Classics Greek and Roman Gardens
by
Elizabeth Macaulay-Lewis
  • LAST MODIFIED: 31 August 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0134

Introduction

Gardens were a fundamental feature of the classical world. In ancient Greece, while gardens were not included within houses, sacred groves and plants, especially trees, were ever-present elements of the Greek landscape throughout Antiquity. Much of our knowledge of Greek gardens and cultivated flora comes primarily from literature and paintings; few gardens have been recovered archaeologically. The transformative catalyst in the development of gardens in classical Antiquity was Alexander the Great’s conquests in the East. He visited some of the major palaces and the gardens of the Persian emperors and satraps and saw firsthand the well-established, extensive garden tradition of the Near East. As a result of Alexander’s conquest, considerable horticultural knowledge (and possibly specimen plants) from the East came back to the Mediterranean region, brought there by his armies and successors. These monumental, palatial gardens were created and flourished under the Hellenistic rulers. Gardens associated with philosophers also developed in the late classical and Hellenistic eras, although we lack archaeological evidence for these gardens. Rome, the newest power in the Mediterranean, also had a well-established, indigenous domestic garden tradition in which the ownership of a garden was fundamental to the identity of the Roman citizen. The Romans had the most diverse garden tradition in the ancient world, and it included domestic, villa, and palatial gardens as well as public parks and gardens associated with temples or sanctuaries. A rich tradition of garden and landscape painting also existed. Until the second half of the 20th century, the study of gardens lagged behind other fields of classical studies, largely due to a lack of archaeological evidence for gardens. However, the advent of garden archaeology, largely pioneered by W. F. Jashemski at Pompeii and its environs, has greatly increased our knowledge of ancient Roman gardens. Archaeology is vital to the study of Greek and Roman gardens as it expands our knowledge of garden design and plantings, although ancient sources remain essential to the interpretation of these remains. Garden archaeology is now being conducted across the whole Roman world. However, its application in the Greek world has lagged. The new archaeological discoveries have made it possible for scholars to now consider complex questions about design, plants, and horticulture as well as the meaning, purpose, and function of gardens in the ancient world.

General Overviews

No single volume provides an overview of Greek and Roman gardens. No textbooks or handbooks on Greco-Roman gardens are available. Greek and Roman gardens have been studied typically by either Hellenists or Romanists. Carroll 2003 is the best introduction to ancient gardens as it discusses the gardens of Greece, Rome, Egypt, and the Near East. Di Pasquale and Paolucci 2007 also looks at gardens of these ancient civilizations and has excellent illustrations of artistic objects recovered from the gardens. The individual chapters in Gleason 2013 provide thoughtful studies of important aspects of Greek and Roman gardens, such as design, garden typology, and plants. The articles in Coleman 2014 discuss specific aspects of gardens from ancient Egypt through Late Antiquity.

  • Carroll, Maureen. 2003. Earthly paradises: Ancient gardens in history and archaeology. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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    This general, readable account of gardens from Egypt, the Near East, Greece, and Rome is the best overview and introduction. While a popular book, it incorporates recent scholarship and is organized thematically.

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    • Coleman, Kathleen, ed. 2014. Le jardin dans l’Antiquité: Introduction et huit exposés suivis de discussions. Vandoeuvres, Switzerland: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’antiquité classique.

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      Intellectually stimulating proceedings at a conference 19–23 August 2013 held under the auspices of the Fondation Hardt with an introduction and eight highly focused essays on topics ranging from real and painted Egyptian gardens to the real and imagined gardens of early Christians.

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      • di Pasquale, Giovanni, and Fabrizio Paolucci. 2007. Il giardino antico da Babilonia a Roma: Scienza, arte e natura. Livorno, Italy: Sillabe.

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        This beautifully and extensively illustrated exhibition catalogue contains short articles on gardens from ancient Mesopotamia to Rome. The catalogue (pp. 187–333) highlights the diversity of decorative objects displayed in gardens.

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        • Gleason, Kathryn L. 2013. A cultural history of gardens in antiquity. London: Bloomsbury.

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          The essays in this important collection discuss major themes in the study of ancient gardens, including design, typologies, plantings, use and reception, meaning, verbal and visual representations of gardens, and the relationship between the garden and the larger landscape.

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          Greek Gardens

          Carroll-Spillecke 1989 remains the fundamental work on Greek gardens, drawing upon all classes of evidence. Carroll-Spillecke 1992 is an English-language article that summarizes the Carroll-Spillecke 1989 book. Osborne 1992 presents a detailed explication of much of the Greek literature on gardens, establishing a critical framework for the terminology of Greek gardens. When read together with Carroll-Spillecke 1992 and Carroll-Spillecke 1989, Osborne 1992 serves as an excellent introduction to Greek gardens. Most recently, Bowe 2010 has controversially identified the Greeks as the originators of the “Western” gardening tradition.

          • Bowe, Patrick. 2010. The evolution of the ancient Greek garden. Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes 30.3: 208–223.

            DOI: 10.1080/14601170903403264Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            The most recent publication on Greek gardens presents a problematic theory that the Greeks originated the Western tradition of “garden” and gardening. Bibliography misses certain essential, recent works.

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            • Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen. 1989. Kepos: Der antike griechische Garten. Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag.

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              The fundamental work on Greek gardens, deftly incorporating literary, archaeological, and art historical evidence. There is an English summary (pp. 79–87).

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              • Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen. 1992. The gardens of Greece from Homeric to Roman times. Journal of Garden History 12.2: 84–101.

                DOI: 10.1080/01445170.1992.10410564Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                An English summary of her 1989 book but emphasizes the differences between Greek gardens and Roman gardens. The article focuses on Homeric, archaic, and classical gardens with a short section on Hellenistic gardens.

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                • Osborne, Robin. 1992. Classical Greek gardens: Between farm and paradise. In Garden history: Issues, approaches, methods. Edited by John Dixon Hunt, 373–391. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                  A comprehensive and intellectually rigorous study of the literary evidence for classical Greek gardens.

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                  Roman Gardens

                  Grimal 1984 remains the starting point for any and all study of Roman gardens, as it established the intellectual framework of the field, much of which has only recently been reassessed in Purcell 1996 (cited under Domestic Gardens) and Purcell 2001 (cited under the Horti of Rome). Jashemski 1979–1992, while focused on the archaeological remains of the gardens of Campania, is the best introduction to the wide range of Roman gardens and the archaeological evidence for gardens. Ciarallo 2001, while written for a more popular audience, also deals with similar material. Stackelberg 2009 introduces spatial theory to the study of Roman gardens and, for the first time, establishes a theoretical framework for the study of ancient gardens. Spencer 2010, largely drawing on textual evidence, takes a theoretical approach to Roman landscape and considers the meanings of landscape in Roman culture. Bowe 2004 and Farrar 1998 are the most widely accessible books on Roman gardens; however, these works, aimed at the general public, fail to synthesize the major advances and discoveries in the field.

                  • Bowe, Patrick. 2004. Gardens of the Roman world. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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                    An excellent resource for beautiful photographs of Roman gardens and architecture; bibliography is not comprehensive.

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                    • Ciarallo, Annamaria. 2001. Gardens of Pompeii. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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                      This general book on the gardens of Pompeii is particularly useful for domestic gardens and plants; excellent photographs.

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                      • Farrar, Linda. 1998. Ancient Roman gardens. Stroud, UK: Sutton.

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                        Most readily available and accessible text on Roman gardens, largely focused on domestic gardens. Overly simplistic in its treatment and analysis of Roman gardens.

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                        • Grimal, Pierre. 1984. Les jardins romains à la fin de la république et aux deux premiers siècles de l’empire: Essai sur le naturalisme romain. 3d ed. Paris: Fayard.

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                          The first scholarly treatment of Roman gardens. Largely based on the ancient sources, this seminal study remains the starting point for all studies of Roman gardens and horti. Sets the agenda for the study of horti with details, and also established two problematic ideas that the horti were park-like spaces and that a green belt surrounded Rome. The subsequent editions do not include major revisions. Originally published in 1943; second edition was published in 1969.

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                          • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. 1979–1992. The gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas destroyed by Vesuvius. 2 vols. New Rochelle, NY: Caratzas.

