Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Classics Greek Sculpture
by
Carol C. Mattusch

Introduction

In his History of the Art of Antiquity (1764; Winckelmann 2006 in General Overviews), J. J. Winckelmann proposed a chronology of Greek art based upon style. Following his lead, scholars used ancient literary sources to assign extant freestanding sculptures to artists and to name specific works mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History (Book 34 on bronze and Book 36 on marble), and by other ancient authors. Pliny’s separation of artists working in bronze from those working in marble revealed that the Greeks preferred bronze for their public sculpture, whereas it now appears that the Romans more often used marble for sculptures in public and in their homes. Pliny’s division of media and his prejudice against the art of his own times led scholars to distinguish between Greek bronze originals, which rarely survive, and Roman marble copies, of which there are many survivors. Even though this notion is now understood to be overly simplified, textbooks covering classical sculpture still tend to privilege bronzes over marbles. At the same time, Roman marble versions of classical statue types continue to be used as substitutes for lost Greek statues. Recent scholarship takes into account ancient technology, taste, and ancient art markets (Ridgway 1984 in Roman Copies, Modern Adaptations; Mattusch 1996 in Archaizing and Classicizing Sculpture), and modern bias (Donohue 2005 in General Overviews), and, along with traditional stylistic studies, yields a more balanced understanding of freestanding Greek sculpture and a far more revealing picture of Roman sophistication in the production of sculptures in the classical style. Studies of the ancient marble trade may help to pin down some chronological questions that cannot be solved purely on the basis of style and the literary testimonia, and new analyses of such famous works as the Aphrodite of Melos (Hamiaux 1998 in Museum Catalogues) and the widely popular classicizing reliefs of dancing maenads (see Alice A. Donohue, “Ai Bakchai choreuousi: The Reliefs of the Dancing Bacchantes,” Hephaistos 16/17 [1998/1999]: 7–46) are leading to the revision of textbooks. Excellent photographs are a valuable tool for research in this field, and works that have them are so noted, even if the accompanying texts are less useful. Because many works address not just freestanding sculpture and relief but also architectural sculpture they are included here, even though the subject is better suited to consideration with the buildings which the sculptures adorned. General textbooks on Greek art are not part of this bibliography.

General Overviews

The modern study of Greek sculpture began with Winckelmann’s subjective descriptions of 1764 (Winckelmann 2006), some of them lengthy, of works that he did not illustrate. It is a valuable exercise in methodology to read some of his work: his stylistic chronology continues to influence the field. Donohue 1995 is an invaluable introduction to his work. Furtwängler 1964, like Winckelmann, was originally published in German, with a focus on sculpture, and adding discoveries that had been made in the 130-year interim between the two works. In a review of scholarship on individual works, Donohue 2005 illustrates the need for critical thinking and objective visual analysis. For analysis of ancient Greek terminology in the arts and for its use by modern scholars, see Pollitt 1974 and Donohue 1988.

  • Donohue, A. A. 1988. Xoana and the origins of Greek sculpture. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhaustive investigation of a term used by ancient authors to describe certain types of the earliest sculptural works in Greece. As these no longer exist, modern scholars have misunderstood the various ancient meanings of xoanon.

    Find this resource:

  • Donohue, A. A. 1995. Winckelmann’s history of art and Polyclitus. In Polykleitos, the Doryphoros, and tradition. Edited by Warren G. Moon, 327–353. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An indispensable introduction to the nature of the early study of classical sculpture and to the German scholarly tradition.

    Find this resource:

  • Donohue, A. A. 2005. Greek sculpture and the problem of description. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analysis of how subjective description and stylistic bias have affected the study of Greek sculpture from Winckelmann’s day through the 20th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Furtwängler, Adolph. 1964. Masterpieces of Greek sculpture. Chicago: Argonaut.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Until very recently, all research on famous artists’ testimonia acknowledged Furtwängler’s attributions, first made in German in 1895. Includes chapters on Pheidias; Kresilas and Myron; Polykleitos; Skopas, Praxiteles, and Euphranor; the Venus de Milo; and the Belvedere Apollo. Important for an understanding of long-accepted attributions of Roman marble editions to famous lost Greek statues.

    Find this resource:

  • Pollitt, J. J. 1974. The ancient view of Greek art: Criticism, history, and terminology. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discussion of ancient art criticism and of ancient art history, preceding a lengthy glossary of Greek and Latin terms that are used in ancient descriptions of art.

    Find this resource:

  • Winckelmann, J. J. 2006. History of the art of antiquity. Translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is where the study of ancient art began. Winckelmann traces Greek sculpture from a more ancient style to a high style and a beautiful style, then follows Pliny in saying that Greek art declined during the Hellenistic period and thereafter. Extensive citation of ancient authors. Part 1, chapter 4, sections 1–4. This edition replaces H. Lodge’s 19th-century translation of Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (1764), titled History of Ancient Art.

    Find this resource:

Primary Sources and Commentaries

Usually cited editions of Pliny and Pausanias are those in the Loeb Classical Library, as well as Frazer 1965 for Pausanias, and often Jones 1966 for additional ancient texts relating to Greek sculpture. The most complete listings of the ancient literary testimonia on the arts, in Greek and Latin, with notes, are to be found in Muller-Dufeu 2002. For inscriptions see Loewy 1976. Pollitt 1974 and Donohue 1988 (both cited under General Overviews) make valuable contributions to terminology and usage in antiquity.

  • Frazer, J. G. 1965. Pausanias’s description of Greece. 6 vols. New York: Biblo and Tannen.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A seminal work combining translation and commentary, this gives Pausanias only in translation, but has five volumes of commentary on history, myth, topography, and culture. Available for free online.

    Find this resource:

  • Jones, H. Stuart. 1966. Select passages from ancient writers illustrative of the history of Greek sculpture. Chicago: Argonaut.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Original texts, with parallel translations, valuable notes, and commentary; some rarely cited passages. Originally published in 1895. Contains additional commentary not found in the original edition. First edition available online.

    Find this resource:

  • Loewy, E. 1976. Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer. Chicago: Ares.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Overview of inscriptions appearing on statue bases in Greek cities and sanctuaries; published in 1885 and therefore now incomplete.

    Find this resource:

  • Muller-Dufeu, Marion. 2002. La sculpture grecque: Sources littéraires et épigraphiques. Paris: École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The most thorough collection of citations of all Greek and Latin authors who refer to Greek sculpture, in the original languages, this is an updated version of J. Overbeck’s Die antike Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen (Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1868). The original is available for free online.

    Find this resource:

  • Pliny the Elder. 1938–. Natural history. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Books 34 (bronze) and 36 (marble) are in volumes 9 (translated by H. Rackham, 1968) and 10 (translated by D. E. Eichholz, 1989). Translations are opposite the Latin text.

    Find this resource:

  • Pliny the Elder. 1966. The Elder Pliny’s chapters on the history of art. Translated by K. Jex-Blake. Edited by E. Sellers. Chicago: Argonaut.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Latin text with parallel translation; this is a good check against the Loeb editions, more thoroughly annotated. 1896 edition available for free online.

    Find this resource:

  • Pollitt, J. J., 1990. The art of ancient Greece: Sources and documents. New York and Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Easily available coverage of all the arts; with excellent commentary on selected texts in translation, and brief summaries of historical background and ancient aesthetics.

    Find this resource:

Handbooks

The best of the handbooks include photographs and either a catalogue of canonical works (e.g., Lullies and Hirmer 1960) or stylistic narrative supported by analysis of ancient and modern sources (e.g., Richter 1970). Stewart 1990 has the most up-to-date bibliographical sources. Textbooks on the broader subject of Greek art in general are not included.

  • Lullies, Reinhard, and Max Hirmer. 1960. Greek sculpture. Rev. ed. Translated by Michael Bullock. New York: H. N. Abrams.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Standard work for its excellent black-and-white illustrations of both freestanding and architectural sculpture. Descriptions and interpretations take the form of catalogue entries. Most but not all entries are undisputed “Greek originals.”

