In This Article History of Scholarship of Classical Art History

  • Introduction
  • Encyclopedias
  • Journals
  • Electronic Reference Resources
  • Classical Tradition
  • Collections and Museums
  • Reproductions of Works of Art

Classics History of Scholarship of Classical Art History
by
A.A. Donohue
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 April 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0135

Introduction

The study of classical art began in antiquity, and the remains of its critical and historical traditions continue to shape the discipline. In post-Antique times the field evolved from a subject given prominence by the dominance of ancient Greece and Rome in Western intellectual, literary, and artistic culture into one that today exists almost purely as an academic specialty. Classical art history is an inherently synthetic field that not only interprets the full range of the visual arts within their original historical and social contexts, but also takes account of their subsequent reception. Classical art in the broadest sense encompasses the formative, prehistoric stages of the classical cultures through the close of antiquity, both in their homelands and in the areas with which they interacted. The historiography of classical art deals with a broad range of issues reflecting the changing situations in which the studies were undertaken and includes both specific questions about the interpretation of individual works and more general inquiries that form part of the wider history of culture and ideas. To trace the history of scholarship accordingly requires consideration of an exceptionally wide body of evidence relating to ancient and modern practices and their historical, intellectual, and institutional frameworks.

General Overviews

Owing to the diverse and inclusive nature of the field of classical art history, surveys of the scholarship often appear in the context of considerations of classical studies, archaeology, and general art history. The later 20th century saw the rise of disciplinary self-criticism in the humanities in the wake of new directions in research that encouraged historiographic studies. The history of academic disciplines emerged as a topic approached in terms not only of intellectual content, but also of institutions and historical and social contexts as well as the contributions of individual scholars. In the history of art, increasingly self-conscious attention to methodological issues has fostered explicit reviews of practices within specific fields of study.

Surveys

Because the study of ancient monuments was central to the foundation of classical archaeology, the scholarship on classical art history is often treated within the framework of the larger disciplinary category. While attention to intellectual culture is characteristic of traditional accounts (Pfeiffer 1976), the broader social contexts and implications of institutions and practices have come more to the fore (Schnapp 1996, Marchand 1996, Sichtermann 1996, Dyson 2006). Historiographic studies are often combined with reviews and critiques of current practices (Ridgway 1986; Borbein, et al. 2000; Kampen 2003).

  • Borbein, Adolf H., Tonio Hölscher, and Paul Zanker, eds. 2000. Klassische Archäologie: Eine Einführung. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

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    A brief essay on the history of the discipline introduces essays on the nature of and practice in the fields constituting classical archaeology. While the emphasis is on the present state of the discipline, several contributions usefully place current practice in historical perspective. Good bibliographies of major works of scholarship.

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    • Dyson, Stephen L. 2006. In pursuit of ancient pasts: A history of classical archaeology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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      Historical overview of the development of the field, with attention to major themes in the study of cultural, political, and institutional contexts (nationalism, colonialism, history of museums). Extensive bibliography.

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      • Kampen, Natalie Boymel. 2003. On writing histories of Roman art. Art Bulletin 85.2: 372–386.

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        Thoughtful examination of the methodological challenges presented by Roman art. Well-documented consideration of traditions of scholarship, current practice, and trends. Particularly valuable for observations on directions of research favoring social analyses of ancient art rather than traditional emphases on typology and style.

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        • Marchand, Suzanne L. 1996. Down from Olympus: Archaeology and philhellenism in Germany, 1750–1970. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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          Excellent discussion of the cultural, political, intellectual, and institutional contexts of the German tradition of classical archaeology and related fields, drawing extensively on published and archival sources. Given the dominance of the German-language tradition, a highly valuable source also for the wider study of archaeology and the history of classical art.

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          • Pfeiffer, Rudolf. 1976. History of classical scholarship from 1300 to 1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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            Survey of national traditions of classical scholarship through the mid-19th century, treating both overall conditions of scholarship and the contributions of major figures. Includes useful discussions of antiquarian and archaeological research.

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            • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo. 1986. The state of research on ancient art. Art Bulletin 68.1: 7–23.

              DOI: 10.2307/3050860E-mail Citation »

              Survey of practice and trends in the study of classical art, including consideration of significant forms of scholarship and publication (museum exhibitions and catalogues, symposia). The adoption of an explicitly “archaeological” point of view reflects the disciplinary and methodological controversies of the time, particularly the denigration of the visual arts as an unjustifiably privileged category of production.

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              • Schnapp, Alain. 1996. The discovery of the past: The origins of archaeology. Translated by Ian Kinnes and Gillian Varndell. London: British Museum.

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                French original, La conquête du passé: Aux origines de l’archéologie (Paris: Editions Carré, 1993). Survey, not limited to classical archaeology, of the history of the recovery and interpretation of the material past. Helpful for general context of the study of classical art, with emphasis on the development from antiquarian scholarship to archaeology. Appendix offers an “archaeological anthology” of texts extending from ancient Egypt through the 19th century and illustrating attitudes and approaches.

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                • Sichtermann, Hellmut. 1996. Kulturgeschichte der klassischen Archäologie. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck.

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                  Overview of the study of classical art in Europe beginning in Roman times, emphasizing German contributions in the 18th through 20th centuries in their cultural and intellectual contexts.

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                  Biographical Sources and Treatments

                  The contributions of individual scholars have long been part of the historiography of classical studies (Sandys 1908–1921), but the current emphasis on the institutional and wider social contexts of the study of classical antiquities has seen a renewed interest in the practitioners of these studies. Explicitly biographical approaches are found in general accounts of disciplines (Briggs and Calder 1990, Kultermann 1990) as well as in treatments of particular groups, such as nationalities (see citations under National Traditions of Scholarship; see also Lullies and Schiering 1988, Baertschi and King 2009) and women (Sherman 1981, Díaz-Andreu and Sørensen 1998, Cohen and Joukowsky 2004).

                  • Baertschi, Annette M., and Colin G. King, eds. 2009. Die modernen Väter der Antike: Die Entwicklung der Altertumswissenschaften an Akademie und Universität im Berlin des 19. Jahrhunderts. Transformationen der Antike. Berlin: de Gruyter.

                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110210422E-mail Citation »

                    Biographies of major figures establish the structure of this study of the formation of the disciplines of classical studies within the unique institutional and intellectual context of 19th-century Berlin.

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                    • Briggs, Ward W., and William M. Calder III, eds. 1990. Classical scholarship: A biographical encyclopedia. New York and London: Garland.

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                      Biographies of fifty scholars, active from the late 18th century through 1986, including historians of classical art. Emphasis is on full accounts of their lives to furnish contexts for their works. Illustrated; bibliographies of works and sources.

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                      • Cohen, Getzel M., and Martha S. Joukowsky, eds. 2004. Breaking ground: Pioneering women archaeologists. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                        Biographies of 19th- and 20th-century women who made significant contributions to archaeology, including some whose work focused on classical art.

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                        • Díaz-Andreu, Margarita, and Marie Louise Stig Sørensen, eds. 1998. Excavating women: A history of women in European archaeology. London and New York: Routledge.

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                          Focus on the contributions of women to archaeology in the 19th and 20th centuries; historical overview and essays, some biographical, highlighting national situations and social and institutional conditions.

