kerameikos (literally, “Potters’ Quarter”) even relatively late in Antiquity (Papadopoulos 2003). The first, or Archaic, Agora was in fact located below the Acropolis’s east and northeast slopes; one important (as yet undiscovered) civic building, the Prytaneion (Town Hall), would always remain there. But the flat area northwest of the Acropolis probably first began its conversion process into a public space under the Peisistratid tyranny; the young democracy finished the process around or just after 500. On an average day around 400 BCE, the open space of the Classical Agora would have been filled with merchants, craftsmen, shoppers, talkers (politicians, teachers, students), and assorted monuments in marble and bronze. On the west side were such public buildings as the round Tholos (where fifty-member contingents of the boule, or senate, ate and slept in turn), the Bouleuterion (Senate House), and two colonnaded halls—the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios and the Royal Stoa (the office of the chief Athenian religious official). Looming over the west side, set atop a low hill in a neatly planted garden, was the Temple of Athena and Hephaistos (Hephaisteion). Across the broad Panathenaic Way from the Royal Stoa was another portico full of famous paintings (the Stoa Poikile). The south side was defined by the sanctuary of the hero Aiakos (once thought to be the Heliaia, or law court), the long commercial South Stoa I (it was replaced by South Stoa II in the Hellenistic period), and the public mint. To the southeast, on ground rising toward the Acropolis, lay the Eleusinion, a sanctuary that bound Athens to the cult of Demeter at Eleusis (Miles 1998). The east side was defined by houses, shops, and possibly a law court (Townsend 1995). The sides of the Agora would eventually be filled with more shrines, altars, and even longer porticoes (such as the Stoa of Attalos on the east, c. 150 BCE, and on the south South Stoa II and the so-called Middle Stoa), fountain houses, and public buildings (such as the Metroon, a temple that also served as the state archives). Early in the Roman period, the center was filled with a 5th-century Temple of Athena wholly transplanted from Pallene (and rededicated to Ares) and a massive new concert hall (the Odeion of Agrippa), as if by clogging the open space of the Agora, the empire could diminish the legacy of democracy. Later, in the early 2nd century CE, an Athenian named Pantainos built a library just south of the Stoa of Attalos; a little later, a basilica was built at the Agora’s northeast corner. The Agora did not fare as well later: after the Herulian destruction (267 CE), it was left unprotected and deteriorated. But during a brief late Antique revival (c. 420 CE), a huge, even palace-like complex was built at the center of the old square—the last major feature of the ancient Agora.

    • Athenian Agora. Vols. 1–34. 1953–2010. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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      These fundamental volumes publish the buildings, sculptures, pottery, and other objects discovered in the excavations undertaken by the American School since 1931.

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      • Athenian Agora Excavations.

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        The official website of the American School of Classical Studies excavations, with an interactive guide to the monuments, discussion of the role of the Agora in Athenian democracy, and excavation reports since 1998.

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      • Camp, John M. 1986. The Athenian Agora: Excavations in the heart of Classical Athens. New Aspects of Antiquity. New York: Thames and Hudson.

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        A well-illustrated overview by the director of the Agora excavations.

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      • Camp, John M., and C. Mauzy. 2010. The Athenian Agora: Site guide. 5th ed. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        The best on-site guide available.

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      • Camp, John M., and C. Mauzy, eds. 2009. The Athenian Agora: New perspectives on an ancient site. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: von Zabern.

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        Well-illustrated, comprehensive essays by various authors on the history of the site, its excavation, and selected monuments and remains.

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      • Miles, M. 1998. The City Eleusinion. Athenian Agora 31. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Fundamental study of the history, finds, and topography of the Sanctuary of Demeter on the north slope of the Acropolis.

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      • Papadopoulos, John K. 2003. Ceramicus Redivivus: The early Iron Age potters’ field in the area of the Classical Athenian Agora. Hesperia Supplement 31. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Presents the evidence for the use of the area that later became the Agora as a potters’ quarter from the Protogeometric period to the 7th century, thus explaining why ancient sources (like Pausanias) sometimes refer to the Agora as the Kerameikos.

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      • Thompson, H. A., and R. E. Wycherley. 1972. The Agora of Athens: The history, shape, and uses of an ancient city center. Athenian Agora 14. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies.

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        A thorough history of the site and its monuments as known in 1972 by the director of the excavations from 1947 to 1967 and a major scholar of the ancient testimonia related to the site.

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      • Townsend, R. F. 1995. The east side of the Agora: The remains beneath the Stoa of Attalos. Athenian Agora 27. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        A careful analysis of excavations beneath the stoa, revealing evidence for such structures as an Archaic altar, Classical public buildings, and the large “Square Peristyle” (c. 300 BCE) that may have accommodated a number of law courts.

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      The Hephaisteion (Temple of Athena and Hephaistos)

      The precise chronology of this quintessentially Doric marble temple, set atop the low hill known as Kolonos Agoraios, is a matter of debate (Camp 1986cited under The Agora). The building was begun before the Parthenon—a date of 449 BCE is often assumed (Dinsmoor 1975), but the project could have been started even earlier, c. 460. But work was delayed as resources were shifted to the Acropolis, and it almost certainly was not structurally completed until after the Parthenon and Propylaia (Wyatt and Edmonson 1984), possibly as late as c. 420. Yeroulanou 1998 analyzes the technical relationship between the dimensions of the metopes and the overall design of the temple. On inscriptional evidence, the cult statues were not made until 421–415, when they must have had a roof over their heads. There is no altar within the precinct, there is no evidence for an earlier temple on the site, and even the identity of the temple has been questioned (Harrison 1977). Architectural sculpture emphasizes the east end of the building (the side overlooking the Agora) and presents models of heroism (Barringer 2008). Both pediments were filled with sculpture, but the subjects are unknown. The four easternmost metopes on the north and south flanks represent the deeds of Theseus, the ten metopes on the east the Labors of Herakles. Ionic friezes above the pronaos and opisthodomos (von Bockelberg 1979) depict a centauromachy and a battle in the presence (or under the eye) of six gods: Theseus, hero of the democracy, may play a central role in both for Reber 1998; the east frieze shows Theseus battling the Pallantids, who challenged his authority; for Barringer 2008, it shows Athenians against the forces of Atlantis, where Theseus may again be present . The temple owes its relatively fine state of preservation to its conversion into a Byzantine church of St. George.

      • Barringer, J. M. 2008. Art, myth, and ritual in Classical Greece. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        Chapter 2 (pp. 109–143) skillfully places the Hephaisteion sculptures and the heroic paradigms of Herakles and Theseus it presents in the ideological context of the Agora. An earlier version of the argument (though published later) is “A New Approach to the Hephaisteion: Heroic Models in the Athenian Agora” in Structure, Image, Ornament: Architectural Sculpture in the Greek World, edited by P. Schultz and R. von den Hoff (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2009), pp. 105–120.

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      • Dinsmoor, W. B. 1975. The architecture of ancient Greece. 3d ed. New York: W. W. Norton.

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        Classic statement of the date of 449 for the inception of the temple and its attribution to the “Theseum Architect,” responsible also for the Temples of Athena Pallenis (rededicated to Ares) in the Agora, Poseidon at Sounion, and Nemesis at Rhamnous. Reprint of the 3rd edition with photos.

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      • Harrison, E. B. 1977. Alkamenes’ sculptures for the Hephaisteion. American Journal of Archaeology 81.1–3.

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        Detailed studies (“The Cult Statues [137–178]”; “The Base [265–287]”; and “Iconography and Style [411–426]”) of evidence for the cult statues and their base, concluding that the Doric building on Kolonos Agoraios cannot have served Athena and Hephaistos but was the Temple of Artemis Eukleia instead (see p. 139n.14). This argument has won few adherents.

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      • Reber, K. 1998. Das Hephaisteion in Athen: Ein Monument für die Demokratie. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 113:31–48.

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        Revives theory that the east frieze represents Theseus’s battle against the Pallantids, and sets the building and its sculptures in the context of the “radical” democracy promoted by Ephialtes and Perikles.

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      • von Bockelberg, S. 1979. Die Friese des Hephaisteion. Antike Plastik 18:23–50.

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        Fundamental publication and description of each figure in the east and west friezes, with discussions of style, date, and art historical context. Good photos of the frieze blocks.

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      • Wyatt, W. F., Jr., and C. E. Edmonson. 1984. The ceiling of the Hephaisteion. American Journal of Archaeology 88:135–167.

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        The style of masons’ marks on the marble coffers of the building suggests a date of 460 for the inception of the project and 420–415 for its end.

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      • Yeroulanou, M. 1998. Metopes and architecture: The Hephaisteion and the Parthenon. Annual of the British School at Athens 93:401–425.

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        A very technical study of how the dimensions of the metopes inform our understanding of the planning of the building, emphasizing the conventional nature of the Hephaisteion as opposed to the innovative, more adaptive design of the Parthenon.

