Classics Xenophon
by
Vivienne Gray
  • LAST REVIEWED: 12 February 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 July 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0111

Introduction

Xenophon (c. 430 to post-355 BCE) wrote fourteen works of varied content and style. His interest in leadership gives them some unity, and they can be grouped into philosophic, historical, biographical, and technical writings; but they have separate manuscript traditions and bibliographies. The works are known by Greek or Latin or translated titles. Anabasis is the account of Xenophon’s march with Cyrus the Younger of Persia to challenge Artaxerxes for the Persian kingdom and his march back after Cyrus’s death (401–400 BCE). Hellenica is a history of events from where Thucydides left his history unfinished down to the battle of Mantinea (411–362 BCE). Cyropaedia describes how Cyrus the Great of Persia secured and maintained his empire. Among the Socratic works, Memorabilia defends Socrates, Xenophon’s teacher, against the charges of impiety and corruption for which he was executed by the Athenians, and then demonstrates through largely conversational vignettes that he helped people rather than harmed them as the charges alleged; Oeconomicus has Socrates teach Critobulus how to manage an estate and reports to him the conversation he once had with the master economist, Ischomachus; Symposium has Socrates and companions discuss their virtues at a party; Apologia Socratis explains why Socrates was so brazen at his trial. Xenophon’s minor works (opuscula) include a dialogue between Simonides and Hiero of Syracuse (Hiero), an encomium for Agesilaus of Sparta (Agesilaus), an account of the laws of Lycurgus that secured Spartan success (Lacedaemoniorum Politeia, LP), two works on horses and their management (De re equestri On Horsemanship and Hipparchicus Cavalry Commander), one on hunting with dogs (Cynegeticus), and the essay on how to improve the Athenian economy (Poroi). Athenian Constitution is included among his minor works, but it is not treated here as his work. Xenophon was a pioneer of new literary forms, but there is no complete study of this. Anabasis combines autobiographical history and travel book. Cyropaedia pioneers historical biography and contains early novellas. His Socratic works are new forms of dialogue and economic treatise. Hiero comes from the traditions of meetings of the wise and powerful, now lost in a stand-alone form. Agesilaus rivals Isocrates’s Evagoras as the first extant encomium. His technical treatises are the first extant.

Surveys of Life and Works

The principal ancient source for Xenophon’s life is Diogenes Laertius 1925. Breitenbach 1967 is the standard encyclopedic authority for the life and works. Delebecque 1957, Nickel 1979, and Anderson 1974 survey his works as a reflection of his life experiences. Higgins 1977 surveys most of the works in accordance with the belief of Leo Strauss that Xenophon is a subtle writer with hidden agendas. Texts and Commentaries also has accounts of Xenophon’s life and works. The contested biographical detail is the cause of his exile: Tuplin 1987. The Athenians exiled him either for joining Cyrus, their enemy, or for his subsequent service under the Spartans, also enemies, who took the Ten Thousand into their service against other Greeks.

  • Anderson, J. K. 1974. Xenophon. London: Duckworth.

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    Introduces the works as reflections of phases of his life experience. A standard reference.

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    • Breitenbach, H. R. 1967. Xenophon von Athen. In Pauly-Wissova. Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft IXA.2. Edited by August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, Wilhelm Kroll, Kurt Witte, Karl Mittelhaus, and Konrat Ziegler, cols. 1571–1578. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler.

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      The encyclopedic authority, giving all the evidence for his life and works in German.

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      • Delebecque, É. 1957. Essai sur la vie de Xénophon. Paris: Klincksieck.

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        In French. Referred to for the dating of the works, but subjective in its arguments. Influenced by the various compositional theories about the works, e.g., dates Hellenica 1–2 to the times when Xenophon was still a youth in Athens, earlier than the rest (see Interpretation).

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        • Diogenes Laertius. 1925. Philosophorum Vitae. Edited and translated by R. D. Hicks. Cambridge, MA: Heinemann.

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          Book 2, sections 48–59 gives the ancient account of the life, using Xenophon’s own Anabasis and other ancient sources now lost.

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          • Higgins, W. E. 1977. Xenophon the Athenian: The problem of the individual and the society of the polis. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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            Takes its inspiration from Leo Strauss and has become influential.

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            • Nickel, R. 1979. Xenophon. Erträge der Forschung, 111. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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              In German. Basic introduction to all the works.

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              • Tuplin, C. J. 1987. Xenophon’s exile again. In Homo Viator: Classical essays for John Bramble. Edited by Michael Whitby, Philip Hardie, and Mary Whitby, 59–69. Bristol, UK: Bristol Classical.

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                Continues the debate about Xenophon’s exile, arguing that the Athenians exiled him for service under their enemies, the Spartans.

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                Collections of Articles

                Gray 2010 selects already published papers, translating those not in English and explaining their importance in an introduction. Tuplin 2004 collects papers from a major conference on Xenophon, organizing them under general headings. Lane Fox 2004 reflects a range of current interests in Anabasis. Briant 1995 focuses on the people and places mentioned in Anabasis, drawing on eastern documents to reveal Xenophon’s limitations. Vander Waerdt 1994 includes several articles on Xenophon against a wider background of Socratic interest. Narcy and Tordesillas 2008 publishes new articles on Xenophon’s Socrates that offer a comprehensive introduction to all works.

                • Briant P., ed. 1995. Dans les pas des Dix-Mille: Peuples et pays du Proche Orient vus par un Grec. Actes de la Table Ronde internationale organisée à l’initiative du GRACO Toulouse, 3–4 février 1995. Pallas: Revue d’études antiques 43. Toulouse, France: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

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                  Sixteen papers on Anabasis, drawing on Eastern evidence and archaeology for the peoples and places he describes, their flora and fauna, rivers and roads, as well as the provisions and arms of the Ten Thousand themselves.

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                  • Gray, V. J., ed. 2010. Xenophon. Oxford Readings in Classical Studies. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563814.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Collects and/or translates twenty previously published articles representing main research directions in Xenophon: Gender, Socrates, Democracy, Cyropaedia, Historical Writing.

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                    • Lane Fox, R., ed. 2004. The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                      Twelve papers on Anabasis, covering composition and program, representation of the army and of Persia, Panhellenism, piety, and gender issues.

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                      • Narcy, Michel, and Alonso Tordesillas, eds. 2008. Xénophon et Socrate: Actes du colloque d’Aix-en-Provence (6–9 novembre 2003). Paris: Vrin.

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                        Twelve papers covering all the Socratic works in French.

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                        • Tuplin, C., ed. 2004. Xenophon and his world: Papers from a conference held in Liverpool in July 1999. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                          Twenty-four papers showing a range of approaches to Xenophon, grouped into his life, his association with Socrates, his relations with the barbarian world, Sparta, and his religion and politics, with special sections on Anabasis and Hellenica. A second conference was held in Liverpool in 2009 and is due to be published.

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                          • Vander Waerdt, P. A., ed. 1994. The Socratic movement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                            Four papers on Xenophon’s Socrates, mainly on Memorabilia and Oeconomicus.

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                            Bibliographies

                            Bibliography on the entire corpus is on the web and in print in L’Annee Philologique from 1924 onward, and in L’Allier ongoing. Morrison 1988 with Dorion 2008 cover the Socratic works from 1600 to 2008. Vela Tejada 1998 contains analysis as well as bibliography.

                            • L’Allier, L. 2008. Bibliographie complete de Xénophon d’Athènes.

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                              As of 2008, contained 1,175 commentaries on Xenophon’s works and 2,529 other contributions, comprehensive coverage, with some summaries of contributions in various languages. Divided into modern studies and editions, some very early, but does not differentiate major contributions from minor.

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                              • L’Annee Philologique.

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                                Ongoing entries on Xenophon under author and subject categories; online and in print from 1924.