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                          • Kultermann, Udo. 1990. Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte: Der Weg einer Wissenschaft. Munich: Prestel-Verlag.

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                            Updated and revised edition of a useful overview, first published in Vienna and Düsseldorf, 1966, of the intellectual and disciplinary development of art history from antiquity to the present, with emphasis on the contributions of individual scholars; bibliographically rich annotation. English translation, The History of Art History (New York: Abaris, 1993).

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                            • Lullies, Reinhard, and Wolfgang Schiering. 1988. Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographen von klassischen Archäologen deutscher Sprache. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Verlag Zabern.

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                              Concise treatments of major figures in the tradition of classical archaeology in German-speaking lands; includes portraits and brief bibliographies.

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                              • Sandys, John Edwin. 1908–1921. A history of classical scholarship. 3d ed. 3 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                Still a fundamental overview, primarily biographical, with excellent accounts of national traditions of classical scholarship and the development of specific fields of study. Reprinted in 2011 (London: I. B. Tauris) with introduction by Christopher Stray.

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                                • Sherman, Claire Richter, ed. 1981. Women as interpreters of the visual arts, 1820–1979. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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                                  Excellent overview, supported by rich bibliographies, of the intellectual and institutional history of women’s contributions to fields of study traditionally dominated by men. Detailed treatments of important women scholars in archaeology and the history of classical art.

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                                  Encyclopedias

                                  Discussions of the scholarship on the history of classical art can be found in encyclopedias dealing with classical antiquity in general (Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana 1958–1966). Increasing interest in disciplinary history has fostered the development of reference works with specific historigraphic focus, such as Cancik and Schneider 1996–2004 and de Grummond 1996.

                                  • Cancik, Hubert, and Helmuth Schneider, eds. 1996–2004. Der neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike. 19 vols. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler.

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                                    Latest version of the standard and venerable reference work Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Alterthumswissenschaft that began publication in 1839 under the direction of August Friedrich von Pauly (b. 1796–d. 1845). German and English versions are available online. Also available in English as Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World; translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (20 vols., Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002–2010). Volumes on Antike/Antiquity are separated from those on Rezeption/Classical Tradition, which contain survey articles relating to many aspects of the history of the scholarship of classical art history; the latter are indexed in a separate volume: Manfred Landfester and Brigitte Egger, eds., Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Register zu den Bänden 13-15/3 des Neuen Pauly (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 2005).

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                                    • de Grummond, Nancy Thompson, ed. 1996. An encyclopedia of the history of classical archaeology. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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                                      Useful entries with basic bibliography summarize major sites, monuments, works of art, institutions (museums, learned societies), individuals, and scholarly approaches. Bibliographies for general categories. Illustrated.

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                                      • Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana. 1958–1966. Enciclopedia dell’arte classica e orientale. 7 vols. and index. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

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                                        Remains a fundamental work of reference for the study of classical antiquity. Includes entries, some biographical, relevant to the historiography of classical art.

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                                        Journals

                                        Work on the history of scholarship on classical art can be found in journals with explicitly historiographic (Journal of Art Historiography; Journal of the History of Collections) and methodological (Art History) orientation, and occasionally in more general art-historical publications (Art Bulletin), as well as in journals for classical studies and archaeology. Electronic access to print publications is increasingly available through websites or the archives of JSTOR.

                                        • Art Bulletin.

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                                          Journal of record of the College Art Association, published since 1913. While classical art is not the primary area of coverage, the journal does publish scholarship on the subject and has commissioned articles reviewing the state of scholarship in ancient art (see General Overviews).

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                                          • Art History.

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                                            Published by Blackwell since 1978. Features scholarship on classical art of particular relevance to methodological debates within the field of art history.

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                                            • Journal of Art Historiography.

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                                              Online, open-access journal promoting the study of the history and practice of art-historical writing. The editorial policies of the journal are designed to foster open discussion among authors, referees, and readers. Makes available electronic versions of existing scholarship of interest.

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                                              • Journal of the History of Collections.

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                                                Published since 1989 by Oxford University Press. Publishes articles on a broad range of topics in the history of collecting and related activities, including the collection of classical art and its reception and study.

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                                                Electronic Reference Resources

                                                In addition to online versions of established print publications, including journals, purely electronic resources relevant to the historiography of classical art are being developed, and new information technologies offer alternatives to and enhancements of traditional forms of research and scholarly communication and publication. Some online versions preserve the combination of illustrations and text of the original resources (Census of Antique Works of Art), while others have added illustrations to existing purely textual sources, such as John Davidson Beazley’s (b. 1885–d. 1970) published lists of attributions of black- and red-figure Attic vases (included in The Beazley Archive). Online formats permit updating (Census of Antique Works; The Beazley Archive; Dictionary of Art Historians). Access to the proliferating electronic resources is being facilitated primarily by scholarly institutions (Classical Art Research Online Services).

                                                • The Beazley Archive.

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                                                  Maintained by the Classical Art Research Centre, University of Oxford. Contains discussions of and documentation for the history of collecting and of the reception and study of classical art. Accommodates the needs of scholars, students, and the public.

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                                                  • Census of Antique Works of Art and Architecture Known in the Renaissance. DYABOLA Databases. Munich: Verlag Biering & Brinkmann.

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                                                    Electronic continuation of a project begun in 1947 by Phyllis Pray Bober under the auspices of the Warburg Institute, University of London. Invaluable source of illustrations and documents relating to the context and condition of ancient monuments and works of art and their availability to and use by artists of the Renaissance.

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                                                    • Classical Art Research Online Services (CLAROS).

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                                                      International research initiative to facilitate access to materials for the study of classical art. Databases include documentation on works of art, philological materials, and materials relating to the study of classical art. Goals of the project include the exploitation of developments in information technology for the benefit of individual students and scholars.

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                                                      • Dictionary of Art Historians.

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                                                        Biographical dictionary of scholars and museum professionals in Western art history. Summaries of lives, appreciations of scholarly contributions, bibliographies of sources and works. Treatments vary in length and depth; intended as a starting point for research.

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                                                        Ancient Sources and Scholarship

                                                        The modern study of classical art was shaped by the availability of ancient texts that furnished documentary and interpretive coherence for the corpus of material remains that often lack context or means of identification. The information offered in ancient texts functioned as a substitute for the lost works and shaped the interpretation of such monuments as were available. Textual material includes literary, subliterary, and paraliterary works (terms applied to a wide range of types and genres such as lists, commentaries, school texts, and others that are difficult to classify) and papyrological and epigraphical documents. The corpus is studied both for the information it provides on monuments, artists, and ancient attitudes toward classical art and in terms of the intellectual traditions that shape its content and, by extension, the nature of the information it offers. The traditional primacy of the textual corpus has been challenged by new research questions and methodologies that emphasize the material record.

                                                        Role of Ancient Texts in the Study of Classical Art

                                                        The inclusion or exclusion of textual evidence has long been a criterion of disciplinary definitions and the topic of methodological debate, much of it fruitless or even damaging. These questions arise both within the practice of classical archaeology (Bruneau 1974, Donohue 2005) and in considerations of the relationship between the specialties that are included within the range of classical studies (Martin 2008).