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      The Roman Agora

      In the late 1st century BCE, the commercial focus of the city shifted from the Classical Agora to a new market place built about 100 meters east of the Stoa of Attalos (a colonnaded street ran between them). This Roman Agora, a not-quite-squared open courtyard (about 112 meters by 98 meters) surrounded by an Ionic peristyle, was entered on the west through an impressive Doric gateway: new finds help reconstruct the complete plan and indicate a single building phase (Sourlas 2008). The inscription on its architrave informs us that the complex was funded by Julius Caesar (who seems to have begun it) and Augustus (who finished it) and that it was dedicated to Athena Archegetis (the Leader) in 11–10 BCE (Hoff 1989; Walker 1997; Camp 2001; Spetsieri-Choremi 2003). On the east side of the court was a row of shops and another entrance (Ionic and off center) that led to a large arcuated building often identified as the Agoranomion (it was perhaps a shrine to the imperial cult or an office for market inspectors [Hoff 1994; Spetsieri-Choremi 2003]). This entrance also led to the Tower of the Winds (so called after the reliefs of eight winged males personifying Boreas, Zephyros, and so on). Probably Hellenistic in date, this octagonal structure was a horologion, or timepiece (with sundials incised on the walls beneath each wind and an elaborate mechanical waterclock inside as well as a bronze weathervane in the shape of a Triton on the roof), built by one Andronikos of Kyrrhos (Kienast 1997; Camp 2001). A few meters north of this elegant building there was a public latrine, probably built in the 1st century CE.

      • Camp, John M. 2001. The archaeology of Athens. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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        A fine treatment of Roman Athens in general, particularly the Tower of the Winds (pp. 176–180). See also pp. 183–238.

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      • Hoff, M. 1989. The early history of the Roman Agora at Athens. In The Greek renaissance in the Roman Empire: Papers from the Tenth British Museum Classical Colloquium. Edited by S. Walker and A. Cameron, 1–8. Bulletin Supplement, University of London. Institute of Classical Studies 55. London: Institute of Classical Studies

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        The new market was begun in 51 BCE with funds from Julius Caesar, but was only completed c. 10 BCE with funds from Augustus.

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      • Hoff, M. 1994. The so-called Agoranomion and the imperial cult in Julio-Claudian Athens. Archäologische Anzeiger 109:93–117.

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        Proposes that the arcuated building known as the Agoranomion was built under the emperor Claudius and was in reality a monumental shrine for the imperial cult.

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      • Kienast, H. 1997. The Tower of the Winds in Athens: Hellenistic or Roman? In The Romanization of Athens: Proceedings of an international conference held at Lincoln, Nebraska (April 1996). Edited by M. Hoff and S. J. Rotroff, 53–65. Oxbow Monograph 94. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

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        Makes sense of this technically complex building and persuasively argues for a Hellenistic date.

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      • Sourlas, D. 2008. Neotera stoikheia yia te Romaike Agora tes Athenas. In E Athena kata te Romaike Epokhe: Prosphates anakalypseis, nees ereunes. Edited by S. Vlizos, 99–114. Mouseio Benakē. Parartēma. Athens, Greece: Benaki Museum.

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        (Book title: Athens during the Roman period: Recent discoveries, new evidence.) Publication of recently discovered walls and foundations that help reconstruct the plan of the complex.

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      • Spetsieri-Choremi, A. 2003. Urban development and monumental buildings in Athens under Augustus and Hadrian. In Athens: From the Classical period to the present day (5th century B.C.–A.D. 2000). Edited by C. Bouras, M. Korres, 166–193. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll.

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        A good survey of the Roman Agora, the problematic Agoranomion, and the Tower of the Winds (pp. 170–174).

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      • Walker, S. 1997. Athens under Augustus. In The Romanization of Athens. Edited by M. C. Hoff and S. Rotroff, 67–80. Oxbow Monograph 94. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

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        Judicious appraisal of the city in the early Roman Empire.

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      Library of Hadrian

      Just to the north of the Roman Agora was the “library” built by Hadrian, that most philhellenic of Roman emperors, probably dedicated in 131–132 CE (when he visited the city for the third and last time). Willers 1990 and Spetsieri-Choremi 2003 are good recent summaries of the plan and function of the complex. Tigginagka 2008 is a new study of the foundations. Behind its Pentelic marble Corinthian propylon and high western wall (also marble), the complex consisted of a great peristyle court with a long reflecting pool at its center and, on the east, a large central room for scrolls flanked by rooms for administration or lectures (the plan resembles imperial fora like Vespasian’s Temple of Peace in Rome). The area reserved for the library proper was relatively small, and so the complex should perhaps be regarded as an enclosed public garden and cultural center. In late Antiquity a building of uncertain function and quatrefoil in plan was built over the east end of the pool.

      • Spetsieri-Choremi, A. 2003. Urban development and monumental buildings in Athens under Augustus and Hadrian. In Athens: From the Classical period to the present day (5th century B.C.–A.D. 2000). Edited by C. Bouras, M. Korres, 166–193. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll.

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        A good up-to-date discussion of the complex’s plan and function. See especially pp. 184–188.

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      • Spetsieri-Choremi, A., and Tigginagka, I. 2008. E Bibliotheke tou Adrianou sten Athena: Ta anaskaphika dedomena. In E Athena kata te Romaike Epokhe: Prosphates anakalypseis, nees ereunes. Edited by S. Vlizos, 115–129. Mouseio Benakē. Parartēma. Athens, Greece: Benaki Museum.

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        (Book title: Athens during the Roman period: Recent discoveries, new evidence.) Publishes the evidence for fine houses found beneath the library.

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      • Tigginagka, I. 2008. E aphanes arkhitektonike tes Bibliothekes tou Adrianou. In E Athena kata te Romaike Epokhe: Prosphates anakalypseis, nees ereunes. Edited by S. Vlizos. Mouseio Benakē. Parartēma. Athens, Greece: Benaki Museum.

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        (Book title: Athens during the Roman period: Recent discoveries, new evidence.) A technical study of the foundations of the building, including supportive arches in the substructure.

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      • Willers, D. 1990. Hadrians panhellenisches Programm. Archäologische Beiträge zur Neugestaltung Athens durch Hadrian. Beiheft zur Halbjahresschrift Antike Kunst 16. Basel, Switzerland: Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst.

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        Succinct summary of the Library of Hadrian, in the context of a theory that the emperor focused most of his attention on the southeast quarter of the city (the Olympieion area) rather than on the city center. See especially pp. 14–21.

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      The Acropolis

      The topographical, religious, and ideological center of the ancient city of Athens was the Acropolis (literally, “high city” or “city on the heights”). The standard work in English is Hurwit 1999. A comparable work in French is Holtzmann 2003. Good historical overviews, descriptions, and interpretations of the site and its individual monuments can also be found in Schneider and Hocker 1990, Brouskari 1997, and Hoepfner 1997. The various entries in Travlos 1971 (see General Overviews) can still be profitably consulted. Clearing and excavation of the site began (intermittently) after 1834, with important excavations taking place in the 1880s (Bundgaard and Kawerau 1974). Since 1975, the four principal monuments (the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, the Propylaia, and the Temple of Athena Nike) have undergone thorough study and vital restoration, with important new discoveries reported in such volumes as Economakis 1994 and Mallouchou-Tufano 2003. Originally privately published in a small run, Triandi 1998 is now available as an e-book online: it is an exquisitely illustrated and comprehensive catalogue of marble sculptures (architectural sculpture, freestanding statues, and votive reliefs) from the Archaic and Classical periods.

      • Brouskari, M. 1997. The monuments of the Acropolis. Athens, Greece: Ministry of Culture.

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        An informative and well-illustrated survey of the major monuments, proceeding from the Propylaia counterclockwise around the summit. Includes chapters on the fortification walls and dedications, but no discussion of the slopes.

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      • Bundgaard, J. A., and Georg Kawerau. 1974. The excavations of the Athenian Acropolis, 1882–1890: The original drawings. Institute of Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology 1. Copenhagen: Univ. of Copenhagen.

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        Detailed, technical analysis of G. Kawerau’s original drawings of the late-19th-century excavations.

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      • Economakis, Richard, ed. 1994. Acropolis restoration: The CCAM interventions. London: Academy Editions.

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        An important, handsomely produced and illustrated collection of essays by M. Korres, Y. Tanoulas, and others on the history of the monuments, with an emphasis on discoveries made during the restoration project.

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      • Hoepfner, W., ed. 1997. Kult and Kultbauten auf der Akropolis: Internationales Symposion von 7. bis 9. Juli in Berlin. Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin. Berlin: Archäologisches Seminar der Freien Universität Berlin.

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        Important essays, particularly on the Parthenon, the statue of Athena Parthenos, and the Persian destruction.

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      • Holtzmann, B. 2003. L’Acropole d’Athènes: Monuments, cultes et histoire du sanctuaire d’Athèna Polias. Antiqua. Paris: A. and J. Picard.

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        Richly illustrated, detailed history of the site incorporating many new discoveries.

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      • Hurwit, Jeffrey M. 1999. The Athenian Acropolis: History, mythology, and archaeology from the Neolithic period to the present. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        The standard work in English, with chapters on the geology of the rock, the nature of Athena, and the role of the Acropolis in everyday Athenian life, in addition to a historical narrative and guide to the Periklean monuments.