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                            The fundamental study of gardens in Campania, largely based on archaeological evidence. Still the best and most extensive treatment of certain types of Roman gardens.

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                            • Spencer, Diana. 2010. Roman landscape: Culture and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                              While intended for undergraduates, an excellent introduction to Roman landscape. Drawing largely on textual evidence, it explores the Roman conceptualization and production of landscape, as well as gardens and horti. Excellent application of landscape theory. Extensive and useful bibliography.

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                              • Stackelberg, Katharine T. von 2009. The Roman garden: Space, sense, and society. London: Routledge.

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                                A stimulating and challenging study; the first to apply modern spatial theory to the Roman garden.

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                                Reference Works

                                General information on Greek and Roman gardens appears in most major reference works, especially those related to Roman Italy and the city of Rome. While slightly dated, Brill’s New Pauly has numerous articles that serve as good introductions to various aspects of ancient gardens. For the study of gardens and garden paintings in Pompeii, the multivolume Pugliese Carratelli 1990–2003 is essential. For gardens and horti in and around the city of Rome, Steinby 1993–2000, another multivolume, has entries for all known gardens and horti in Rome. Richardson 1992 also has entries in English on many gardens in Rome, although these are less extensive. For the gardens depicted on the marble plan, Carettoni 1960 and Rodriguez Almeida 1981 have drawings and identifications of these fragments, while the Stanford Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has excellent photographs and drawings as well as a bibliography. Pérsee is useful for finding excavation reports of gardens in the city of Rome in French.

                                • Carettoni, Gianfilippo. 1960. La pianta marmorea di Roma antica: Forma urbis Romae. Rome: Ripartizione del Comune di Roma.

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                                  This extensive and accurate publication of the Severan marble plan (Forma Urbis Romae, FUR) is a vital source for the study of gardens (especially public parks) in Rome. Also refers to other marble plans (including a tomb garden).

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                                  • New Pauly Online.

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                                    This important online reference contains several entries (in English and German) on horticulture and gardens. The entries are based on the ancient sources and some articles are out of date. Short bibliographies; many entries are linked.

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                                    • Pérsee.

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                                      Website with free access to many French publications, including the Mélanges de l’école française de Rome (MEFRA). Not all images are visible due to copyright restrictions.

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                                      • Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni. 1990–2003. Pompei: Pitture e mosaici. 10 vols. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

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                                        This multivolume encyclopedia contains excellent photographs of all documented wall paintings and mosaics as well as plans of many houses at Pompeii. Essential for work on Pompeii or on garden wall painting.

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                                        • Richardson, Lawrence. 1992. A new topographical dictionary of ancient Rome. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                          This English-language topographical dictionary contains many references to the gardens of Rome. Some of the interpretations are controversial.

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                                          • Rodriguez Almeida, Emilio. 1981. Forma urbis marmorea: Aggiornamento generale 1980. Rome: Quasar.

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                                            Summarizes the research on the FUR between 1960 and 1980; some of the drawings are inaccurate.

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                                            • Stanford Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project.

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                                              This website contains high-resolution, digitalized, downloadable photographs of FUR fragments, extensive bibliography (including plans), and photographs of new fragments. Currently not all of the search features are working.

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                                              • Steinby, E. Margareta. 1993–2000. Lexicon topographicum urbis Romae. 6 vols. Rome: Quasar.

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                                                The fundamental reference work on the topography for Rome includes entries (in all major European languages) on Rome’s gardens, public parks, and horti. Scholarly debates summarized; extensive, useful bibliographies for each entry (earlier volumes now slightly dated).

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                                                Ancient Sources

                                                The ancient sources are rich in their references to ancient plants and gardens. Of the Greek authors, Theophrastus (De Causis Plantarum and Historia Plantarum) is a vital Hellenistic source for plants. Xenophon discusses paradeisos at length. Many philosophical discussions were set in the suburban gardens of Athens, but the meaning of the garden as a setting for philosophy has been little explored. Egyptian papyri, especially those of Zenon, are extremely informative on questions of plants, trade, and economics. The Oxyrhynchus papyri are informative sources for vineyards and gardens in Egypt. Of the Latin authors, Cato the Elder (De Agricultura) writes about estate management and planting techniques; Varro (Res Rusticae) is also informative about farming and plants. Columella (De Re Rustica) discusses gardens and gardening. Also a book on trees, De Arboribus is ascribed to Columella. Virgil’s Georgics and Eclogues are also of interest for those focusing on the “pastoral” and landscape. Horace is important for understanding the Roman concepts of rus and urbs and how these play out in the realm of the garden. Commentary and analysis of these works are all discussed in Gardens and Gardening in Literature. The encyclopedic work of Pliny the Elder (Naturalis historia) remains the most useful source for imported and native plants, their cultivation and their meaning/significance in the Roman world; for more on the study of ancient plants, see Plants. Pliny the Younger’s so-called villa letters (Epistulae, 2.17 and 5.6) are vital to understanding villa garden design; other letters concern his other villas. His letters and their role in the interpretation of villa gardens are discussed in Pliny the Younger and Literary Evidence for Roman Villa Gardens since they have been the focus of so much scholarship. Statius’s Silvae are important for understanding villa gardens and the relationship between the villa and larger landscape. Palladius (De Re Rustica) is largely derivative of earlier writers, but does deal with gardening techniques and plants. The Byzantine Geoponika, a manual on farming, has recently been translated in Cassianus Bassus 2011. Generally, the Loeb editions and English translations are the best starting point for the references to plants and gardens in the ancient sources, although the bilingual (Greek-French) multivolume Amigues edition of Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus 1988–1993) is outstanding.

                                                • Cassianus Bassus. 2011. Geoponika farm work: A modern translation of the Roman and Byzantine farming handbook. Translated by Andrew Dalby. Tornes, UK: Prospect.

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                                                  A recent English translation of the Geoponika.

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                                                  • Theophrastus. 1988–1993. Recherches sur les plantes. 5 vols. Translated by Suzanne Amigues. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                    A bilingual (French-Greek) edition of Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum is the best; the fifth volume has an index of the Greek plant names and Amigues’s identification. Lengthy discussions about the identifications can be found in the text commentary in the other volumes of the Budé translation.

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                                                    Gardens and Gardening in Literature

                                                    The role of gardens in Greek literature remains little explored; Ferriolo 1989 considers the references to gardens in Homer, while Calame 2007 looks at the role of the Greek garden in Homeric poetry and the ancient novel. Giesecke 2007 considers how the garden in both Greek and Latin literature was connected to important philosophical ideas, the city, and the concept of utopia. The study of the garden and gardening in Latin literature has been more extensive. Henderson 2004, which also synthesizes the author’s earlier work, is the best introduction to the Roman garden and its cultural significance and place in Latin literature. For garden poetry of specific authors and the role of the garden in Latin literature, see Gowers 2000 (Virgil and Columella), Jones 2011 (Virgil), and Spencer 2006 (Horace). Pagan 2006 considers gardens in Latin literature, drawing heavily upon literary theory.

                                                    • Calame, Claude. 2007. Gardens of love and meadows of the beyond: Ritual encounters with the gods and poetical performances in ancient Greece. In Sacred gardens and landscapes: Ritual and agency. Edited by Michel Conan, 43–54. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                                                      Considers the role of the garden in Greek poetry, especially in the Homeric Hymns and in the ancient novel.

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                                                      • Ferriolo, Massimo V. 1989. Homer’s garden. Journal of Garden History 9.2: 86–94.

                                                        DOI: 10.1080/01445170.1989.10408270Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        Short discussion of gardens in Homer.

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                                                        • Giesecke, Annette L. 2007. The epic city: Urbanism, utopia, and the garden in ancient Greece and Rome. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard Univ.

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                                                          A study of specific Greek and Roman gardens (largely through literary evidence) that explores their role in the city or association with utopia, their meaning and significance, and the garden’s connection to philosophy.

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                                                          • Gowers, Emily. 2000. Vegetable love: Virgil, Columella, and garden poetry. Ramus 29:127–148.

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                                                            Discusses the garden writings of Virgil and Columella.

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                                                            • Henderson, John. 2004. The Roman book of gardening. London: Routledge.

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                                                              An anthology of selected passages about gardening from the Latin authors Palladius, Virgil, Columella, and Pliny the Elder, with translation and intelligent commentary. An excellent introduction into the Latin literature on gardening.