    Find this resource:

  • Richter, Gisela M. A. 1970. The sculpture and sculptors of the Greeks. 4th rev ed. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In the tradition of Winckelmann; this is impressive for extensive chronological coverage of freestanding sculptures and reliefs, following as much as possible Pliny’s catalogue of Greek sculptors. Methodical handling of compositional and stylistic features.

    Find this resource:

  • Stewart, Andrew. 1990. Greek sculpture: An exploration. 2 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhaustive coverage, with comprehensive citations of ancient sources and extensive modern bibliography.

    Find this resource:

The Archaic Period

Modern scholars generally place the chronological boundaries of the Archaic period between the late 7th century BCE and the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. The Archaic style differs according to the region in which it was produced, as Richter 1970 demonstrates in a comprehensive catalogues of kouroi, and Richter 1988a and Richter 1988b, of both korai and Attic gravestones. Boardman’s thorough overview (Boardman 1978) is invaluable. For the continuation of the style after the end of the Archaic period see Ridgway 1977. For recently discovered kouroi in the Kerameikos of Athens and on the island of Samos see Niemeier 2002 and Kyrieleis 1996 (cited under Works in Marble and in Various Media). A mid-6th-century kouros and kore found at Merenda in Attica in 1972 also postdate Richter’s publications but are not yet officially published, though they are illustrated in textbooks and in Boardman 1978. Rolley 1994 discusses and illustrates all types of Archaic sculpture and their handling by modern scholars.

  • Boardman, John. 1978. Greek sculpture: The Archaic period. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chronological survey of sculpture, relief, and architectural sculpture. Each chapter begins with short but dense coverage of sources, types of works, regions, known artists, proportions. Extensive illustrations make this a valuable resource.

    Find this resource:

  • Richter, Gisela M. A. 1970. Kouroi: Archaic Greek youths. 3d ed. London and New York: Phaidon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Basic catalogue arranged by stylistic chronology and by region. Helpful anatomical drawing in introduction.

    Find this resource:

  • Richter, G. M. A. 1988a. Archaic gravestones of Attica. Bristol, UK: Bristol Classical Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Still the basic work on grave reliefs, with a terse introduction on origins, development, production, meaning, and chronology, pp. 1–8. Epigraphical appendix by M. Guarducci, pp. 155–172.

    Find this resource:

  • Richter, Gisela M. A. 1988b. Korai: Archaic Greek maidens. New York: Hacker Art Books.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Basic catalogue arranged by stylistic chronology and by region. Explanation of clothing. Originally published in 1968 (London: Phaidon).

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1977. The Archaic style in Greek sculpture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A fundamental work by a scholar with a rich teaching background, new ideas, and a critical eye for traditional thinking. Complicated organization of bibliographical references and footnotes. The lack of illustrations for many of the works is a drawback for those who are unfamiliar with them and do not have available photographic resources.

    Find this resource:

  • Rolley, Claude. 1994. La sculpture grecque. Vol. 1, Des origines au milieu du Ve siècle. Paris: Picard.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Extensive discussion and analysis by an outstanding scholar who for many years wrote review articles titled “Les Bronzes grecs: Recherches récentes” for Revue Archéologique. This book covers the 10th through the 5th centuries, with chapters on materials and techniques, genres, styles, regions, cities, artists, and the afterlife of the Archaic style.

    Find this resource:

The Classical Period: 5th and 4th Centuries BCE

The field of freestanding sculpture is dominated by Ridgway 1970, Ridgway 1981, Ridgway 1997. For those familiar with the monuments, the advantages are many, in that Ridgway analyzes a great deal of material, considers the ancient sources, and cites modern theories. Her bibliographies here and in her books listed under The Hellenistic Period are unsurpassed for presentation of all the information. Pollitt 1972 links sculpture to Greek art and culture in general. Bol, et al. 2004 is primarily of interest for illustrations, and Rolley 1999 provides a critical approach to modern scholarship as well as detailed presentation of many types of monuments.

  • Bol, Cornelis, Peter Cornelis Bol, Renate Bol, Wilfred Geominy, Gabriele Kaminski, Detlev Kreikenbom, Michael Maass, Caterina Maderna, Ursula Mandel, and Christiane Vorster. 2004. Die Geschichte der antiken Bildhauerkunst. Vol. 2, Frühgriechische Plastik. Mainz, Germany: P. von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Traditional coverage by top German scholars: Severe and early Classical Styles; Severe and High Classical Portraits; High Classical; the Rich Style; the period from 390–360 BCE; the last decades of late Classical; 4th-century portraits; late Classical small-scale works; and eastern sarcophagi in the Classical Greek style. Bibliography tends toward older works in German. Well over one thousand excellent black-and-white illustrations.

    Find this resource:

  • Pollitt, J. J. 1972. Art and experience in classical Greece. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Although this book is not confined to sculpture, the thematic approach is an important consideration for the historical context within which 5th- and 4th-century art was produced, and for the connections demonstrated between art and polis, religion, theater, dance, and philosophy.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1970. The severe style in Greek sculpture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Lively and thought-provoking. Stylistic questions predominate, and issues addressed include identification of the “severe” style, schools, artists, and the appearance of the style in later periods than the early 5th century.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1981. Fifth century styles in Greek sculpture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Besides several chapters on sculpture in the round, there are three chapters on architectural sculpture and one on reliefs. Among the Greek originals considered are the Erechtheion caryatids, the Nike by Paionios, and works identified as originals by style. Footnotes at the bottom of each page; briefly annotated bibliography at the end of each chapter.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1997. Fourth-century styles in Greek sculpture. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Four of the nine chapters are about freestanding sculpture, the others about architectural sculpture and reliefs. The last chapter, “Random Harvest” (pp. 321–363), is filled with original and provocative ideas. Extensive notes at the end of each chapter, and a full bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Rolley, Claude. 1999. La sculpture grecque. Vol. 2, La période classique. Paris: A. and J. Picard.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhaustive coverage of 5th- and 4th-century artists, genres, monuments, regional styles, sites, and types ranging from athletic statuary to reliefs to architectural sculpture. Rolley contributes learned analysis and criticism of works by other scholars. Chronology, testimonia, glossary, extensive notes, and bibliography.

    Find this resource:

The Hellenistic Period

There are disagreements about how to subdivide the Hellenistic period chronologically, how to deal with regional differences, whether works are Roman rather than Hellenistic, and when “Hellenistic” becomes “Greco-Roman.” These problems arise from the wide range of genres, the new demand for private sculptures, the proliferation of certain types, the lack of original find-spots for many of the works, and the popularity of earlier styles alongside newer ones. Many Greek artists and artisans evidently moved their workshops to Italy after Mummius defeated the Achaian League in 146 BCE and Greece became a Roman province. Thereafter, the market for Greek marble, for works in the classical style, and for bona fide Greek artists grew rapidly in Italy. Pollitt 2002 is the basic textbook in the field, although it is poorly illustrated. Smith 1991 covers much more material than Pollitt, with terse commentary, and the inexpensive format makes it useful for undergraduates; the illustrations in Andreae 2001 are by far the best. Ridgway 1990, Ridgway 2000, and Ridgway 2002 are geared toward graduate students and scholars; Moreno 1994 is provocative and well illustrated. Two museums have published exemplary museum catalogues of their Hellenistic material: the Louvre, in Hamiaux 1998, and the Walters Art Museum, in Reeder 1988 (both cited under Museum Catalogues).

  • Andreae, Bernard. 2001. Skulptur des Hellenismus. Munich: Hirmer.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A traditional chronological arrangement of sculpture with brief chapters on themes, as well as lengthy and well-documented catalogue entries. The large illustrations, many in color, are of the usual high quality expected of Hirmer.

    Find this resource:

  • Moreno, Paolo. 1994. Scultura ellenistica. 2 vols. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Like Moreno’s other works, this is idiosyncratic and highly subjective, with thematic chapters on topics like sublime metaphysics, light and shadow, abstraction, symbolism, and verism. Richly illustrated, with many provocative juxtapositions of (unfortunately small) images.