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      • Mallouchou-Tufano, F., ed. 2003. Proceedings of the 5th International Meeting for the Restoration of the Acropolis Monuments, Athens, 4–6 October, 2002. Athens, Greece: Epitrope Syntereseos Mnemeion Akropoleos.

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        Important collection of papers (mostly in Greek but with English summaries) publishing results of recent studies on the archaeology and art of the Acropolis and the restoration of its monuments.

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      • Schneider, L., and C. Hocker. 1990. Die Akropolis von Athen: Antikes Heiligtum und modernes Reiseziel. Cologne, Germany: DuMont Buchverlag.

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        Concise, stimulating study focusing on the Archaic and Classical Acropolis and its political and religious contexts.

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      • Triandi, I. 1998. To Mouseio Akropoleos. Athens, Greece: Latsis Group.

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        This major, lavishly illustrated (but rare) catalogue of the marble statues, architectural sculptures, and votives in the old Acropolis Museum is available online. It will remain the best resource of its kind until a catalogue of the New Acropolis Museum appears.

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      Mycenaean and Archaic Acropolis

      Although the water-rich limestone rock attracted settlers as early as the Neolithic period (the 4th millennium BCE), the monumental history of the place began only in the late Bronze (or Mycenaean) Age, when a palace was built on the north side of the summit and a powerful wall and gateway of “Cyclopean masonry” was constructed to protect it (1250–1200; Hurwit 1999; Shear 1999). The nature of the Acropolis after the Bronze Age, in the so-called Dark Age (1100–760 BCE), is uncertain: the Cyclopean wall remained the citadel’s principal defense, but the palace must have deteriorated and a humble village spread over the summit. By c. 700 BCE, the Acropolis had become the major sanctuary of Athens (Scholl 2006), though the first Temple to Athena Polias (Athena, Guardian of the City), built somewhere within the footprint of the old palace, was relatively modest; this was replaced by another small shrine in the 7th century. The first monumental temples (and earliest large-scale marble votive statues) belong to the early 6th century, when the prosperity and importance of the city increased (Glowacki 1998). One temple, of limestone, may have been built around 560 on the south side of the summit (on the spot of the later Parthenon); though its location is not certain, its existence is proved by surviving architecture and architectural sculpture (Korres 1997). Wherever that temple (the so-called Hekatompedon) stood, the construction of a series of small shrines or treasuries began c. 550, and another large limestone temple (devoted again to Athena Polias) certainly rose on the north side of the summit toward the end of the century, possibly around 525 (and thus it would have been a late project of the Peisistratid tyranny), but probably after 508–507 (in which case, it would have been the first great project of the new Athenian democracy). Its foundations are extant, and so are abundant architectural pieces and the remains of marble pediments (one representing a dynamic Gigantomachy). Kissas 2008 and Santi 2010 present the architectural and sculptural evidence for 6th-century temples, shrines, and “treasuries” on the summit. After the battle of Marathon in 490, a marble temple (the “Older Parthenon,” intended at least in part to thank Athena for the miraculous victory) was begun on massive foundations on the south side of the Acropolis, and a marble forecourt was built and a gateway (the Older Propylon) begun on the west (Dinsmoor 1980; Shear 1999). But the Older Parthenon never rose above its lowest column drums and wall blocks, and the Older Propylon was never finished: like the limestone Temple of Athena Polias on the north, hundreds of statues and dedications, and large sections of the ancient Cyclopean wall, they were destroyed by Xerxes’ Persians in 480.

      • Dinsmoor, W. B., Jr. 1980. The Propylaia to the Athenian Akropolis. Vol. 1, The predecessors. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Detailed study of the entrance to the Acropolis from the Bronze Age to the 5th century.

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      • Glowacki, K. 1998. The Acropolis of Athens before 566 B.C. In STEPHANOS: Papers in honor of Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway. University Museum Monograph 100. Edited by K. Hartswick and M. Sturgeon, 79–88. Philadelphia: Univ. Museum Publications.

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        Good survey of the evidence before Peisistratos, noting the special importance of building and sculptural projects in the 560s.

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      • Hurwit, Jeffrey M. 1999. The Athenian Acropolis: History, mythology, and archaeology from the Neolithic period to the present. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        See especially pp. 67–137, which survey the archaeological evidence for the Acropolis in the Neolithic, Mycenaean, and Archaic periods.

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      • Kissas, K. 2008. Archaische Architektur der Athener Akropolis: Dachziegel, Metopen, Geisa, Akroterbasen. Archäologische Forschungen 24. Wiesbaden, Germany: Reichert Verlag.

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        Authoritative but highly specialized publication and analysis of Archaic architectural fragments from the Acropolis.

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      • Korres, M. M. 1997. Die Athena-Temple auf der Akropolis. In Kult and Kultbauten auf der Akropolis: Internationales Symposion von 7. bis 9. Juli in Berlin. Edited by W. Hoepfner, 218–243. Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin. Berlin: Archäologisches Seminar der Freien Universität Berlin.

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        A history of the sequence of Archaic temples to Athena, firmly locating the so-called Hekatompedon on the site of the later Parthenon.

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      • Santi, Fabrizio. 2010. I Frontoni Arcaici dell’Acropoli di Atene. Supplementi e Monografie della Rivista Archeologia Classica N.S. 1.4. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

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        A comprehensive study of the fragmentary pediments from the large temples and small shrines (or treasuries) of the Archaic Acropolis.

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      • Scholl, A. 2006. Anathemata to Arkhaion: Die Akropolisvotive aus dem 8. bis Frühen 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. und die Staatswerdung Athens. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 121:1–174.

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        Comprehensive, important analysis and catalogue of votives in bronze, marble, and terracotta from middle Geometric to early Archaic periods, concluding that the Acropolis was the major sanctuary of the city by the late 8th century.

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      • Shear, I. Mylonas. 1999. The western approach to the Athenian Akropolis. Journal of Hellenic Studies 119:86–127.

        DOI: 10.2307/632313Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A technical review of evidence for, and new reconstructions of, the entrance systems of the Mycenaean and Archaic citadel, including a review of evidence for the Old Propylon and the early history of the Sanctuary of Athena Nike.

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      The Classical Acropolis

      In the early Classical period (480–450 BCE), the Acropolis, still visibly a victim of the Persian destruction, was nonetheless equipped with new citadel walls (in the north wall, built under Themistokles, parts of the Archaic temples destroyed by the Persians were displayed as a kind of war memorial; Korres 2002), and rich dedicatory activity was resumed with statues like the under-life-size Kritios Boy and a huge bronze statue of Athena, by Pheidias, set up in the open near the entrance of the citadel c. 455 BCE. But arguments that a major temple was built or at least begun atop the early Classical summit (e.g., Bundgaard 1976) have won few adherents. Comprehensive surveys of the high Classical citadel (450–400 BCE) and its monuments are usefully found in Brouskari 1997 (see The Acropolis) and Hurwit 2004. In 449, at Perikles’ initiative, the citizens of an Athens now both democratic and imperial voted to finance a building program intended to establish the city and its Acropolis as “the school of Hellas.” The principal lesson was the Parthenon, built by Iktinos and Kallikrates between 447 and 432 atop the (slightly widened) podium originally built for the Older Parthenon, and largely consisting of marble blocks and column drums originally cut for that late Archaic predecessor. Heavily adorned with marble akroteria, two huge pedimental compositions, ninety-two sculptured metopes, and a continuous frieze (some 524 feet or 160 meters long) representing a sacred (if controversial) procession, the Parthenon displayed within it a huge, gold and ivory statue of Athena Parthenos by Pheidias. Perikles’ vision of the new Acropolis included the Propylaia (gateways), built by Mnesikles between 437 and 432 (but never completed); the asymmetrical and multileveled Erechtheion (the Classical temple of Athena Polias and other deities, 430s–406); and, set on a bastion (Mycenaean at its core) jutting out from the west slope, the small Temple of Athena Nike (c. 425). Other shrines and precincts on the summit included sanctuaries of Artemis Brauronia, the Bronze storehouse known as the Chalkotheke, and the Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus.

      • Bundgaard, J. A. 1976. Parthenon and the Mycenaean city on the heights. Arkæologisk-Historisk Række 17. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark.

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        Provocative but idiosyncratic and unconvincing reconstruction of the history of the Acropolis from the late Bronze Age on (dating the Older Parthenon to the 450s, for example, and claiming that the olive tree of Athena was huge and filled the interior of the Erechtheion).

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      • Hurwit, J. M. 2004. The Acropolis in the age of Pericles. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        A revised and updated version of J. M. Hurwit, The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic Period to the Present (Hurwit 1999 see The Acropolis), focusing on the Classical Acropolis.

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      • Korres, M. 2002. On the north Acropolis wall. In Excavating Classical culture: Recent archaeological discoveries in Greece. Edited by M. Stamatopoulou and M. Yeroulanou, 179–186. British Archaeological Reports 1031. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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        Demonstrates, in a technical argument, that the north citadel wall is basically Themistoklean in date (470s). Paper delivered at a colloquium at Oxford, 24–26 March 2001.

