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Classics Macedonia
by
Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, Dimitra Andrianou

Introduction

Macedonia is understood as the country that existed as an independent kingdom between c. 700 BCE and 168 BCE; as a formally independent confederation, but practically subject to Rome, between 167 BCE and 148 BCE; and as a portion of the Roman province of that name until the second half of the 3rd century CE.

General Overviews

General overviews include Sakellariou 1983, a general work on Macedonia from antiquity to the present day, and Vokotopoulou 1994, a catalogue of exhibitions lavishly illustrating the material culture of Macedonia. Ginouvès and Hatzopoulos 1993 is an edited volume offering a multidisciplinary approach to Macedonia’s history and culture at its peak, while Hatzopoulos 2006 highlights forefront research on major topics of Macedonian geography, history, and culture. The Hammond 1993–1997 four-volume collection of articles contains three decades of contributions to Macedonian studies by one of the most prominent scholars in the field. Finally, Hoffmann 1974, Kalléris 1954–1976, Badian 1982, and Hatzopoulos 2007 investigate the thorny question of the identity of ancient Macedonians and its perception by the Greeks south of Olympus.

  • Badian, Ernst. 1982. Greeks and Macedonians. Paper presented at a symposium at the National Gallery of Art, 14–15 November 1980. In Macedonia and Greece in late classical and early Hellenistic times. Edited by Beryl Barr-Sharrar and Eugene N. Borza, 33–51. Studies in the History of Art 10. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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    A very skillful presentation of evidence and argumentation aimed at contrasting the ancient Macedonians to the Greeks south of Olympus.

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  • Ginouvès, René, and Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, eds. 1993. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman conquest. Translated by David Hardy. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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    A volume aimed to “please lovers of fine books and fine pictures, be of use to teachers and students, offer an accessible synthesis to curious readers and make available to researchers as much factual and bibliographical information as possible, particularly with regard to recent discoveries” (preface, p. 9). An excellent introductory volume for Macedonian researchers.

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  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1993–1997. Collected studies. 4 vols. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

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    The latter part of Hammond’s prodigiously productive life was devoted to Macedonia. This collection contains his shorter studies, almost half of which, to be found mainly in Volumes 3 and 4, were devoted to Macedonia.

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  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 2006. La Macédoine: Géographie historique, Langue, cultes et croyances, institutions. Travaux de la Maison René-Ginouvès 2. Paris: De Boccard.

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    A synthesis of recent discoveries that have modified our knowledge in the fields of historical geography, linguistics, religion, and political institutions of Macedonia, based on a series of lectures by the author to the Collège de France in 2005.

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  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades. 2007. Perception of the self and the other: The case of Macedonia. In Ancient Macedonia, Seventh International Symposium, 14–18 October 2002. Edited by Danae Kaplanidou and Eirene Chiote, 51–66. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies.

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    A discussion of recent theories about ancient identities and particularly about that of the ancient Macedonians in light of the epigraphic evidence and with the help of modern parallels. To be read in tandem with Badian 1982.

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  • Hoffmann, Otto. 1974. Die Makedonen, ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum. Hildesheim, Germany, and New York: Olms.

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    A pioneer work; the soundness of some intuitions therein has been vindicated by recent discoveries. Originally published in 1906 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht).

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  • Kalléris, Jean N. 1954–1976. Les anciens Macédoniens: Étude linguistique et historique. 2 vols. Collection de l’Institut Français d’Athènes 81. Athens, Greece: Collection de l’Institut français d’Athènes.

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    An ambitious endeavor planned to comprise an introduction and four chapters covering the language, the religion, and the ways and customs of the ancient Macedonians, and the ancient testimonia on them. Only the first two chapters and a part of the third were published before the author’s death. An impressive collection of literary and epigraphic evidence.

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  • Sakellariou, Michael B., ed. 1983. Macedonia: 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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    Unique for following the fate of Macedonia from prehistory and classical antiquity through the medieval and modern periods down to the eve of the new situation created by the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Especially rich in the history of culture.

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  • Vokotopoulou, Julia, ed. 1994. Macedonians: The northern Greeks and the era of Alexander the Great: National Museum, Copenhagen, 15 September 1994–8 January 1995. Athens: Greek Ministry of Culture/ICOM National Hellenic Committee.

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    Superbly illustrated catalogue of a traveling exhibition. The catalogue itself is preceded by short, systematic chapters devoted to the history of archaeological research; historical geography; the contribution of Macedonia to Greek and world culture; Alexander the Great; urban centers in Macedonia; and to the sites of Aiane, Aigeai, Dion, Pella, Thessalonica, Beroia, modern Petres, Olynthos, Akanthos, Amphipolis, Thasos, and Philippi.

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Journals

There is no scientific journal exclusively devoted to Macedonia. Macedonia is, however, included in the Archaiologikon Deltion, the annual reports of the Greek Archaeological Service. The Μακεδονικὰ contained reports on archaeological activities in Macedonia until the 1970s, and Τεκμήρια has regularly published articles on Macedonia, especially on new epigraphic finds, since 1995.

History

Hammond, et al. 1972–1988 and Errington 1990 are the two English-language history books covering the whole period of the Macedonian kingdom’s independence.