    Find this resource:

  • Pollitt, J. J. 2002. Art in the Hellenistic age. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thematic approach to the driving forces behind Hellenistic art, primarily sculpture: obsession with fortune, theatricality, individualism, cosmopolitanism, and scholarly mentality. Discusses problematic chronology of the period, and uses the following names to distinguish periods: Age of the Diadochoi (323–275 BCE), the Age of the Hellenistic Kingdoms (275–150 BCE), and the Graeco-Roman Phase (150–31 BCE).

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1990. Hellenistic sculpture. Vol. 1 The styles of ca. 331–200 B.C. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Organized first by chronology, then by type of sculpture, with chapters on Muses, on Gauls, and on genre figures. Consideration throughout of the problems associated with substituting copies for original works.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 2000. Hellenistic sculpture. Vol. 2, The styles of ca. 200–100 B.C. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Besides the Pergamon altar friezes, there are also chapters on 2nd-century sculpture, sculpture in the round, cult images and masters, the problem of copies, and “Odds and Ends,” pp. 302–339, which includes questions about portraits from Herculaneum and Delos, about rulers and athletes, sculpture serving as furniture, and archaistic sculpture. Topics change rapidly, and important names, monuments, and places are helpfully rendered in bold.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 2002. Hellenistic sculpture. Vol. 3, The styles of ca. 100–31 B.C. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book covers material arranged largely by subjects and styles, with six of the nine chapters dealing with freestanding sculpture. Extensive notes and comments at the end of each chapter, and a bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, R. R. 1991. Hellenistic sculpture: A handbook. World of Art. London and New York: Thames & Hudson.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Like other books in the World of Art paperback series, there is little besides pictures, though the text is dense and very useful. The 336 illustrations make this an excellent catalogue of sculptural types: portraits, athletes, gods, women, the “baroque,” Dionysos and followers; and sculptures from the Hellenistic kingdoms. Reliefs are included, in particular the Pergamon Altar.

    Find this resource:

Archaizing and Classicizing Sculpture

From the time of the 18th-century discoveries of ancient sculptures at Herculaneum and Pompeii, and beginning with Winckelmann’s study of ancient art, archaizing works have been mistaken for much earlier Greek sculptures. Not until the second half of the 20th century were these sculptures recognized as having a style that was not only produced during the Archaic period as defined and dated by modern scholarship, but in a style that retained its popularity throughout antiquity. Harrison 1965 is basic to understanding Archaic and archaistic. Zanker 1974 provides a catalogue of works. Germini 2008 covers the field within Roman contexts. Fullerton 1990 restricts its analysis to a few types. Mattusch 1980 and Mattusch 1996 deal with the persistence of the Archaic style. Ridgway 1967 applies our modern stylistic problems to a single archaizing statue.

  • Fullerton, Mark D. 1990. The archaistic style in Roman statuary. Leiden, The Netherlands, and New York: E. J. Brill.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Style, chronology, region, function, and the motives behind the creation of archaistic images of Artemis, Athena, Tyche, Spes, Dionysos, Apollo, and Hermes.

    Find this resource:

  • Germini, Brunella. 2008. Statuen des strengen Stils in Rom: Verwendung und Wertung eines griechischen Stils im römische Kontext. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The meaning of the term, the reasons for Roman interest in this style, and examination of its reuse in Roman contexts. Germini considers particular statue types and the Roman contexts in which they were found.

    Find this resource:

  • Harrison, Evelyn B. 1965. Archaic and archaistic sculpture. Athenian Agora 11. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Harrison’s distinction between “archaizing” and “archaistic” sculpture has had some small impact upon terminology used in the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Mattusch, C. C. 1980. The Berlin foundry cup: The casting of Greek bronze statuary in the early fifth century B.C. American Journal of Archaeology 84:435–444.

    DOI: 10.2307/504071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A red-figure Attic cup shows the simultaneous production of two statues, one of them Archaic in style, the other Classical, proving that the Archaic style was not replaced by the Classical style in the early 5th century, but that the archaistic style began as a continuation of the Archaic style. See plates 54–56.

    Find this resource:

  • Mattusch, Carol C. 1996. Classical bronzes: The art and craft of Greek and Roman statuary. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The Peiraeus Apollo may be an archaizing work from the Hellenistic period (pp. 129–136). And the close similarity between the Piombino Apollo and a Roman statue holding a tray from a Pompeiian house suggests production of the two in one workshop (pp. 139–140).

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, B. S. 1967. The bronze Apollo from Piombino in the Louvre. Antike Plastik 7:43–75.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This ground-breaking and universally accepted case study analyzes stylistic features and inscriptional evidence, concluding that the Piombino Apollo is not Archaic but archaizing. See plates 24–34.

    Find this resource:

  • Zanker, Paul. 1974. Klassizistische Statuen. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A valuable catalogue for looking at many classicizing types of Roman sculpture, almost all marble.

    Find this resource:

Architectural Sculpture and Reliefs

Sculpture that adorned the pediments, metopes, and friezes of Greek temples is only peripherally related to freestanding sculpture, being entirely different in intention, function, medium, composition, subject matter, viewers’ perspective, and undoubtedly also cost. The decoration of a temple was didactic, educating viewers about the deity whom it honored, about that deity’s role, and about his/her achievements in terms of the locale of the building. Architectural sculpture was carved in stone and painted, and the mythological subjects that were most often represented were immediately recognizable to viewers. Pedimental compositions, often carved in the round, were determined by the elongated triangular shape of the space, which allowed for compositions involving interacting groups of figures. Rectangular metopes, carved in relief, were suitable for two- or three-figure groups. The continuous frieze was also suited to a continuous scene, usually a battle, as of the Amazons against the Greeks or the gods against the giants. The stone carving of these large works was far more expensive than the casting of individual bronze statues. Funerary reliefs are also very different from freestanding public sculpture, as is the case today. All the Ridgway books have sections on architectural sculpture, and the highly affordable paperbacks by Boardman and Smith fill in the gaps and have small illustrations of many works. It all began with Richter 1961, reprinted in paperback in 1988.

Portraits

Most studies of portraits of Greeks are actually directed toward Roman portraits of Greek generals, philosophers, and literary giants. The individuals represented are usually in the form of busts or herm portraits, whereas Greek portraits were of the whole person, since physique, attitude, dress, and attributes were considered as major factors in interpreting a portrait. Richter 1965 is the fundamental catalogue of portraits and attributions; Smith 1988 considers Hellenistic portraits; Carlsen, et al. 1993 and Stewart 1993 cover portraits of Alexander the Great. Queyrel 2003 is concerned with the Attalids of Pergamon, and Stanwick 2002 with the Ptolemies.

  • Carlsen, Jesper, Bodil Due, Otto Steen Due, and Birte Poulsen, eds. 1993. Alexander the Great: Reality and myth. Proceedings of an international conference organized by the Accademia di Danimarca in Rome, 27–29 January 1992. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Six of seventeen brief essays deal with Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, the others with literary testimonia from various periods, coinage, and Alexander and Persia. Note G. Calcani on the Granikos monument (pp. 29–40); B. Kiilerich on Alexander’s public image (pp. 85–92); and P. Moreno on Lysippos (pp. 101–136).

    Find this resource:

  • Queyrel, François. 2003. Les portraits des Attalides: Fonction et représentation. Athens: École Française.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Queyrel considers the dynastic image, physiognomies, and functions of statues in various places, statuary types, perception, and reception (pp. 11–60). Thereafter he allots a lengthy chapter to portraits that he assigns, sometimes questionably, to each of the Pergamene kings and to two queens. For balance, see de Grummond, et al. 2000 (cited under Symposia and Conferences).