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                                • Dorion, L.-A. 2008. Supplément Bibliographique 1988–2008. In Xénophon et Socrate, Actes du colloque d’Aix-en-Provence (6–9 novembre 2003). Edited by M. Narcy and A. Tordesillas, 283–300. Paris: Vrin.

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                                  Continues Morrison 1988 in listing entries for the Socratic works individually.

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                                  • Morrison, D. R. 1988. Bibliography of editions, translations, and commentary on Xenophon’s Socratic writings, 1600–present. Pittsburgh, PA: Mathesis.

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                                    Contains entries for each of the Socratic works under separate headings.

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                                    • Vela Tejada, José. 1998. Post H. R. Breitenbach: Tres Décadas de Estudios sobre Jenofonte (1967–1997). Actualización Científica y Bibliográfica. Zaragoza, Spain: Universidad de Zaragoza.

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                                      Analyzes the issues raised by the various works, lists the bibliography in various categories, with indices of authors modern and ancient, passages cited, and general realia.

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                                      Manuscripts, Papyri, Scholia

                                      Persson 1915 and Erbse 1961 are the standard authorities for manuscripts and papyri. Paap 1970 comments on selected papyri. Pellé 2010 discusses papyri for Hellenica and Anabasis. Lundström 1913 gives a sample of the scholia, which Dickey 2006 and Gudeman 1921 describe as scarce and basic. Texts and Commentaries also discusses the textual tradition.

                                      • Dickey, E. 2006. Ancient Greek scholarship: A guide to finding, reading, and understanding scholia, commentaries, lexica, and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                        Gives at 2.2.9 brief comment on Xenophon.

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                                        • Erbse, H. 1961. Uberlieferungsgeschichte der griechischen klassischen und hellenistichen Literature. In Geschichte der Textüberlieferung der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur I. Edited by Herbert Hunger, Karl Langosch, et al. 268–274. Zurich, Switzerland: Atlantis.

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                                          Overview of Xenophon’s textual tradition.

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                                          • Gudeman, A. 1921. Scholien. In Pauly-Wissova. Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft IIA.3. Edited by August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, Wilhelm Kroll, Kurt Witte, Karl Mittelhaus, and Konrat Ziegler, cols. 692–693. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler.

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                                            Overview of the scholia on Xenophon.

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                                            • Lundström, V. 1913. Scholierna till Xenophons Anabasis I Cod. Vat. Gr. 1335. Eranos 13:165–188.

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                                              Representative examples of scholia.

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                                              • Paap, A. H. R. E. 1970. The Xenophon papyri: Anabasis, Cyropaedia, Cynegeticus, De Vectigalibus. Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 18. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                Collects, edits, and discusses fifteen papyri from the four works.

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                                                • Pellé, Natascia, ed. 2010. Corpus dei papiri storici greci e latini. Parte A. Storici greci 1. Autori noti. Vol. 8. I frammenti delle opere di Senofonte. Pisa, Italy, and Rome: Fabrizio Serra.

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                                                  Papyri texts of Hellenica and Anabasis, with extensive commentary.

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                                                  • Persson, A. W. 1915. Zur Textgeschichte Xenophons. Lund, Sweden: Gleerup.

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                                                    The standard work.

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                                                    Texts and Commentaries

                                                    The variety of texts used by translators and scholars indicates that there are no canonical editions of Xenophon’s works. The main texts are the Oxford Classical Texts edited by Marchant in five volumes, and the Bibliotheca Teubneriana from various editors, both of these with introductory comments in Latin on the manuscripts and apparatus critici and various indices. The Budé editions in French (Les Belles Lettres: Paris), again from various editors, have more generous introductions, translations, apparatus critici, and notes, sometimes full, with various appendixes. See further Doty 2001 and Jackson 2006 (cited under Single Works) for their textual comment. Xenophon’s texts are available in electronic form on the Perseus Digital Library and through the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae: A Digital Library of Greek Literature. There is a dearth of modern commentaries in English on Xenophon’s works, and a dearth of modern commentaries for some works even in other languages.

                                                    Hellenica

                                                    There is no complete modern commentary for Hellenica. Marchant in Classical Review 44 (1930) reviewed advances on his own text (Marchant 1900) in Hude 1930; Hatzfeld 1936–1939 offers a text and comment from a noted older Greek historian. Underhill 1900 is the only complete commentary and has been only partly replaced by Krentz 1989 and Krentz 1995.

                                                    • Hatzfeld, J. 1936–1939. Helléniques. 2 vols. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                      Introduction and translation in French, with apparatus criticus.

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                                                      • Hude, C. 1930. Xenophontis Historia Graeca. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                        Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin.

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                                                        • Krentz, P. 1989. Xenophon: Hellenika I–II.3.10. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.

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                                                          Text compiled from Marchant, Hude, Hatzfeld. The text is accompanied by an English translation on facing page, with introduction and historical commentary.

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                                                          • Krentz, P. 1995. Hellenika II.3.11–IV.2.8. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.

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                                                            The text is accompanied by translation on facing page, with introduction and historical commentary.

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                                                            • Marchant, E. C. 1900. Xenophontis Opera Omnia. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts.

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                                                              Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin.

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                                                              • Underhill, G. E. 1900. A commentary with introduction and appendix on the Hellenica of Xenophon. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                The only comprehensive commentary, but has been overtaken by modern work on this period of history and on Xenophon’s narrative. Text follows Marchant. Introduction deals with composition, chronology, manuscripts. Full notes.

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                                                                Anabasis

                                                                There is no advanced commentary in English. Marchant in Classical Review 46.5 (1932) reviewed advances on his own text (Marchant 1904) in Hude 1932 and in Masqueray 1930–1931; Peters 1972 corrects and expands Hude 1932, adding further manuscripts. Xenophon 1998 replaces the earlier volumes on Anabasis in the Loeb Classical Library. Lendle 1995 comments on all books, Stronk 1995 deals only with the Thracian narrative. Rijksbaron 2002 discusses the “school” commentary, which claimed Anabasis for its own.

                                                                • Hude, C. 1932. Xenophontis Expeditio Cyri. Leipzig: Teubner.

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                                                                  Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin. Updated by Peters 1972.

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                                                                  • Lendle, O. 1995. Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis (Bücher 1–7). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

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                                                                    Paragraph by paragraph commentary on historical matters, names, and places and the route of march, with maps/diagrams; no text or translation.

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                                                                    • Marchant, E. C. 1904. Xenophontis Opera Omnia. Vol. 3. Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts.

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                                                                      Text with apparatus criticus and Latin introduction to the manuscripts.

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                                                                      • Masqueray, P. 1930–1931. Xénophon. Anabase. 2 vols. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                        Introduction and translation in French, with apparatus criticus.

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                                                                        • Peters, J. 1972. Expeditio Cyri. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                                          Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin. Updates Hude 1932.

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                                                                          • Rijksbaron, A. 2002. The Xenophon factory. One hundred and fifty years of school editions of Xenophon’s Anabasis. In The classical commentary: Histories, practices, theory. Edited by R. K. Gibson and C. S Kraus, 258–268. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                            Compares various “school” editions of Anabasis in Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom in the 19th and 20th centuries, commenting on their frequent inadequacies, with comparisons of comments on selected matters.

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                                                                            • Stronk, J. P. 1995. The Ten Thousand in Thrace: An archaeological and historical commentary on Xenophon’s Anabasis VI.iii-vi–VII. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.

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                                                                              Focusing on the parts of the work that deal with Xenophon’s adventures in Thrace, but does not use the primary archaeological material coming from that region.

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                                                                              • Xenophon. 1998. Anabasis. Translated by Carlton L. Brownson; revised by John Dillery. Loeb Classical Library 90. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                Text, English translation, full introduction and notes.