  • Errington, Robert M. 1990. A history of Macedonia. Hellenistic Culture and Society 5. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Originally published in German in 1986, Errington’s short history of Macedonia is a useful university manual, although recent discoveries have outdated the section on the organization of the Macedonian state.

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  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L., G. T. Griffith, and F. W. Walbank. 1972–1988. A history of Macedonia. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon.

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    This is the fullest treatment of the history of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. The first volume, written entirely by Hammond, is devoted to the historical geography and prehistory. The second volume is coauthored with G. T. Griffith and the third volume with the Hellenistic history specialist F. W. Walbank. Although the part devoted to the inner organization of the kingdom is partly outdated, Hammond’s endeavor remains a scholarly monument.

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Society

The aspect of ancient Macedonian society that has attracted modern scholars the most is the one concerning the position of women, probably because of the recent popularity of gender studies. Carney 2000 studies it in connection with the political institutions of Macedonia.

Onomastics

In the absence of literary and, until very recently, of epigraphic evidence on the Macedonian speech, names played a crucial part in the discussion about the origins of ancient Macedonians; hence the early interest of both linguists and historians in onomastics. The works selected are both collections of personal names, such as Tataki 1998 and Fraser and Matthews 2005, and a study (Hatzopoulos 2000) illustrating how these can be exploited for the reconstruction of history.

  • Fraser, Peter M., and Elaine Matthews. 2005. A Lexicon of Greek personal names. Vol. 4, Macedonia, Thrace, northern regions of the Black Sea. Oxford: Clarendon.

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    This is the most recent and authoritative list of personal names attested in Macedonia. Compiled in collaboration with the Research Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity (KERA), it includes even the most recent discoveries previously unpublished at the date of this volume’s publication.

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  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 2000. “L’histoire par les noms” en Macédoine. Paper presented at a British Academy Colloquium, 11 July 1998. In Greek personal names: Their value as evidence. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Elaine Matthews, 99–117. Proceedings of the British Academy 104. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press for the British Academy.

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    The aim of this short study is to go beyond the compilation of lists of names and their etymology, to achieve the writing of history by following the geographical diffusion of personal names through time.

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  • Tataki, Argyro B. 1998. Macedonians abroad: A contribution to the prosopography of ancient Macedonia. Meletēmata 26. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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    An onomastic and prosopographical study comprising an exhaustive list of Macedonians attested outside Macedonia or within Macedonia, but outside the political unit of which they were citizens. It is an indispensable companion to Fraser and Matthews 2005.

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Institutions

The political institutions of the ancient Macedonians have for many decades been a contentious subject. It mostly concerned the respective powers of the constituent parts of the state—to wit, the king and the ethnos embodied in the assembly, studied, respectively, by Hampl 1934 and Granier 1931. A dissenting view was aired by Zancan 1934, followed by a seminal article on the originality of the Macedonian kingship (Aymard 1950). A reexamination of the literary evidence by Briant 1973 and recent epigraphic discoveries have profoundly modified our knowledge of Macedonian institutions and have produced the reinterpretations of the available evidence by Hammond 1989 and Hatzopoulos 1996.

  • Aymard, André. 1950. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ. Revue du droit français et étranger 4:61–97.

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    This seminal article established for the first time the distinction between national kingships, such as those of Sparta, Epirus, and Macedonia, and personal monarchies, such as those of the Ptolemies in Egypt. Reprinted as Etudes d’histoire ancienne (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1967), pp. 100–122.

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  • Briant, Pierre. 1973. Antigone le Borgne: Les débuts de sa carrière et les problèmes de l’assemblée macédonienne. Annales Littéraires de l’Université de Besançon 152. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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    Roughly a third of this monograph is devoted to the study of the Macedonian Assembly. It succeeds in proving that this was normally not an army but a people’s assembly.

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  • Granier, Friedrich. 1931. Die Makedonische Heeresversammlung. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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    Although outdated in its interpretation, this doctoral thesis has an exhaustive collection of evidence concerning the Macedonian Assembly, which is, however, wrongly considered as exclusively composed of the army.

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  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1989. The Macedonian state: Origins, institutions and history. Oxford: Clarendon.

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    This follow-up to the same author’s monumental History of Macedonia (Hammond, et al. 1972–1988, cited under History) is a historical rather than a systematic approach to Macedonian institutions. Written at a time of continuous epigraphic discoveries, it succeeds in incorporating only part of the important evidence that has recently come to light.

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  • Hampl, Franz. 1934. Der König der Makedonen. Weida, Germany: Thomas & Hubert.

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    A highly original and stimulating interpretation of the Macedonian kingship, which, however, has not been proved valid.

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  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 1996. Macedonian institutions under the kings. 2 vols. Meletēmata 22. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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    The first volume, A Historical and Epigraphic Study, consists of a systematic study of the political units of the Macedonian kingdom, their civic organs, the different categories of territories under Macedonian rule, the composition and the organs of the Macedonian commonwealth, the relations between central and local government, and the creation and evolution of the Macedonian state. The second volume contains the epigraphic documentation (texts and photographs).