    Find this resource:

  • Richter, Gisela M. A. 1965. The portraits of the Greeks. 3 vols. London: Phaidon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The standard work, with an introduction covering all major issues (pp. 1–44), followed by encyclopedic coverage of portraits by type of individual. Vol. 1, from Homer through the 5th century; vol. 2, 4th and 3rd centuries; vol. 3, Hellenistic rulers and Greeks of the Roman period. References for each work cover the entire history of attributions. Supplement published in 1972.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, R. R. R. 1988. Hellenistic royal portraits. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers the attributes and functions of royal statues as well as portraits attributed to rulers ranging from Alexander the Great through the early Roman Empire, and including statuettes and coin portraits, accompanied by dense text.

    Find this resource:

  • Stanwick, Paul Edmund. 2002. Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough coverage of an important subject that often receives only peripheral treatment.

    Find this resource:

  • Stewart, Andrew F. 1993. Faces of power: Alexander’s image and Hellenistic politics. Hellenistic Culture and Society 11. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    All types of images are covered, preceded by evidence from the ancient literary testimonia, followed by images of Alexander’s successors. Dense. Thoroughly illustrated; extensive notes and bibliography.

    Find this resource:

Individual Artists

Many familiar monographs on individual Greek sculptors are now long out of date, and have not been replaced, in part because the traditional approach, involving attributions to an artist on the basis of literary sources and stylistic analysis, is falling from favor. Moon 1995 is a model for how to approach the subject of an artist from a variety of angles. Exhibition catalogues tend to be well illustrated and well referenced, and the editors are usually joined by other specialists in the writing of essays and entries: see Beck, et al. 1990; Moreno 1995; and Pasquier and Martinez 2007. Occasionally, a monograph about one or more artists (e.g., Palagia and Pollitt 1996) is the work of a number of important scholars, increasing the breadth and character of its coverage.

  • Beck, Herbert, Peter C. Bol, and Maraike Bückling, eds. 1990. Polyklet: Der Bildhauer der griechischen Klassik. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays on particular works and problems associated with Polykleitos, and catalogue entries by the editors and by nearly twenty other major scholars, including E. Berger, R. Bol, H. von Steuben, U. Kästner, W. Koenigs, D. Kreikenbom, G. Lahusen, A. Leibundgut, A. Linfert, C. Maderna-Lauter, and H. Philipp.

    Find this resource:

  • Moon, Warren G., ed. 1995. Polykleitos, the Doryphoros, and tradition. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays on the canon and works of Polykleitos, on philosophy and medicine, on the appeal of these works to Roman buyers, and on various Roman versions of the famous Doryphoros statue.

    Find this resource:

  • Moreno, Paolo, ed. 1995. Lisippo: L’arte e la fortuna. Rome: Palazzo delle Esposizioni. Rome: Fabbri.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A major exhibition of a wide assortment of objects that Moreno connects with Lysippos, some of them unexpected. His essays follow traditional lines; other essays, along with many of the catalogue entries, are by nearly forty other individuals. Worth examining to recognize the nature of Moreno’s subjective approach here and in many other publications, particularly on Lysippos.

    Find this resource:

  • Palagia, Olga, and J. J. Pollitt, eds. 1996. Personal styles in Greek sculpture. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduction justifying traditional approach (Pollitt); followed by brief but well-documented (to 1993) chapters that easily replace earlier monographs: Pheidias, E. B. Harrison (pp. 16–65); Polykleitos, A.H. Borbein (pp. 66–90); Praxiteles, A. Ajootian (pp. 91–129); Lysippos, C. M. Edwards (pp. 130–153); and Damophon, P. Themelis (pp. 154–185.

    Find this resource:

  • Pasquier, Alain, and Jean-Luc Martinez, eds. 2007. Praxitèle. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An indispensable work. Scholarly essays by the editors and by P. Jockey, M. Bennett, and E. Papet on sources, attributions, style, polychromy, originals, works derived from those of Praxiteles, Roman versions of works by Praxiteles, and 19th-century interest in Praxiteles.

    Find this resource:

Works in Bronze

Works in bronze are few and far between. Chamoux 1989 (first published in 1955), though early, is an exemplary monograph. Others are primarily traditional stylistic studies, such as Degrassi 1981. Arias, et al. 1984 employs a wide range of approaches; Zimmer and Hackländer 1997 illustrates the use of new technologies and analytical methods. Bol 1972 treats the contents of an entire shipwreck of the early 1st century BCE. Mattusch 1997, Hemingway 2004, and Petriaggi 2003 study individual statues from ancient shipwrecks.

  • Arias, Paolo Enrico, et al., eds. 1984. Due bronzi da Riace: Rinvenimento, restauro, analisi ed ipotesi di interpretazione. 2 vols. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Two volumes of essays by Italian scholars, with extensive illustrations and diagrams. Vol. 1 covers the discovery, the possible evidence for a shipwreck, production technique, nature of the core material from the statues, conservation issues, measurements of the statues, illustrations of many technical features, drawings, and photogrammetry. Vol. 2 is devoted to stylistic analysis, various attributions, and questions of date.

    Find this resource:

  • Bol, Peter C. 1972. Die Skulpturen des Schiffsfundes von Antikythera. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung supplement 2. Berlin: Mann.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The major (and only) publication of the important bronze and marble finds from the Antikythera shipwreck, discovered in 1901. For a single work from the wreck, see Hemingway 2004.

    Find this resource:

  • Chamoux, François. 1989. L’Aurige de Delphes. Fouilles de Delphes 4.5. Paris: Boccard.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reprint of a 1955 monograph about the charioteer from Delphi, it contains valuable stylistic and technical evidence about one of the few closely dated sculptures from Greece (c. 474 BCE), in this case by the inscription from the base of the original statue group.

    Find this resource:

  • Degrassi, Nevio. 1981. Lo Zeus stilita di Ugento. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The small hollow-cast bronze statue of a striding attacking Zeus is probably Tarantine and may date from c. 530 BCE. Consideration of the type, style, attributes, technique, and installation of the figure on a surviving Doric column.

    Find this resource:

  • Hemingway, Séan. 2004. The horse and jockey from Artemision: A bronze equestrian monument of the Hellenistic period. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    First full treatment of this group from the Artemision shipwreck. Though discovered during the 1920s, restoration of horse and rider was not completed until 1972. Introduction about Hellenistic bronze statuary (pp. 1–34), account of finding and recovering the wreck (pp. 35–56), technical analysis (pp. 57–82), style and identification (pp. 83–114), ancient Greek horse racing (pp. 115–139), and appendix on metal studies (pp. 149–154). New photographs and drawings.

    Find this resource:

  • Mattusch, Carol C. 1997. The victorious youth. Getty Museum Studies on Art. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    About the Getty Bronze, introducing the many ways in which to study ancient bronzes: chapters on shipwrecks, on contexts for statuary, on Panhellenic games, on Roman collectors of Greek works, on technical studies, and on stylistic analysis. Inexpensive paperback; conversational style well suited for undergraduates.

    Find this resource:

  • Petriaggi, Roberto. 2003. Il Satiro Danzante. Milan: Leonardo International.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introductory study of the bronze statue discovered in 1998 representing a wildly dancing satyr of a type heretofore known only through works in other media, most of them small-scale. Includes stylistic analysis with comparanda along with brief reports on corrosion products, metal analysis, x-radiography, endoscopy, and 3-D imaging.

    Find this resource:

  • Zimmer, Gerhard, and Nele Hackländer. 1997. Der betende Knabe: Original und Experiment. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays by archaeologists, foundry specialists, and scientists on the history and impact of the Praying Boy (with 17th-century arms), on the casting of a modern version of the statue by the reconstructed ancient process, and on analyses and recent restoration.

    Find this resource:

Works in Marble and in Various Media

Most underwater finds are made individually, usually by fishermen, the artifacts being uncovered piecemeal and in some cases removed furtively, as in the case of the Getty Bronze. The Mahdia shipwreck of the early 1st century BCE is the most thoroughly published of any ancient shipwreck, and included both marble and bronze sculptures as well as architectural pieces and furniture, lamps, and other furnishings (Hellenkemper Salies, et al. 1994). Two other works in this category, Kyrieleis 1996 and Niemeier 2002, are about recently discovered colossal Archaic kouroi, and Lapatin 2001 gives detailed coverage on surviving fragments of gold and ivory statues.