                                                        • Bruneau, Philippe. 1974. Sources textuelles et vestiges matériels: réflexions sur l’interpretation archéologique. In Mélanges helléniques offerts à Georges Daux, 33–42. Paris: de Boccard.

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                                                          Consideration of epistemological and methodological issues in the use of textual and material evidence; remains a useful presentation of questions that continue to arise in classical archaeology and the history of classical art.

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                                                          • Donohue, A. A. 2005. Greek sculpture and the problem of description. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                            Demonstrates the decisive role of ancient formulations in the reconstruction of the early stages of Greek sculpture and their continuing influence. Considers the history of disciplinary debates over the value of material and textual evidence in the study of classical culture and the problem of empiricism in the study of classical art. Reprinted in 2011.

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                                                            • Martin, Richard P. 2008. Words alone are certain good(s): Philology and Greek material culture. Transactions of the American Philological Association 138:313–349.

                                                              DOI: 10.1353/apa.0.0011E-mail Citation »

                                                              Overview of history of disciplinary debates over the relative value of texts and physical remains. Summarizes aspects of current practice and seeks rapprochement between polarized positions by examining common methodological ground. Extensive bibliography, primarily English-language sources.

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                                                              Overviews of Ancient Sources and Traditions

                                                              The study of the textual evidence for the history of classical art involves not only the content of the texts, but also their intellectual traditions and even the nature of their production and distribution. The study of the content and of the context of their production (Pfeiffer 1968, Pollitt 1974) is increasingly enhanced by research on documents that survive in their original format, such as epigraphical texts (McLean 2002, Bagnall 2009).

                                                              • Bagnall, Roger S., ed. 2009. The Oxford handbook of papyrology. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                Excellent source for the study of the corpus of texts preserved in papyrus. Treats the content and contexts of the wide range of papyrus documents. Extensive bibliographies; includes online resources.

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                                                                • McLean, B. H. 2002. An introduction to Greek epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman periods from Alexander the Great down to the reign of Constantine (323 B.C.–A.D. 337). Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                  Excellent systematic survey of types of Greek inscriptions and the contexts of their production, including valuable information on artists’ signatures (see Collections of Testimonia), ancient calendars, administrative structures, and currencies, as well as helpful guides to the scholarly apparatrus for the publication of epigraphical texts.

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                                                                  • Pfeiffer, Rudolf. 1968. History of classical scholarship from the beginnings to the end of the Hellenistic age. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                    Excellent overview of the ancient traditions and practices that shaped the content and organization of learning represented in the surviving texts that offer critical and historical information about the visual arts.

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                                                                    • Pollitt, J. J. 1974. The ancient view of Greek art: Criticism, history, and terminology. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                      Fundamental overview and analysis of the surviving literary tradition for the ancient understanding of classical art; discusses evidence for professional attitudes, learned literary and cultural criticism, philosophical theories, and popular criticism. Texts and translations, organized by specific Greek and Latin terms, provide the basis for discussions of significant elements of the ancient critical and art-historical vocabulary.

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                                                                      Collections of Testimonia

                                                                      The historiography of classical art has been shaped by the surviving ancient texts that provided both coherence for the fragmented corpus of material remains and the starting point for its critical and historical interpretation. The practice of extracting and collecting passages from ancient texts relating to the visual arts may arguably be traced to antiquity (see Pliny the Elder) and became the basis for post-antique scholarship (Junius 1694). The emphasis on assembling such “testimonia” reflects the need to organize and document available information and to make use of it to bring meaning to the material corpus. The work of assembling and organizing texts and monuments was one of the principal tasks of 19th-century classical scholarship, which initiated the great and still fundamental collections of texts and of large-scale projects to produce corpora of epigraphical and photographic collections of classical sculpture, vases, and works in other media (see Histories and Critiques of Fields of Study). While the availability of such collections of testimonia facilitated research on classical art, the decontextualization of the texts favored approaches that are no longer seen as productive (for instance, the emphasis on the attribution of works of art to artists named in the sources); with the accomplishment of this work of documentation in the 20th century, research turned from reliance on the texts to consideration of their contexts and analysis of their intellectual as well as documentary content. They nonetheless continue to be used even for approaches most critical of “text-based” archaeology. Pollitt’s collections provide indispensable annotated collections of texts relating to Greek art (Pollitt 1990), Roman art (Pollitt 1966), and the ancient understanding of classical art (Pollitt 1974). While the expanding corpus of epigraphical texts has required the updating of those sources (Muller-Dufeu 2002), the older collections of Overbeck 1868, Loewy 1885, Stuart Jones 1895, and Reinach 1921 remain useful for assessing the state of knowledge at the time of their publication and for access to information and interpretations that are no longer part of current scholarship but may nonetheless hold value.

                                                                      • Junius, Franciscus. 1694. Catalogus architectorum, mechanicorum, sed præcipue pictorum, statuariorum, cælatorum, tornatorum, aliorumque artificum. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Regneri Leers.

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                                                                        Posthumously published alphabetical catalogue of ancient artists by the Dutch philologist (b. 1591–d. 1677) who served as librarian to Thomas Earl of Arundel, one of the major collectors of art and antiquities. Entries of varying length give ancient testimonia; extensive annotations include references to post-antique scholarship. Illuminating witness to the state of 17th-century scholarship on classical art. Edited and translated by Keith Aldrich, Philipp Fehl, and Raina Fehl in The Literature of Classical Art, Vol. 2 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1991).

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                                                                        • Loewy, Emanuel, ed. 1885. Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

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                                                                          Presents 559 inscriptions with the names of sculptors, arranged generally chronologically, with facsimiles, transcriptions, some illustrations, and commentaries (some extensive) giving bibliographies and discussions of problems. The depth of documentation insures the continuing usefulness of this fundamental source. Reprinted in Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer. Greek Inscriptions Recording Names and Works of Ancient Sculptors (Chicago: Ares, 1976).

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                                                                          • Muller-Dufeu, Marion, ed. 2002. La sculpture grecque: Sources littéraires et épigraphiques. Paris: École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts.

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                                                                            Selection, with French translations, of 3,065 literary and epigraphical texts relating to classical sculpture, arranged chronologically by subject. Supplements Overbeck 1868, with which it is linked by cross-references and concordance. Useful lexicon, chronological table, and bibliography of editions of ancient texts.

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                                                                            • Overbeck, J. 1868. Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.

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                                                                              Presents 2,400 passages from ancient writers, arranged chronologically by medium and artist; some commentary on individual entries. Remains a fundamental source by virtue of its exhaustive content. Reprinted in 1971 (Hildesheim, Germany, and New York: Olms Verlag). Now available in CD-ROM format from Antiquariat auf Datenträger 2 (Göttingen, Germany: Edition Ruprecht).

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                                                                              • Pollitt, J. J., ed. and trans. 1966. The art of Rome, c. 753 B.C.–337 A.D.: Sources and documents. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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                                                                                Annotated translations, arranged generally chronologically by subject, of the most significant texts relating to Roman art and the Roman reception of Greek art. Reprinted in 1983 and 1995 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press).

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                                                                                • Pollitt, J. J., ed. and trans. 1974. The ancient view of Greek art: Criticism, history, and terminology. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  Fundamental overview and analysis of the surviving literary tradition for the ancient understanding of classical art. Texts and translations, organized by specific Greek and Latin terms, provide the basis for discussions of significant elements of the ancient critical and art-historical vocabulary.