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                                                                                Cyropaedia

                                                                                Marchant 1910, Bizos 1971–1978, and Peters 1968 are all used by scholars and translators. There is no modern commentary for any book of Cyropaedia, let alone all eight books, but Holden 1887–1890 is surprisingly good. See also detailed interpretations of the episodes of the work under Interpretation: Cyropaedia.

                                                                                • Bizos, M., with E. Delebecque. 1971–1978. Xénophon: Cyropedie. 3 vols. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                  Introduction and translation in French, with apparatus criticus and notes.

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                                                                                  • Holden, H. 1887–1890. The Cyropaedeia of Xenophon: Books I–VIII. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                    An older edition following Hug’s text, with valuable linguistic comment and excellent introduction for the times, treating historical reliability and sources; a useful source for older scholarship, e.g., on the epilogue to the work.

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                                                                                    • Marchant, E. C. 1910. Xenophontis Opera Omnia. Vol. 4. Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts.

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                                                                                      Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin.

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                                                                                      • Peters, J. 1968. Xenophontis Institutio Cyri. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                                                        Text with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin. Updates Wilhelm Gemoll’s 1912 edition (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner).

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                                                                                        Socratic Works

                                                                                        The texts and commentaries with text sometimes cover a single work, sometimes several, sometimes the whole range. Of the texts, Marchant 1921 covers all the Socratic works. Marchant in Classical Review 49 (1935) reviewed advances on his own text of Memorabilia (Marchant 1921) in Hude 1934, calling the latter revolutionary and the best available at that time. Of the texts with commentaries, Dorion and Bandini 2000, Dorion and Bandini 2011a, and Dorion and Bandini 2011b are now authoritative for Memorabilia; Gigon 1953 exhibits earlier approaches. For Oeconomicus, Pomeroy 1994 is standard, emphasizing the social aspects of the work. For Symposium, Huss 1999 is standard. For Apologia, MacLeod 2008 is the best.

                                                                                        • Dorion, L.-A., and M. Bandini. 2000. Xénophon, Mémorables. Vol. 1. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                          The standard modern commentary on Memorabilia, Book 1. Greek text edited by Bandini, French translation on facing page, full notes and introduction by Dorion, textual history and review of earlier editions, with bibliography.

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                                                                                          • Dorion, L.-A., and M. Bandini. 2011a. Xénophon, Mémorables. Vol. 2. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                            The standard modern commentary on Books 2–3, with text and supplementary comment on the textual tradition by Bandini, and translation in French and full notes by Dorion. With bibliography and tables of correspondences. See also Dorion and Bandini 2000 and Dorion and Bandini 2011b.

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                                                                                            • Dorion, L.-A., and M. Bandini. 2011b. Xénophon, Mémorables. Vol. 3. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                              The standard modern commentary on Book 4, with text by Bandini and translation and notes by Dorion. With supplementary bibliography and tables of correspondences, and indices to all three volumes. See also Dorion and Bandini 2000 and Dorion and Bandini 2011a.

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                                                                                              • Gigon, O. 1953. Kommentar zum ersten Buch von Xenophons Memorabilien. Schweizerische Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft 5. Basel, Switzerland: F. Reinhardt.

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                                                                                                Argues that Xenophon put together his material from earlier Socratic literature. See the same approach in O. Gigon, Kommentar zum zweiten Buch von Xenophons Memorabilien, Schweizerische Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft 7 (Basel, Switzerland: F. Reinhardt, 1956).

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                                                                                                • Hude, C. 1934. Xenophontis Commentarii. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                                                                  Text of Memorabilia, with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin. Improves on Marchant 1921 by collating more manuscripts.

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                                                                                                  • Huss, B. 1999. Xenophons Symposion: Ein Kommentar. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                                                                    The standard commentary, but without text or translation. Argues that the work creates a Golden Age, in which characters later to become corrupt are virtuous under Socrates’s influence. Examines relations with Plato’s Symposium. Replaces F. Ollier (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1961), fuller than A. J. Bowen’s Xenophon; Symposium, with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary (Warminster, UK: Aris and Phillips, 1998).

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                                                                                                    • Macleod, M. D. 2008. Apology and Memorabilia I. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                                                                                                      Main introduction on life and relations with Plato and others, separate introductions to the works, full commentary with text and English translation. Follows Marchant’s text. Replaces F. Ollier (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1961) for Apologia Socratis.

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                                                                                                      • Marchant, E. C. 1921. Xenophontis Opera Omnia. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts.

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                                                                                                        Text of all Socratic works with apparatus criticus and introduction to the manuscripts in Latin. More cautious than T. Thalheim, Hiero and Agesilaus with Oeconomicus, Symposium and Ap. Soc. (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1910).

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                                                                                                        • Pomeroy, S. 1994. Xenophon, Oeconomicus: A social and historical commentary, with a new English translation. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                          The standard modern commentary, based on Marchant’s text, with a focus on oikos and economy, introduction on Xenophon’s life and style, the composition and date of the work, his relations with Socrates, the reception of the work and the history of the text. P. Chantraine, Économique (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1949) is still useful for its comments on language and style.

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                                                                                                          Minor Works

                                                                                                          The texts and commentaries with texts sometimes cover single works, sometimes collections of works, and sometimes the entire range.

                                                                                                          Texts

                                                                                                          Rühl 1912, Marchant 1920, and Pierleoni 1933 cover all the works. Widdra 1964 replaces Rühl 1912 on De re equestri.

                                                                                                          Commentaries, with Texts

                                                                                                          Delebecque 1950, Delebecque 1970, and Delebecque 1973 offer authoritative comment on technical matters. Manes 1992 is the only commentary on Agesilaus. Gray 2007 and Lipka 2002 cover Hiero and Respublica Lacedaemoniorum. Gauthier 1976 is the only modern commentary on Poroi.

                                                                                                          • Delebecque, E. 1950. Xénophon: De l’Art équestre. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                            Uses the text of De re equestri from Rühl 1912 (cited under Texts), but with valuable introduction, notes and translation in French––benefits from technical knowledge.

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                                                                                                            • Delebecque, E. 1970. Xénophon: L’Art de chasse. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                              In French. Introduction, notes, and translation of Cynegeticus, with some textual comment––benefits from technical knowledge. More expert commentary is in A. A. Phillips and M. M. Willcock, Xenophon and Arrian on Hunting (Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips, 1999), with English translation, follows Delebecque’s text.

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                                                                                                              • Delebecque, E. 1973. Xénophon: Le Commandant de la Cavalerie. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                In French. Introduction, notes and translation, some textual comment––benefits from technical knowledge. Supplemented by C. Petrocelli, Senofonte. Ipparchico: Manuale per il Comandante di Cavalleria (Bari, Italy: Edipuglia, 2001), who uses Delebecque’s text with Italian translation, wide-ranging introduction and notes, with appendix of the 18th-century work by Joly de Maizeroy.

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                                                                                                                • Gauthier, P. 1976. Un commentaire historique des Poroi de Xénophon. Geneva, Switzerland, and Paris: Droz.

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                                                                                                                  The standard commentary, focuses on Xenophon’s agenda to improve the economy, with introduction but no text or complete translation. Significant essays in appendixes. Gauthier returns to defend his view against criticism, reprinted in translation in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 113–136.

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                                                                                                                  • Gray, V. J. 2007. Xenophon on Government (Hiero, Respublica Lacedaemoniorum and Respublica Atheniensium). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                    Overall and specific introductions to the works with a focus in the commentaries on Xenophon’s political thought; text based on Marchant.

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                                                                                                                    • Lipka, M. 2002. Xenophon’s Spartan constitution: Introduction, text, commentary. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1515/9783110887242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      The introduction covers most traditional questions: authorship and date, influences, composition, historicity, reception, language and style, and text.

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                                                                                                                      • Manes, E. Luppino. 1992. L’Agesilao di Senofonte: Tra commiato ed encomio. Milan: Jaca.

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                                                                                                                        In Italian. With brief introduction, text, translation, commentary.