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  • Zancan, Paola. 1934. Il monarcato ellenistico nei suoi elementi federativi. Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia 7. Padua, Italy: CEDEM.

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    An original view of the Macedonian state as a polyarchy combining a democratic kingship with respect to the Macedonians, a civic democratic element with respect to the Greek cities, and a patrimonial relation of the king with the conquered land.

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Archaeology

Among the studies that provide a general overview of the rich archaeological framework of Macedonia are Casson 1968, on the relations of Macedonia with Thrace and Illyria; Heermann 1980, on the subject of palace architecture; and Touratsoglou 1998, on the land of Macedonia, its history, and monuments.

  • Casson, Stanley. 1968. Macedonia, Thrace, and Illyria: Their relations to Greece from the earliest times down to the time of Philip, son of Amyntas. Groningen, The Netherlands: Bouma’s Boekhuis.

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    A publication on the evidence available for the reconstruction of the earlier history of the North Aegean coastline and its hinterland (from the Adriatic coast to the Black Sea and from the Save and Danube to the Peneios River and the Dardanelles). The chronological frame of the study extends from the earliest times of human habitation to the appearance of Philip II.

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  • Heermann, Vera. 1980. Studien zur makedonischen Palastarchitektur. PhD diss., Friedrich-Alexander-Universität.

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    The first attempt to analyze the architectural layout of Macedonian palaces and to single out specific characteristics of Macedonian architecture. This dissertation focuses on the palace of Pella and takes into consideration the palaces at Aigeai and Demetrias, Aristotle’s School at Naousa, and the “Villa” at Kopanos. Heermann’s dissertation and Gossel’s (Gossel 1980, cited under Architecture) on the Macedonian tomb give a thorough overview of Macedonian funerary/palatial architecture with the then-excavated material at hand.

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  • Touratsoglou, Ioannis. 1998. Macedonia: History, monuments, museums. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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    This elaborate, fully illustrated guide to Macedonia is an itinerary through the land, its history, and its monuments.

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Language

The language of the ancient Macedonians had been a contentious question for nearly two centuries. The main controversy had been about its Greek or non-Greek character. The discovery and publication of the first continuous text in Macedonian, Voutiras 1998, has now confirmed that it was indeed a Greek dialect, as it had been upheld by a series of scholars in texts such as Kalléris 1954–1976 (cited under General Overviews) and Brixhe and Panayotou 2002. In recent years Dubois 1995, Masson 1996, Brixhe 1999, and Hatzopoulos 2007 have discussed the origin of the presence in the dialect of voiced stops instead of unvoiced ones and the connected question of the affinities of Macedonian with other Greek dialects

  • Brixhe, Claude. 1999. Un nouveau champ de la dialectologie grecque: Le macédonien. In Katà Diálekton: Atti del III Colloquio Internazionale di Dialettologia Greca. Edited by Albio C. Cassio, 41–71. Naples, Italy: Istituto Universitario Orientale.

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    This article illustrates the non–“northwestern” elements of the Pella tablet.

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  • Brixhe, Claude, and Anna Panayotou. 2002. Le macédonien. In Langues indo-européennes. Edited by Françoise Bader, 205–220. Sciences de Langage. Paris: CNRS.

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    A succinct discussion of the character of Macedonian explaining the presence of voiced stops as vestiges of another extinct language (Brygian/Phrygian).

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  • Dubois, Laurent. 1995. Une tablette de malédiction de Pella: S’agit-il du premier texte macédonien? Revue des études grecques 108:190–197.

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    The author improves several readings of Voutiras 1998 and points out the Thessalian affinities of the dialect.

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  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 2007. La position dialectale du macédonien à la lumière des découvertes épigraphiques récentes. In Die altgriechischen Dialekte, Wesen und Werden: Akten des Kolloquiums Freie Universität Berlin, 19–22 September 2001. Edited by Ivo Hajnal, 157–176. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 126. Innsbruck, Austria: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.

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    A response to Brixhe 1997 establishing the secondary origin of the voiced stops, arguing that similar phenomena encountered in northern Thessaly make unnecessary the Brygian/Phrygian hypothesis and insisting on the dual (“northwestern” and “Aeolic”) origin of the Macedonian dialect.

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  • Masson, Olivier. 1996. Macedonian language. In Oxford classical dictionary. 3d rev.ed. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    A succinct but very authoritative presentation of the problem by one of the best experts.

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  • Voutiras, Emmanuel. 1998. ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ ΓΑΜΟΙ: Marital Life and Magic in Fourth Century Pella. Amsterdam: Gieben.

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    This is the first publication and thorough discussion of the tablet from Pella, which provided a definitive answer to the question of the Macedonian speech.

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Series

There is no series exclusively devoted to Macedonia. Macedonian inscriptions and coins find their place in the series of the Inscriptiones Graecae (see Inscriptions) and of the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. A very substantial number of volumes of the Μελετήματα series are dedicated to Macedonia.

  • Μελετήματα series. Athens, Greece: Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity (KERA), 1985–.

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    A series of extended studies on history and archaeology published by the Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity (KERA) of the National Hellenic Research Foundation. A third of these volumes are devoted to Macedonia.