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                                                                                  • Pollitt, J. J., ed. and trans. 1990. The art of ancient Greece: Sources and documents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                    Annotated translations, arranged chronologically by medium or topic, of the most significant ancient texts relating to major artists and monuments, arranged chronologically by subject; useful sections on ancient art-historical traditions. Revised edition of The Art of Ancient Greece, 1400–31 B.C.: Sources and Documents (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1965).

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                                                                                    • Reinach, Adolphe. 1921. Recueil Milliet: Textes grecs et latins relatifs à l‘histoire de la peinture ancienne. Paris: C. Klincksieck.

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                                                                                      Selection, with French translations, of 551 texts relating to classical painting, with extensive annotations offering still valuable textual and interpretive commentary and relevant scholarship. Sections on technique and aesthetics precede chronological survey of works and artists. Reprinted in 1981 (Chicago: Ares).

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                                                                                      • Stuart Jones, H. 1895. Select passages from ancient writers illustrative of the history of Greek sculpture. London and New York: Macmillan.

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                                                                                        Bilingual edition of passages from Greek and Latin texts, organized chronologically by artist or subject, with annotations including references to archaeological material. The reprinted edition of 1966 by Al. N. Oikonomides (Chicago: Argonaut) adds a select bibliography through 1966. Useful for evaluating the state of scholarship in the late 19th century.

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                                                                                        Pliny the Elder

                                                                                        The sections devoted to the visual arts found in four of the thirty-seven books of the Historia naturalis (Natural history) of Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, b. 23–d. 79 CE) are arguably the single most important and influential ancient source for the scholarship on classical art. Approaches to Pliny have shifted from considering him to be a mere compiler whose text is to be treated as documentation for classical art and dissected to reconstruct his ancient sources, named and unnamed (Sellers and Jex-Blake 1896), to recognizing the principles that guided his encyclopedic account of the works of man and nature (Isager 1991).

                                                                                        • Isager, Jacob. 1991. Pliny on art and society: The Elder Pliny’s chapters on the history of art. Odense University Classical Studies 17. Odense, Denmark: Odense Univ. Press.

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                                                                                          Fundamental and influential study demonstrating the thematic coherence of Pliny’s treatment of the visual arts, which had long been dismissed as merely a work of compilation. Shows that ethical and moral considerations, reflecting conditions in the era of Nero and Vespasian, shaped Pliny’s choice and treatment of subjects and his overall view of the social significance of art.

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                                                                                          • Sellers, Eugénie, and Katharine Jex-Blake, ed. and trans. 1896. The Elder Pliny’s chapters on the history of art. London and New York: Macmillan.

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                                                                                            Influential edition of the sections of books 33–36 dealing with the visual arts. The introductory essays and detailed commentary by Sellers retain their value as summaries of the primarily German scholarship on the source criticism of Pliny and the reconstruction of a putative tradition of ancient art history. The translation by Jex-Blake continues to be useful. The reprinted edition of 1976 (Chicago: Ares) adds a supplementary bibliography for 1897–1966.

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                                                                                            Ancient Collecting and Related Activities

                                                                                            While classical antiquity did not have institutions corresponding strictly with modern museums (Strong 1971), the Greeks and Romans did assemble works of art for a variety of public and private uses. Their practices shed important light on the attitudes toward the visual arts represented in the literary tradition (Pape 1975, Bounia 2004).

                                                                                            • Bounia, Alexandra. 2004. The nature of classical collecting: Collectors and collections, 100 BCE–100 CE. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                                                                                              Survey of ancient practices of collecting beginning in Archaic Greece. Focus on Late Republican and Early Imperial texts of Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Martial, and Petronius and emphasis on the social contexts and purposes of collecting.

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                                                                                              • Pape, Magrit. 1975. Griechische Kunstwerke aus Kriegsbeute und ihre öffentiliche Aufstellung in Rom. von der Eroberung von Syrakus bis in augusteische Zeit. PhD diss., Univ. of Hamburg.

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                                                                                                Collects the textual sources for the Roman practice of displaying works of art captured in military operations, one of the ways with which Republican Rome came to be familiar with Greek art.

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                                                                                                • Strong, Donald Emrys. 1971. Roman museums. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 10:1–12.

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                                                                                                  Surveys the evidence for Roman collections of works of art and objects, with attention to historical contexts, care and conservation, display, and copying. Reprinted in Strong’s Roman Museums: Selected Papers on Roman Art and Architecture (London: Pindar, 1994), pp. 13–30.

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                                                                                                  National Traditions of Scholarship

                                                                                                  One of the conspicuous aspects of classical scholarship is the presence of distinctive traditions reflecting the historical, cultural, and intellectual situations of the various regions in which it has been practiced. While the contributions of specific traditions marked by nationality or language have long been recognized (Sandys 1921, Pfeiffer 1976), the emergence of nationalism and identity as major topics in humanistic scholarship has fostered renewed interest in the traditions within the study of classical antiquities. At issue are factors such as the presence of physical remains of the classical past and the acquisition and the removal of such materials from their contexts; the presumption of continuity of culture in the homelands of the classical cultures; the appropriation of classical culture on the grounds of its foundational status for Western civilization and its importance for world culture; and the intellectual and institutional traditions of various regions. The political contexts of the study of classical antiquity have emerged as a significant aspect of the history of its scholarship (Näf 2001; De Haan, et al. 2008).

                                                                                                  • De Haan, Nathalie,Eickhoff, Martijn and Marjan Schwegmann, eds. 2008. Archaeology and national identity in Italy and Europe 1800–1950. Fragmenta, Journal of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

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                                                                                                    Essays treat political, cultural, and institutional aspects of the role of archaeology in the formation of national identities in Europe, with particular emphasis on Italy.

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                                                                                                    • Näf, Beat, ed. 2001. Antike und Altertumswissenschaft in der Zeit von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus: Kolloquium Universität Zurich 14.–17. Oktober 1998. Mandelbachtal and Cambridge, UK: Edition Cicero.

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                                                                                                      Papers from a colloquium on archaeology in the era of fascism and Nazism, which offers especially clear examples of the exploitation of antiquity for political ends.

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                                                                                                      • Pfeiffer, Rudolf. 1976. History of classical scholarship from 1300 to 1850. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                                        Survey of classical scholarship in Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, and England through the mid-19th century, including antiquarian and archaeological research. Valuable appreciation of the national traditions.

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                                                                                                        • Sandys, John Edwin. 1921. A history of classical scholarship. 3d ed. 3 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                          Still a fundamental overview, primarily biographical, with excellent accounts of national traditions of classical scholarship. Reprinted in 2011 (London: I. B. Tauris) with introduction by Christopher Stray.

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                                                                                                          Denmark

                                                                                                          The Danish contribution to the study of classical art and culture is significant, not only in the formative period of the discipline in the 18th century, but also in continuing work of excavation and the interpretation of works of art (Rathje and Lund 1991).