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      The Propylaia

      The five-doored marble gateway (literally, “gateways”) to the Acropolis was built by the architect Mnesikles between 437 and 432 but never completed. Rival conceptions of its history are to be found in Dinsmoor, et al. 2004 and Tanoulas 1997. Tanoulas 1994a and Tanoulas 1994b also present brief summaries of the structure and observations and discoveries made during its restoration.

      • Dinsmoor, W. B., W. B. Dinsmoor, Jr. and A. N. Dinsmoor. 2004. The Propylaia to the Athenian Akropolis. Vol. 2, The Classical building. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Monumental publication of detailed drawings and photos of the building, arguing that the structure was designed in seven stages.

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      • Tanoulas, T. 1994a. New discoveries at the Propylaia. In Acropolis restoration: The CCAM interventions. Edited by R. Economakis, 181–183. London: Academy Editions

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        Brief essay on new evidence for the pre-Mnesiklean cistern and the northwest building.

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      • Tanoulas, T. 1994b. The Propylaea and the western access of the Acropolis. In Acropolis restoration: The CCAM interventions. Edited by R. Economakis, 52–67. London: Academy Editions.

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        Succinct, informative summary by the scholar charged with restoring the building; excellent new drawings and photos.

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      • Tanoulas, T. 1997. Ta Propylaia tes Athenaikes Akropoles kata ton Mesaiona. 2 vols. Vivliothēkē tēs en Athēnais Archaiologikēs Hetaireias 165. Athens, Greece: Library of the Archaeological Society.

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        (The Propylaia of the Athenian Acropolis during the Middle Ages.) Major publication by the architect in charge of the restoration of the Propylaia since 1984, focusing (despite the title) on the entire history of the building.

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      The Sanctuary of Athena Nike

      The site, a bastion or tower in the Mycenaean period, became a sanctuary to Athena, goddess of victory, during the course of the 6th century. The history of the sanctuary in the 5th century is controversial, with Mark 1993 and Giraud 1994 offering different narratives. But the Pentelic marble, Ionic temple was probably built and decorated c. 425. The frieze on the east may represent the birth of Athena (Palagia 2005); the other friezes depict battles (including, very likely, Marathon on the south). The temple was also surrounded by a marble parapet decorated in relief with flocks of Nikai (Victories) setting up trophies, approaching Athena, or leading sacrificial animals. Brouskari 1998 is the essential publication of the parapet, and Harrison 1997, Schultz 2001, and Schultz 2009 make invaluable contributions to our understanding of the temple’s sculptural program as a whole. As of this writing, the latest in a series of restorations is nearing completion.

      • Brouskari, Maria S. 1998. To Thorakio tou Naou tes Athenas Nikes. Arkhaiologike Ephemeris 137. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society at Athens.

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        (The parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike.) A fundamental treatment of the history, style, iconography, technique, and possible artists of the parapet, followed by an essential catalogue of its surviving fragments.

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      • Giraud, D. 1994. Melete apokatastaseos tou naou tes Athenas Nikes: Architektonikē meletē apokatastaseōs. 2 vols. Athens, Greece: Epitrope Syntereseos Mnemeion tes Akropoles.

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        (Study for the restoration of the Temple of Athena Nike; author sometimes cited as “Ziro.”) The most comprehensive and authoritative study of the temple’s architectural remains and the inscriptional evidence for its history.

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      • Harrison, E. B. 1997. The glories of the Athenians: Observations on the program of the Frieze of the Temple of Athena Nike. In The interpretation of architectural sculpture in Greece and Rome. Edited by D. Buitron-Oliver, 109–125. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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        Mythological (rather than historical) interpretations of the north and west friezes of the Temple of Athena Nike.

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      • Mark, Ira. S. 1993. The Sanctuary of Athena Nike in Athens: Architectural stages and chronology. Hesperia Supplement 26. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Carefully argued but controversial chronology for the phases of the temple and its bastion (dating the temple to 424–421, for example).

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      • Palagia, O. 2005. Interpretations of two Athenian friezes: The Temple on the Ilissos and the Temple of Athena Nike. In Periklean Athens and its legacy: Problems and perspectives. Edited by Judith M. Barringer and Jeffrey M. Hurwit, 177–192. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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        Argues (on pp. 184–189) that the east frieze of the Nike Temple (like the east pediment of the Parthenon) represents the birth of Athena.

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      • Schultz, P. 2001. The Akroteria of the Temple of Athena Nike. Hesperia 70:1–47.

        DOI: 10.2307/2668486Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        New evidence for the identity and number of the gilt bronze statues on the roof of the temple (there were ten Nikai). Perceptive comments on the history of the temple.

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      • Schultz, P. 2009. The north frieze of the Temple of Athena Nike. In Art in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Edited by O. Palagia, 128–167. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        Interprets the north frieze as the Athenian defeat of the Peloponnesian king Eurystheus (a legendary analogue for historical Athenian victories in 426–425). Especially useful for its overview of the temple and its political context.

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      The Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia

      Probably founded by the Peisistratids in the late 6th century (Kolb 1977), the sanctuary, located just inside the entrance to the Acropolis, was redesigned as part of the Periklean building program. Except for a rock-cut precinct wall and stairway on the north, the remains are sparse: it is not even clear whether Artemis had a temple here. Travlos 1971 has a concise entry with previous bibliography and a restored plan that has become the standard. Rhodes and Dobbins 1979 is the most comprehensive review of the evidence for the phases of construction, and Despinis 1997 argues that a small temple, with a cult statue by Praxiteles, did indeed stand within the precinct.

      • Despinis, G. 1997. Zum Athener Brauronion. In Kult and Kultbauten auf der Akropolis: Essays on Greek art in honour of John Boardman. International Symposium Berlin 7.–9.7.1995. Edited by W. Hoepfner, 209–217. Berlin: Archäologisches Seminar der Freien Universität Berlin.

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        Argues for the existence of a small temple within the precinct and attributes a colossal marble head (Acro 1352) to Praxiteles’ statue of the goddess mentioned by Pausanias (1.23.7). The attribution is accepted by I. Triandi, in To Mouseio Akropoleos (Athens, Greece: Latsis Group, 1998), pp. 440–441.

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      • Kolb, F. 1977. Die Bau-, Religions- und Kulturpolitik der Peisistratiden. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 92:99–138.

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        A fine study of the Peisistratid building and cultural program, arguing persuasively that the founding of the Brauronion was as much a political as a religious act.

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      • Rhodes, R. F., and J. J. Dobbins. 1979. The Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia on the Athenian Acropolis. Hesperia 48:325–341.

        DOI: 10.2307/147839Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Careful analysis of the precinct, arguing for three phases of construction.

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      • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York: Praeger.

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        Useful for its summary, plan, and reconstruction (by G. P. Stevens) and for its bibliography of the Artemis precinct as well as the small shrine of Athena Hygieia set against the southeast column of the Propylaia. See especially pp. 124–125.

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      The Chalkotheke

      A possibly post-Periklean warehouse for the storage of assorted bronzes, its function may not have been entirely utilitarian: its display of weapons and military equipment—the spoils of war—may have served ideological purposes. Its northeast corner cut into a great flight of steps (certainly Periklean, and mostly rock-cut) leading up to the Parthenon on the west. La Follette 1986 presents the sparse evidence for its form and history.

      The Parthenon

      The Parthenon is the centerpiece of the Periklean building program, built and decorated in Pentelic marble between 447 and 432. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates, but the general overseer of the project (we are told, none too reliably, by Plutarch) was the sculptor Pheidias, who created the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos displayed within the cella (the only work we know he made for the program). The most magnificent structure on the summit, it was more of a dedication promoting the ideology of the democratic yet imperial city than a true focus of cult, and it acknowledged in its sculpture (west pediment, frieze) the religious priority of the cult of Athena Polias on the north side of the rock. Beard 2010 is an eminently readable introduction, and Tournikiotis 1994 and Neils 2005 are substantial collections of essays on virtually every aspect of the building and its history (including its post-Classical history). Haselberger 2005 is essential on the optical refinements of the building. Harris 1995 is an important contribution to our conception of its function (it was a temple that was also, even primarily, a treasury). Of the many studies of the building’s sculptural program, Cosmopoulos 2004 is a recent if uneven collection of essays. Davison, et al. 2009 places the Athena Parthenos within the context of Pheidias’s oeuvre and possible contributions to the rest of the program. Neils 2001 and the website The Parthenon Frieze are superb resources for the study of what may be the most controversial of all Classical Greek works of art.

      • Beard, Mary. 2010. The Parthenon. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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        Compact, lively essay on the history of the building (including its post-Classical history). Intended for a popular audience (there are no footnotes), but informative at all levels.

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      • Cosmopoulos, M. B., ed. 2004. The Parthenon and its sculptures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        Essays on methodology, the frieze, the east pediment, the east metopes, and the current state of research.

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      • Davison, C. C., Birte Lundgreen, and Geoffrey B. Waywell. 2009. Pheidias: The sculptures and ancient sources. 3 vols. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Supplement 105. London: Institute of Classical Studies.