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                                                              • Jones, Frederick. 2011. Virgil’s garden: The nature of bucolic space. London: Bristol Classical Press.

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                                                                More about Roman landscapes, “bucolic space,” and the conception of landscape in Virgil’s Eclogues than gardens, but also engages with the representations of landscapes in painting.

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                                                                • Jones, Fredrick. 2014. Roman gardens, imagination, and cognitive structure. Mnemosyne 67.5: 781–812.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/1568525X-12341369Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  A literary study that examines the role of the garden in the formation and expression of the Roman citizen’s social, civic, and cultural identity and the way in which the garden functioned as a medium for the imagination and thus cognitive development.

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                                                                  • Pagan, Victoria. 2006. Rome and the literature of gardens. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                    This study, which is intellectually grounded in literary theory, of four passages from Columella, Horace, Tacitus, and Augustine explores how Roman gardens were an expression of Roman culture and society. Uncritical in its use of garden terminology.

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                                                                    • Spencer, Diana. 2006. Horace’s garden thoughts: Rural retreats and the urban imagination. In City, countryside, and the spatial organization of value in classical antiquity. Edited by Ralph Mark Rosen and I. Sluiter, 239–274. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                      Considers the concepts of rus and urbs in Horace’s Odes 1–3, providing a sophisticated analysis of terms such as hortus and horti.

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                                                                      Garden Painting

                                                                      Studies of Greek garden painting are limited due to the lack of survival of paintings. Shaw 1993 and Porter 2000 use two different methodologies to study Bronze Age gardens; the latter’s stimulating botanical approach could be applied elsewhere, while Shaw’s approach is more limited. There are no studies of classical or Hellenistic garden paintings. Garden paintings are among the most important evidence for Roman gardens. Ling 1977 deals with the origins of the genre of garden and landscape painting; the most important work has been done by Bettina Bergmann, who has explored the various meaning of Roman garden paintings. Bergmann 2008 is the best introduction, which considers the dynamic relationship of garden paintings to real gardens and domestic space. Bergmann’s other articles cover more specific topics: Bergmann 1991 looks at how villas are represented in literature and painting; Bergmann 1992 is the only thorough study of painted groves and sacred landscapes and considers the concept of the “pastoral.” Bergmann 2002 and Kuttner 1999 both look at the gardens and garden paintings at Villa A at Oplontis, providing a stimulating exploration of interior and exterior space at the villa and the role that the gardens and garden paintings play at the villa.

                                                                      • Bergmann, Bettina. 1991. Painted perspectives of a villa visit: Landscape as status and metaphor. In Roman art in the private sphere. Edited by Elaine Gazda, 49–70. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                        An intelligent and thoughtful study of the topoi of landscape in Statius’s Silvae and in painted “villascapes.” Deft use of literary and art historical evidence to demonstrate a common vocabulary between the two media and their reflection of the Roman attitude to landscape.

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                                                                        • Bergmann, Bettina. 1992. Exploring the grove: Pastoral space on Roman walls. In The pastoral landscape. Edited by John Dixon Hunt, 21–46. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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                                                                          An important study on the paintings of sacred groves and landscapes, considers the idea of “pastoral” in Roman wall painting.

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                                                                          • Bergmann, Bettina. 2002. Art and nature at Oplontis. In Pompeian brothels, Pompeii’s ancient history, mirrors and mysteries, art and nature at Oplontis, and the Herculaneum “Basilica.” By Thomas A. J. McGinn, Paolo Carafa, Nancy T. de Grummond, Bettina Bergmann, and Tina Najbjerg, 87–121. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 47. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                                            Important article about the gardens, sculpture, and art of Villa A at Oplontis; it introduces the idea of “green architecture” and emphasizes the connection between the design and decoration of interior and exterior space.

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                                                                            • Bergmann, Bettina. 2008. Staging the supernatural: Interior gardens of Pompeian houses. In Pompeii and the Roman villa. Edited by Carol Mattusch, 53–70. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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                                                                              This excellent, interdisciplinary article treats Roman wall paintings as a part of a multimedia art installation of paintings, sculpture, gardens, and architecture.

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                                                                              • Kuttner, Ann. 1999. Looking outside inside: Ancient Roman garden rooms. Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes 19:7–35.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/14601176.1999.10435568Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Dense, but an intelligent exploration of the relationship between garden paintings and real garden space; the real and painted gardens of Villa A at Oplontis serve as her case study.

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                                                                                • Ling, Roger. 1977. Studies and the beginnings of Roman landscape painting. Journal of Roman Studies 67:1–16.

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                                                                                  Important treatment of the genre of Roman landscape painting and its origins.

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                                                                                  • Porter, Ray. 2000. The flora of the Theran wall paintings: Living plants and motifs—sea lily, crocus, iris and ivy. In The wall paintings of Thera. Vol. 2. Edited by Susan Sherratt, 603–630. Athens, Greece: Thera Foundation.

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                                                                                    This article applies a rigorous botanical study of physical characteristics of plants in Theran wall paintings to identify flowers. This interesting methodology could be applied elsewhere.

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                                                                                    • Shaw, Maria C. 1993. The Minoan garden. American Journal of Archaeology 97.4: 661–685.

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                                                                                      An attempt to identify the design of Minoan gardens from wall paintings. Its methodological leaps highlight the problems of using art historical remains without archaeological evidence to interpret garden design.

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                                                                                      Domestic Gardens

                                                                                      Greek houses had paved or beaten earth open-air courtyards without gardens. The origin of the domestic garden within the rear courtyard of Roman house remains debated. Some scholars, as seen in Carroll 2003 (cited under General Overviews) and Carroll-Spillecke 1989 (cited under Greek Gardens), see an indigenous tradition while others, specifically in Nielsen 1999 (pp. 164–180) and Nielsen 2001 (both cited under Hellenistic), argue for a Hellenistic origin. The domestic garden was a major element of Roman houses, as Jashemski 1979–1992 demonstrates at Pompeii, and as Purcell 1996 observes. Purcell 1987 also considers the place of gardens between town and country, as well as the horti. Jashemski 1995 includes a good example of a domestic garden found outside Pompeii and Roman Italy, demonstrating the wide geographic reach of domestic gardens within the Roman Empire.

                                                                                      • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. 1979–1992. The gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas destroyed by Vesuvius. 2 vols. New Rochelle, NY: Caratzas.

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                                                                                        Excellent chapters on Pompeii’s excavated domestic gardens, highlighting the wide array of plants, garden designs, and meanings in Campanian gardens.

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                                                                                        • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. 1995. Roman gardens in Tunisia: Preliminary excavations in the house of Bacchus and Ariadne and in the east temple at Thuburbo Maius. American Journal of Archaeology 99.4: 559–576.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/506183Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The only published example of a domestic garden and temple plantings systematically excavated in North Africa.

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                                                                                          • Purcell, Nicholas. 1987. Town in country and country in town. In Ancient Roman villa gardens. Edited by Elisabeth MacDougall, 185–204. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                                                                                            A stimulating article that discusses the physical and intellectual divide between town and country in the Roman world and the place of gardens in this tension; the Roman attitudes to nature and landscape are also discussed.

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                                                                                            • Purcell, Nicholas. 1996. The Roman garden as a domestic building. In Roman domestic buildings. Edited by Ian Barton, 121–152. Exeter, UK: Univ. of Exeter Press.

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                                                                                              This important article identifies the Roman garden as a domestic building and as a fundamental aspect of Roman identity. A sophisticated treatment of garden terminology and the horti, their meaning, ideology, and position in the landscape of Rome.

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                                                                                              Palatial and Villa Gardens

                                                                                              The tradition of palatial and villa gardens seems to originate in the East, originally in the Persian Empire, and was incorporated into the garden traditions of the Mediterranean through Alexander the Great’s conquests of the East. Villa and palatial gardens flourished in Rome from the late 2nd century BC onward to the end of the Roman Empire. Some of the best-preserved, excavated, and studied gardens are those associated with palaces, imperial residences, and villas.