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                                                                                                                        Interpretation

                                                                                                                        The different subdisciplines in which Xenophon wrote attract treatments of individual works in terms of the subdiscipline: the Socratic works by philosophers, the historical works by historians, and so forth. Early scholarship focused on problems of dating and composition in works that seemed to lack cohesion. Modern interpretations draw on a variety of critical methods, and there is a particular debate between those who pursue the “subtle” as opposed to the surface readings of various works, particularly Cyropaedia.

                                                                                                                        Hellenica

                                                                                                                        Scholarship has focused on the composition of the work, its concept of history, and historical reliability.

                                                                                                                        Composition

                                                                                                                        Hellenica begins with events that follow on the end of Thucydides’ unfinished history and completes the history of the Peloponnesian War, so the “fit” with the end of Thucydides has been a focus (see Canfora 1970, MacLaren 1979, Rood 2004). The work also ends with an invitation to another historian to take up where it leaves off, which makes Hellenica the first among the clear examples of “continuous history” (Tuplin 2007). The first two books have seemed different from the rest in their language, scope, chronological structure, and notices of events outside Greece, and this has led to theories that Xenophon composed the work in sections that reflect his move away from the shadow of Thucydides into a new concept of history (MacLaren 1934), but the differences and the theories of composition have been challenged (Henry 1966, Gray 1991). The chronological and other notices in the first two books have been read as interpolations by Mazzini 1971.

                                                                                                                        • Canfora, L. 1970. Tucidide continuato. Padua, Italy: Antenore.

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                                                                                                                          The title refers to the ancient tradition that Xenophon not only continued Thucydides, but published it from its unfinished state. Canfora is at his most imaginative when he argues that Xenophon was the author of Thucydides’ text at 5.1–83, which means that he refers to his own exile at 5.26 rather than that of Thucydides.

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                                                                                                                          • Gray, V. J. 1991. Continuous history and Xenophon, Hellenica 1–2.3.10. American Journal of Philology 112:201–228.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/294718Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Examines the phenomenon of continuation and plays down stylistic and other differences between the earlier and later sections.

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                                                                                                                            • Henry, W. P. 1966. Greek historical writing: A historiographical essay based on Xenophon’s Hellenica. Chicago: Argonaut.

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                                                                                                                              Negatively and comprehensively examines the various theories about the composition.

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                                                                                                                              • MacLaren, M. 1934. On the composition of Xenophon’s Hellenica. American Journal of Philology 55.2: 121–139.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/290510Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Argues that Hellenica 1–2.3.10 was composed separately from the rest, but that there is no such division at 5.1.36.

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                                                                                                                                • MacLaren, M. 1979. A supposed lacuna at the beginning of Xenophon’s Hellenica. American Journal of Philology 100:228–238.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/293686Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Argues against older views that there is no lacuna at the beginning of our text.

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                                                                                                                                  • Mazzini, I. 1971. Struttura e stile delle interpolazioni al primo e secondo libro delle Elleniche senofontee. Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 11:77–95.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/20537639Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Exhaustively examines the interpolations detected in the first two books.

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                                                                                                                                    • Rood, T. 2004. Xenophon and Diodorus: Continuing Thucydides. In Xenophon and his world: Papers from a conference held in Liverpool in July 1999. Edited by C. Tuplin, 341–396. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                      Argues for a loose but clear thematic continuation with Thucydides.

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                                                                                                                                      • Tuplin, C. J. 2007. Continuous histories. In A companion to Greek and Roman historiography. Edited by J. Marincola, 159–171. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                        A review of the phenomenon of the continuation of one historian by another.

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                                                                                                                                        Concept of History

                                                                                                                                        Xenophon has been accused of not writing “real” history (Rahn 1971, Grayson 1975, Riedinger 1991), but this is true only of history in the style of Thucydides. Marincola 1997 establishes a more flexible set of parameters for historical writing in which Xenophon can be placed. Gray 2003 argues that his first-person interventions announce a new concept of the traditional “greatness” in history, rather than apologizing for his inclusion of material likely to be thought “unhistorical.” Every history has its special interests. Dillery 1995 explores themes of leadership and Panhellenism, Tuplin 1993 reads Hellenica as Xenophon’s critique of empire, in which his apparent praise of leadership conceals criticism. There is a challenge to this in Gray 2011, chapter 2 (cited under Narrative Art).

                                                                                                                                        • Dillery, J. 1995. Xenophon and the history of his times. London: Routledge.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.4324/9780203421383Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Explores concepts of utopia, Panhellenism, and leadership in Hellenica and Anabasis against a background of pessimism.

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                                                                                                                                          • Gray, V. J. 2003. Interventions and citations in Xenophon, Hellenica and Anabasis. Classical Quarterly 53:111–123.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/cq/53.1.111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Xenophon’s first-person interventions announce a new concept of the greatness that was the traditional agenda of history, and his citations (it is said) often mark instances of this and the more traditional greatness.

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                                                                                                                                            • Grayson, C. H. 1975. Did Xenophon intend to write history? In The ancient historian and his materials. Essays in honour of C. E. Stevens on his seventieth birthday. Edited by B. Levick, 31–43. Farnborough, UK: Gregg International.

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                                                                                                                                              Finds Xenophon’s first-person interventions praising and blaming leaders incompatible with the idea of history.

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                                                                                                                                              • Marincola, J. 1997. Authority and tradition in ancient historiography. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511584831Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Positions Xenophon in the tradition of historical writing through brief references under various chapters, such as the greatness of the subject and the historian’s self-praise.

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                                                                                                                                                • Rahn, P. J. 1971. Xenophon’s developing historiography. Transactions of the American Philological Association 102:497–508.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2935952Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Sees Hellenica 2.3.10–11 as a bridge over which Xenophon moves away from Thucydidean history and the decline of Athens to material of exemplary value and the social disintegration of his time.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Riedinger, J.-C. 1991. Étude sur les Helléniques: Xénophon et L’histoire. Collection d’études anciennes 120. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                    Argues that the lack of unified subject, the omissions, first-person interventions, lack of chronology, and partiality prove that Xenophon is “deforming” history.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Tuplin, C. J. 1993. The failings of empire. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                      Reads Hellenica 2.3.11 to the end as a subtle critique of empire in all its forms, Athenian and Spartan.

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                                                                                                                                                      Historical Reliability

                                                                                                                                                      Xenophon’s reliability is hard to judge because of the lack of other opposing or confirming evidence, but his reliability is questioned where he differs from Diodorus Siculus, on the grounds that Diodorus had access to better contemporary sources such as Hellenica Oxyrhynchia through Ephorus. On the side of Diodorus, see Andrewes 1982 and Westlake 1975; with Xenophon, see Gray 1987, Tuplin 1986.

                                                                                                                                                      Anabasis

                                                                                                                                                      Scholarship has focused on Xenophon’s presentation of his own achievements, on the organization and experience of mercenaries, on Panhellenism, and on the depiction of the East through Greek eyes.

                                                                                                                                                      Overall Analysis

                                                                                                                                                      Flower 2012 offers a comprehensive interpretation of the work as history and narrative.

                                                                                                                                                      The Presentation of Self

                                                                                                                                                      Attention focuses on Xenophon’s decision to write about himself as a central character in what is recognized as the first autobiography (Bradley 2001). This has been seen as a defensive response to an earlier account of the events of Anabasis from Sophaenetus, one of the other captains Xenophon mentions in Anabasis, but the evidence for that account is slight and its existence is questioned (Stylianou 2004). The only other account we have of the events of Anabasis is in Diodorus Siculus, who does not mention Xenophon. His silence leads to accusations of false self-promotion, but Erbse 1966 and Stylianou 2004 consider his account to be worthy of credence. Xenophon is aware of the risk of appearing self-promoting since he attributes the authorship of Anabasis to Themistogenes of Syracuse in Hellenica 3.1.2 in order to make his account sound objective (MacLaren 1934).