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    • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931–.

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      A series of volumes that pertain to the study of coins from Macedonia. This is an indispensable tool for anyone working on numismatic evidence from Macedonia and neighboring areas.

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      Conferences

      There are two regularly held conferences devoted exclusively (Ancient Macedonia) or mainly (Το αρχαιολογικό έργο στη Μακεδονία και Θράκη) to Macedonia. Three meetings of “Πανελλήνιο Επιγραφικό Συνέδριο” have been held in Thessaloniki at irregular intervals until now, but only the acts of two of them—Sverkos 2001 and Sverkos 2008—have been published, dealing mostly with Macedonia. There have also been other conferences dedicated to Macedonia that are not regularly recurring, such as “Macedonia and Greece” (see Barr-Sharrar and Borza 1982); “Rois, cités, nécropoles” (see Guimier-Sorbet, et al. 2006); and “Μνήμη Λαζαρίδη” (Koukouli-Chrysanthaki and Picard 1990).

      • Ancient Macedonia international symposia. Thessaloniki, Greece, 1970–2007.

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        Volumes containing the papers read at the eight international symposia on Macedonian studies held at Thessaloniki every five years since 1970.

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        • Barr-Sharrar, Beryl, and Eugene Borza. 1982. Macedonia and Greece in late classical and early Hellenistic times. Papers presented at a symposium at the National Gallery of Art, 14–15 November 1980. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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          Papers read at a conference held in Washington on the occasion of the lavish exhibition The Search for Alexander in November 1980. One can read there the first reactions to the stunning discoveries at Vergina by an international panel of scholars.

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        • Guimier-Sorbet, Anne-Marie, Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, and Yvette Morizot, eds. 2006. Rois, cités, nécropoles: Institutions, rites et monuments en Macédoine, Actes des colloques de Nanterre (décembre 2002) et d’Athènes (janvier 2004). Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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          Papers read at two consecutive Franco-Greek symposia that deal with the relationship between monuments and politico-religious ideas in Macedonia. Diffusion de Boccard (Paris) published the Nanterre proceedings of 2002.

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        • Koukouli-Chrysanthaki, Chaido, and Olivier Picard, eds. 1990. Μνήμη Δ. Λαζαρίδη, Πόλις καὶ Xώρα στὴν ἀρχαία Μακεδονία καὶ Θράκη. Πρακτικά. Thessaloniki, Greece: Archaeological Museum.

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          Papers read at a conference in memory of the archaeologist D. Lazaridis that deal with questions of historical geography and topography.

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        • Sverkos, Ilias. 2001. A Πανελλήνιο Συνέδριο Επιγραφικής (Θεσσαλονίκη 22–23 Οκτωβρίου 1999). Thessaloniki, Greece: Kyriakides.

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          Proceedings of the First Panhellenic Epigraphic Conference. Eleven out of the twelve papers deal with inscriptions from Macedonia.

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        • Sverkos, Ilias. 2008. Β’ Πανελλήνιο Συνέδριο Επιγραφικής (Θεσσαλονίκη 24–25 Νοεμβρίου 2001). Thessaloniki, Greece: Kyriakides.

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          Proceedings of the Second Panhellenic Epigraphic Conference. Twelve out of the sixteen papers deal with inscriptions from Macedonia.

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        • Το Αρχαιολογικό ’Έργο στη Μακεδονία και Θράκη, excavation reports. 1987–.

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          An annual publication in Greek (with English summaries) containing the reports of current excavations in Macedonia and Thrace. This is a great tool for researchers in Macedonian archaeology providing first-hand information on the newly excavated material. Volume 20 of the series is an update of all major excavations in Macedonia.

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          Edited Volumes

          In the category of edited volumes, collections of papers have been published exclusively or dedicated mainly to Macedonia either around a particular subject, such as Borza 1995 and Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulou 1980, or in honor of a scholar who devoted his activities to Macedonia, such as Lilimbaki-Akamati and Tsakalou-Tzanavari 1998; Pandermalis, et al. 2000; Dell 1981; Worthington 1994; Maneva 2006; and Vafeiadou 1997.

          • Borza, Eugene N. 1995. Makedonika: Essays by E. Borza. Edited by C. G. Thomas. Claremont, CA: Regina.

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            A selection of fifteen articles published in scientific journals or papers read at various conferences and published in their proceedings between 1971 and 1993.

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          • Dell, H. J., ed. 1981. Ancient Macedonian studies in honor of Charles F. Edson. Hidryma Meleton Chersonesou tou Haimou 158. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies.

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            Twenty-six essays on the archaeology and history of Macedonia in honor of the pioneer of Macedonian studies Charles F. Edson.

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          • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B., and Louisa Loukopoulou. 1980. Philip of Macedon. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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            A reappraisal by ten specialists of international repute of the personality and historical contribution of Philip II in the light of the discovery of his tomb. The first extensive and lavishly illustrated publication after this major archaeological event.

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          • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria, and Katerina Tsakalou-Tzanavari. 1998. Μνείας Χάριν: Τόμος στη μνήμη Μαίρης Σιγανίδου. Thessaloniki, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund and IZ’ Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

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            Twenty-nine essays, mostly presenting new material, by archaeologists active in Macedonia in memory of their departed colleague Mary Siganidou.