                                                                                              Hellenistic

                                                                                              Nielsen 1999 and Nielsen 2001 document the well-established tradition of palatial and villa gardens of the Hellenistic era around the Mediterranean and in the Near East; Clarke 2001 focuses the archaeological evidence for a Hellenistic palatial garden, providing further support for Nielsen’s position that the inclusion of gardens within Hellenistic palaces served as the model for the Roman domestic garden. Netzer 2001 and Gleason 1993 document the evidence for gardens in the Hasmonean and Herodian palaces, while Evyasaf 2010 argues for a stronger Egyptian influence rather than Persian on these gardens. Gleason 2014 is a concise update to the earlier literature on the gardens of Herod the Great. Rozenberg and Mevorah 2013 is an authoritative publication on the buildings of Herod the Great and their gardens. Bedal 2004, an important publication, summarizes the author’s excavations of a major garden in Petra.

                                                                                              • Bedal, Leigh-Ann. 2004. The Petra pool-complex: A Hellenistic Paradeisos in the Nabataean capital. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias.

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                                                                                                This important study publishes the archaeological remains of a monumental garden-pool complex found on the site of the Lower Market at Petra (pp. 39–85). Also includes an excellent summary of historical and archaeological knowledge of earlier Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Persian gardens. Excavations of the site are ongoing and are regularly published in Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan.

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                                                                                                • Clarke, Graham. 2001. The governor’s palace, Acropolis, Jebel Khalid. Paper presented at the conference “The Royal Palace Institution in the First Millennium BC,” 17–20 November 1999. In The royal palace institution in the first millennium BC: Regional development and cultural interchange between East and West. Edited by Inge Nielsen, 215–247. Athens, Greece: Danish Institute at Athens.

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                                                                                                  The article discusses the presence of garden soil in a courtyard from the excavations of the governor’s palace at Jebel Khalid, Syria, making it the first archaeologically attested Hellenistic palatial garden.

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                                                                                                  • Evyasaf, Rona-Shani. 2010. Gardens at a crossroads: The influence of Persian and Egyptian gardens on the Hellenistic royal gardens of Judea. In The gardens of the ancient Mediterranean: Cultural exchange through horticultural design, technology, and plants. Edited by E. Macaulay-Lewis and K. L. Gleason, 27–37. In Meetings between cultures in the ancient Mediterranean: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Rome, 22–26 September 2008. Edited by M. Dalla Riva and H. Di Giuseppe.

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                                                                                                    Proposes an Egyptian influence on the Hellenistic royal gardens of Judea. Bollettino di Archeologia online I 2010/Volume speciale D/D9/5.

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                                                                                                    • Gleason, Kathryn L. 1993. A garden excavation in the Oasis palace of Herod the great at Jericho. Landscape Journal 12:156–165.

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                                                                                                      Summarizes the excavation of the Ionic peristyle courtyard and considers the garden’s design and plantings in the Winter Palace at Jericho.

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                                                                                                      • Gleason, Kathryn L. 2014. The landscape palaces of Herod the great. Near Eastern Archaeology 77.2: 76–97.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.5615/neareastarch.77.2.0076Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Although geared toward the general reader, this short article summarizes the recent discoveries and knowledge of landscapes associated with gardens in Herod’s palaces.

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                                                                                                        • Netzer, Ehud. 2001. The palaces of the Hasmoneans and Herod the great. Jerusalem: Yan Ben-Zvi.

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                                                                                                          A useful introduction to architecture and gardens of the Hasmonean and Herodian palaces. Excellent color reconstructions and good photographs. The concise bibliography mentions most of Netzer’s more scholarly works.

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                                                                                                          • Nielsen, Inge. 1999. Hellenistic palaces: Tradition and renewal. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                            About Hellenistic palaces; discusses the presence of palatial gardens (attested in the ancient sources) and their possible influence on Roman gardens. Excellent catalogue of Hellenistic and some Roman palaces.

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                                                                                                            • Nielsen, Inge. 2001. The gardens of the Hellenistic palaces. In The royal palace institution in the first millennium BC: Regional development and cultural interchange between East and West. Edited by Inge Nielsen, 165–187. Athens, Greece: Danish Institute at Athens.

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                                                                                                              Based on literary evidence, this article identifies the possible types of gardens associated with Hellenistic palaces.

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                                                                                                              • Rozenberg, Silvia, and David Mevorah. 2013. Herod the great: The king’s final journey. Jerusalem: Israel Museum.

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                                                                                                                Important exhibition catalogue on Herod’s remarkable building program with outstanding photographs and drawings, complimented by thoughtful discussions of landscape, gardens, and garden paintings from his various palaces by the excavators and leading scholars.

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                                                                                                                Roman

                                                                                                                Among the best-studied gardens of the Roman world are villa and palatial gardens. Owing to the extensive study of certain gardens and aspects of villa gardens, this section is divided in the following subsections: Pliny the Younger and Literary Evidence for Roman Villa Gardens, the Palatine Hill and Imperial Residences in Rome, the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta, Hadrian’s Villa, and Roman Italy and the Provinces. The palatial gardens of the Hellenistic world were also hugely influential on the Roman villa and palatial gardens. The Roman villa experienced a fundamental ideological and physical shift from a productive, rural farm to a luxurious retreat of the privileged elite, where leisure (otium) dominated, especially on the Bay of Naples. No consideration of Roman villa gardens could be complete without a discussion of Pliny the Younger’s villa letters.

                                                                                                                Pliny the Younger and Literary Evidence for Roman Villa Gardens

                                                                                                                Gardens feature prominently in the ancient sources; Littlewood 1987 discusses much of the evidence for leisure gardens. Scholars have focused on specific aspects: Myers 2005 provides a sophisticated overview to the concept of learned leisure and how it played out in the Roman garden. Neudecker 1988 remains the best work on villa sculpture, much of which was found in gardens. Bergmann 2001 explores the concept of allusion in garden villa design. A great deal of scholarship focuses on Pliny’s villa letters and their applicability to study archaeologically known Roman villa gardens. du Prey 1994, Förtsch 1993, and the important review of Bergmann 1995 demonstrate how the villa letters of Pliny the Younger are both vital and problematic to understand the gardens of Roman villas, their ethos and their design.

                                                                                                                • Bergmann, Bettina. 1995. Visualizing Pliny’s letters. Journal of Roman Archaeology 8:406–420.

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                                                                                                                  Concise review articles du Prey 1994 and Förtsch 1993 highlights the problems of interpreting ancient sources, such as Pliny, in concert with archaeological material or in its absence.

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                                                                                                                  • Bergmann, Bettina. 2001. Meanwhile, back in Italy . . .: Creating landscapes of allusion. In Pausanias: Travel and memory in Roman Greece. Edited by Susan E. Alcock, John F. Cherry, and Jás Elsner, 154–166. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                    Drawing on historical, archaeological, and textual evidence, the author establishes that Roman landscapes were often designed as “landscapes of allusion.” Important for understanding the ideologies behind the construction of villa gardens and landscapes.

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                                                                                                                    • du Prey, Pierre de la Ruffinière. 1994. The villas of Pliny from antiquity to posterity. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                      This intelligent study considers how scholars (of different countries and eras) have interpreted and reconstructed the villas described in Pliny the Younger’s letters; highlights the problems of reconstructing architecture and gardens from texts.

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                                                                                                                      • Förtsch, Reinhard. 1993. Archäologischer Kommentar zu den Villenbriefen des jüngeren Plinius. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                        A detailed study of Pliny the Younger’s villa letters (2.17 and 5.6); analyzes garden terms and, through comparison with archaeological evidence, proposes possible forms for a xystus, a hippodrome garden and others. Somewhat problematic as the archaeological evidence is sometimes forced to conform to the textual evidence.

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                                                                                                                        • Littlewood, Anthony R. 1987. Ancient literary evidence for pleasure gardens of Roman country villas. In Ancient Roman villa gardens. Edited by Elisabeth MacDougall, 7–32. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                                                                                                                          Discussion of literary evidence for the advent of “pleasure gardens” from the 2nd century BC onward.

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                                                                                                                          • Myers, K. Sara. 2005. Docta Otia: Garden ownership and configurations of leisure in Statius and Pliny the younger. Arethusa 38:103–129.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/are.2005.0005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            A stimulating discussion of learned leisure (otium docta) in Statius and Pliny. Considers the role that villas, villa ownership, and villa life plays in the construction of otium docta, as well as the influence of Epicurean philosophy on these gardens and Roman debates about art and nature.