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        Comprehensive three-volume work on the sculptor and his art, including the Bronze Athena, the Athena Parthenos, and the Parthenon sculptural program.

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      • Harris, D. 1995. The treasures of the Parthenon and Erechtheion. Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        Important analysis of inscriptions recording the rich collections of objects stored within the temples.

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      • Haselberger, L. 2005. Bending the truth: Curvature and other refinements of the Parthenon. In The Parthenon from Antiquity to the present. Edited by Jenifer Neils, 101–157. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        A comprehensive analysis (by the acknowledged expert in the field) of the nature, function, and effects of the building’s many intentional deviations from the strictly horizontal and vertical.

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      • Neils, Jenifer. 2001. The Parthenon frieze. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        The most comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the iconography, design, technique, and meaning of arguably the most problematic work of Classical sculpture.

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      • Neils, Jenifer, ed. 2005. The Parthenon from Antiquity to the present. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        An important collection of essays, useful to students and scholars at all levels, by noted scholars dealing with the building, its setting, meaning, architecture, sculpture, and later history.

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      • The Parthenon Frieze.

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        Developed by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture, the Department of Information and Education, and others, this excellent, interactive website includes images of all the extant blocks of the frieze (supplemented by the Jacques Carrey drawings) and allows the visitor to tour the sculpture. In Greek and English.

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      • Tournikiotis, P., ed. 1994. The Parthenon and its impact in modern times. Athens, Greece: Melissa.

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        A valuable collection of essays on the architecture, sculpture, later history and influence, and restoration of the building, including M. Korres, “The Architecture of the Parthenon” (pp. 54–97), an essential technical study with detailed drawings and plans by the architect who was long in charge of the building’s restoration.

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      Temple of Roma and Augustus

      Set some 23 meters directly east of the Parthenon, and precisely along its axis, are the remains of a marble, round, cella-less structure that consisted of a ring of nine Ionic columns (imitations of the Erechtheion’s). This monopteros is usually identified as a temple jointly dedicated to Rome and the emperor Augustus. Though Travlos 1971 (see General Overviews) dates it sometime after 27 BCE, it can be more precisely dated to 20–19 BCE. Pausanias does not mention the monument in his guide, and Binder 1969 questions its identity (with few followers). Brouskari 1997 and Camp 2001 offer concise summaries, and Hurwit 1999 focuses on how the shrine participated in a broader and older dialogue on victory carried on by various monuments on the summit.

      Erechtheion and Pandroseion

      The temple popularly known as the Erechtheion (it is, in fact, so named only twice in late ancient sources) was the Classical Temple of Athena Polias (Guardian of the City), the most sacred Athena on the rock. Jeppesen 1987 disputes the identification of the Classical marble building on the north side of the Acropolis with the Erechtheion of our sources but has won few adherents. Lesk 2004 usefully reviews the massive scholarship on the building, with new and unusual insights. The scholarly foundation remains. Paton 1927, Brouskari 1997, and Hurwit 2004 offer syntheses of conventional opinion.

      The building was begun, probably, in the 430s, but work was intermittent until completion in 406. Worshipped in the building, in addition to Athena Polias, were Poseidon-Erechtheus, Hephaistos, Zeus, and others. Architectural sculpture seems to have been limited to the six Caryatids of the south porch (Scholl 1998; Lesk 2004, pp. 102–108) and a continuous frieze of uncertain subject (a variety of myths involving Athena, Erechtheus/Erichthonios, and other gods and heroes is likely): unusually, marble figures were dowelled onto a background of blue-gray limestone (Boulter 1970; Triandi 1998, pp. 338–353). Partly below the building’s west wall and beneath the Caryatid Porch was the tomb of the legendary King Kekrops, and west of the building was the sacred olive tree of Athena and the sanctuary of Kekrops’s noble daughter, Pandrosos.

      The North Slope

      On the north slope were a series of caves sacred to Zeus, Apollo, and Pan (Travlos 1971), a major sanctuary to Eros and Aphrodite (Broneer 1932), and the so-called Skyphos sanctuary (Glowacki 1991), all accessible from the peripatos, a ring road (some 1,100 meters long) around the citadel.

      • Broneer, O. 1932. Eros and Aphrodite on the north slope of the Acropolis. Hesperia 1:32–55.

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        Fundamental publication of the excavation of the most important sanctuary on the north slope, its rock-cut niches, and inscriptions, with a discussion of the relationship of the sanctuary to the Arrhephoria festival.

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      • Glowacki, K. T. 1991. Topics concerning the north slope of the Akropolis at Athens. PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College.

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        Selected studies of cults and shrines on the north slope, especially the Skyphos sanctuary and the Sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite.

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      • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York: Praeger.

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        Useful entries on the Sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite, the peripatos, and the caves. See especially pp. 91–95, 228–231, and 417–421.

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      The South and East Slopes

      On the south slope, Perikles built an Odeion (concert hall) next to the then still modest Theater of Dionysos (it took on monumental proportions only in the 4th century, when it was also used as a meeting place). Recent work on the Odeion and Theater includes Miller 1997 (concerned primarily with the ideology of the Odeion) and Gogos and Kampourakis 2008 (both comprehensive studies of the architectural development of the theater and sanctuary). Moretti 2000 reconstructs the high Classical theater as pi-shaped and rectilinear rather than curved or circular. Next to the theater was the healing Sanctuary of Asklepios (founded in 420–419 BCE by Telemachos and continually refurbished; for Telemachos’s dedication, see Beschi 1967–1968); Riethmüller 2005 and Wickkiser 2008 offer new insights into the topography of the site, its functions, and its place within the Athenian landscape. Additions to the slope in the Hellenistic and Roman periods included the huge Stoa of Eumenes (160 BCE), which eventually linked the older and now-monumentalized Theater of Dionysos to the later Odeion of Herodes Atticus (c. 160 CE) on the southwest slope, of which Tobin 1997 provides fine overviews. Curving around the east slope was the Street of the Tripods, lined with monuments set up by victorious choregoi, producers of choral or dramatic performances (Spetsiere-Choremi 1994). The best preserved is the Monument of Lysikrates (335–334). The principal feature of the east slope is a huge cave; below it was the Sanctuary of Aglauros (identified by Dontas 1983).

      • Beschi, L. 1967–1968. Il monumento di Telemachos, fondatore dell’Asklepieion ateniese. Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e delle Missioni Italiane in Oriente 45–46:381–436.

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        Publishes a reconstruction of a relief monument dedicated to Asklepios by the founder of his shrine, possibly one of a pair set up at opposite ends of the sanctuary.

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      • Dontas, G. 1983. The true Aglaurion. Hesperia 52:48–63.

        DOI: 10.2307/147737Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Publishes evidence that places the Sanctuary of Aglauros (once thought to be on the north slope of the Acropolis) below the great cave on the east slope.

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      • Gogos, S., and G. Kampourakis. 2008. Das Dionysostheater von Athen: Architektonische Gestalt und Funktion. Vienna: Phoibos.

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        Thorough historical survey of the development of the theater from the late Archaic to Roman periods, with an appendix on acoustics.

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      • Miller, M. C. 1997. Athens and Persia in the fifth century B.C. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        Interprets the Odeion of Perikles on the southeast slope (next to the Theater of Dionysos) in the context of Athenian responses to the Persian Empire. See especially pp. 218–242.

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      • Moretti, J. C. 2000. Le theatre du sanctuaire de Dionysos Eleuthéreus à Athènes au Ve siècle av. J.-C. Revue des Études Grecques 113:275–298.

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        Citing parallels at Thorikos, Ikarion, and elsewhere, Moretti reconstructs a rectilinear, pi-shaped 5th-century theater, rather than one with a circular orchestra and semicircular auditorium. Argues there were forty-five wooden benches for seating resting on scaffolding rather than on the natural slope and a single-story skene.

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      • Riethmüller, J. W. 2005. Asklepios: Heiligtümer und Kulte. 2 vols. Studien zu Antiken Heiligtümern 2.1–2.2. Heidelberg, Germany: Verlag Archäologie und Geschichte.

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        An analysis of the topography and history of the Athenian sanctuary, focusing on the so-called bothros, which is interpreted as a hero shrine. See especially pp. 241–278.

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      • Spetsieri-Choremi, A. 1994. He odos ton Tripodon kai ta khoregika mnemeia sten arkhaia Athena. In The archaeology of Athens and Attica under the democracy: Proceedings of an international conference celebrating 2000 years since the birth of democracy in Greece, held at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, December 4–6, 1992. Edited by W. D. E. Coulson, Olga Palagia, 31–42. Oxbow Monograph 37. Oxford: Oxbow.

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        (The Street of the Tripods and Choregic monuments in ancient Athens.) Publishes new evidence for the choregic monuments that lined the Street of the Tripods that curved around the southeast and east slopes.

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      • Tobin, J. 1997. Herodes Attikos and the city of Athens: Patronage and conflict under the Antonines. Archaia Hellas 4. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.

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        Good summary of the Odeion of Herodes Atticus, as part of a broader discussion of Herodes’ benefactions to the city. See especially pp. 185–194.