  • Hellenkemper Salies, Gisela, Hans-Hoyer von Prittwitz und Gaffron, and Gerhard Bauchhenss, eds. 1994. Das Wrack: Der antike Schiffsfund von Mahdia. 2 vols. Cologne, Germany: Rheinland-Verlag.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    International specialists wrote these essays about the ship (vol. 1, pp. 33–166), specific objects in the freight (vol. 1, pp. 167–723), the relation of the finds to Greece and Rome (vol. 2, pp. 727–944), and restoration and scientific studies (vol. 2, pp. 945–1106). French, German, and English, with brief summaries in French for German or English essays, and in German for French essays.

    Find this resource:

  • Kyrieleis, Helmut, ed. 1996. Der grosse Kuros von Samos. Samos 10. Bonn, Germany: Rudolf Habelt.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excavations in the Heraion during the 1980s uncovered a colossal kouros dated by style and by inscription to the first quarter of the 6th century BCE. Chapters on the statue, its painted surface, and its inscription (pp. 1–46); dating (pp. 47–86); function (pp. 87–120); and the influence of Egypt (pp. 121–128. Contributions by H. Kienast and G. Neumann.

    Find this resource:

  • Lapatin, Kenneth D. S. 2001. Chryselephantine statuary in the ancient Mediterranean world. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chapters cover materials and techniques, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, Pheidias and aftermath, chryselephantine statues in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, with a catalogue of surviving gold and ivory fragments.

    Find this resource:

  • Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich. 2002. Der Kouros vom Heiligen Tor: Überraschende Neufunde archaischer Skulptur im Kerameikos in Athen. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Published in the same year as the discovery of a 2.1-meter-tall early Archaic kouros, this well-illustrated volume includes a history of the Kerameikos cemetery and of types of funerary monuments from it, as well as a report on the discovery of this sculpture and of two Doric capitals, two lions, and a sphinx. Preliminary but valuable scholarly report.

    Find this resource:

Small-Scale Reflections of Large-Scale Sculptures

Statuettes (Thomas 1981, Rolley 1986), coins (Lacroix 1949, Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner 1964, Kraay 1966, Jenkins 1972), and gems (Boardman 2001) have long been used to identify sculptures known from the literary sources but now lost. One warning: it is difficult to detect gems that are modern forgeries, and the popularity of ancient gems from the Middle Ages onward has made forgery a thriving industry.

  • Boardman, John. 2001. Greek gems and finger rings: Early Bronze Age to late Classical. New York: Thames & Hudson.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Still the starting point for research on reflections of sculpture on engraved gems. Thoroughly illustrated. Originally published in 1970 (London: Thames & Hudson).

    Find this resource:

  • Imhoof-Blumer, Friedrich W., and Percy Gardner. 1964. Ancient coins illustrating lost masterpieces of Greek art: A numismatic commentary on Pausanias. Chicago: Argonaut.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduction, commentary, and notes by A. N. Oikonomides make this book more up-to-date than Lacroix 1949, but the focus here is specifically on the relationship between coins illustrating statues and Pausanias’s remarks on those statues. Illustrations are of poor quality.

    Find this resource:

  • Jenkins, G. K. 1972. Ancient Greek coins. New York: Putnam.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Coins from the Archaic period through the Hellenistic period. Includes discussion of the historical context of these small-scale guides to portraits of leaders and to monuments cities were the most proud of, including sculptures no longer extant.

    Find this resource:

  • Kraay, Colin M. 1966. Greek coins. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    With 1,329 photographs by Max Hirmer, it is a pleasure to search through this work for images of statues on coins, although there is no specific discussion of this topic in the text.

    Find this resource:

  • Lacroix, Léon. 1949. Les reproductions de statues sur les monnaies grecques: La statuaire archaïque et classique. Liège, Belgium: Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focused solely on statues that are represented on coins, this is still a valuable resource, particularly for discussion of the problems associated with this type of study, for example placing a statue in its proper location, dealing with an additional architectural element, the type of statue versus size and shape of coin, and particular features and attributes of the statue on the coin. Organized primarily by chronology and by proposed linkage of coins to literary testimonia about famous artists. Serviceable illustrations.

    Find this resource:

  • Rolley, Claude. 1986. Greek bronzes. Translated by Roger Howell. London: Sotheby’s Publications.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Statuettes of gods and athletes, Aphrodite, and portraits are covered chronologically in text discussions and are fully identified in catalogue entries. Thoughtful analysis is characteristic of this author, even in what is essentially a picture book.

    Find this resource:

  • Thomas, Renate. 1981. Athletenstattuen der Spätarchaik und des strengen Stils. Rome: G. Bretschneider.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Good illustrations of many small-scale works reflecting the large-scale athletic statuary that filled the agonistic sanctuaries of Greece during the late Archaic and early Classical periods.

    Find this resource:

Bronze Technology

Kluge 1927 introduced the notion that sand casting was practiced during antiquity for the production of some large bronzes that have a carved appearance, and that this practice was succeeded by lost wax casting. This modern sculptor’s interpretation of ancient technology was flawed in that he was familiar with sand casting, a technique first used in 19th-century France. In fact, the ancient evidence was not carefully examined or correctly interpreted until the 1960s. The current knowledge of ancient casting by variations on the lost wax process dates to the work on bronzes by Denys Haynes during the 1960s (see Haynes 1992 for his earlier articles on the subject). Mattusch 1988 and Zimmer 1990 bring to bear the evidence of ancient foundries; Formigli 1984 approaches the problem in terms of the Riace bronzes, showing the value of new technologies; Hemingway 2000 provides a clear summary of the process. Recent efforts in the field have turned toward an integration of technical and scientific studies with traditional stylistic approaches.

  • Formigli, Edilberto. 1984. La tecnica di costruzione delle statue di Riace. In Due bronzi da Riace: Rinvenimento, restauro, analisi ed ipotesi di interpretazione. Edited by Paolo Enrico Arias, et al., 107–142. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The best technical study to date of how the Riace bronzes were cast by the lost wax process. Measurement, alloy analysis, and x-radiography contribute to the conclusions in this and all the other essays in Vol. 1. Essays by art historians in Vol. 2 address identifications, dates, and sites at which the statues might have been installed.

    Find this resource:

  • Haynes, Denys. 1992. The technique of Greek bronze statuary. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A summary of the author’s groundbreaking work in the field, much of which Haynes did by means of careful autopsy of bronzes in the British Museum.

    Find this resource:

  • Hemingway, Séan. 2000. Bronze sculpture. In Making classical art: Process and practice. Edited by Roger Ling, 37–46. Stroud, UK: Tempus.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Step-by-step guide by an art historian to the details of the lost wax process, drawing in part upon the scholarship of Mattusch and Lie.

    Find this resource:

  • Kluge, Kurt. 1927. Die antiken Grossbronzen. Vol. 1, Die antike Erzgestaltung und ihre technischen Grundlagen. Edited by Kurt Kluge and K. Lehmann-Hartleben. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Before this work appeared, scholars studying the techniques of bronze casting had agreed that the lost wax process was universally employed. Kluge’s application of sand casting to the production of ancient bronzes was based upon his own use of modern technologies. His conclusions were accepted by scholars until Haynes contested them (see Haynes 1992).

    Find this resource:

  • Mattusch, Carol C. 1988. Greek bronze statuary: From the beginnings through the fifth century B.C. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reviews modern views about ancient casting techniques, arguing that variations on the lost wax process were the only methods employed in antiquity, pp. 22–30. Appendix illustrates evidence from ancient foundries in Athens, pp. 219–240.

    Find this resource:

  • Zimmer, Gerhard. 1990. Griechische Bronzegusswerkstätten: Zur Technologieentwicklung eines antiken Kunsthandwerkes. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough study of ancient casting technology based upon evidence from bronze foundries in the Greek world by the foremost scholar in this field.