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                                                                                                                            • Neudecker, Richard. 1988. Die Skulpturenausstattung römischer Villen in Italien. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                              Fundamental work on the sculpture of Roman villas in Italy, consideration of gardens as a setting for sculpture and the ideology of sculpture in the garden and villa.

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                                                                                                                              The Palatine Hill and Imperial Residences in Rome

                                                                                                                              Home to the residences of elite men in the Roman Republic, the Palatine Hill became the emperor’s abode during the Roman Empire. For the gardens of the Domus Tiberiana, Domus Aurea, and other imperial residences, the respective entries in Steinby 1993–2000 (cited under Reference Works) should be consulted; however, the extensive French excavations, published in Villedieu 2001 and Villedieu 2007, reshaped knowledge of the topography of the Palatine Hill and its gardens. Tomei 1992 summarizes scholarly knowledge of the gardens within the Domus Augustana/Flavia, while Segala and Sciortino 1999 presents the recent excavations of the Domus Aurea in an accessible format.

                                                                                                                              • Segala, Elisabetta, and Ida Sciortino. 1999. Domus aurea. Milan: Electa.

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                                                                                                                                This guidebook summarizes the new excavations of the stagnum (which has been shown to be rectangular); good plans and interesting reconstructions.

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                                                                                                                                • Tomei, Maria Antonietta. 1992. Nota sui giardini antichi del Palatino. Mélanges de l’école française de Rome: Antiquité 104.2: 917–951.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3406/mefr.1992.1778Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Summarizes much of what is known about the gardens or possible gardens on the Palatine, especially in the Domus Augustana/Flavia.

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                                                                                                                                  • Villedieu, Françoise. 2001. Il giardino dei Cesari. Rome: Quasar.

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                                                                                                                                    Exhibition catalogue on the French excavations on the Palatine hill. Beautiful reconstructions. Useful as the results (including pottery) have not fully been published.

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                                                                                                                                    • Villedieu, Françoise. 2007. La vigna barberini. Vol. 2, Domus, palais impérial et temples. Rome: École Française de Rome.

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                                                                                                                                      Publishes the important findings from the French excavations of the Vigna Barberini, including the extensive Hadrianic and 3rd-century AD gardens discovered.

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                                                                                                                                      The Villa of Livia at Prima Porta

                                                                                                                                      Located just north of Rome, this villa owes its fame to a passage in Suetonius (Suet. Gal. 1) about the rise and fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and to its remarkable subterranean room of garden paintings. Kellum 1994 provides an important contextualized study of the garden paintings in the framework of Augustan ideology, building on descriptions in Gabriel 1955. Caneva and Bohuny 2003 involves a detailed botanical study, similar to Porter 2000 (cited under Garden Painting). Klynne and Liljenstolpe 2000, Liljenstolpe and Klynne 1997–1998, and Klynne 2005 publish the important excavations of the small garden and garden terrace, providing important evidence for our understanding of villa garden design.

                                                                                                                                      • Caneva, Giulia, and Lorenza Bohuny. 2003. Botanic analysis of Livia’s painted flora (Prima Porta, Rome). Journal of Cultural Heritage 4.2: 149–155.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S1296-2074(03)00026-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Detailed identifications of the plants in the wall paintings by botanists.

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                                                                                                                                        • Gabriel, Mabel M. 1955. Livia’s garden room at Prima Port. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                          The detailed study and accurate identification of the plants and birds from the garden scenes (pp. 33–53) remain helpful in the study of garden paintings.

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                                                                                                                                          • Kellum, Barbara. 1994. The construction of landscape in Augustan Rome: The garden room at the Villa ad Gallinas. Art Bulletin 76.2: 211–224.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/3046020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Using an interdisciplinary approach, the essay considers the symbolic and political meaning of plants (especially laurels), landscapes, gardens, and garden paintings in Augustan Rome.

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                                                                                                                                            • Klynne, Allan. 2005. The laurel grove of the caesars: Looking in and looking out. In Roman villas around the Urbs: Interaction with landscape and environment; Proceedings of a conference held at the Swedish Institute in Rome, 17–18 September 2004. Edited by Barbara Santillo Frizell and Allan Klynne, 1–9. Rome: Swedish Institute in Rome.

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                                                                                                                                              Klynne’s interpretation of the garden terrace, based on the excavations and comparative data, links the terrace’s design to groves associated with temples and sanctuaries.

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                                                                                                                                              • Klynne, Allan, and Peter Liljenstolpe. 2000. Investigating the gardens of the Villa of Livia. Journal of Roman Archaeology 13.1: 220–233.

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                                                                                                                                                Summarizes some of the important findings from the Swedish garden excavations.

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                                                                                                                                                • Liljenstolpe, Peter, and Allan Klynne. 1997–1998. The imperial gardens of the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta: A preliminary report on the 1997 campaign. Opuscula Romana 22–23:130–134.

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                                                                                                                                                  Publishes the initial findings from the Swedish excavations of the gardens at the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta.

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                                                                                                                                                  Hadrian’s Villa

                                                                                                                                                  While not fully excavated, the gardens of Emperor Hadrian’s villa at Tibur (modern-day Tivoli) were among the most innovative landscapes and gardens from all of Antiquity. All of the original names (even if incorrect) are used here for ease. Excavations have explored the gardens and plantings associated with the Canopus (Hannestad 1982, Kuttner 2003) and Piazza d’Oro (Jashemski and Salza Prina Ricotti 1992), as well as Antinoeion (Mari and Sgalambro 2007), the Greek Theater (Hidalgo 2011), and the Garden Stadium (Hoffmann 1980). The best summary of the gardens is Salza Prina Ricotti 2001, and the most comprehensive study of the villa is MacDonald and Pinto 1995; unfortunately, both essays fail to offer a larger interpretative framework for the gardens. Salza Prina Ricotti 2001 also notes other gardens previously unpublished or unexplored at the villa.

                                                                                                                                                  • Hannestad, Niels. 1982. Über das Grabmal des Antinoos: Topographische und thematische Studien im Canopus-Gebiet der Villa Adriana. Analecta Romana Instituti Danici 2:69–108.

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                                                                                                                                                    Summarizes the Danish excavations along the Canopus, in which planting pots were discovered.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Hidalgo, Rafael. 2011. Excavación arqueológica en el Teatro Greco de Villa Adriana: Campaña de 2009. In Informes y trabajos 5: Excavaciones en el exterior 2009. By Rafael Hidalgo, 166–178. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura.

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                                                                                                                                                      Publishes the amphoras used in the construction of a garden associated with the Greek theater at Hadrian’s villa.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Hoffmann, Adolf. 1980. Das Gartenstadion in der Villa Hadriana. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: P. von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                                                        Monograph on the architecture of the garden-stadium; explores the few landscape components of the complex.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F., and Eugenia Salza Prina Ricotti. 1992. Preliminary excavations in the gardens of Hadrian’s villa: The Canopus area and the Piazza d’Oro. American Journal of Archaeology 96.4: 579–597.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/505186Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Publication of the excavations of the Piazza d’Oro and the plantings on both sides of the Canopus.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Kuttner, Ann. 2003. Delight and danger in the Roman water garden: Sperlonga and Tivoli. Paper presented at the 24th Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture. In Landscape design and the experience of motion. Edited by M. Conan, 103–156. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks.

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                                                                                                                                                            Article discusses two monumental “water gardens” (at the villa at Sperlonga and at the Canopus at Hadrian’s villa); considers how movement shaped the experience of visiting a water garden. Speculative at points, but stimulating.