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      • Wickkiser, B. L. 2008. Asklepios, medicine, and the politics of healing in fifth-century Greece: Between craft and cult. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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        Chapter 5 (“Asklepios and the Topography of Athenian Cult”) sets the Asklepieion into the context of the Acropolis’s sacred landscape and is particularly original.

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      The Christian and Moslem Acropolis

      The Parthenon was severely damaged by fire and its statue of Athena Parthenos was almost certainly destroyed in the 3rd or 4th century CE—a date of 267 CE, when the Herulians invaded the city, is not certain but is generally preferred. Despite extensive repairs and the installation of a new (and certainly more modest) Athena Parthenos, the building would never be the same; Korres 1994 and Ousterhout 2005 are the best guides to the post-Classical history of the building. By the early 5th century CE, the cult and festival of Athena Polias, still focused on the Erechtheion, ceased. By the late 5th century CE, Pheidias’s Bronze Athena was probably shipped off to Constantinople, and the last Athena Parthenos was destroyed by Christians. With that the Acropolis ceased to be the Virgin Athena’s, and became the Virgin Mary’s. By c. 600 CE, the Parthenon had become the Church of the Blessed Virgin, and by 693 it had become the Cathedral of Athens; in the meantime the Erechtheion was converted into the Church of Mary, Mother of God. And churches they remained, until the Turks seized the citadel in 1458 and made a mosque of one and a house and seraglio of the other. Kaldellis 2009 passionately emphasizes the importance of the Parthenon as a church; Tanoulas 1997 is a detailed and essential history of the various medieval transformations of the Propylaia; and Pollini 2007 focuses on later Christian vandalism of the Parthenon sculptures, especially from friezes. On 26 September 1687, during a siege laid by international forces and led by the Venetian general F. Morosini, a shell lobbed into the Parthenon ignited a huge gunpowder magazine, blowing out the center of the building. The Acropolis remained Ottoman until 1833 when, at the end of the Greek war of independence, Bavarians replaced Turks on the summit. The new King Otto declared the Acropolis an archaeological site the next year.

      • Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        A thought-provoking, sometimes polemical analysis of the Parthenon’s post-Antique history up to 1204, arguing that the building was more important as a church than it had ever been as a temple.

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      • Korres, M. 1994. The Parthenon from Antiquity to the 19th century. In The Parthenon and its impact in modern times. Edited by P. Tournikiotis, 138–161. Athens, Greece: Melissa.

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        Detailed study, with excellent drawings and plans, concentrating on the Parthenon’s conversion into a church and mosque and (in 1687) its ruination.

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      • Ousterhout, R. 2005. “Bestride the very peak of heaven”: The Parthenon after Antiquity. In The Parthenon from Antiquity to the present. Edited by Jenifer Neils, 293–329. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        Superb study of the history of the Parthenon as a church, cathedral, and mosque.

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      • Pollini, J. 2007. Christian desecration and mutilation of the Parthenon. Athenische Mitteilungen 122:207–228.

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        Presents evidence for deliberate damage done to the building, and particularly the east frieze, by Christians afraid of the power of ancient images.

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      • Tanoulas, T. 1997. Ta Propylaia tes Athenaikes Akropoles kata ton Mesaiona. 2 vols. Library of the Archaeological Society 165. Athens, Greece: Athenian Archaeological Society.

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        (The Propylaia of the Athenian Acropolis during the Middle Ages.) Major publication by the architect in charge of the restoration of the Propylaia since 1984, with emphasis on the Byzantine, Frankish, Catalan, and Florentine transformation of the Propylaia into a heavily fortified and towered ducal palace.

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      The Pnyx, the Areopagos, and Other Hills

      A number of low limestone hills west and southwest of the Acropolis played a significant role in the life of the city. Foremost among them was the Pnyx where, after the establishment of the democracy, the citizen assembly (ekklesia) met every nine or ten days to debate and vote on issues brought to it by the boule (senate). It was here, for example, with the Acropolis over their shoulders, that the members of the assembly approved the Periklean building program in 449 BCE. Originally laid out c. 500 BCE, the Pnyx underwent one great change of orientation (before, 403 speakers faced south, toward the sea; afterward, they faced north, toward the Attic plain; cf. Plutarch, Themistokles, 19) and several building phases. A massive curved wall built to retain the fill of the seating area, the rock-cut bema (speaker’s platform), and two stoas that were planned but never built belong to the third, “Lykourgan” phase, c. 340 (Rotroff and Camp 1996). In the early Hellenistic period, fortifications were built across the hill just behind the stoas and continued south across Mouseion hill. Agreement on the development of the Pnyx is not total, and a variety of views can be found in Kourouniotes and Thompson 1932 (still the basis of all later work), Forsén and Stanton 1996, and Knell 2000. Atop Mouseion hill stands the ostentatious marble tomb of Gaius Iulius Antiochus Philopappos (114–116 CE), a royal exile from Commagene in Roman Asia Minor and a generous benefactor of Athens. A large part of the tomb’s two-story facade survives, with statues of Philopappos and his ancestors and a relief of Philopappos in a chariot that grandly evokes a relief on the Arch of Titus in Rome (Kleiner 1983). Between the Pnyx and the Acropolis stands another low limestone hill: the Areopagos (Hill of Ares). It was here—though exactly where is not clear—that an ancient and famous council of elders met: once an instrument of the aristocracy, the Council of the Areopagos became under the democracy (and as promoted in Aeschylus’s Eumenides) purely a homicide court. The rock has been polished smooth by feet, but cuttings on the east side of the rock for a small temple similar to the Temple of Athena Nike across the way on the Acropolis have recently been identified (Korres 1996).

      • Forsén, B. and G. Stanton, eds. 1996. The Pnyx in the history of Athens: Proceedings of an international colloquium organized by the Finnish Institute at Athens, 7–9 October 1994. Papers and Monographs of the Finnish Institute at Athens 2. Helsinki: Foundation of the Finnish Institute in Athens.

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        Excellent collection of eleven essays on the form, function, and chronology of the Pnyx and its walls. Unanimity on these issues remains elusive.

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      • Kleiner, D. E. E. 1983. The monument of Philopappos in Athens. Archaeologia 30. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

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        The basic work on the monument.

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      • Knell, H. 2000. Athen im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Eine Stadt verändert ihr Gesicht: Archäologisch-kulturgeschichtliche Betrachtungen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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        Good summary and drawings of the 4th-century Pnyx. See especially pp. 55–62.

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      • Korres, M. 1996. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der attisch-ionischen Architektur. In Säule und Gebälk: Zu Struktur und Wandlungsprozess griechisch-römischer Architektur: Bauforschungskolloquium in Berlin vom 16.–18. Juni 1994. Diskussionen zur Archäologischen Bauforschung 6. Edited by E. L. Schwander, 90–113. Berlin: von Zabern.

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        Presents evidence for five or six temples throughout Attica modeled on the Temple of Athena Nike, including a temple on the Areopagos.

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      • Kourouniotes, K., and H. Thompson. 1932. The Pnyx in Athens. Hesperia 1:90–217.

        DOI: 10.2307/146476Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Fundamental publication of the excavation of the site in 1930–1931 and the (difficult) evidence for its phases.

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      • Rotroff, S., and J. M. Camp. 1996. The date of the third period of the Pnyx. Hesperia 65.3: 263–294.

        DOI: 10.2307/148378Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Argues that the monumentalization of the site was begun around 345–335 BCE but was never finished. An essential essay.

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      Southeast Athens

      Although the southeastern district of the ancient city is dominated by the remains of the colossal Temple of Olympian Zeus (Roman in its final form) and is seemingly marked off from the rest of the city by the Arch of Hadrian, the area was, in fact, one of the most venerable districts of Athens: the cult of Olympian Zeus was said to have been founded by Deukalion (Pausanias 1.18.8). The area received monumental attention as early as the 6th century; the Temple on the Ilissos dates to the 5th century; and the original Panathenaic stadium (what is there now is a modern restoration of a Roman reconstruction) dates to the 4th century. Wycherley 1978 contains a readable, comprehensive overview of the area; Travlos 1971 provides good entries on its various sites; and Goette 2001 is an up-to-date reference as well.