    Find this resource:

Marble Sources and Technology

Many of the publications in this category address scientific issues such as types of marbles, economic issues such as the marble trade, detection of polychromy on sculpture (Brinkmann 2007), and the identification of forgeries. Publications of papers from the international marble congresses sponsored by ASMOSIA (see Maniatis, et al. 1995) are important to follow in keeping up to date in the field. A broad approach to all possible aspects of marble is True and Podany 1990 (cited under Symposia and Conferences). Deraeve and Duvosquel 1987 documents the technology with illustrations. At the same time, Adam 1966 is still a fundamental resource in understanding the tools involved in the carving of Archaic and Classical Greek sculpture. And Durnan 2000 gives a highly readable overview, as does Grossman 2003, which is inexpensive and has very good illustrations. Palagia 2006 is scholarly with extensive bibliography, and more expensive.

  • Adam, Sheila. 1966. The technique of Greek sculpture in the archaic and classical periods. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Direct and workmanlike on the following topics: (1) point, punch, mallet; claw chisel; drove (broad flat) chisel; flat chisel; drill; rasp; abrasives; cements and glues, cutting compass, and saw (pp. 3–84); and (2) discussion of eight statues and six grave reliefs illustrating the uses of those tools, each with one to four images (pp. 85–123). In an appendix on the problematic Hermes at Olympia, pp. 123–126, Adam makes a compelling argument for its production in c. 100 BCE.

    Find this resource:

  • Brinkmann, Vinzenz, and Raimund Wünsche, eds. 2007. Gods in color: Painted sculpture of classical antiquity. Munich: Stiftung Archäologie.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhibition catalogue with contributions by scholars on color in sculptures and reliefs. Several earlier works by Brinkmann, the prime mover in this understudied field, are in German. Fully illustrated, this book gives a sense of how different classical sculptures looked in antiquity from how they appear today, and it makes it clear that color was critical to the ancient perception of all stone sculpture.

    Find this resource:

  • Deraeve, J., and J. M. Duvosquel, eds. 1987. Marbres helléniques: De la carrière au chef-d’oeuvre. Brussels: Crédit Communal.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhibition catalogue with nine essays in French on all aspects of Greek marbles, from geological features to quarries and transport, to the use and importance of marble in the construction of Greek temples, carving techniques, and marble analysis. Excellent photographic record for each essay and catalogue entry, including tools and toolmarks and evidence shown on ancient vases and reliefs, as well as a map of quarry locations and numerous diagrams.

    Find this resource:

  • Durnan, Nicholas. 2000. Stone sculpture. In Making classical art: Process and practice. Edited by Roger Ling, 18–36. Brussels: Tempus.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Careful explanation of processes from the viewpoint of a conservator of stone.

    Find this resource:

  • Grossman, Janet Burnett. 2003. Looking at Greek and Roman sculpture in stone: A guide to terms, styles, and techniques. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A basic handbook, with good technical illustrations. Inexpensive and easy to read.

    Find this resource:

  • Maniatis, Yannis, Norman Herz, and Yannis Basiakos. 1995. The study of marble and other stones used in antiquity. Papers presented at the 3rd International Symposium of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones used in Antiquity, Athens, 17–19 May 1993. London: Archetype.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Grouped by topics: quarries and quarrying technology (pp. 1–50), trade and archaeological use of stone (pp. 51–122), provenance studies of marble (pp. 123–214), provenance studies of other stones (pp. 215–242), stones from the new world (pp. 243–266), and conservation problems (pp. 267–302).

    Find this resource:

  • Palagia, Olga, ed. 2006. Greek sculpture: Function, materials, and techniques in the archaic and classical periods. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Useful for scholars who wish to read accepted approaches to fields with which they are not familiar. Marble sources, J. Boardman (pp. 1–31); Archaic Athens and Cyclades, M.C. Sturgeon (pp. 32–76); Archaic and Classical Magna Graecia, B. A. Barletta (pp. 77–118); Classical Athens, O. Palagia (pp. 119–162); Late Classical Asia Minor, P. Higgs (pp. 163–207); bronzes, C.C. Mattusch (pp. 208–242); marble carving, Palagia, 243–279); Greek and Roman white marbles, N. Herz (pp. 280–306).

    Find this resource:

Roman Copies, Modern Adaptations

“Classical” figures, or those that appeared in multiples, were traditionally designated as “Roman copies,” as in Bieber 1977. That this is not an accurately designated category is clearly demonstrated by Ridgway 1984 in a book that was not widely circulated and thus did not have the impact that it should have had. Landwehr 1985 shows clearly what a “copy” is, from the evidence of plaster casts found at Baiae. Several works that consider the nuances of what were formerly called Roman “copies” have appeared more recently, such as in essays included in Gazda 2002, resulting from a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) summer seminar held in Rome in 1994. Cuzin, et al. 2000 addresses the copying of famous works over the centuries; Kousser 2008 and Marvin 2008 also address the evolution of later versions of famous works.

  • Bieber, Margarete. 1977. Ancient copies: Contributions to the history of Greek and Roman art. New York: New York Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Start with this book in order to understand the tradition of distinguishing between Roman marble copies of lost Greek originals. Bieber discusses changes in clothing and attributes in Roman versions of Greek statues as “mistakes” and “mannerisms.”

    Find this resource:

  • Cuzin, Jean-Pierre, Jean-René Gaborit, and Alain Pasquier. 2000. D’après l’antique. Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Catalogue of exhibition at the Louvre about the taste for the antique from antiquity to the present (pp. 10–44), covering modern reproductions in sculpture, painting, plaster, photography, etc. for various markets and audiences (pp. 45–143); influential works like the Pseudo-Seneca (pp. 312–323) and the Venus de Milo (pp. 432–500); antiquities collections (pp. 360–376); and the study of antiquity (pp. 377–431). Many authors.

    Find this resource:

  • Gazda, Elaine, ed. 2002. The ancient art of emulation: Studies in artistic originality and tradition from the present to classical Antiquity. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, suppl. 1. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Papers resulting from a six-week seminar, some relating to Greek and Roman sculpture: C. C. Mattusch on copies versus originals (pp. 99–116), M. B. Hollinshead on struts (pp. 117–152), N. H. Ramage on 18th-century restorations (pp. 61–78), Elizabeth Bartman on Roman ideal sculpture (pp. 249–272), and studies of particular works, including M. Marvin on the Ludovisi barbarians (pp. 205–224) and L. J. Roccos on the Citharode Apollo (pp. 273–294).

    Find this resource:

  • Kousser, Rachel Meredith. 2008. Hellenistic and Roman ideal sculpture: The allure of the classical. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Greek original, Roman copy, and Roman adaptation: more recent study of the evolution of the popular type known as the Aphrodite of Capua, of which the Venus de Milo is one.

    Find this resource:

  • Landwehr, Christa. 1985. Die antiken Gipsabgüsse aus Baiae. Archäologische Forschungen 14. Berlin: Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Catalogue and discussion of Roman plaster models taken from works in Greece and brought to a workshop on the Bay of Naples for production of marble replicas of famous statues. Perhaps the most interesting is the cast of the face of Aristogeiton from the famous group of the Tyrannicides that stood in the Agora of Athens.

    Find this resource:

  • Marvin, Miranda. 2008. The language of the Muses: The dialogue between Roman and Greek sculpture. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Topics covered range from impressions formed by the reading of literary sources to early modern collectors to Winckelmann. Sculpture plays a prominent role.

    Find this resource:

  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1984. Roman copies of Greek sculpture: The problem of the originals. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Ridgway addresses problems of defining copies, as well as archaizing and classicizing works, and asks questions regarding Greek copies or repeated images, taste, and stylistic trends. Illuminating and provocative, this is critical reading for anyone venturing into this field of study.