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                                                                                                                                                            • MacDonald, William L., and John A. Pinto. 1995. Hadrian’s villa and its legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              The most important study of the villa. A section is dedicated to waterworks and landscape (pp. 170–182), more focused on fountains and hydraulics. Limited in its treatment of gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Mari, Zaccaria, and Sergio Sgalambro. 2007. The Antinoeion of Hadrian’s villa: Interpretation and architectural reconstruction. American Journal of Archaeology 111.1: 83–104.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.3764/aja.111.1.83Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Reports the important discovery of the memorial (or cenotaph) to Antinous and evidence for date palms and planting beds in the complex; bibliography includes earlier publications in Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Salza Prina Ricotti, Eugenia. 2001. Villa Adriana: Il sogno di un imperatore. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This summarizes the writings of the early explorers and all excavations of Hadrian’s villa. It notes all discovered gardens; however, some of the interpretations and reconstructions are problematic.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Roman Italy and the Provinces

                                                                                                                                                                  Villa gardens flourished in Roman Italy from the late Roman Republic onward and were then exported throughout the Roman Empire. For the gardens at the palaces of ancient Judaea and Nabataean Petra (both of which continued in the Roman period), see the section on Hellenistic. Many gardens have been excavated in Roman Italy; the main garden of the so-called villa of Horace has been well studied and published (Frischer, et al. 2006). Gleason 2010 on the recent excavations at Villa Arianna at Stabia is vital, as it demonstrates a far closer link between archaeologically known gardens and garden paintings. Zarmakoupi 2014 discusses porticoed gardens and the role of landscape in luxury villas on the Bay of Naples. For well-excavated examples of villa gardens from the western provinces, see Cunliffe 1999 on the palatial villa at Fishbourne (England); Barat 1999 on the productive villa garden at Richebourgh (France); Thüry 2008, the most up to date, on the gardens of Roman Austria; Salza Prina Ricotti 1970–1971 on Silin (Libya); and MacDougall 1987 on several villa gardens in the western provinces.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Barat, Yvan. 1999. La villa gallo-romaine de Richebourgh (Yvelines). Revue Archéological du Centre de la France 38:117–167.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.3406/racf.1999.2820Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Publishes the excavation and remains of the villa garden at Richebourgh (France).

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Cunliffe, Barry. 1999. Fishbourne: Roman palace. Stroud, UK: Tempus.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This book, aimed at the general reader, is an excellent overview of the villa at Fishbourne (England) and its gardens, which were among the first ever systematically excavated. Extensive bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Frischer, Bernard, Jane W. Crawford, and Monica de Simone, eds. 2006. The Horace’s villa project, 1997–2003. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Two-volume publication of the so-called Villa of Horace. Gardens excavated and published in detail. Good example of a well-excavated, early imperial villa, its gardens and landscape in Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Gleason, Kathryn L. 2010. Constructing nature: The built garden: With notice of a new monumental garden at the villa Arianna, Stabiae. In The gardens of the ancient Mediterranean: Cultural exchange through horticultural design, technology, and plants. Edited by E. Macaulay-Lewis and K. L. Gleason, 8–15. In Meetings between cultures in the ancient Mediterranean: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Rome, 22–26 September 2008. Edited by M. Dalla Riva and H. Di Giuseppe.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This important article publishes the initial findings of the RAS project at Villa Arianna, Stabiae, and demonstrates that Roman gardens could be planted in a design similar to that shown in wall painting (i.e., densely planted shrubs and flowers around trees). Bollettino di Archeologia online I 2010/Volume speciale D/D9/3.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • MacDougall, Elisabeth B., ed. 1987. Ancient Roman villa gardens. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Now largely dated, this volume does contain several useful articles.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Salza Prina Ricotti, Eugenia. 1970–1971. Le ville marittime di Silin. Atti della Pontificia Accademia romana di archeologia: Rendiconti 43:154–161.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Publication of a maritime villa at Silin (Libya) that included a garden.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Thüry, Günther E. 2008. Gärten und Gartenpflanzen der Austria Romana. In Domus: Das Haus in den Städten der römischen Donauprovinzen; Akten des 3: Internationalen Symposiums über Römische Städte in Noricum und Pannonien. Edited by Peter Scherrer, 173–184. Sonderschriften 44. Vienna: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Excellent overview of gardens in Roman Austria; it also includes an extensive bibliography for provincial gardens, especially in the northwestern provinces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Zarmakoupi, Mantha. 2014. Designing for luxury on the Bay of Naples: Villas and landscapes, c. 100 BCE–79 CE. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  An architectural study of luxury villas on the Bay of Naples with an integrated discussion of the role of gardens and the landscape in the villa. Chapter 4 and the appendix focus on porticoed gardens in Campanian villas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  The Horti of Rome

                                                                                                                                                                                  The horti of Rome, located on the hills and periphery of Rome, were extensive, peri-urban estates that included vast, elaborate gardens. Grimal 1984 (cited under Roman Gardens), remains the fundamental work and the author’s interpretations still dictate much of the scholarly agenda; however, recent work, especially Purcell 1996 (cited under Domestic Gardens), Purcell 2001, and Purcell 2007, has problematized the ideas found in Grimal 1984 and presented a rigorous approach to various aspects of the horti. Cima and La Rocca 1998 includes a wide range of articles about various aspects of the horti, largely from an archaeological or art historical perspective; Frass 2006 is the most recent treatment of the horti from a historical perspective. For many horti, such as the well-excavated Horti Luculliani, the entries in Steinby 1993–2000 (cited under Reference Works) remain the best starting point. The physical remains and sculpture of three horti have been the study of focused research: the Horti Lamiani in Cima and La Rocca 1986, the Horti Maecenatis in Häuber 1990, and the Horti Sallustiani in Hartswick 2004. Cima and Talamo 2008 provides an accessible introduction to the horti.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cima, Maddalena, and Eugenio La Rocca. 1986. Le tranquille dimore degli dei: La residenza imperiale degli horti Lamiani. Venice: Marsilio.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This excellent exhibition catalogue deals with the architectural remains, finds, and topography of the Horti Lamiani and its neighboring estate, the Horti Maecenatis on the Esquiline Hill in Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cima, Maddalena, and Eugenio La Rocca, eds. 1998. Horti Romani: Atti del Convegno internazionale, Roma, 4–6 maggio 1995. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      This important conference proceeding publication, with contributions in all major European languages, focuses on the archaeology, history, ideology, and meaning of the horti. Should be read with Purcell 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cima, Maddalena, and Emilia Talamo. 2008. Gli horti di Roma antica. Milan: Electa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        An Italian general interest publication on the horti, with excellent pictures of the sculpture from the horti that are held in the major museums of Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Frass, Monika. 2006. Antike römische Gärten: Soziale und wirtschaftliche Funktionen der Horti Romani. Horn, Austria: F. Berger u. Söhne.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The only focused, historical study of the horti of Rome since Grimal 1984 (cited under Roman Gardens). Contains an extensive catalogue on the names of owners of the horti (pp. 203–370) and useful tables about the horti, their owners, and chronology (pp. 381–477). Also deals with property and garden ownership, extensive use of epigraphic evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hartswick, Kim J. 2004. The gardens of Sallust: A changing landscape. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Monographic treatment of the Horti Sallustiani, good use of Renaissance material, largely focused on the sculpture from the horti.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Häuber, R. Chrystina. 1990. Zur Topographie der Horti Maecenatis und der Horti Lamiani auf dem Esquilin in Rom. Kölner Jahrbuch für Vor- und Frühgeschichte 23:11–107.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              The fundamental work on the Horti Maecenatis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Purcell, Nicholas. 2001. Dialectical gardening. Journal of Roman Archaeology 14:546–556.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This seminal review of Cima and La Rocca 1998 articulates the problems of studying the horti and discusses the problematic use of the term park when discussing ancient gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Purcell, Nicholas. 2007. The horti of Rome and the landscape of property. In Res bene gestae: Ricerche di storia urbana su Roma antica in onore di Eva Margareta Steinby. Edited by Anna Leone and Domenico Palombi, 361–378. Rome: Quasar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Considers the nature of property, gardens, horti, and the suburban landscape around the city of Rome; challenges the idea of a green belt around Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Public Gardens