                                                                                                                                                      • Bradley, P. J. 2001. Irony and the narrator in Xenophon’s Anabasis. In Essays in honor of Gordon Williams: Twenty-five years at Yale. Edited by E. I. Tylawsky and C. G. Weiss, 59–84. New Haven, CT: Henry R. Schwab.

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                                                                                                                                                        Sees a development toward a new genre of “novelesque” autobiography, in which early references to anonymous sources give the impression of history, but disappear in later books, which morph to autobiography. Reprinted in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 520–552.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Erbse, H. 1966. Xenophon’s Anabasis. Gymnasium 73:485–505.

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                                                                                                                                                          Addresses most of the problems about Xenophon’s prejudice, seeing the work as a right-minded defense of Xenophon’s actions to an Athenian audience. Translated in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 476–501.

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                                                                                                                                                          • MacLaren, M. 1934. Xenophon and Themistogenes. Transactions of the American Philological Association 65:240–247.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/283030Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Supports Plutarch’s evidence that Xenophon’s reference to Themistogenes as author of Anabasis is a pseudonym designed to promote the impression of objectivity.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Stylianou, P. J. 2004. One Anabasis or two? In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 68–96. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              Describes relations between Diodorus’s account and Xenophon’s, dismissing the work of Sophaenetus as a fiction and championing Xenophon’s reliability.

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                                                                                                                                                              Themes

                                                                                                                                                              Anabasis is examined for its political thought about social organization and leadership by Nussbaum 1967 and Dalby 1992; about Panhellenism by Rood 2004; about the problem of exile by Ma 2004; and about various military matters, including Xenophon’s attitude to mercenary service, by Roy 2004 and Azoulay 2004. Xenophon is a major source for Persian realities: see Briant 1995, cited under Collections of Articles and Tuplin 2004. Waterfield 2006 has a special emphasis on East-West relations in the work.

                                                                                                                                                              • Azoulay, V. 2004. Exchange as entrapment: Mercenary Xenophon? In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 289–304. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                Xenophon represents mercenary service for pay as dishonorable, disguising his distaste for his own service.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Dalby, A. 1992. Greeks abroad: Social organization and food among the Ten Thousand. Journal of Hellenic Studies 112:16–30.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/632150Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Argues against the too facile identification of the army of the Ten Thousand with the polis community, preferring models such as colonizing ventures.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Ma, J. 2004. You can’t go home again: Displacement and identity in Xenophon’s Anabasis. In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 330–345. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    On the isolating but bonding experience of warfare overseas.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Nussbaum, G. B. 1967. The Ten Thousand: A study in social organization and action in Xenophon’s Anabasis. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the army as community.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Rood, T. 2004. Panhellenism and self-presentation: Xenophon’s speeches. In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 305–329. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Critically reexamines the idea that speeches in Anabasis promote a Panhellenic crusade against Persia.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Roy, J. 2004. The ambitions of a mercenary. In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 264–288. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Sets the Ten Thousand in the general context of mercenary service in the East.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Tuplin, C. J. 2004. The Persian Empire. In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 154–184. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Full account of Xenophon’s Persian information in Anabasis.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Waterfield, R. 2006. Xenophon’s retreat: Greece, Persia, and the end of the golden age. London: Faber and Faber.

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                                                                                                                                                                              A lively engagement with Xenophon’s account, which rounds out the events and Xenophon’s personality and reads Anabasis for its reflective disappointment, showing awareness also of the cultural clash of East and West.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Cyropaedia

                                                                                                                                                                              Scholarship focuses on the representation of the leadership of Cyrus, whether it is for praise or blame, on the depiction of Persian realities, and on narrative art, including the development of the novella (see Narrative Art).

                                                                                                                                                                              Representation of Cyrus

                                                                                                                                                                              The representation of Cyrus is a focus of modern debate: the work appears to praise him as an enlightened and successful leader, but various “ironic” subtexts of blame are found pointing toward oppressive and manipulative despotism. The epilogue seems in particular to undermine the positive impression because it charts Persian decline after Cyrus’s death. The question is asked how far Cyrus is responsible for sowing the seeds of this decline. On the ironic side are Carlier 1978, Tatum 1989, Nadon 2001. On the other side: Due 1989 and to some extent Gera 1993 and Gray 2011, chapter 5 (both cited under Narrative Art). Dorion 2002 also focuses on the epilogue. Mueller-Goldingen 1995 offers a commentary through analysis of key episodes.

                                                                                                                                                                              Representation of Persia

                                                                                                                                                                              Hirsch 1985 is a standard reference. Masaracchia 1996 and Sancisi-Weerdenburg 1985 find Persian ideology and protocols in the work, but Tuplin 1994 sees the Persian education system (Cyropaedia 1.2) as a reflection of Xenophon’s experience of Spartan education.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Hirsch, S. W. 1985. The friendship of the barbarians: Xenophon and the Persian Empire. Hanover, NH: Univ. Press of New England.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Examines the coherence of Xenophon’s views of Persians, treating Anabasis, Oeconomicus, Agesilaus, Cyropaedia, with a long chapter on the informers known as the King’s Eyes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Masaracchia, E. 1996. La Ciropedia di Senofonte e l’ideologia imperiale persiana. Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 54:163–194.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/20547361Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Finds authentic Persian ideology and protocol in Cyropaedia, for instance in the account of Persian education and the operation of friendship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. 1985. The death of Cyrus: Xenophon’s Cyropaideia as a source for Iranian history. Acta Iranica 25:459–471.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Finds Iranian realities in Xenophon’s portrayal of Cyrus’s death at the end of the work. Reprinted in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 439–456.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tuplin, C. J. 1994. Xenophon, Sparta and the Cyropaedia. In The shadow of Sparta. Edited by S. Hodkinson and A. Powell, 127–182. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Considers the Persian education system as a reflection of contemporary Sparta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      The Socratic Works

                                                                                                                                                                                      Scholarship has focused on the representation of Socrates and its relation to the Platonic representation, on the composition and unity of the works, and on interpretations that read beneath the surface of the text, as inspired by Leo Strauss.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Representation of Socrates