    Find this resource:

Ancient and Modern Collecting

Ancient collections of Greek art are known primarily from the literary testimonia and from the discovery of ancient shipwrecks (see Hellenkemper, et al. 1994, cited under Works in Marble and in Various Media). Miles 2008 gathers the literary testimonia for Roman display of art appropriated from the Greek world; modern collections of Greek sculpture are linked to the histories of the ruling families of Europe (Haskell and Penny 1981) and to America’s aristocrats (Wallach 1998), whose collections were often intended to educate the public. In Europe, cast collections enhanced the décor of country homes or they were used for teaching in universities (Lavagne and Queyrel 2000); in America, museums that initially displayed plaster casts of those same famous classical sculptures housed in European museums soon began to collect their own Greek sculpture and then to deaccession their plaster casts.

  • Haskell, Francis, and Nicholas Penny. 1981. Taste and the Antique: The lure of classical sculpture, 1500–1900. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The best introduction to public and private European sculpture collections, to plaster casts and copies of classical works in many forms, to the reinterpretation of antiquity, to collections in Florence, Rome, and Naples (pp. 1–132); a catalogue of ninety-five famous works covering their modern histories and popularity (pp. 133–341); and indispensable notes and bibliography, including sources from all periods.

    Find this resource:

  • Kurtz, D. 2000. The reception of classical art in Britain: An Oxford story of plaster casts from the Antique. Oxford: Beazley Archive and Archaeopress.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Vast amounts of information about the history of taste, the making of plaster casts, British and Italian collections of classical sculpture, the Grand Tour, the purchase of plaster casts, continental and British museums and cast collections, and their connection to the academic community (part 1, pp. 1–230); and the formation and growth of Oxford’s plaster casts (part 2, pp. 231–340) under P. Gardner, J. D. Beazley, B. Ashmole, M. Robertson, and J. Boardman.

    Find this resource:

  • Lavagne, H., and F. Queyrel, eds. 2000. Les moulages de sculptures antiques et l’histoire de l’archéologie: Actes du colloque international, Paris, 24 octobre 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Papers by Italian, French, German, and English scholars about casts dating between the 16th and the 20th centuries, on topics ranging from cast collections to casts of ancient bronzes, the coloring of casts, their valuation, and their use in the teaching of art. Most in French or German.

    Find this resource:

  • Miles, Margaret Melanie. 2008. Art as plunder: The ancient origins of debate about cultural property. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Roman booty taken from Greek cities included major works of sculpture. Although there are references to many looted cities, the focus is upon the capture and display of Greek art from Athens and from Sicily, especially the collection of Verres, Cicero’s prosecution of him, Cicero’s views on legitimate art collections, and Roman display of antiques.

    Find this resource:

  • Wallach, Alan. 1998. Exhibiting contradiction: Essays on the art museum in the United States. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes a valuable chapter titled “The American Cast Museum: An Episode in the History of the Institutional Definition of Art,” pp. 38–56.

    Find this resource:

Modern Restoration and Conservation of Greek Sculpture

Publications in the field of restoration and conservation primarily with sculptures from Roman contexts, many of which represent classical subjects and are produced after classical Greek works (as Picon 1983 and Weiss 1999). The addition of modern limbs to ancient marbles was common practice for antiquities found during the 18th and 19th centuries, when European collectors were forming their collections (Diebold 1995). The most successful sculptors of the 18th and 19th centuries often worked as restorers as well, smoothing off broken edges so that modern replacements could easily be attached. As a result, broken limbs found at a later date could no longer be fitted to their original locations. Conservation of bronze statues also suffered (Born 1985): corrosion was stripped with chemicals to “clean” the surface. This practice revealed shiny base metal, pitted as a result of the removal of all corrosion products.

  • Born, Hermann, ed. 1985. Archäologische Bronzen: Antike Kunst, moderne Technik. Berlin: Staatliche Museen.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays by top German archaeologists and conservation scientists on mining, ancient literary sources, production techniques, corrosion and patina, scientific approaches, the history of restoration and conservation practices, and on the problems of reconstruction.

    Find this resource:

  • Diebold, W. J. 1995. The politics of derestoration: The Aegina pediments and the German confrontation with the past. Art Journal 54.2: 60–66.

    DOI: 10.2307/777463Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A case study: discussion of B. Thorvaldsen’s restorations of 1816–1818 and the debate over their removal during the 1960s.

    Find this resource:

  • Picon, Carlos A. 1983. Bartolomeo Cavaceppi: Eighteenth-century restorations of ancient marble sculpture from English private collections. Uxbridge, UK: Hillingdon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduction to 18th-century practices of marble restoration; catalogue entries document and attribute the restorations of twenty well-known sculptures. For example, the Lansdowne Diskobolos, cat. no. 1, was restored as Diomedes stealing the Palladion from Troy (pp. 22–25).

    Find this resource:

  • Weiss, Thomas, ed. 1999. Von der Schönheit weissen Marmors: Zum 200. Todestag Bartolomeo Cavaceppis. Dessau, Germany: Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exhibition catalogue with essays by twelve scholars on the subject of 18th-century restoration, mostly by Cavaceppi, but including an essay by N. H. Ramage on documents relating to Vincenzo Pacetti’s restoration practices (pp. 79–84).

    Find this resource:

Museum Catalogues

Museum catalogues are valuable resources in searches for comparanda and for museum holdings. Not many have published lists of their objects, and few catalogues of sculpture collections are current, comprehensive, and well illustrated. Hamiaux 1998 and Hamiaux 2001 are exceptions. Thus older catalogues for collections that have not grown significantly, such as Hill 1949, are still valuable in a search for a particular object and for its original designation or attribution. One more recent catalogue, Reeder 1988, is valuable for essays on related subjects by scholars in the field.

  • Hamiaux, Marianne. 1998. Les sculptures grecques. Vol. 2, La période hellénistique (IIIe–Ier siécles avant J.-C.). Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Another up-to-date catalogue of the Louvre’s collections, well-illustrated, with complete bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Hamiaux, Marianne. 2001. Les sculptures grecques. Vol. 1, Des origins à la fin du IVe siècle avant J.-C. Rev ed. Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A model for museum catalogues: complete, extraordinarily thorough bibliography, excellent illustrations of works in the Louvre collections.

    Find this resource:

  • Hill, Dorothy Kent 1949. Catalogue of the classical bronze sculpture in the Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains entries for the extensive collection of bronze statuettes in the Walters, as well as a summary of previous scholarship on ancient bronze casting techniques for statues (pp. xii–xix). Many of the bronzes in this catalogue undoubtedly reflect types of sculpture produced at a larger scale.

    Find this resource:

  • Johansen, Flemming, ed. 1994. Catalogue: Greece in the archaic period. Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    All media are included, each chapter written by a specialist. Marble sculpture entries and introduction to them are by Johansen (pp. 7–17, 34–64). A fine collection, well illustrated, as are comparanda.

    Find this resource:

  • Kaltsas, Nikolaos. 2002. Ta glypta: Ethniko archaiologiko mouseio; Katalogos. Athens, Greece: Kapon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The first catalogue of sculptures in the Athens Archaeological Museum, with dates and find spots, heights, marble types, and inventory numbers. Not included are statuettes from Dodona, large bronzes from the Athenian Acropolis (now in the new Acropolis Museum), or the newly discovered head of a kouros from excavation for the Athens Metro. In Greek; references out of date, but many illustrations.

    Find this resource:

  • Moltesen, Mette, ed. 1995. Catalogue: Greece in the classical period. Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An excellent collection of marbles, with introduction and chapters on architectural and freestanding sculptures, grave sculptures, and reliefs by Moltesen (pp. 7–23, 41–149). Fine illustrations of the objects and of comparanda.

    Find this resource:

  • Reeder, Ellen D. 1988. Hellenistic art in the Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    All media are covered. Entries by Reeder, and essays relating to sculpture by B. S. Ridgway (“The Study of Hellenistic Art,” pp. 27–34) and A. F. Stewart (“Hellenistic Art and the Coming of Rome,” pp. 35–44).