                                                                                                          • Rathje, Annette, and John Lund. 1991. Danes overseas: A short history of Danish classical archaeological fieldwork. In Recent Danish research in classical archaeology: Tradition and renewal. Edited by Tobias Fischer-Hansen, Pia Guldager, John Lund, Marjetta Nielsen, and Annette Rathje, 11–56. Danish Studies in Classical Archaeology, Acta Hyperborea 3. Copenhagen: Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press.

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                                                                                                            Brief but valuable comments and bibliography on work on classical art by Danes from the 16th through the 19th centuries.

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                                                                                                            France

                                                                                                            French contributions to the history of classical art have been significant not only in terms of the recovery of monuments (École française d’Athènes 1996) and the formation of institutions for their preservation and study (Ridley 1992, Therrien 1998), but also for theoretical and methodological approaches (Lissarrague and Schnapp 2000) in both the overall development of art history as a discipline (Thierrien 1998) and the practice of specialties such as vase painting (see Histories and Critiques of Fields of Study).

                                                                                                            • École française d’Athènes. 1996. L‘espace grec: 150 ans de fouilles de l’École française d’Athènes. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard.

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                                                                                                              Based on an anniversary exhibition focused on excavations conducted by the school. Brief history of the school (1846–1996) and consideration of its work in the context of the involvement of foreign institutions in the archaeology of Greece precede thematic sections organized to demonstrate general approaches to the study of space in Greek settlements, important for the emphasis on the contextualization of architecture and works of art.

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                                                                                                              • Lissarrague, François, and Alain Schnapp. 2000. Tradition und Erneuerung in der Klassischen Archäologie in Frankreich. In Klassische Archäologie: Eine Einführung. Edited by Adolf H. Borbein, Tonio Hölscher, and Paul Zanker, 365–381. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

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                                                                                                                Summarizes the development of classical archaeology in France in the context of current practices in the field and relations with anthropology and sociology.

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                                                                                                                • Ridley, Ronald T. 1992. The eagle and the spade: Archaeology in Rome during the Napoleonic era. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                  Useful, well-documented study of the reorganization of the administration of monuments and antiquities in Rome during the period of Napoleonic domination. Stresses the French and Italian roles and cultural and institutional aspects of a crucial period for archaeology and the study of classical art.

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                                                                                                                  • Therrien, Lyne. 1998. L’histoire de l’art en France: Genèse d’une discipline universitaire. Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques Format 25. Paris: Éditions du C.T.H.S.

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                                                                                                                    Survey of the emergence of art history as an academic discipline beginning in the late 18th century. Considers political and intellectual contexts that shaped the French approach to the field and its institutional realization. Includes significant discussions of classical art and archaeology.

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                                                                                                                    Germany and German-Speaking Regions

                                                                                                                    German scholarship has long enjoyed recognition as a dominant tradition in classical archaeology. The institutional and intellectual history of the study of ancient art is recognized to owe much to developments in Germany, particularly in the 19th century (Arenhövel 1979, Marchand 1996, Baertschi and King 2009) and continues to make significant contributions in all fields (see also Surveys).

                                                                                                                    • Arenhövel, Willmuth, ed. 1979. Berlin und die Antike. 2 vols. Berlin: Deutsches.

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                                                                                                                      Archäologisches Institut Exhibition catalogue and volume of essays discussing the study of classical antiquity and its reception and impact on the practice of the visual and performing arts beginning in the 16th century.

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                                                                                                                      • Baertschi, Annette, and Colin G. King, eds. 2009. Die modernen Väter der Antike: Die Entwicklung der Altertumswissenschaften an Akademie und Universität im Berlin des 19. Jahrhunderts. Transformationen der Antike. Berlin: de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1515/9783110210422E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Biographies of major figures form the basis of an exploration of the formation of the disciplines of classical studies in the unique institutional and intellectual context of 19th-century Berlin.

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                                                                                                                        • Marchand, Suzanne L. 1996. Down from Olympus: Archaeology and philhellenism in Germany, 1750–1970. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                          Excellent discussion of the cultural, political, intellectual, and institutional contexts of the German tradition of classical archaeology and related fields, drawing extensively on published and archival sources.

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                                                                                                                          Great Britain

                                                                                                                          The British contribution to the history of classical art is especially marked with respect to the collection and study of works of art, especially in the 18th century (see Classical Tradition), and continuing to the present day, when the acquisition of antiquities has become the focus of controversy (see Collections and Museums and Reproductions of Works of Art). The work of British scholars has been fundamental for many fields within classical archaeology (Todd 2004), and an area of increasing interest is the relationship between the British tradition and other national traditions (Rouet 2001, Beard 2003).

                                                                                                                          • Beard, Mary. 2003. Mrs. Arthur Strong, Morelli, and the troopers of Cortés. In Ancient art and its historiography. Edited by A. A. Donohue and Mark D. Fullerton, 148–170. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                            Lively picture of a significant period in the study of classical art in Britain, focusing on the role of Eugénie Sellers Strong in introducing methods current in Continental scholarship.

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                                                                                                                            • Rouet, Philippe. 2001. Approaches to the study of Attic vases: Beazley and Pottier. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                              Account of the study of Greek pottery, with emphasis on the competing approaches associated with the French scholar François-Paul-Edmond Pottier (b. 1855–d. 1941) and British scholar John Davidson Beazley (b. 1885–d. 1970).

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                                                                                                                              • Todd, Robert B., ed. 2004. Dictionary of British classicists. 3 vols. London: Thoemmes Continuum.

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                                                                                                                                Biographies and appreciation of achievements of broadly defined category of scholars from 1500 to the present. Includes bibliographies of works and sources.

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                                                                                                                                Greece

                                                                                                                                The study of classical art has always been an international undertaking, within which Greek scholars occupy a special place by virtue of their particular connection to their national heritage. That the Greek contribution to classical archaeology is of inestimable value is increasingly appreciated, and it is also Greek scholars who have most urgently problematized the study of Greek antiquity in relation both to the history of the modern nation and to its significance for Western culture (Hamilakis 2007, Damaskos and Plantzos 2008).

                                                                                                                                • Damaskos, Dimitris, and Dimitris Plantzos, eds. 2008. A singular antiquity: Archaeology and Hellenic identity in twentieth-century Greece. Athens: Benaki Museum.

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                                                                                                                                  Illuminating essays on various aspects of the complex relationship between modern Greece and its classical heritage. Treats political and cultural issues, scholarly and institutional practices, and the creative arts.

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                                                                                                                                  • Hamilakis, Iannis. 2007. The nation and its ruins: Antiquity, archaeology, and national imagination in Greece. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Consideration of the problematic role of the classical heritage in the formation of the modern Greek nation.

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                                                                                                                                    Italy

                                                                                                                                    The contribution of Italian scholarship to the study of classical art has been significant since the Renaissance (see Classical Tradition), and Italian scholars have played important roles in the recovery, preservation, and interpretation of Greek as well as Roman antiquities (Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana 1960–) and in the theoretical and methodological discussions (Barbanera 2003). The role of archaeology in the formation of modern Italy and in political developments has become the focus of attention (Nelis 2007; De Haan, et al. 2008).

                                                                                                                                    • Barbanera, Marcello. 2003. Ranuccio Bianchi Bandinelli: Biografia ed epistolario di un grande archeologo. Milan: Skira.