                                                                                                                                                                                      Scholarship focuses on the comparison with Plato’s portrait of Socrates. Dorion 2006 summarizes the differences between the two. There is a tradition that Xenophon does not give an authentic image because he compiled his information from sources other than the personal witness to which he attests (“I was present when,” e.g., Symposium 1.1), that he often wrote in reaction to them, and did not always have the wit to understand what he read; see Chroust 1957 on his reading of Polycrates and Antisthenes, Patzer 1999 on Plato. Patzer 1999 believes Xenophon failed to understand the Socratic philosophical method that he found in Plato, but Wellman 1976 and Morrison 1994 believe he captured the essential Socratic education. Luccioni 1953 assesses how Xenophon’s portrait emerged from both his experience and his reading. Gray 1998 treats his portrait as the incorporation of the novel Socratic method into the older tradition of wisdom literature. Older scholarship questioned the unity of some works, but modern scholars refute this. Erbse 1961 recognizes Memorabilia as a new and unified literary form, against the impression that the defense of Socrates (1.1–1.2.64) was separate from the subsequent vignettes and that the vignettes had been subject to interpolation (Longo 1959). Pomeroy 1994 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Socratic Works) dismisses the significant anomalies in the summary of the debate between Socrates at chapter 6: Castiglioni, “Studi senofontei IV: intorno all ‘Economico.’” Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 48 (1920): 321–342; 475–489.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chroust, A. H. 1957. Socrates, man and myth: The two Socratic apologies of Xenophon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        On the Memorabilia and Apologia as a reaction to the now lost Accusation of Polykrates, which survives in Libanius.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dorion, L. A. 2006. Xenophon’s Socrates. In A Companion to Socrates. Edited by S. Ahbel-Rappe and R. Kamtekar, 93–109. Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A succinct summary of the main differences from Plato’s Socrates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Erbse, H. 1961. Die Architektonik im Aufbau von Xenophons Memorabilien. Hermes 89:257–287.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Argues that the two sections are not separate works, but a novel new form that imitates the legal process of dokimasia, and that the vignettes are logically arranged.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gray, V. J. 1998. The framing of Socrates: The literary interpretation of Xenophon’s Memorabilia. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Argues for a unified structure for Memorabilia that imitates Socratic method as well as legal rhetorical process, and places Socrates’s originality within the older tradition of didactic wisdom in chapters 9–10.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Longo, V. 1959. Aner ophelimos: il problema della composizione dei “Memorabili di Socrate” attraverso lo “Scritto di difesa.” Genoa, Italy: Istituti di filosofia classica.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Exemplifies the compositional approach to Memorabilia and the Apologia Socratis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Luccioni, J. 1953. Xénophon et le Socratisme. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Emphasizes the defensive nature of the works, Xenophon’s own input into the image, and how the multiple receptions of Socrates provide different versions of “Socratisme.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Morrison, D. 1994. Xenophon’s Socrates as teacher. In The Socratic movement. Edited by P. Vanderwardt, 181–208. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maintains that Xenophon captures the true moral power of Socrates’s teaching, which lies in the imitation of his virtue as well as in his direct teaching.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Patzer, A. 1999. Der Xenophontische Sokrates als Dialektiker: Ein Vortrag. In Der fragende Sokrates. Edited by K. Pestalozzi, 50–76. Stuttgart and Leipzig: de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1515/9783110959826Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Believes Xenophon garbles the account of Socrates’s methods he found in Plato. Translated in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 228–256.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wellman, R. R. 1976. Socratic method in Xenophon. Journal of the History of Ideas 37:307–318.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/2708826Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reconciles Xenophon’s account of Socratic method with that in Plato, his erotics, elenchus, recognition of ignorance, and especially anamnesis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Straussian Interpretations

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Leo Strauss elicited hidden readings from beneath the once generally accepted surface of what Socrates appears to say, applying his system of reading also to non-Socratic works (Strauss 1970 and Strauss 1972). Dorion systematically criticizes his system (Dorion 2001), as do Irwin and Burnyeat (Irwin 1974 and Burnyeat 1985), also prominent modern philosophers, but Strauss’s system remains influential. Too 2001 and Danzig 2003 find that Socrates is ironic in his surface praise of Ischomachus’s practice of estate management in Oeconomicus because his view of happiness as a philosopher must be different from that of Ischomachus; but Dorion 2008 argues to the contrary, that their views are similar in major respects. Johnson 2003 represents those who still believe, against Dorion 2001, that in Memorabilia 4.4, Socrates is only ironically endorsing obedience to the laws without qualification in spite of the surface impression, and conveying a hidden meaning to the contrary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Minor Works

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Many of the works are original contributions to literary forms. Agesilaus is discussed as pioneering biography (Momigliano 1993) and for its parallels with the text of Hellenica (Pontier 2010). Bordes 1982 shows how Respublica Lacedaemoniorum (RL) sits in the development of forms of constitutional literature. The equestrian works are discussed for their technical expertise (Anderson 1961 and Anderson 1985). There is a controversy about Xenophon’s apparently democratic sympathies in Poroi (Gauthier 1984). Strauss 2000 finds hidden messages in the views of the characters in Hiero, questioning Hiero’s denunciation of tyranny and Simonides’s commendation of kingship, to produce a text in which Xenophon is not championing the style of leadership he appears to endorse. Xenophon’s overt praise of the laws of Lycurgus in RL is also challenged and its structural anomalies taken as signs of a subtext (Strauss 1939). Momigliano 1966 and Gray 2011, chapters 3 and 5 (cited under Narrative Art) support the overt messages of RL and Hiero.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Anderson, J. K. 1961. Ancient Greek horsemanship. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Comments on Xenophon’s De re equestri and Hipparchicus from an expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Anderson, J. K. 1985. Hunting in the ancient world. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Addresses Xenophon’s depictions of hunting in Cynegeticus and Cyropaedia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bordes, J. 1982. Politeia dans la pensée grecque jusqu’à Aristote. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Places RL in the tradition of constitutional literature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gauthier, P. 1984. Le programme de Xénophon dans les Poroi. Revue de Philologie 58:181–199.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Argues against Schütrumpf that Xenophon does not mean to disempower the Athenian demos by his reforms. Translated in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 113–136.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Momigliano, A. 1966. Per l’unita logica della ΛΑΚΕΔΑΙΜΟΝΙΟΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ di Senofonte. In Vol. 1, Terzio contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico. By A. Momigliano, 170–173. Rome: Edizione di storia e letteratura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Argues that structural anomalies do not undermine the praise of Lycurgus’s laws in RL.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Momigliano, A. 1993. The development of Greek biography. Exp. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assesses Xenophon’s contribution to the development of biography and autobiography in Agesilaus, Cyropaedia, Anabasis, and the Socratic works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pontier, P. 2010. L’Agésilas de Xénophon: Comment on réécrit l’histoire. Cahiers des études classiques 47:359–383.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reviews the differences between the parallel narratives of Agesilaus and Hellenica, mainly in terms of content.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strauss, L. 1939. The spirit of Sparta or the taste of Xenophon. Social Research 6:502–536.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reads the work as a parody, in which the apparent praise of Lycurgus’s laws is undermined at every point.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Strauss, L. 2000. On tyranny. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Argues that Hiero is insincere in his denunciation of tyranny and Simonides offers him only limited reform, in spite of appearances. With translation of Hiero. First published in 1948. Revised edition by V. Gourevitch and M. S. Roth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Translations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are good translations available, often with full introductions and notes commenting on the translations, and Greek text on facing page. Some volumes translate a single work, while some contain collected works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collected Works

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Gutenberg Project Literary Archive Foundation makes available the translations of H. Dakyns, The Works of Xenophon (London: Macmillan, 1890). These are elegant and accurate. The Loeb Classical Library translates all the works in seven volumes, using Marchant’s texts, with various translators (see Texts and Commentaries). Waterfield published new translations of various Socratic works with introductions and notes by himself (Waterfield 1990) and then of the minor works with introductions and notes by Cartledge in Waterfield and Cartledge 1997.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Single Works