      The Temple of Olympian Zeus

      Four hundred meters southeast of the Acropolis stand fifteen columns (one more lies fallen) of the huge Temple of Zeus Olympios, rising in the center of an immense precinct that was originally paved in marble and that is still partly defined by a powerful, buttressed limestone wall (c. 206 times 129 meters). Tölle-Kastenbein 1994 is an essential, technical study of the history of the building, with plentiful drawings and plans. Travlos 1971 remains a useful, succinct treatment. According to Thucydides (2.15.3) and Pausanias (1.18.8), the shrine and its cult were of remotest Antiquity. A large temple seems to have been begun sometime in the early Archaic period, but a new, even grander project was undertaken by the tyrant Peisistratos (c. 546–527 BCE) or his sons for self-serving political reasons (or so Aristotle claims, Politics 5.9.4). It would have been a limestone, Doric, but dipteral giant (about 110 times 44 meters), able to withstand comparisons to the great marble temples of Ionia: surely the Peisistratrids’ intent was to claim the architectural field for Athens. But the temple had probably not risen much higher than its foundations when the tyranny fell (510 BCE): the new democracy abandoned it, thereby repudiating the prior regime. Unfluted column drums originally carved for the Peisistratid temple were built into the Themistoklean city wall in the 470s (some, nearly cut through into smaller, more workable parts, still lie just north of the precinct). In the late 4th century, under Lykourgos, the long-abandoned building may have been reconceived as a massive Pentelic marble temple in the Corinthian order (dipteral again, with the same dimensions as the Peisistratid temple and with 104 columns surrounding a cella that was probably open to the sky). If so, work did not progress very far (cf. Herakleides Kretikos 1.1–2). The project was, however, fully revived at the initiative of Antiochos IV Epiphanes of Syria (175–164 BCE): with a Roman architect, Cossutius, now in charge (Vitruvius 7.15), the temple may have reached the advanced height of the architrave. But at the death of Antiochos, work on the temple again came to a halt. Columns from the imposing but incomplete temple were taken to Rome after Sulla’s sack of the city in 86 BCE, and even under Augustus construction failed to progress. The temple, its paved marble court, a modest propylon on the north wall of the precinct, and the precinct wall itself were finally completed (600 years after its Peisistratid inception) by Hadrian, who probably dedicated it and its colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus in 131–132 CE. Marble and bronze portraits of the emperor (who had grandly taken the title “Olympios,” like Zeus himself) filled the precinct: the place was as much Hadrian’s as the god’s and may have been (as Willers 1990 argues) the administrative and ideological center of his Panhellenion (a league of cities meant to promote Greek loyalty to the empire). For the nearby Lyceum, see Gymnasia.

      • Rowland, I. D., T. N. Howe, and M. J. Dewar, eds. Vitruvius De architectura 7.15. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.

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        Gives the information that the architects of the Peisistratid project were Kallaischros, Antistates, Antimachides, and Porinos and that Antiochos’s architect was the Roman Cossutius.

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      • Tölle-Kastenbein, Renate. 1994. Das Olympieion in Athen. Arbeiten zur Archäologie. Cologne, Germany: Böhlau Verlag.

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        A detailed, technical monograph on the series of projects on the site, with excellent plans, drawings, and photos.

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      • Travlos, John. 1971. Pictorial dictionary of ancient Athens. Books That Matter. New York: Praeger.

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        Fine architectural survey, with good photographs, plans, and an older bibliography. See especially pp. 402–411.

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      • Willers, D. 1990. Hadrians panhellenisches Programm: Archäologische Beiträge zur Neugestaltung Athens durch Hadrian. Beiheft zur Halbjahresschrift Antike Kunst 16. Basel, Switzerland: Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst.

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        Places the temple, its precinct, and its sculptures at the heart of the Panhellenion and its ideology. See especially pp. 26–53.

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      The Arch of Hadrian

      Hadrianic, too, is a bath complex located just north of the Olympieion precinct as well as an unusual, narrow, two-storied, ornate Corinthian arch some 20 meters from the precinct’s northwest corner. This Arch of Hadrian (probably also dedicated in 131–132 CE) spanned the route between the Olympieion and the Acropolis. It was set at the supposed boundary between the old city and the new: “This is Athens, the old [or former] city of Theseus,” reads an inscription on its west architrave, facing the Acropolis; “This is the city of Hadrian, not of Theseus,” reads the inscription on the other side, facing the Olympieion and southeastern part of the city. If such a distinction was really intended (as Willers 1990 argues), it is pure invention: the Peisistratids and others had been active in southeast Athens long before Hadrian, and Hadrian also built at the city’s ancient core. Adams 1989 argues that the arch instead commemorates Hadrian’s eclipse of Theseus as the foundational figure of the city. In any case, the southeastern sector of Athens was so closely associated with the emperor that, according to one (not entirely reliable) source, it came to be called Hadrianopolis.

      • Adams, A. 1989. The Arch of Hadrian at Athens. In The Greek renaissance in the Roman Empire: Papers from the Tenth British Museum Classical Colloquium. Edited by S. Walker and A. Cameron, 10–16. Bulletin Supplement 55, University of London, Institute of Classical Studies. London: Institute of Classical Studies.

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        The arch (Eastern rather than Roman in form), erected by the Athenian demos to thank Hadrian for his benefactions, spanned the route Hadrian himself took to the Olympieion, and its inscriptions do not distinguish separate cities of Theseus and Hadrian but refer to the emperor’s supplanting of the hero as the “founder “of Athens.

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      • Willers, D. 1990. Hadrians panhellenisches Programm: Archäologische Beiträge zur Neugestaltung Athens durch Hadrian. Beiheft zur Halbjahresschrift Antike Kunst 16. Basel, Switzerland: Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst.

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        Argues that the arch was dedicated by the Panhellenion, not by the demos of Athens, and that it was indeed meant to locate the boundary between Theseus’s city and Hadrian’s. See especially pp. 68–92.

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      The Ilissos Area

      Between the Olympieion precinct and the course of the Ilissos River to the south, there are the very poorly preserved foundations of a number of buildings that include a 5th-century BCE temple to Apollo Delphinios, a possible law court, a 2nd-century CE shrine to Kronos and Rhea, a large complex with a temple and court that may have served the imperial cult, and stretches of the city wall refortified under Valerian (253–260 CE) with blocks lifted from the Olympieion’s precinct wall. Near here, too (but not yet found), were two more Peisistratid projects: a shrine to Pythian Apollo (its altar was dedicated by Peisistratos the Younger in 522–521 BCE) and a popular fountain house called the Enneakrounos (Nine Spouts) on the site of a spring once called Kallirhoe. Across the (now mostly dry) river—as Plato’s Phaedrus (229–300) suggests, the grassy, plane-treed banks of the “clear and bright stream” once offered a pleasant refuge from city life—were a Sanctuary of Pan (a relief of the god is cut into the rock near the Church of Ayia Photeini) and, higher, on the northwest slope of Ardettos Hill, a temple of Artemis Agrotera, where goats were sacrificed each year to commemorate the battle of Marathon (Travlos 1971; see The Temple of Olympian Zeus). Only rock-cut foundations survive, but the temple (embedded in the fabric of a Byzantine chapel) was drawn by J. Stuart and N. Revett in the mid-18th century (Stuart and Revett 2008). The shrine was small, Ionic, and so similar to the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis that it may have been built by the same architect (Kallikrates?) in the late 440s (according to some; cf. Childs 1985) or, more likely, in the late 430s–early 420s (according to others; cf. Miles 1980, Palagia 2005). The fragmentary frieze (parts survive in Athens, Vienna, and Berlin; Krug 1979) may have depicted Ilioupersis and Odysseus’s descent to the underworld (Palagia 2005). Some 400 meters upstream lies the modern Panathenaic Stadium, a fine late-19th-century restoration of a stadion first built under Lykourgos c. 330–329 BCE, then completely rebuilt in Pentelic marble (and dedicated with great pomp) by Herodes Atticus c. 140 CE (Gasparri 1974–1975). Its seating capacity was some 50,000. On Ardettos Hill to the west are the remains, probably, of a temple of Tyche (Fortune); above the stadium on the east are narrow foundations (originally 60 meters long, 11 meters wide) for either Herodes’ mausoleum (Welch 1998; Rife 2008) or, less likely, a shed for the ship that he provided for the Greater Panathenaia (Tobin 1997): wherever this was eventually moored, it was set on wheels and was (supposedly) mechanically propelled through the streets of the city and bore on its mast a great sail-sized peplos delivered to Athena Polias. Linking stadium and city was a triple-arched bridge across the Ilissos, probably constructed by Herodes Atticus (and dismantled in 1778; Tobin 1997). At some point downstream from the Ilissos temple was Kynosarges, one of the three great gymnasia of Athens. Archaic in origin, the place was sacred to Herakles and, like the other gymnasia, provided shaded, watered grounds for the exercise of both mind and body—a school for philosophy (see Gymnasia).

      • Childs, W. 1985. In defense of an early date for the frieze of the temple on the Ilissos. Athenische Mitteilungen 100:207–251.

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        Argues for a date of c. 445–440 on stylistic grounds.

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      • Gasparri, C. 1974–1975. Lo stadio panatenaico. Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene 52–53:313–392.

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        Fundamental publication of the form and history of the Panathenaic stadium.

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      • Krug, A. 1979. Der Fries des Tempels am Ilissos. Antike Plastik 18:7–21.

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        Basic publication (with good photographs) of the surviving fragments of the frieze in Athens, Berlin, and Vienna, dating the work to the 420s.

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      • Miles, M. M. 1980. The date of the temple on the Ilissos River. Hesperia 49:309–325.

        DOI: 10.2307/147912Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Argues persuasively for a date for the temple and frieze of c. 435–430.

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      • Palagia, O. 2005. Interpretations of two Athenian friezes: The Temple on the Ilissos and the Temple of Athena Nike. In Periklean Athens and its legacy: Problems and perspectives. Edited by Judith M. Barringer and Jeffrey M. Hurwit, 177–192. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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        Favors a date for the Ilissos temple c. 430 and argues that the subjects of the fragmentary frieze included a “Troy Taken” and a “Nekyia” (Odysseus in the underworld).