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                                                                                                                                      Well-documented and illustrated biography places the achievements of Bianchi Bandinelli (b. 1900–d. 1975), one of the most influential classical archaeologists in the 20th century, in historical and professional context. His Marxist approach is evident in both his archaeological research and his astute studies of the history and practice of the discipline.

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                                                                                                                                      • De Haan, Nathalie,Eickhoff, Martijn and Marjan Schwegmann, eds. 2008. Archaeology and national identity in Italy and Europe 1800–1950. Fragmenta, Journal of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

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                                                                                                                                        Essays treat political, cultural, and institutional aspects of the role of archaeology in the formation of national identities in Europe, with particular emphasis on Italy.

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                                                                                                                                        • Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana. 1960–. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani. 73 vols. and index to vols. 1–10. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana.

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                                                                                                                                          Classical archaeologists and historians of classical art are included in this standard biographical dictionary. Online version in progress as of 2010.

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                                                                                                                                          • Nelis, Jan. 2007. Constructing fascist identity: Benito Mussolini and the myth of romanità. Classical World 100.4: 391–415.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/clw.2007.0069E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Offers good contextualization for the exploitation of Roman antiquity during the fascist era, which continues to be a focus of research in the history of Roman art. Abundant bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                            United States

                                                                                                                                            American contributions to the field of classical archaeology in terms of excavation, collection, and interpretation of antiquities (Dyson 1998) are also studied in the context of their dependence on and independence from European academic traditions (Allen 2002).

                                                                                                                                            • Allen, Susan Heuck, ed. 2002. Excavating our past: Perspectives on the history of the Archaeological Institute of America. Colloquia and Conference Papers 5. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America.

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                                                                                                                                              Some essays deal with the relationship of American scholarship to the dominant European tradition of study of classical antiquity, including classical art.

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                                                                                                                                              • Dyson, Stephen L. 1998. Ancient marbles to American shores: Classical archaeology in the United States. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                                                                                                Survey of the history of the discipline with attention to professionalization, institutional structures (including museums), historical and political contexts, and directions for the future.

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                                                                                                                                                Classical Tradition

                                                                                                                                                The term “classical tradition” in art refers to the reception of works of Greek and Roman art in post-antique times (Haskell and Penny 1981), particularly to their role as models for artists (Bober and Rubinstein 1986). The prestige of the classical past in the culture of Western Europe from the Renaissance through the 18th century shaped the interplay between the active use of classical models and the scholarship on classical art; practices of collecting (Jenkins and Sloan 1996, Coltman 2009) and restoration (Grossman, et al. 2003) and research on classical artists and works were reciprocally influential.

                                                                                                                                                • Bober, Phyllis Pray, and Ruth Rubinstein. 1986. Renaissance artists and antique sculpture: A handbook of sources. London: Harvey Miller.

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                                                                                                                                                  Illustrated presentation, organized by subject matter, of more than two hundred statues and reliefs available to artists of the Renaissance; includes information on their discovery and interpretation. Excellent bibliography and helpful appendix of artists and sketchbooks.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Coltman, Viccy. 2009. Classical sculpture and the culture of collecting in Britain since 1760. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Social and cultural history of the collection of classical sculpture in Britain, with emphasis on contexts and practices. Rich archival documentation.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Grossman, Janet Burnett, Jerry Podany, and Marion True, eds. 2003. History of restoration of ancient stone sculptures. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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                                                                                                                                                      Essays on the theory, history, and practice of a significant aspect of the European reception and study of classical sculpture.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Haskell, Francis, and Nicholas Penny. 1981. Taste and the antique: The lure of classical sculpture, 1500–1900. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        Influential overview of European engagement with ancient art, particularly sculpture; discussions of significant works of sculpture with valuable bibliographies of contemporary sources.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Jenkins, Ian, and Kim Sloan. 1996. Vases and volcanoes: Sir William Hamilton and his collection. London: British Museum Press.

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                                                                                                                                                          Catalogue of an exhibition influential in renewing interest in the rediscovery and excavation of the Vesuvian cities and villas and the impact of those activities on the reception and study of classical art, particularly painted vases, with emphasis on practices of collecting and the formation of Neoclassical styles in the visual arts.

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                                                                                                                                                          Antiquarianism

                                                                                                                                                          The understanding of antiquarian research as different from the kind of scholarship that emerged as standard within the professionally constituted historical disciplines (Momigliano 1950, Miller 2007) is based on the distinction drawn by Momigliano between work that is systematic in focus and organization (antiquarianism) and work that is, in contrast, chronological (history). The distinction appears logical, has been exceptionally influential, and is rarely questioned, but it is less solid in practice than in theory and has led to misapprehensions about many of the fundamental works in the historiography of classical art.

                                                                                                                                                          • Miller, Peter N., ed. 2007. Momigliano and antiquarianism: Foundations for the modern cultural sciences. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            Essays considering the range of modern disciplines that are considered to derive from the category of “antiquarian” research, following the distinction established by Momigliano, who saw antiquarianism as essentially different from historical inquiry.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Momigliano, Arnaldo. 1950. Ancient history and the antiquarian. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 13:285–315.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/750215E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Influential article proposing a fundamental difference between antiquarian practice, based on systematic principles of organization, and history, based on chronological organization. Although Momigliano’s formulation has been all but universally accepted in both the analysis and practice of many disciplines in the humanities, it ignores or overlooks the strongly historical nature of some of the examples he cites, including studies of classical art and antiquities.

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                                                                                                                                                              Post-Antique Through Seventeenth Century

                                                                                                                                                              The resumption of systematic approaches to classical antiquities is generally seen as an accomplishment of Renaissance humanism. Understanding of the history of classical art relied largely on the textual tradition (Junius 1638, Bremmer 1998), which provided guidance for interpreting (Gombrich 1960, Isager 2003) the expanding corpus of known (Ciriaco d’Ancona 2003) and catalogued monuments (The Paper Museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo).

                                                                                                                                                              • Ciriaco d’Ancona. 2003. Later Travels. Edited and translated by Edward W. Bodnar and Clive Foss. I Tatti Renaissance Library 10. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                Annotated translations, with illustrations, of letters and diaries from 1443 to 1449 of Italian merchant and diplomat Cyriacus of Ancona (b. 1391–d. 1452), whose accounts of classical monuments and inscriptions in the eastern Mediterranean highly were significant for the emergence of archaeology and remain valuable sources for current research on classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Bremmer, Rolf H., ed. 1998. Franciscus Junius F.F. and his circle. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Useful essays on 17th-century humanistic scholarship, including the study of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Gombrich, E. H. 1960. Vasari’s Lives and Cicero’s Brutus. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 23:309–311.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/750600E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Demonstration of Vasari’s dependence on Cicero’s treatise on the history of Roman oratory for his account of the development of art. Fundamental for understanding the importance of the ancient literary tradition, particularly the historico-critical formulations that pervaded treatments of cultural subjects, in both ancient and post-antique histories of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Isager, Jacob. 2003. Humanissima ars: Evaluation and devaluation in Pliny, Vasari, and Baden. In Ancient art and its historiography. Edited by A. A. Donohue and Mark D. Fullerton, 48–68.Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Shows the influence of Pliny’s moral evaluation of the evolution of Greek art on post-Antique historians of art.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Junius, Franciscus. 1638. The painting of the ancients, in three books. London: Richard Hodginsonne and Daniel Frere.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Author’s English translation of De picture veterum libri tres (Amsterdam: Johannes Blaeu, 1637). Treatise on the history of ancient painting and visual art by the Dutch philologist (b. 1591–d. 1677), who served as librarian to Thomas Earl of Arundel, one of the major collectors of art and antiquities. Derived primarily from ancient texts, he defends the visual arts, tracing their history and development. Important document for the context of the study of classical art as well as for the state of 17th-century scholarship on classical art. His “Lexicon of artists and their works” (see Collections of Testimonia), posthumously published in 1694, an alphabetical lexicon of ancient artists, is similarly valuable. Edited and translated by Keith Aldrich, Philipp Fehl, and Raina Fehl in The Literature of Classical Art, Vol. 1 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1991).