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Anabasis is translated by Warner with introduction and notes by Cawkwell (Warner and Cawkwell 1972), by Waterfield, with introduction and notes by Rood (Waterfield and Rood 2005), and by Ambler, with introductory essay by Buzzetti (Ambler 2008). Hellenica is translated by Warner with introduction and notes by Cawkwell (see Warner and Cawkwell 1978), and by Marincola, with short essays by various other scholars (see Strassler 2009). Cyropaedia is translated by Ambler 2001, with introductory essay by Bruell, adopting a Straussian reading. Memorabilia is translated by Bonnette 1994, with introductory essay. The Constitution of the Lacedaemonians is translated by Jackson 2006, with Greek text on facing page. Doty 2001 translates Cynegeticus, again with Greek text on facing page.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ambler, W. 2001. The education of Cyrus. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Keeps close to the original, with glossaries of important translated terms and brief notes, and an introductory essay by C. Bruell on the change in Cyrus from peer to oriental despot. The text followed is of Bizos 1971–1978 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Cyropaedia).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ambler, W. 2008. The Anabasis of Cyrus. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Keeps close to the original, with introductory essay by E. Buzzetti stressing the association of Xenophon with Socrates, glossaries and brief notes, translation based mainly on Peters 1972 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Anabasis).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bonnette, A. L. 1994. Memorabilia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Keeps close to the original, sometimes transliterating Greek, based on Hude 1934 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Socratic Works), with notes and introductory essay by C. Bruell, “Xenophon and his Socrates,” reprinted with revisions from Interpretation 16.2 (1998–1999): 295–306, which seems to question the surface praise of Socrates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Doty, R. 2001. Xenophon on hunting. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Useful introduction and comments on the textual tradition. See also D. F. Jackson and R. Doty, The Hellenica (Greek History) of Xenophon of Athens (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2006). Critical edition of the text, with translation. Useful comments on the textual tradition and apparatus criticus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jackson, D. F. 2006. The constitution of the Lacedaemonians by Xenophon of Athens. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Critical edition of the text, with translation from an author who has also written extensively in recent times on Xenophon’s manuscript tradition in article form. See also D. F. Jackson and R. Doty, The Hellenica (Greek History) of Xenophon of Athens (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006). Critical edition of the text, with translation. Useful comments on the textual tradition and apparatus criticus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Strassler, R., ed. 2009. The landmark Xenophon’s Hellenika: A new translation. New York: Pantheon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Translated by J. Marincola, based on Marchant 1900 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Hellenica) with a list of deviations from it, introduction by D. Thomas, short essays on sundry topics, some from well-known scholars, translations of selections from Diodorus Siculus and the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, abundant maps.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Warner, R., and G. Cawkwell. 1972. Xenophon: The Persian expedition. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Classics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cawkwell supplies Warner’s 1949 translation with an introduction focusing on the usual matters: historical background, apologetic elements, Panhellenic spirit.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Warner, R., and G. Cawkwell. 1978. Xenophon: A history of my times. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Classics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Warner’s 1966 translation is accompanied by an introductory essay on Xenophon’s life, the composition and character of the work and some notes, often criticizing him for his inadequacies (omissions, misunderstandings, etc.).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Waterfield, R., and T. Rood. 2005. Xenophon: The Expedition of Cyrus. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fluent and accurate, attends to textual readings, follows Xenophon 1998 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Anabasis), full introduction and notes by Rood, with special emphasis on the reception of the work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Language and Style

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There has been no overall work on Xenophon’s language and style since Gautier 1911. Xenophon uses words unusual in Attic prose throughout his works and there is a question whether his usage was the unconscious product of his life abroad, where he was exposed to dialects other than Attic, or chosen for deliberate effect (Gautier 1911). This is important for interpretation based on linguistic analysis: Gray 2007, Dorion 2008. Gautier 1911 analyzes the elaborate anaphoric antitheses of his sentence structures, but he writes in a variety of styles. The ancient grammarians represent the range of styles. Longinus and Demetrius (in Fyfe and Roberts 1932) comment on his “sublimity,” or lack of it, and on use of the “plain” and the “charming style” (apheleia, charis). Pontier 2014 reflects this variety in a collection of papers on Xenophon’s rhetoric in the broad sense. Buijs 2007 examines the effects of the slight differences between the otherwise parallel narratives in Agesilaus 1–2 and Hellenica 3–4. Sicking and Stork 1997 and Buijs 2005 use his texts to illustrate the new wave of “grammar as interpretation.” Texts and Commentaries regularly comment on the language and style of works in question.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Buijs, M. 2005. Clause combining in ancient Greek narrative discourse: The distribution of subclauses and participial clauses in Xenophon’s Hellenica and Anabasis. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Uses Xenophon as a model for sentence structure, finding significant differences in the usage of participle versus subclause.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Buijs, M. 2007. Aspectual differences and narrative technique: Xenophon’s Hellenica and Agesilaus. In The Language of literature: Linguistic approaches to classical texts. Edited by R. J. Allen and M. Buijs, 122–153. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines the parallel passages between the two works to reveal subtle differences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dorion, L.-A. 2008. Héraclès entre Prodicos et Xénophon. Philosophie Antique 8:85–114.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Xenophon’s version of Prodicus’s “Choice of Heracles” is more Xenophontic than Prodicean in its ideas, as well as its language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fyfe, W. H., and W. R. Roberts, trans. and ed. 1932. Aristotle: The Poetics. “Longinus”: On the sublime. Demetrius: On style. Cambridge, MA: Heinemann.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Text and translations of two authors who refer to Xenophon’s language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gautier, L. 1911. La langue de Xénophon. Geneva, Switzerland: Université de Genève.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The standard work on Xenophon’s vocabulary (dialectic and poetic, frequent neologisms), surveys the deployment of this vocabulary in his sentence structure.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gray, V. J. 2007. The linguistic philosophies of Prodicus in Xenophon’s “Choice of Heracles”? Classical Quarterly 56.2: 426–435.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/S0009838806000437Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        That the language of Xenophon’s version of Prodicus’s “Choice of Heracles” reflects his own usage, particularly his liking for rare words.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pontier, Pierre, ed. 2014. Xénophon et la Rhétorique. Paris: Presses de L’Université Paris Sorbonne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of articles addressing a wide range of aspects of Xenophon’s language and style.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sicking, C. M. J., and P. Stork. 1997. The grammar of the so-called historical present. In Grammar as interpretation: Greek literature in its linguistic contexts. Edited by E. J. Bakker, 147–156. Leiden, The Netherlands, and New York: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Showing the historic present tense to be a marker of storyline in Anabasis 1.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Narrative Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Xenophon’s narrative art is examined for the relation of the narrator with narratee (Due 1989, Due 2002 on Cyropaedia, Gray 2004 on Hellenica), the presentation of time and space and characterization (Stadter 1991 on Cyropaedia, Rood 2007), as well as his different forms of narrative such as conversation and speech (Gray 1989 on Hellenica, Gera 1993 on Cyropaedia). Reichel 1995 comments on the development of the novella in Cyropaedia. Gray 2011 considers the shaping of images of leadership through first-person statements, literary influences, typed scenes, and ironies of the darker and the lighter kind throughout the works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Due, B. 1989. The Cyropaedia: Xenophon’s aims and methods. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On the narrative devices that underscore the excellence of the main character in the work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Due, B. 2002. Narrator and narratee in Xenophon’s Cyropaedia. In Noctes Atticae: 34 articles on Greco-Roman antiquity and its Nachleben: Studies presented to Jørgen Mejer on his sixtieth birthday. Edited by various authors, 82–89. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Characterizes the narrator and his model reader, with comment on use of the first person, general reflections, the merging of the narrator with his characters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gera, D. 1993. Xenophon’s Cyropaedia: Style, genre, and literary technique. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Studies types of narrative, including Socratic conversation, symposia and novellas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gray, V. J. 1989. The character of Xenophon’s Hellenica. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Comments on the forms of dialogues, speeches, and narrative.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gray, V. J. 2004. Xenophon. In Narrators, narratees and narratives in ancient Greek literature. Edited by I. J. F. de Jong, R. Nünlist, and A. Bowie, 129–146. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Studies interactions between narrator and audience, particularly in first-person comments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gray, V. J. 2011. Xenophon’s mirror of princes: Reading the reflections. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Comprehensive treatment of the literary techniques Xenophon uses to represent leadership throughout the works––includes critiques of Straussian readings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Reichel, M. 1995. Xenophon’s Cyropaedia and the Hellenistic novel. In Groningen colloquia on the Novel 6. Edited by H. Hofmann, 1–20. Groningen, The Netherlands: E. Forsten.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines Xenophon’s contribution to the development of the novella.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rood, T. 2007. Xenophon. In Time in ancient Greek literature. Edited by I. J. F. de Jong, R. Nünlist, 147–163. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004165069.i-542Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the manipulation of time in various works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stadter, P. A. 1991. Fictional narrative in the Cyropaedia. American Journal of Philology 112:461–491.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/294929Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Considers Xenophon’s manipulation of time and space and minor characters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Literary Influences on Xenophon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Homer and Herodotus are recognized influences. Howie 1996, Tuplin 2003, Gray 2011 chapter 3 (cited under Narrative Art) trace the influence of Homer and Herodotus. Lefèvre 1971 traces the re-writing of Herodotus in Cyropaedia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Howie, J. G. 1996. The major and minor aristeia in Homer and Xenophon. In Roman Poetry and Prose, Greek Poetry, Etymology, Historiography. Edited by F. Cairns and M. Heath, 197–217. Leeds, UK: F. Cairns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cyropaedia provides an intertextual study for Homer’s aristeia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lefèvre, E. 1971. Die Frage nach dem ΒΙΟΣ ΕΥΔΑΙΜΩΝ: Die Begegnung zwischen Kyros und Kroisos bei Xenophon. Hermes 99:283–296.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed study of how Xenophon adapted Herodotus’s account of the interview between Croesus and Cyrus after his defeat to his own ideas about leadership. Translated in Gray 2010 (cited under Collections of Articles), pp. 401–417.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tuplin, C. J. 2003. Heroes in Xenophon’s Anabasis. In Modelli eroici dall’ antichità alla cultura Europea: Bergamo, 20–22 novembre 2001. Edited by A. Barzano, 115–156. Rome: Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skeptical but wide-ranging review of possible echoes of Homer in Anabasis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Political Thought