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      • Rife, J. L. 2008. The burial of Herodes Atticus: Elite identity, urban society, and public memory in Roman Greece. Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:92–127.

        DOI: 10.1017/S0075426900000070Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Rejects Tobin 1997, arguing that the remains on the hill east of the Panathenaic stadium belong to Herodes’ tomb (built after 179 CE).

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      • Stuart, J., and N. Revett. 2008. The antiquities of Athens. Vol. 1. Classical America Series in Art and Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural.

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        Fundamental drawings of and comments on the now-destroyed temple on the Ilissos. First published in 1789. See especially pp. 7–11.

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      • Tobin, J. 1997. Herodes Attikos and the city of Athens: Patronage and conflict under the Antonines. Archaia Hellas 4. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.

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        Argues, as part of a discussion of Herodes’ extensive building program, that the ruins above the stadium on the east belong not to Herodes’ tomb but to a monument to display the ship-on-wheels Herodes supplied for the Greater Panathenaia Festival of 143–144. See especially pp. 177–185.

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      • Welch, K. 1998. Greek stadia and Roman spectacles: Asia, Athens, and the tomb of Herodes Atticus. Journal of Roman Archaeology 11:117–145.

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        In the context of a discussion of the changing functions of Greek stadia in the Roman period, Welch argues (contra J. Tobin) that Herodes Atticus was buried in a long, altar-shaped tomb on the hill east of the stadium.

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      Gymnasia

      A gymnasion (place for nudity) was originally a place of exercise and military and athletic training for youths and men set in an open, parklike area equipped with a running track, water, shade trees, and usually an altar or shrine to a hero or god. Archaic in origin, the three great Athenian gymnasia (Kynosarges, the Lyceum, and the Academy), all of them found in the suburbs outside the city walls, eventually became settings for intellectual as well as physical exertion, and from the 4th century on they became affiliated with major schools of philosophy. Wycherley 1978 and Knell 2000 usefully survey the evidence for all three. Kynosarges, located somewhere south of the Ilissos and sacred to Herakles, was probably the humblest of the three: it became associated with cynicism (Travlos 1970, Billot 1992). The Lyceum (set in a grove sacred to Apollo Lykeios) was located east of the city wall, somewhere northeast of the Olympieion, and was apparently more architecturally impressive, possibly with stoas and a palaestra (a colonnaded court): it became home to Aristotle and his school after he left the Academy, taught Alexander in Macedon, and returned to Athens c. 335 BCE (Ritchie 1986–1989). The Academy, the most important of the three gymnasia, was supposedly founded by the hero Akademos (or Hekademos) and was sacred to Eros, Prometheus, Hephaistos, and Athena herself. But its famous school was founded by Plato in the early 4th century. It was reached by the wide, 1,500-meter-long road lined with tombs that ran northwest from the Dipylon Gate, and in Plato’s day the precinct contained at least a colonnaded court (Travlos 1971). A review of excavation reports and unpublished notes suggests how little concrete evidence we, in fact, have for the site (Murray 2006). These three gymnasia were not the only philosophical haunts in Athens: Stoicism takes its name from the Stoa Poikile in the Agora; there was Epicurus’s garden, too; and, according to Herakleides Kretikos (1.1–2), the city was loaded with philosophers from all over, eager to “pull the wool over one’s eyes.” But the gymnasia—and above all the Academy—essentially became universities that attracted students from the wider Mediterranean world.

      Houses

      Difficulties of excavation in the modern city make our knowledge of ancient Athenian houses sporadic and fragmentary, but informative clusters of houses have been revealed south of the Agora, on the slopes of the Areopagos, in the valley between the Areopagos and the Pnyx, on the slopes of the Pnyx itself, and elsewhere (Young 1951; Lauter-Bufé and Lauter 1971; Thompson and Wycherley 1972; Camp 1986 [cited under The Agora]; Tsakirgis 2009). Archaic and Classical Athenian houses—even those of the elite—were generally unpretentious (a general typology for houses in the city and country is given in Jones 1975): prosperous citizens chose other ways to display their wealth and enhance their status (through private dedications or funerary monuments, for example, or by financing public theatrical performances). As the mid-4th-century BCE orator Demosthenes notes (upbraiding the Athenians of his own day for abandoning the personal modesty shown by the heroes of the 5th-century democracy), “The houses of their famous men, of Miltiades or of Aristeides, as any of you can see that knows them, are not a whit more splendid than those of their neighbors. For selfish greed had no place in their statesmanship, but each thought it his duty to further the common weal” (Olynthiac 5.25ff.; translated by J. H. Vince). Exaggerating for effect, perhaps, Demosthenes takes his contemporaries to task for their relative ostentation (as well as their political inferiority), and many 4th-century houses are indeed somewhat grander than what had been built before. Wycherley 1978 argues that, overall, the Athenian housing stock was not as poor as some sources and scholars suggest. But even in the 3rd century, a visiting travel writer could claim that “most of the houses [in Athens] are humble; very few reach a higher standard,” and the contrast with the city’s splendid theaters, temples, and gymnasia was stark (Herakleides Kretikos 1.1). Most of urban Athens was indeed characterized by small houses of no standardized size or plan huddled together along crooked, narrow streets: centralized town planning is not in evidence (the areas south of the Pnyx and Areopagos seem to have been particularly dense). Most 5th-century houses were cheaply built (sun-dried mud brick and wood atop fieldstone socles) and consisted of small rooms (usually including an andron, or men’s dining room) simply and irregularly arranged around a square or rectangular open court (often with a well). There were few windows and usually only one door: the house looked inward, not out. Connolly and Dodge 1998 provides excellent reconstructions of individual houses as well as imaginative panoramas of the city. The floors of most rooms were packed earth; some houses had upper floors (and these presumably included the women’s quarters, or gynaikeion). By the end of the 5th century (a period of war and turmoil), there was a trend toward greater pretension (cf. Plato’s dialogue Protagoras [314D–317]). And by the beginning of the 4th century, the courtyards of houses (like several on the Areopagos’s northeast slope) regularly boasted peristyles and their interiors wall paintings, pebble mosaics (like one found in a fine house on Menander Street, near the northern edge of the city), and even marble statuary. Walter-Karydi 1998 persuasively ties the development of the well-appointed, peristyle house to a sociopolitical trend away from the public to the private sphere.

      • Connolly, Peter, and Hazel Dodge. 1998. The ancient city: Life in Classical Athens and Rome. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        Clear discussions and informative reconstructions of several groups of Athenian houses (and their wall decoration) next to the Agora, on the slopes of the Areopagus, and on the Pnyx. See especially pp. 48–55.

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      • Jones, J. E. 1975. Town and country houses in Attica in Classical times. In Thorikos and Laurion in Archaic and Classical times: Papers and contributions of the colloquium held in March 1973 at the State University of Ghent. Edited by H. Mussche, P. Spitaels, and F. Goemaere-de Poerck, 63–141. Miscellanea Graeca I. Ghent, Belgium: Belgian Archaeological Mission in Greece.

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        A typological study with useful reconstructions of houses in Athens and elsewhere in Attica.

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      • Lauter-Bufé, H., and H. Lauter. 1971. Wohnhäuser und Stadtviertel des Klassischen Athen. Athenische Mitteilungen 86:109–124.

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        A basic study of the plans and dates of seven Classical houses at the urban core—one southwest of the Pnyx, the others between the Pnyx and the Agora.

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      • Thompson, H. A., and R. E. Wycherley. 1972. The Agora of Athens: The history, shape, and uses of an ancient city center. Athenian Agora 14. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton Office.

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        Description of houses south of the Agora and west of the Areopagos, including houses of the Roman period. See especially pp. 173–185.

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      • Tsakirgis, B. 2009. Living near the Agora: Houses and households in central Athens. In The Athenian Agora: New perspectives on an ancient site. Edited by John M. Camp and C. Mauzy, 47–54. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: von Zabern.

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        Most recent study of Athenian house plans and domestic life by a leading scholar of Greek domestic architecture, with a good bibliography.

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      • Walter-Karydi, Elena. 1998. The Greek house: The rise of noble houses in late Classical times. Archaeological Society at Athens Library 171. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society at Athens.

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        A fine study of the change in Greek domestic architecture in the 4th century, locating the emergence of the peristyle house in Athens and attributing it to the rise of a new way of life detached from the public sphere: the peristyle was the appropriate, “higher” setting for a contemplative life of study and philosophy.

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      • Wycherley, R. E. 1978. The stones of Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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        A perceptive survey, suggesting that the urban environment of the city was not quite as slum-like, and the Athenian standard of domestic living not quite as low, as is often thought. See especially pp. 237–252.

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      • Young, R. S. 1951. An industrial district of ancient Athens. Hesperia 20:135–288.

        DOI: 10.2307/146745Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Comprehensive report on the excavation (in the late 1930s and the 1940s) of ancient streets, houses, workshops, and drains in what must have been a bustling quarter in the valley between the Areopagos and the Pnyx.

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      LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389661-0066

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