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          • Maneva, Elica, ed. 2006. Folia Archaeologica Balkanica I in honorem Verae Bitrakova Grozdanova. Skopje, FYROM: Makedonska Riznica-Kumanovo.

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            Fourty essays on Macedonian art and archaeology that cover a vast geographical and chronological frame.

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          • Pandermalis, Dimitrios, et al., eds. 2000. Μύρτος: Μνήμη Ἰουλίας Βοκοτοπούλου. Thessaloniki, Greece: Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki.

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            An edited volume of forty-four studies on the archaeology and history of Epeiros and—mainly—Macedonia in memory of the archaeologist Ioulia Vokotopoulou.

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          • Vafeiadou, Maria, ed. 1997. Αφιέρωμα στον N. G. L. Hammond. Papers presented at a symposium held at Pentalophos (Thessaloniki, Greece), 14–16 May 1993. Parartema Makedonikōn 7. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Macedonian Studies.

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            Thirty-six essays on the geography and history of Macedonia and Epeiros in honor of N. G. L. Hammond.

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          • Various authors. 1997. Μνήμη Μανόλη Ανδρόνικου. Parartema Makedonikon 6. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Macedonian Studies.

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            Thirty-two essays on the archaeology and history of Macedonia in memory of Manolis Andronikos.

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          • Worthington, Ian, ed. 1994. Ventures into Greek history. Oxford: Clarendon.

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            Seventeen essays on source studies, archaeology, and history. The majority of them deal with Macedonia and are written in honor of N. G. L. Hammond.

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          Literary Sources

          No ancient works specifically devoted to Macedonia (with the exception of works on Alexander the Great), such as the Μακεδονικά of Marsyas from Pella, the Μακεδονικαὶ Ἱστορίαι of Marsyas from Philippoi, or the Φιλιππικά of Theopompos from Chios, have survived. Thus, our main literary sources for the history of Macedonia are the works of authors writing general histories, such as Diodoros, Livy, Justin, or “monographs” on special periods or events, such as Herodotus, Thucydides, and Polybius. Especially useful are the modern annotated editions and commentaries that have been dedicated to their works.

          Archaeological Travels

          In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the modern sharp distinction between exploratory travels and archaeological surveys had not yet appeared. Archaeologists (Delacoulonche 1858, Heuzey 1860, Heuzey and Daumet 1876, Struck 1907–1908), diplomats (Cousinéry 1831, Hahn 1861, and Hahn 1867), and secret agents (Leake 1835) roamed the countryside of Macedonia in search of information about the present and vestiges of the past and duly noted the remains encountered along their way. They have preserved precious records of Macedonian antiquities no longer extant.

          • Cousinéry, Esprit Marie. 1831. Voyage dans la Macédoine. 2 vols. Paris: Imprimerie Royale.

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            Cousinéry, a French diplomat and collector, active in Salonica between 1773 and 1792 and again between 1814 and 1816, recorded his travels across Macedonia and the ancient remains he encountered.

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          • Delacoulonche, Alfred. 1858. Mémoire sur le berceau de la puissance macédonienne des bords de l’Haliacmon à ceux de l’Axius. Paris: P. Dupont.

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            A member of the French School at Athens, Delacoulonche, accompanied by his fellow student Heuzey, visited “the cradle of the Macedonian power” (Beroia, Edessa, Pella, and several other minor sites and localities), copying more than a hundred ancient inscriptions.

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          • Hahn, Johann G. von. 1861. Reise von Belgrad nach Salonik. Vienna: Kaiserlich Koniglichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei.

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            Travel literature by the Austrian diplomat, philologist, and specialist in Albanian history and culture Johann von Hahn. As consul for eastern Greece, von Hahn covered the itinerary from Vienna through Skopje and Pristina to Thessalonica and recorded historical, geographical, political, and ethnographic notes of interest.

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          • Hahn, Johann G. von. 1867. Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin und Wardar. Vienna: Kaiserlich und Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei.

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            These are the accounts of von Hahn’s travels in 1863 on the Adriatic coast, up the Drin River to Prizren in Kosovo, through western Macedonia and then down the Vardar (Axios) River to Thessaloniki. Throughout the journey, he recorded historical, geographical, political, and ethnographic notes of interest.

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          • Heuzey, Leon. 1860. Le mont Olympe et l’Acarnanie. Paris: Firmin Didot.

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            In the first part of this work, Heuzey described his exploration of Pieria and the discovery of the site and palace of Palatitsia in the company of A. Delacoulonche.

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          • Heuzey, Leon, and H. Daumet. 1876. Mission archéologique de Macédoine. Paris: Firmin Didot.

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            In this masterpiece of archaeological exploration, Heuzey, with the assistance of the architect Daumet, recorded his new explorations in eastern Macedonia, Pieria, and upper Macedonia and the excavation of the palace at Palatitsia.

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          • Leake, William M. 1835. Travels in Northern Greece. 4 vols. London: J. Rodwell.