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Various authors. 1996–. The paper museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo: A catalogue raisonné. Series A: Antiquities and architecture. London: Harvey Miller.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Multivolume, variously authored publication of the large collection of images assembled by the Roman patron and collector (b. 1588–d. 1657). Highly important for 17th-century study of classical antiquities and their place in intellectual life.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Eighteenth Century

                                                                                                                                                                          The 18th century saw the rise of systematic archaeological exploration and excavation and the intensification in Europe of interest in classical art (Mattusch 2008). Rome was the most important center for the often uncontrolled acquisition of works of art (Bignamini and Hornsby 2010), despite the emergence of institutions that fostered more responsible management of the antiquities (Ridley 2000). The publication of Winckelmann’s history of ancient art, which was immensely influential both for scholarship and for the general reception of classical art. The study of classical antiquity along recognizably modern lines may be traced to developments in this period, which were far from limited to Winckelmann’s activities (Aghion 2002, Graepler and Migl 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                          • Aghion, Irène, ed. 2002. Caylus, Mécène du roi: Collectionneur des antiquités au XVIIIe siècle. Collection Portiques. Paris: Institut national d’histoire de l’art.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Exhibition on Anne-Claude-Philippe, comte de Caylus (b. 1692–d. 1765), one of the most significant and influential figures in the generation of Winckelmann. Often classed as an antiquarian, he in fact contributed substantially to the emerging methodologies of the history of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Bignamini, Ilaria, and Claire Hornsby. 2010. Digging and dealing in eighteenth-century Rome. 2 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Well-documented account of the trade in Rome in ancient statuary for the British market during the great age of the Grand Tour. Catalogue of sites, biographies of dealers, chronological selection of letters illuminating the practices of acquisition. Highly valuable for the history of collecting and for establishing the provenance and archaeological context of deracinated works of art.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Graepler, Daniel, and Joachim Migl, eds. 2007. Das Studium des schönen Altertums: Christian Gottlob Heyne und die Entstehung der klassischen Archäologie. Göttingen, Germany: Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Catalogue of an exhibition on the life and work of Heyne (b. 1729–d. 1812), one of the major figures in the formative period of classical archaeology and the study of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Mattusch, Carol C. 2008. Pompeii and the Roman villa: Art and culture around the Bay of Naples. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Catalogue of exhibition with essays treating the archaeological discoveries in the Vesuvian region, including the history of excavation and the reception, study, and publication of the works of art. Important for 18th- and 19th-century practices and their consequences for subsequent research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ridley, Ronald T. 2000. The pope’s archaeologist: The life and times of Carlo Fea. Rome: Quasar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Richly documented biography of Fea (b. 1753–d. 1836), archaeologist who held the position of Papal Antiquarian. Interesting corrective to approaches to the period centered on Winckelmann, of whose History of the Art of Antiquity (Winckelmann 2006) Fea produced a highly critical edition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Winckelmann

                                                                                                                                                                                    Johann Joachim Winckelmann (b. 1717–d. 1768) is often characterized as the father of classical archaeology and the most important foundational figure in the history of classical art (Pommier 2003; also see the essay by Potts in Winckelmann 2006). Increasing interest in art historiography has fostered important work on Winckelmann, including authoritative annotated publications of his published and unpublished writings (Winckelmann 1996–), scrutiny of the development of his ideas (Décultot 2000), and attention to the context in which he and his contemporaries pursued their studies (Corpus der Antiken Bildwerke).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Corpus der Antiken Bildwerke, die Johann Joachim Winckelmann und seine Zeit kannten.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Database focused on works of sculpture known not only to Winckelmann but also to contemporary scholars, and hence a wider corpus than that of those mentioned in his works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Décultot, Elisabeth. 2000. Johann Joachim Winckelmann: Enquête sur la genèse de l’histoire de l’art. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the formation of Winckelmann’s approach to art history. Extensive use of unpublished manuscripts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pommier, Edouard. 2003. Winckelmann, inventeur de l’histoire de l’art. Paris: Gallimard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Essays on the work and influence of Winckelmann by a leading expert on his scholarship and its intellectual and cultural contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Winckelmann, Johann Joachim. Schriften und Nachlass. 1996–. Edited by Max Kunz. Mainz, Germany: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Authoritative critical edition of the writings and unpublished works of Winckelmann, with five volumes as of 2010. Annotated, illustrated publication of his writings and of documentation relevant to his work and that of his contemporaries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Winckelmann, Johann Joachim. 2006. History of the art of antiquity. Translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave; introduction by Alex Potts. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Helpful translation of the first edition of the Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums rather than of subsequent editions incorporating additional material. Introductory essay by Potts reviews the life and work of Winckelmann and the context and reception of his ideas. Includes bibliography of works he cited.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Nineteenth Century Through the Present

                                                                                                                                                                                              Scholarship on the history of classical art was strongly affected by the increasing professionalization of academic institutions and activities in the 19th century, which fostered the emergence of specialized disciplines and institutional structures that continue to be influential to this day. During the 19th century, classical art lost its position as central to current practice in art and architecture. As a subject of essentially historical interest, it occupied a somewhat uneasy position in relation to definitions of philology that excluded nontextual studies and of archaeology that rejected the study of art as a privileged category of material culture. Historiographic discussions of the specific, usually medium-based, fields within the study of classical art often appear in the context of critiques of current practices.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Disciplinary Distinctions

                                                                                                                                                                                              The status of the study of art within the general range of classical studies has been controversial since the early 19th century, when the development and codification of academic disciplines fostered debate over the value of textual and material evidence for the interpretation of classical antiquity (Schneider 1985). Methodological debate exists even within and among disciplines centered on objects; the relationship of archaeology to art history is especially problematic for the study of classical art, which is often seen as not belonging to either discipline (Bianchi Bandinelli 1996).