    Find this resource:

Catalogues of Sculptures from Excavations

The catalogue of sculptural material from an excavated site can provide a cross-section of types and functions of works that were installed there, and these can sometimes be more precisely dated and contextualized (as Harrison 1965 and Sturgeon 1987) than those whose existence is unknown before their appearance in a museum. Of importance to scholars beginning work on a topic, it is easier to gain access to fragmentary finds in storage than to more complete works on exhibition, and close studies of the former have been used to conduct new technical research (Bol 1978, Bookidis 2010), even though the use of scientific analysis for sculpture in Greece is still in the early stages. Excavations also occasionally publish monographs on individual works, such as Chamoux 1989 (cited under Works in Bronze) and Kyrieleis 1996 (cited under Works in Marble and Various Media). Moustaka 1993 and Bookidis 2010 contribute to our understanding of the media for large-scale sculpture in Greece. Eiseman and Ridgway 1987 is an example of an underwater excavation.

  • Bol, Peter C. 1978. Grossplastik aus Bronze in Olympia. Olympische Forschungen 9. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Olympia’s assortment of fragmentary large Greek bronzes is vast, including three heads, a pair of legs, fingers, locks of hair, eyelashes—a total of 430 items, all briefly catalogued and all illustrated. Bol sorts by periods (pp. 7–57), by types (pp. 58–70), and by evidence for casting, joining, and inlaying techniques (pp. 71–98).

    Find this resource:

  • Bookidis, Nancy. 2010. The terracotta sculpture. Corinth 18.5. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume of the series about the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore is devoted to nearly 150 examples of large-scale sculpture from the site: most are statues of youths, nude or draped; females and children are also represented. Valuable discussion of techniques and of how terra-cottas fit into the history of Corinth.

    Find this resource:

  • Eiseman, Cynthia J., and Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway. 1987. The Porticello shipwreck. A Mediterranean merchant vessel of 415–385 B.C. College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A salvage operation: chapters on discovery and excavation, the ship, the ship’s storage area, and the cargo by Eiseman (pp. 3–62); a chapter on the fragments of bronze statuary by Ridgway (pp. 63–105).

    Find this resource:

  • Harrison, Evelyn B. 1965. Archaic and archaistic sculpture. Athenian Agora 11. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The volume is divided into four parts––Archaic sculpture (pp. 1–49), archaistic sculpture (pp. 50–85), images of Hekate (pp. 86–107), and herms (pp. 108–117)—with descriptive catalogues following introductory texts. Most of the works are fragmentary and were found in destruction contexts, but the abundance of herms can be tied to Athenian history and topography. Harrison on Archaic types of drapery in archaistic sculptures and the motives for archaizing (pp. 61–66) is the basic introduction to this field.

    Find this resource:

  • Moustaka, Aliki. 1993. Grossplastik aus Ton in Olympia. Olympische Forschungen 22. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Brief chapters on technique and dates (pp. 1–10) and on functions (pp. 158–167). The catalogue: Athena fighting a giant; warriors; Zeus and Ganymede; Silenus and Maenad; fragments of warriors and weapons, women, men, sphinxes, a bird, lions, horses, a boar, a dolphin, and reliefs. Four color plates from a total of 126.

    Find this resource:

  • Sturgeon, Mary C. 1987. Sculpture I: 1952–1967. Isthmia 4. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The introduction includes history of the site and its relationship to Corinth, types of (the mostly marble) sculptures from the 7th century BCE to the 3rd century CE (pp. 1–11). A study of a 7th-century painted gray marble perirrhanterion (pp. 14–61) dominates otherwise scanty sculptural finds, which nonetheless provide an index to types of dedications in the Archaic through Hellenistic sanctuary (pp. 62–130).

    Find this resource:

Symposia and Conferences

New discoveries are often presented in symposia, new approaches are introduced in conferences, and debates arise. For these reasons, it is important to keep track of publications of conferences. Because these publications are directed to limited audiences, they often disappear from view, and sculptures that have been introduced in symposia may not receive full scholarly publication for many years, or ever.

  • De Grummond, Nancy Thomson, and Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, eds. 2000. From Pergamon to Sperlonga: Sculpture and context. Articles based on papers presented at the Fourth Annual Langford Conference of the Department of Classics at the Florida State University on 21–22 February 1997. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Proceedings of a 1997 conference with papers by E. S. Gruen, A. Stewart, M. C. Sturgeon, J. J. Pollitt, H. A. Weis, P. Green, J. R. Marszal, S. Steingräber, and the editors.

    Find this resource:

  • Kyrieleis, Helmut, ed. 1986. Archaische und klassische Griechische Plastik: Akten des internationalen Kolloquiums vom 22–25. April 1985 in Athen. 2 vols. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zabern.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Among the sculptural works receiving initial treatment here are the colossal kouros from Samos (Kyrieleis, vol. 1, pp. 35–45), the bronze Peiraeus Apollo (G. Dontas, vol. 1, pp. 181–192), the marble Mozia charioteer (V. Tusa, vol. 2, pp. 1–11), and the bronzes from the Porticello shipwreck (Ridgway, vol. 2, pp. 59–69). Essays in German, Greek, English, French, and Italian. German summaries of discussion that followed each paper.

    Find this resource:

  • Maniatis, Yannis, Norman Herz, and Yannis Basiakos. 1995. The study of marble and other stones used in antiquity. Papers presented at the 3rd International Symposium of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones used in Antiquity, Athens, 17–19 May 1993. London: Archetype.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sessions on quarries and quarrying (six papers, pp. 1–50), trade and uses of stone (eight papers, pp. 51–122), and provenances (eleven papers, pp. 123–214). All ASMOSIA publications are worth consulting on these and related topics. Symposia meet periodically in different venues; papers are published.

    Find this resource:

  • Mattusch, Carol C., Amy Brauer, and Sandra E. Knudsen. 2000. From the parts to the whole: Acta of the 13th International Bronze Congress, held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 28–June 1, 1996. 2 vols. Journal of Roman Archaeology suppl. series 39.1–2. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A total of eighty-four papers, a number about large bronzes, from a 1996 conference. International bronze congresses meet in different venues every three to five years; paper topics range from style to conservation to technology to initial reports on new Mediterranean and European finds. Most have sessions on large-scale works. Papers are delivered and published in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. These two volumes list previous international bronze congresses and publications.

    Find this resource:

  • True, Marion, and Jerry Podany, eds. 1990a. Marble: Art historical and scientific perspectives on ancient sculpture. Papers delivered at a symposium organized by the Departments of Antiquities and Antiquities Conservation and held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 28–30 April 1988. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Papers from a 1988 symposium on style (A. Delivorrias, pp. 11–46), quarrying (M. Waelkens, et al., pp. 47–72), the marble trade (J. Herrmann Jr., pp. 73–100), stable isotope analysis and provenance (N. Herz, pp. 101–110; L. Moens, et al., pp. 111–125; J. Riederer, pp. 229–236), joins (A. Claridge, pp. 135–162), repairs and reuse (E. B. Harrison, pp. 163–184), metal attachments (B. S. Ridgway, pp. 185–206), tools (P. Rockwell, pp. 207–222), forgery (F. Johansen, pp. 223–228), and weathering (R. Newman, pp. 263–282; S.V. Margolis and W. Showers, pp. 283–299).

    Find this resource:

  • True, Marion, and Jerry Podany, eds. 1990b. Small bronze sculpture from the ancient world. Papers delivered at a symposium held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 16–19 March 1989. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A 1989 symposium: repetition in Archaic and Classical periods (Kyrieleis, pp. 15–30; Mattusch, pp. 125–144), the impact of Egypt’s 3rd Intermediate Period (R. S. Bianchi, pp. 61–84), styles and types (J. R. Mertens, pp. 85–102; B. Barr-Sharrar, pp. 209–236), alloys (D. A. Scott and J. Podany, pp. 31–60), surface (H. Born, pp. 179–196; S. Boucher, pp. 161–178), gilding (W.A. Oddy, et al., pp. 103–124), authenticity (A. Beale, pp. 197–207), provenance (P. Meyers, pp. 237–252), a founder’s perspective (P.K. Cavanagh, pp. 145–160), and connoisseurship (G. Ortiz, pp. 253–280).

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389661-0131

back to top

Article

Up

Down