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            Substantial parts of Volume 1 (chapters 6–7) and Volume 3 (chapters 24–28 and 30–31) relate the travels of this British officer and antiquarian across Macedonia in search of military intelligence and antiquities.

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          • Struck, Adolf H. 1907–1908. Makedonische Fahrten. 2 vols. Vienna and Leipzig: A. Hartleben’s Verlag.

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            These two volumes, devoted to the Chalcidic peninsula and the “cradle of the Macedonian power,” respectively, describe the exploration of the archaeological sites of these areas by the administrative director of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens between 1898 and 1903.

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          Inscriptions

          The following sections are organized by Geographical Corpora, Tools of Study, and Coins.

          Geographical Corpora

          The first attempt for the publication of an exhaustive collection of the ancient inscriptions of Macedonia was made by Demitsas 1988. The edition of a scientific corpus based on autopsy was first undertaken by the Berlin Academy at the beginning of the 20th century, but after the much-delayed publication of a volume with the inscriptions of Thessalonica (Edson 1972), only one other volume with the inscriptions of the western part of ex-Yugoslav Macedonia (Papazoglou, et al. 1999) has appeared. The inscriptions of Greek Macedonia are now published by the Greek Ministry of Culture and the National Research Foundation. Two volumes (Rizakis and Touratsoglou 1985 and Gounaropoulou and Hatzopoulos 1998), of upper Macedonia and Beroia, respectively, have already appeared. Collections of particular sites, areas, or periods have also been published, such as Pilhofer 1995–2000 for Philippi, Saatsoglou-Paliadeli 1984 for the funerary mound of Vergina, Nigdelis 2006 with recent additions to the inscriptions of Thessalonike, and Feissel 1983 for the Early Christian period.

          • Demitsas, Margaritis. 1988. Ἡ Μακεδονία ἐν λίθοις φθεγγομένοις καὶ μνημείοις σῳζομένοις. Athens, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies.

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            Though a mere compilation of published material outdated by new discoveries and editions, this study has not been entirely replaced and can still be of use. Originally published 1896 (Athens, Greece: Perris Brothers).

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          • Edson, Charles, ed. 1972. Inscriptiones Graecae Epiri, Macedoniae, Thraeciae, Scythiae; Pars II, Inscriptiones Macedoniae; Fasciculus I, Inscriptiones Thessalonicae et Viciniae. Berlin: de Gruyter.

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            The 1,041 inscriptions of Thessalonica and its suburbs. Unfortunately, this edition lacks adequate indexes and photographic documentation.

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          • Feissel, Denis. 1983. Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de Macédoine, du IIIe au VIe siècle. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Supplément 8. Athens, Greece: École Française d’Athènes.

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            An exemplary publication of the 299 early Christian inscriptions of Macedonia (3rd–6th centuries CE).

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          • Gounaropoulou, Lucretia, and Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos. 1998. Ἐπιγραφές Κάτω Μακεδονίας, Τευ̑χος Α’: Ἐπιγραφές Βεροίας. Athens, Greece: Ministry of Culture/National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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            The first of a two-volume edition of the corpus of inscriptions from ancient Bottia (the “cradle of the Macedonian power”), comprising 512 inscriptions of Beroia and its territory.

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          • Nigdelis, Pantelis M. 2006. Ἐπιγραφικὰ θεσσαλονίκεια: Συμβολὴ στὴν πολιτικὴ καὶ κοινωνικὴ ἱστορία τη̑ς ἀρχαίας Θεσσαλονίκης. Thessaloniki, Greece: Univ. Studio Press.

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            A very informative selection of already published and of unpublished inscriptions sheds light on the public life of the city, the private associations, the world of trades and professions, its population, and its funerary customs.

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          • Papazoglou, Fanula, Milena Milin, and Marijana Ricl, eds. 1999. Inscriptiones Graecae Epiri, Macedoniae, Thraeciae, Scythiae; Pars II, Inscriptiones Macedoniae; Fasciculus II, Inscriptiones Macedoniae septentrionalis; Sectio prima, Inscriptiones Lyncestidis, Heracleae, Pelagoniae, Derriopi, Lychnidi. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

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            This volume, edited by is a fully documented corpus of 410 inscriptions from the western part of northern Macedonia.

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          • Pilhofer, Peter. 1995–2000. Philippi. 2 vols. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 87, 119. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr.

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            The study consists of two volumes: Volume 1 (1995) deals with the inscriptions from Philippi, a thorough study of the literary sources (especially Paul’s epistles), the archaeological finds, and the history of the first Christian community; Volume 2 (2000) is a catalogue of all published inscriptions (Christian and non-Christian) discovered in the Colonia Iulia Augusta Philippensis.

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          • Rizakis, Athanasios, and Ioannis Touratsoglou. 1985. Ἐπιγραφές Ἄνω Μακεδονίας. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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            A corpus of the 221 inscriptions found in the ancient regions of Elimeia, Eordaia, Lynkos, and Orestis forming the westernmost part of Macedonia.

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          • Saatsoglou-Paliadeli, Chysoula. 1984. Τὰ ἐπιτάφια μνημει̑α ἀπὸ τὴ Μεγάλη Τούμπα τη̑ς Βεργίνας. PhD diss., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki.