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rome was filled with public gardens, which are known from archaeology, ancient literature, and the Forma Urbis Romae (FUR). Many of these are discussed in Steinby 1993–2000 (cited under Reference Works). Gleason 1994 and Kuttner 1999 consider the design, garden, plantings, and artistic programs of the Porticus of Pompey, Rome’s first public garden or park. Rehak 2007 focuses on the northern Campus Martius, where Augustus built his mausoleum and a vast garden. The gardens of the Templum Pacis have been excavated and published in Meneghini, et al. 2007; however, the design and phasing detailed by the excavators remains problematic in light of earlier work, which studied the depiction of the Templum Pacis on the FUR (cf. Lloyd 1982, Anderson 1984). Pollard 2009 considers the role of plants in the Templum Pacis as symbols of imperialism. Darwall-Smith 1996 remains the only treatment of the possible plantings in the Divorum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Anderson, James C. 1984. The historical topography of the imperial fora. Brussels: Latomus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chapter 3 discusses the Templum Pacis and its garden features, as shown on the marble plan (FUR) (see pp. 101–118).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Darwall-Smith, Robin. 1996. Emperors and architecture: A study of Flavian Rome. Brussels: Latomus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the Templum Pacis, the Divorum, which may have had plantings, and other Flavian buildings in Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gleason, Kathryn L. 1994. Porticus Pompeiana: A new perspective on the first public park of ancient Rome. Journal of Garden History 14.1: 13–27.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/01445170.1994.10412494Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Seminal work on the design, evolution, and use of Rome’s first public park.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kuttner, Ann L. 1999. Culture and history at Pompey’s museum. Transactions of the American Philological Association 129:343–373.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/284436Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Useful article on the artistic programs and their meanings at the Porticus of Pompey.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lloyd, Robert B. 1982. Three monumental gardens on the marble plan. American Journal of Archaeology 86.1: 91–100.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/504295Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Identified and interprets three gardens, including plantings in the Templum Pacis, in Rome on the marble plan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Meneghini, Roberto, Riccardo Santangeli Valenzani, and Elisabetta Bianchi. 2007. I fori imperiali: Gli scavi del Comune di Roma, 1991–2007. Rome: Vivani Editore.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Publication of the Imperial Fora excavations in Rome; discusses the Templum Pacis and the Forum of Trajan. Some of the interpretations, such as the basins in the Templum Pacis, are controversial, but the excavations demonstrate that the Forum of Trajan did not contain plantings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pollard, Elizabeth A. 2009. Pliny’s Natural History and the Flavian Templum Pacis: Botanical imperialism in first-century Rome. Journal of World History 20.3: 309–338.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1353/jwh.0.0074Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Considers the role of plants as symbols of botanical imperialism in the Templum Pacis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rehak, Paul. 2007. Imperium and cosmos: Augustus in the northern Campus Martius. Edited by John G. Younger. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed study of the northern Campus Martius, a vast public park that served as the setting for the Mausoleum of Augustus and the Ara Pacis. For a discussion of the plants on the Ara Pacis and their meaning, see Castriota 1995, Sauron 2000, and Caneva 2010 (cited under Plants).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sacred Groves and Temple Gardens

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trees and sacred groves played an important role in the Greek and Roman worlds. For the sacred groves of Greece, Birge 1982 remains the most comprehensive treatment. Archaeological excavations have enriched our picture considerably. Sacred groves or gardens associated with temples have been excavated at Nemea (Birge, et al. 1992), at Kourion (Soren 1987), and at the Athenian Agora (Thompson 1937). Bonnechere 2007 has considered the myths and rituals associated with sacred groves. Roman sacred groves and temple gardens have also received much treatment. Bodel 1994 considers the legal status of groves and their meaning, while Scheid 1993 presents a considered and detailed study of terminology. These detailed literary and epigraphic studies are complemented by several well-published examples of sacred groves and temple gardens from the Roman world, such as the sanctuary of Venus in Pompeii (Carroll 2010). For the plantings associated with the East temple at Thuburbo Maius, see Jashemski 1995 (cited under Domestic Gardens).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Birge, Darice Elizabeth 1982. Sacred groves in the ancient Greek world. PhD diss., Univ. of California at Berkeley.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The sophisticated, comprehensive study of sacred groves in the Greek world, drawing on archaeological, literary, and epigraphic evidence. The appendix attempts to compile all reference in ancient Greek to sacred groves (pp. 298–636).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Birge, Darice Elizabeth, Lynn Harriett Kraynak, and Stephen G. Miller. 1992. Excavations at Nemea. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Important publication of the excavated grove of cypress (or less likely fir) trees, perhaps the predecessor of the one seen by Pausanias (2.15.2–3), at Nemea between the Temple of Zeus and the oikoi (pp. 85–98).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bodel, John. 1994. Graveyards and groves: A study of the Lex Lucerina. Cambridge, MA: American Journal of Ancient History.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This important study of the Lex Lucerina and other epigraphical evidence includes detailed discussion of the nature of sacred groves, of the term lucus, and considers the legal status of sacred groves in the Roman world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bonnechere, Pierre. 2007. The place of the sacred grove (alsos) in the mantic rituals of Greece: The example of the alsos of Trophonios at Lebadeia (Boeotia). In Sacred gardens and landscapes: Ritual and agency. Edited by Michel Conan, 17–41. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stimulating article that considers what types of myths and rituals were most commonly associated with sacred groves, using the sanctuary of Trophonius in Lebadeia as a case study. Detailed consideration of terminology and offers a new definition of alsos. Extensive notes with many recent publications (especially in French) included.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Carroll, Maureen. 2010. Exploring the Sanctuary of Venus and its sacred grove: Politics, cult and identity in Roman Pompeii. Papers of the British School at Rome 78:63–106.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0068246200000817Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Publication of Carroll’s work on the Sanctuary of Venus in Pompeii, considers the urban and social context of the sanctuary and its plantings. It also summarizes much of extant archaeological evidence for sanctuary plantings, including Carroll’s previous work in Pompeii, the Italian excavations of Gabii, and the tropaeum monument for the sea battle of Actium at Nikopolis, Greece.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Scheid, John. 1993. Lucus, nemus: Qu’est-ce qu’un bois sacré. In Les bois sacrés: Actes du colloque international organisé par Centre Jean Bérard et l’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Ve section), Naples, 23–25 novembre 1989. Edited by Olivier de Cazanove, 13–20. Naples, Italy: Centre Jean Bérard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A close analysis of the meaning of lucus in the ancient sources; focuses on the differences between lucus and nemus.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Soren, David. 1987. The sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion, Cyprus. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Publication of a unique sacred grove with a circular ring of plantings in a sanctuary that spans from the 6th century BC to the reign of Trajan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Thompson, Dorothy B. 1937. The garden of Hephaistos. Hesperia 6:396–425.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/146648Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed early excavation report of the Hellenistic and Roman plantings around the Temple of Hephaistos in Athens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tomb Gardens

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tomb gardens are well attested in the archaeological, epigraphic, and literary record; for the Antinoeion, a commemorative cenotaph to Hadrian’s lover, see Mari and Sgalambro 2007 (cited under Hadrian’s Villa). However, they have remained relatively understudied compared to other garden types. Purcell 1987 provides the best historical overview and introduction; Jashemski 1970–1971 is the starting point for the archaeological evidence and Campbell 2008 is the most up to date on epigraphic evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Campbell, Virgina. 2008. Stopping to smell the roses: Garden tombs in Roman Italy. Arctos 42:31–43.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Concise and detailed study of the epigraphic evidence for garden tombs in Roman Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. 1970–1971. Tomb gardens at Pompeii. Classical Journal 66.2: 97–115.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Article on tomb gardens outside of Pompeii, but also summarizes other archeological, literary, and epigraphic evidence for garden tombs in Roman Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Purcell, Nicholas. 1987. Tomb and suburb. In Römische Gräberstrassen: Selbstdarstellung, Status, Standard: Kolloquium in München vom 28. bis 30. Oktober 1985. Edited by Henner von Hesberg and Paul Zanker, 25–41. Munich: Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses the garden tombs and the connection between tombs and horti and highlights the productive aspect of the garden tomb, where the garden’s flowers or produce pays for maintenance of the tomb.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Plants