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Schneider, Bernd. 1985. August Boeckh: Altertumsforscher, Universitätslehrer und Wissenschaftsorganisator im Berlin des 19. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Exhibition on the life and contributions of the scholar (b. 1785–d. 1867) remembered for his advocacy of a unified approach to the study of antiquity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bianchi Bandinelli, Ranuccio. 1966. Quelques réflexions à propos des rapports entre archéologie et histoire de l’art. In Mélanges offerts à Kazimierz Michalowski. Edited by Marie-Louise Bernhard, 261–274. Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Still-valuable observations on methodological differences between archaeology and art history. While criticizing the downplaying of art history within archaeology, he also analyzes ways in which art-historical methods are often unsuitable for the study of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Histories and Critiques of Fields of Study

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The study of classical art has long been the subject of historiographic attention (Michaelis 1906), and the importance of the history of scholarship for current practice has been demonstrated (Brendel 1979). Methodological discussions have become more common not only within the field in general (see Disciplinary Distinctions), but also within specializations. Debates over scholarly practices are especially prominent in the study of Roman art, which faces challenges even in the definition of the subject (Brendel 1979, Kampen 2003); of Greek sculpture, in which the soundness of older approaches stressing the reconstruction of lost Greek originals and the work of ancient artists known only from texts have come into question (Ridgway 1994, Pollitt 1996); and of vase painting, in which emphasis on connoisseurship has been criticized (Robertson and Beard 1991, Rouet 2001).

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brendel, Otto J. 1979. Prolegomena to the study of Roman art. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Posthumously published revision of the essay “Prolegomena to a Book on Roman Art” (Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 20 (1953): 7–73). Brendel’s analysis of the problems surrounding the definition of Roman art and the significance of the styles represented within it, especially as approached in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, retains its importance in the historiography of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kampen, Natalie Boymel. 2003. On writing histories of Roman art. Art Bulletin 85.2: 372–386.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Thoughtful examination of the methodological challenges presented by Roman art. Well-documented consideration of traditions of scholarship, current practice, and trends. Particularly valuable for observations on directions of research favoring social analyses of ancient art rather than traditional emphases on typology and style.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Michaelis, Adolf. 1906. Die archäologischen Entdeckungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: E. A. Seeman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Often recognized as one of the earliest works on the historiography of classical art. English translation by Bettina Kahnweiler, A century of archaeological discoveries (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1908).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pollitt, J. J. 1996. Introduction: Masters and masterworks in the study of classical sculpture. In Personal styles in Greek sculpture. Edited by Olga Palagia and J. J. Pollitt, 1–15. Yale Classical Studies 30. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reviews the tradition of Kopienkritik, most famously associated with Adolf Furtwängler (b. 1853–d. 1907), which attempted to recover the work of ancient sculptors named in the ancient texts by close study of statues believed to be copies of lost originals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ridgway, Brunilde S. 1994. The study of classical sculpture at the end of the 20th century. American Journal of Archaeology 98:759–772.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Review article of recent publications by a scholar whose work influentially challenged the traditional approach to statuary made in the Roman era and long believed to copy lost Greek masterpieces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Robertson, Martin, and Mary Beard. 1991. Adopting an approach. In Looking at Greek vases. Edited by Tom Rasmussen and Nigel Spivey, 1–35. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Two essays reviewing and critiquing the long-dominant emphasis on the attribution of Greek painted vases to specific painters and considering approaches to the interpretation of images.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rouet, Philippe. 2001. Approaches to the study of Attic vases: Beazley and Pottier. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Account of the study of Greek pottery, with focus on competing methodologies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly emphases on attribution in contrast to broader approaches to interpretation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collections and Museums

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The study of collecting and of the formation and development of museums (Journal of the History of Collections), Siegel 2008, Bignamini and Hornsby 2010) has emerged as a field important not only for historiography but also for discussions of current practices. Works of classical art were collected for various purposes in antiquity (Strong 1971, Bounia 2004). Private and eventually public collections were significant for making classical art accessible to artists as well as to scholars (see Classical Tradition). Their role in defining classical antiquity as part of the heritage of Western and even world culture (Cuno 2009) has become the focus of controversy (Rhodes 2007) in the wake of growing intolerance of abusive practices that are encouraged by the art market, such as the looting and destruction of sites.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bignamini, Ilaria, and Claire Hornsby. 2010. Digging and dealing in eighteenth-century Rome. 2 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Well-documented account of the trade in Rome in ancient statuary for the British market during the great age of the Grand Tour. Catalogue of sites, biographies of dealers, chronological selection of letters illuminating the practices of acquisition. Highly valuable for the history of collecting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bounia, Alexandra. 2004. The nature of classical collecting: Collectors and collections, 100 BCE–100 CE. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Survey of ancient practices of collecting beginning in Archaic Greece. Focus on Late Republican and Early Imperial texts of Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Martial, and Petronius and emphasis on the social contexts and purposes of collecting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Coltman, Viccy. 2009. Classical sculpture and the culture of collecting in Britain since 1760. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Social and cultural history of the collection of classical sculpture in Britain, with emphasis on contexts and practices. Rich archival documentation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cuno, James, ed. 2009. Whose culture? The promise of museums and the debate over antiquities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Essays from a conference held in 2006 in which the idea of the “encyclopedic” museum as an institution promoting the preservation and appreciation of the universal heritage of human cultures transcending nationalist agendas is defended against rising criticism of the principles and practices of traditional practices of acquisition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Journal of the History of Collections.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Covers all aspects of the history and practices of collecting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rhodes, Robin F., ed. 2007. The acquisition and exhibition of classical antiquities: Professional, legal, and ethical perspectives. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Essays addressing current concerns over abusive practices in the acquisition of classical antiquities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Siegel, Jonah, ed. 2008. The emergence of the modern museum: An anthology of nineteenth-century sources. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Illuminating collection of contemporary documents relating to the formation of public collections, with attention to the cultural context of the institutional histories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strong, Donald Emrys. 1971. Roman museums. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 10:1–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Surveys the evidence for Roman collections of works of art and objects, with attention to historical contexts, care and conservation, display, and copying. Reprinted in Strong’s Roman Museums: Selected Papers on Roman Art and Architecture (London: Pindar, 1994), pp. 13–30.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reproductions of Works of Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Histories of classical art continue to be shaped by the availability to scholars of the monumental corpus through reproductions for purposes of study and publication. While autopsy—firsthand examination—remains the gold standard of scholarship, much research necessarily relies on casts and photographs. Photography had a profound effect on the study of classical sculpture in particular (Pollitt 1996). The role of casts in the study and teaching of classical art has become a subject of study (Kurtz 2000). Works that are made available for reproduction are better represented in the scholarly literature than those for which permission is not readily, or affordably, granted, with observable consequences for the content of publications. Problems resulting from restrictive and exploitative practices in the use of images are increasingly recognized within the profession; the effect of new information technologies on this aspect of scholarly practice remains to be seen (Brilliant 1988).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Brilliant, Richard. 1988. How an art historian connects art objects and information. Library Trends 37.2: 120–129.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Useful survey of the types of visual resources employed by art historians, with attention to practical issues of availability as well as technical capacities of traditional and new technologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kurtz, Donna C. 2000. The reception of classical art in Britain: An Oxford story of plaster casts from the antique. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    History of plaster casts of classical works and their role in the popular and scholarly reception of classical art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pollitt, J. J. 1996. Introduction: Masters and masterworks in the study of classical sculpture. In Personal styles in Greek sculpture. Edited by Olga Palagia and J. J. Pollitt, 1–15. Yale Classical Studies 30. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reviews the tradition of Kopienkritik (criticism of copies), most famously associated with Adolf Furtwängler (b. 1853–d. 1907), which attempted to recover the work of ancient sculptors named in the ancient texts by close study of statues believed to be copies of lost originals; considers the role of photography in the development of methods and publication of scholarship.

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