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Xenophon makes a special contribution to political thought about leadership. The standard work on his political thought is Luccioni 1947. Wood 1964 describes his particular contribution to understanding the dynamics between leaders and followers, though his view that leaders should benefit their followers is read negatively (Azoulay 2004). Johnstone 1994, Gray 2004, and Kroeker 2009 show that his view of Athenian democracy is that of the aristocrat reconciled to democracy and reconciling others. His representations of leaders anticipate Hellenistic kingship (see Farber 1979 and Dillery 2004).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Azoulay, V. 2004. Xénophon et les grâces du pouvoir: De la charis au charisme. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the surface Xenophon depicts men of power as operating equal and reciprocal relations with their followers, but in fact shows them to be unbalanced and unequal. A critique of major relationships throughout his works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dillery, J. 2004. Xenophon, the military review and Hellenistic pompai. In Xenophon and his world: Papers from a conference held in Liverpool in July 1999. Edited by C. Tuplin, 259–276. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Xenophon anticipates the processions of Hellenistic kingship in Hipparchicus, Hellenica/Agesilaus, and Cyropaedia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Farber, J. 1979. The Cyropaedia and Hellenistic kingship. American Journal of Philology 100:497–514.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Xenophon’s political thought anticipated Hellenistic political thought.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gray, V. J. 2004. Le Socrate de Xénophon et la démocratie. Les Etudes Philosophiques 2:141–176.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.3917/leph.042.0141Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Argues that by the standards of the time and the Athenian law courts, Xenophon’s Socrates was not undemocratic. The English version of the French translation was published as “Xenophon’s Socrates on Democracy,” Polis 28.1 (2011): 1–32.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Johnstone, S. 1994. Virtuous toil, vicious work: Xenophon on aristocratic style. Classical Philology 89:219–240.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Argues that Xenophon encouraged aristocrats to adapt their values within the democratic system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kroeker, R. 2009. Xenophon as a critic of the Athenian democracy. History of Political Thought 30.2: 197–228.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Applies sociological theory to demonstrate a range of democratic sympathies in Xenophon’s works and the widespread influence of democratic ideology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Luccioni, J. 1947. Les idées politiques et sociales de Xénophon. Paris: Ophrys.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Elicits Xenophon’s thought about the different regimes he represents, characterizing his favor for Sparta or Athens or Persia as sometimes self-interested, but that of an aristocrat and a monarchist at heart.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wood, N. 1964. Xenophon’s theory of leadership. Classica et Mediaevalia 25:33–66.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Argues for the originality of Xenophon as a political thinker in taking his model from the organization of the army.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Military Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Xenophon’s command of the Ten Thousand in Anabasis gives his military information special interest. Anderson 1970 gives basic information on all aspects of the military, including tactics of major battles. Hutchinson 2000 considers tactics and battles, with an emphasis on leadership. Lee 2007 examines the experience of the ordinary soldier and Whitby 2004 examines the leadership of Xenophon and others on Anabasis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Anderson, J. K. 1970. Military theory and practice in the age of Xenophon. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Expert introduction to an expert on military matters, studying uniforms, weapons, tactics, main battles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hutchinson, G. 2000. Xenophon and the art of command. London: Greenhill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gathers evidence from Anabasis, Hellenica, Cyropaedia, and Hipparchicus, etc. about the art of command, drawing comparisons with 6th- to 5th-century Chinese military writer Sun Tzu.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lee, J. W. I. 2007. A Greek army on the march: Soldiers and survival in Xenophon’s Anabasis. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explores the real experience of the ordinary soldier.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Whitby, M. 2004. Xenophon’s Ten Thousand as a fighting force. In The long march: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Edited by R. Lane Fox, 184–242. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the success of the Ten Thousand through leadership.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For views on women, Pomeroy 1994 (cited under Texts and Commentaries: Socratic Works) examines the training of women for management in Oeconomicus. Baragwanath 2002 examines Xenophon’s liberal treatment of women of power and their roles as go-betweens and political “fixers.” For the interpretation of Xenophon’s very frequent references to male love, see Hindley 1994 and Hindley 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Receptions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Münscher 1920 reviews the largely favorable reception in Greece and Rome; Stadter 1967 focuses on the reception in Arrian, who styled himself the second Xenophon; Hutchinson 2009 comments on the influence of Xenophon’s works on horses and hunting in Rome. On Machiavelli’s reception of Xenophon see Newell 1988 and Rasmussen 2009. Sancisi-Weerdenburg 1987 and Sancisi-Weerdenburg 1990 pursue the reception of Cyropaedia. Rood 2004 considers the modern reception of the shout in the Anabasis when the Greeks reach the sea.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hutchinson, G. O. 2009. Read the instructions: Didactic poetry and didactic prose. Classical Quarterly 59.1: 196–211.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0009838809000159Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interesting comments on the influence of Xenophon’s works on horses and hunting on the later didactic tradition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Münscher, K. 1920. Xenophon in der griechisch-römischen Literatur. Philologus Supplement 13.2. Leipzig: Dieterichische Verlagsbuchhandlung.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ancient reception including Isocrates, Aristotle, and the philosophic tradition, grammarians on stylistic reception, Cicero’s admiration for his works, Servius on Oeconomicus and Virgil’s Georgics, Quintilian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Newell, W. R. 1988. Machiavelli and Xenophon on princely rule: A double-edged encounter. Journal of Politics 50:108–130.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2131043Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Argues that Machiavelli used Xenophon because their views on rulership were similar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rasmussen, P. 2009. Excellence unleashed: Machiavelli’s critique of Xenophon and the moral foundation of politics. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Develops Newell 1988. Machiavelli found his own darker critique of power in Xenophon’s work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rood, T. 2004. The sea! The sea!: The shout of the Ten Thousand in the modern imagination. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The reception of Anabasis in modernity, with illuminating insights into the original.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. 1987. The fifth Oriental monarchy and Hellenocentrism: Cyropaedia VIII viii and its influence. In Achaemenid History. Vol. 2, The Greek sources: Proceedings of the Groningen 1984 Achaemenid History Workshop. Edited by H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and A. Kuhrt, 117–131. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the reception of the theme of effeminacy and decline in the epilogue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. 1990. Cyrus in Italy: From Dante to Machiavelli; Some explorations of the reception of Xenophon’s Cyropaedia. In Achaemenid History. Vol. 5, The roots of the European tradition: Proceedings of the 1987 Groningen Achaemenid History Workshop. Edited by H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and J. W. Drijvers, 31–52. Leiden, The Netherlands: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the reception of the positive image of Cyrus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stadter, P. A. 1967. Flavius Arrianus: The New Xenophon. Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 8.2: 155–161.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On Arrian’s imitation of Xenophon in his Anabasis, Cynegeticus, Discourses of Epictetus.

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