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Studies typically focus either on the iconography and symbolism of plants or on their medicinal or productive value to ancient society. Meiggs 1998 is the only work to treat trees and timber across the Mediterranean. Bauman, et al. 1993 provides an introduction to Greek plants and is wider in its scope. Landgren 2004 is the best introduction to plants in the Roman garden. Macaulay-Lewis 2010 treats only the plant trade. Kenawi, et al. 2012 presents archaeological evidence for a commercial-scale plant nursery in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Other work focuses on the symbolism of plants in art and Roman ideology. The Ara Pacis has been the main focus (e.g., Castriota 1995, Caneva 2010), while Sauron 2000 is more wide ranging. The names of plants in the ancient sources remain problematic, and accurate identification continues to be a challenge for scholars. Work on Greek plants and their meaning remains more limited; the index in Keyser and Irby-Massie 2008 is an excellent starting point for the names of Greek plants. André 1985 is the best resource for the Latin names of plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • André, Jacques. 1985. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The best reference for plant names in Latin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bauman, Hellmut, William T. Stearn, and Eldwyth Ruth Stearn. 1993. The Greek plant world in myth, art, and literature. Portland, OR: Timber.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The English translation of a German book on plants with additions and amendments to the original text. The only work on Greek plants, while not particularly academic, contains many useful images of plants from the ancient Greek world and contemporary photographs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Caneva, Giulia. 2010. Il codice botanico di Augusto: Roma, Ara Pacis: Parlare al popolo attraverso le immagini della natura. Rome: Gangemi.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dual-language publication about plants on the lower register of the Ara Pacis. Detailed botanical analysis, compares the sculptural examples with photographs of extant plants. Also discusses and reconstructs the possible colors that were used on the monument (on the basis of scientific analysis and botanical comparanda).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Castriota, David. 1995. The Ara Pacis Augustae and the imagery of abundance in later Greek and early Roman imperial art. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An important study of symbolism and meaning of plants and animals on the lower register of the Ara Pacis in Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kenawi, Mohamed, Elizabeth Macaulay-Lewis, and Judith McKenzie. 2012. A commercial nursery near Abu Hummus, Egypt, and the reuse of amphoras in the Roman plant trade. Roman Journal of Archaeology 25:195–225.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important study of a commercial plant nursery outside Alexandria in the Hellenistic and Roman eras. Demonstrates firm archaeological evidence for plant nurseries, the archaeological evidence for the Roman plant trade, and the use of recycled amphoras as planters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Keyser, Paul T., and Georgia L. Irby-Massie. 2008. The encyclopedia of ancient natural scientists: The Greek tradition and its many heirs. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This reference work includes an index of plants (pp. 1039–1062) with identifications; the plant index provides useful information for referencing plants in ancient writers (especially the Greek and Hellenistic sources).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Landgren, Lena. 2004. Lauro myrto et buxo frequentata: A study of the Roman garden through its plants. PhD diss., Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Important thesis on plants in the Roman garden, but difficult to obtain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Macaulay-Lewis, Elizabeth. 2010. Imported exotica: Approaches to the study of the ancient plant trade. In The gardens of the ancient Mediterranean: Cultural exchange through horticultural design, technology, and plants. Edited by E. Macaulay-Lewis and K. L. Gleason, 16–25. In Meetings between cultures in the ancient Mediterranean: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Rome, 22–26 September 2008. Edited by M. Dalla Riva and H. Di Giuseppe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proposes an interdisciplinary model, using archaeology, science, and literature to study the ancient plant trade. Bollettino di Archeologia online I 2010/Volume speciale D/D9/4.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Meiggs, Russell. 1998. Trees and timber in the ancient Mediterranean world. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The major study of trees and timber in the ancient world. Chapter on farms, parks, and gardens (pp. 260–279) is most relevant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sauron, Gilles. 2000. L’histoire végétalisée: Ornement et politique à Rome. Paris: Picard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Considers the political and dynastic meaning of the vegetation of the lower register of the Ara Pacis; also presents comparanda for its iconography and considers the use of vegetative motifs in monuments and objects produced during the Civil War.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Garden Archaeology and Archaeological Techniques

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The archaeological techniques used to study ancient gardens are constantly evolving and have become increasingly complex and interdisciplinary. Malek 2013 replaces all previous work as the starting point for understanding the techniques and methods of garden archaeology. Jashemski and Meyer 2002 is a good introduction to the various scientific techniques that can be applied to the study of ancient gardens; the articles in Gleason and Miller 1994 explain how to excavate gardens. The articles in van Ossel and Guimier-Sorbets 2014 reflect a range of approaches used in the excavation and study of gardens. Pinto-Guillaume 2002 is more specialized, but demonstrates how snails are important evidence for gardens. Ollae Perforatae are also important evidence for garden design and plants and have been the study of focused investigations, including Messineo 1984, Barat and Morize 1999, and Macaulay-Lewis 2006. The new scientific studies of pollen and archaeobotanical remains (Langgut, et al. 2015 and Moser, et al. 2013, respectively) demonstrate how archaeological science and paleobotany will play an increasingly important role in the study of Greek and Roman gardens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Barat, Yvan, and Dominique Morize. 1999. Les pots d’horticulture dans le monde antique et les jardins de la villa gallo-romaine de Richebourg (Yvelines). SEFCAG: Actes du Congrès de Fribourg 10:213–236.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Excellent study of planting pots in Gaul and the Roman world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gleason, Kathryn, and Naomi Miller. 1994. The archaeology of garden and field. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This important volume discusses the techniques of garden archaeology, from prehistory to the 19th century. Of particular interest are Gleason’s article about how to excavate a garden, using Roman examples (pp. 1–24) and Miller and Gleason’s article on cultivated soil (pp. 25–44).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Jashemski, Wilhelmina F., and Frederick G. Meyer. 2002. The natural history of Pompeii. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This important volume brings together the work of scientists from all fields to provide a complete picture of Pompeii’s flora, fauna, gardens, and landscapes. An excellent introduction to the various scientific techniques that can be used to study ancient gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Langgut, Dafna, Kathryn Gleason, and Barbara Burrell. 2015. Pollen analysis as evidence for Herod’s Royal Garden at the Promontory Palace, Caesarea. In Special issue: Studies in Botanical Archeology and Plant Domestication: Honoring Professor Daniel Zohary. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 62.1–2: 111–121.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/07929978.2014.975560Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Analyzes pollen trapped in the plaster on the walls of Herod’s Royal Garden, Caesarea. Provides a clear explanation of the scientific techniques involved in pollen analysis and demonstrates that if uncontaminated pollen can be retrieved from a secure archaeological context, information about garden plants can be recovered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Macaulay-Lewis, Elizabeth R. 2006. The role of ollae perforatae in understanding horticulture, planting techniques, garden design, and plant trade in the Roman world. In The archaeology of crop fields and gardens: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Crop Fields and Gardens Archaeology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 1–3 June 2006. Edited by Jean-Paul Morel, Jordi T. Juan, and Juan C. Matamala, 207–220. Bari, Italy: Edipuglia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Detailed study of Pompeian planting pots and considers planting pots as evidence for design and plant trade.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Malek, Amina-Aicha. 2013. Sourcebook for garden archaeology: Methods, techniques, interpretations and field examples. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang AG, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The fundamental reference work for garden archaeology, with sections on the history of garden archaeology; geophysical survey and noninvasive investigations; excavation techniques for garden archaeology; the archaeology of soils, plants, pollen, phytoliths and insects; and the analysis of physical elements and features of gardens. The final section discusses archaeologically known gardens, including Roman gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Messineo, Gaetano. 1984. “Ollae perforatae.” Xenia 8:65–84.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Summarizes much of the knowledge about Italian planting pots. Now slightly dated, but a good introduction to ollae perforatae.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moser, Daniela, Emilia Allevato, John R. Clarke, Gaetano Di Pasquale, and Oliver Nelle. 2013. Archaeobotany at Oplontis: Woody remains from the Roman villa of Poppaea (Naples, Italy). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22.5: 397–408.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/s00334-012-0381-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Archaeobotanical study of the woody remains and charcoals from Villa A at Oplontis, including those from the gardens, which allows the dating of the villa’s plants between 62 CE and 79 CE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pinto-Guillaume, Ezequiel M. 2002. Mollusks from the villa of Livia at Prima Porta, Rome: The Swedish garden archaeological project, 1996–1999. American Journal of Archaeology 106.1: 37–58.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/507188Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This detailed study of snails from the gardens of the villa of Livia demonstrates how the study of mollusks enables scholars to recover information about ancient gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • van Ossel, Paul, and Anne-Marie Guimier-Sorbets. 2014. Archéologie des jardins: Analyse des espaces et méthodes d’approche. Montagnac, France: M. Mergoil.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Short articles on a wide range of different gardens, including Greco-Roman gardens. Good for accessing francophone scholarship, approaches, and methodology, despite its lack of a coherent introduction and a conclusion.

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