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            This doctoral thesis consists of an exhaustive publication of the sixty-seven mostly inscribed funerary monuments discovered under the great tumulus containing the royal tombs at Vergina.

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          Tools of Study

          The progress of publication of inscriptions from Macedonia can be followed through the annual issues of the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum and the Macedonian section of the Bulletin Épigraphique published as part of the Revue des Études Grecques. Furthermore, in the study of Macedonian epigraphy, one should consult the paradeigmatic work of Robert 1974 on the inscriptions of Thessalonica, as well as three useful searchable databases available on the Internet: J. M. R. Cormack Macedonian Collection: Squeezes and the Packard Humanities and Pandektis collections.

          • Bulletin Épigraphique.

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            An indispensable research tool for historians, philologists and archaeologists on the epigraphical editions and their interpretation. Published by the Revue des Études Grecque since 1888, the Bulletin Épigraphique is a critical commentary on Greek inscriptions from the archaic period down to the Byzantine era, divided into relevant geographical sections.

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          • J. M. R. Cormack Macedonian Collection: Squeezes.

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            A useful tool for epigraphists, since it is a searchable database of Cormack’s squeezes in jpg form.

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            • Packard Humanities Institute. Searchable Greek Inscriptions.

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              A useful tool for epigraphists with a searchable database on inscriptions from all around the ancient world (Greece, the Danube, the Black Sea, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Syria, Egypt, Nubia, Cyrenaica, Northern Africa, Sicily, and Italy).

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              • Pandektis.

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                A digital thesaurus of primary sources for Greek history and culture, which contains digital collections produced by the Institute of Neohellenic Research, the Institute of Byzantine Research, and the Institute of Greek and Roman antiquity. Of special importance for Macedonia is the collection of three sets of published ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions on stone from Upper Macedonia, Aegean Thrace, and the Achaean city of Patras.

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                • Robert, Louis. 1974. Les inscriptions de Thessalonique. Revue de Philologie 48:180–246.

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                  A model of epigraphic constructive criticism and commentary on the inscriptions of Thessalonica edited by Charles Edson (see Geographical Corpora) by the greatest epigraphist of the 20th century.

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                • Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online.

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                  An indispensable research tool for ancient historians and epigraphists, Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum systematically collects newly published inscriptions from around the Greek world, as well as publications on previously known documents. It presents complete Greek texts of all new inscriptions with critical apparatus, summarizes new readings, interpretations, and studies of known inscriptions and occasionally presents the Greek texts of these documents.

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                  Coins

                  Numismatic bibliography on Macedonia includes corpora of specific mints (Gäbler 1906–1935, Le Rider 1977, Kremydi-Sicilianou 1996, Liampi 2005, Lorber 1990, Touratsoglou 1988), studies on coin circulation (Touratsoglou 1993), and collective volumes and proceedings of conferences devoted to Macedonian numismatics (Burnett 1998, Adam-Veleni 2000). For the publications of collections, see Series.

                  • Adam-Veleni, Polyxeni, ed. 2000. Το νόμισμα στο μακεδονικό χώρο: Πρακτικά Β’ επιστημονικής συνάντησης; Νομισματοκοπεία, κυκλοφορία, εικονογραφία, ιστορία; Αρχαίοι, βυζαντινοί και νεότεροι χρόνοι, Θεσσαλονίκη 15–17 Μαϊου 1988. Thessaloniki, Greece: Univ. Studio Press.

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                    Proceedings of a symposium that took place in Thessaloniki in 1988 on the minting, circulation, iconography, and history of Macedonian coins through the ages.

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                  • Burnett, Andrew, Ute Wartenberg, and Richard Witschonke, eds. 1998. Coins of Macedonia and Rome: Essays in honour of Charles Hersh. London: Spink.

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                    A collective volume of twenty-two essays, ten of which are dedicated to Macedonian coins, in honor of the great American collector and numismatist Charles Hersh.

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                  • Gäbler, Hugo. 1906–1935. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia. 2 vols. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands 3. Berlin: Georg Reimer.

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                    An ambitious attempt to publish a complete corpus of the coins of Macedonia and Paionia. Only the first volume, containing the issues in the name of the kings or of the Macedonian Commonwealth, is a real corpus. The second volume, with the issues of the several Macedonian communities, includes a limited number of specimens from every issue. Volume 2 was published by Walter de Gruyter.

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                  • Kremydi-Sicilianou, Sophia. 1996. Η νομισματοκοπία της ρωμαϊκής αποικίας του Δίου. Athens, Greece: Hellenic Numismatic Society.

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                    Corpus of the coins minted by the Roman colony founded by Augustus in Dion in 30 BCE. The territory of this colony comprised a substantial portion of Pieria.

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                  • Le Rider, Georges. 1977. Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 à 294. Paris: Bourgey.

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                    The fundamental study of the gold and silver coinage of Philip II. A masterpiece of numismatics. It is to be regretted that for practical reasons it proved impossible to include the bronze issues in the name of that king.

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                  • Liampi, Katerini. 2005. Argilos: A historical and numismatic study. Kerma 1. Athens, Greece: Society for the Study of Numismatics and Economic History.

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                    A thorough monograph on the city of Argilos based on the corpus of its coinage.

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                  • Lorber, Catharine C. 1990. Amphipolis: The civic coinage in silver and gold. Los Angeles: Numismatic Fine Arts International.

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                    A corpus of the gold and silver coinage of Amphipolis within its historical context. The inclusion of the bronze coinage of this city minted during the period of its independence would have enhanced the usefulness of this work for the study of the city’s history.

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                  • Touratsoglou, Ioannis P. H. 1988. Die Münzstätte von Thessaloniki in der römischen Kaiserzeit: 32/31 v.Chr. bis 268 n.Chr. Antike Münzen und geschnittene Steine 12. Berlin: de Gruyter.

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                    A thorough study on the history of Thessalonica in Roman times based on an exhaustive catalogue of its issues.

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                  • Touratsoglou, Ioannis P. H. 1993. Νομισματική κυκλοφορία στην αρχαία Μακεδονία: Η μαρτυρία των Θησαυρών. Athens, Greece: Greek Numismatic Society.

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                    A study of monetary circulation in Macedonia based on evidence gleaned from coin hoards. Indispensable for the dating of some controversial issues.

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                  Regional Studies

                  This section includes works offering an overview of a great number of sites either of Macedonia as a whole, such as Hammond 1972, Hansen and Nielsen 2004, and Papazoglou 1988, or of a substantial area of the country, such as Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulou 1987 and Samsaris 1976.

                  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1972. A history of Macedonia. Vol. 1, Historical geography and prehistory. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                    The greatest part of this volume consists of an overview of Macedonian regions and ancient settlements.

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                  • Hansen, Mogens H., and Thomas H. Nielsen, eds. 2004. An inventory of archaic and classical poleis. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                    This inventory includes three sections devoted to Macedonia after its expansion under Philip II: “Makedonia,” “Thrace from Axios to Strymon,” and “Thrace from Strymon to Nestos,” by M. B. Hatzopoulos and P. Paschidis, Pernille Flensted-Jensen, and Louisa Loukopoulou, respectively.

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                  • Hatzopoulos Miltiades, and Louisa Loukopoulou. 1987. Two studies in Macedonian topography. Meletēmata 3. Athens, Greece: Research Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity, National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    This volume includes two studies, one on the road system of Lower Macedonia and another on the Eastern frontier of Macedonia by M. B. Hatzopoulos and Louisa Loukopoulou, respectively.

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                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1988. Les villes de Macédoine à l’époque romaine. Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, Supplément 16. Athens, Greece: École Française d’Athènes.

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                    Although focused on the Roman period, this work does not neglect cities and other settlements attested earlier.

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                  • Samsaris, Dimitrios. 1976. Ἱστορικὴ γεωγραφία τη̑ς ἀνατολικη̑ς Μακεδονίας κατὰ τὴν ἀρχαιότητα. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Macedonian Studies.

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                    The study focuses on the historical geography of eastern Macedonia based on an in situ research of the author that brought unknown settlements to light.

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                  Upper Macedonia and Paionia

                  Upper Macedonia comprised the small principalities of Tymphaia-Paravaia, Elimeia, Orestis, Lynkos, and Derriopos. North and east of these lay Pelagonia and Paionia, which, though under Macedonian rule, were not considered as parts of Macedonia proper until the abolition of kingship. The works listed below are guides for cultivated visitors (Karamitrou-Mentesidi 1993 and Karamitrou-Mentesidi 1996 on Aiane; Adam-Veleni 1998 on Petres), works of thorough research (Karamitrou-Mentesidi 1999; Rhomiopoulou, et al. 2000; Wiseman 1973–1981), or of an intermediate character (Papazoglou, et al. 1961 and Vučkovič-Todorovič 1963 on Styberra).

                  • Adam-Veleni, Polyxeni. 1998. Petres of Florina: A walk around to a Hellenistic city. Thessaloniki, Greece: Polyxeni Adam-Veleni.

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                    A Greek–English illustrated guide to the ancient city of Petres and its topography, history, and finds.

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                  • Karamitrou-Mentesidi, Georgia. 1993. Kozani, city of the Elimiotis: Archaeological guide. Thessaloniki, Greece: Karamitrou Mentesidi.

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                    A useful guide of the anonymous ancient city lying under modern Kozani and of the latter’s archaeological collection.

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                  • Karamitrou-Mentesidi, Georgia. 1996. Αιανή Κοζάνης. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A useful guide of the site and museum of ancient Aiane.

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                  • Karamitrou-Mentesidi, Georgia. 1999. Βόιον-Νότια Ορεστίς: Αρχαιολογική έρευνα και ιστορική τοπογραφία. 2 vols. Thessaloniki, Greece: Karamitrou-Mentesidi.

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                    An exhaustive study of the ancient remains of the southern part of the ancient canton of Orestis.

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                  • Mikulčić, Ivan. 1966. Pelagonija u svetlosti arheoloskih nalaza: Od Egejske Seobe do Avgusta. Société archéologique de Yougoslavie 3. Skopje, Yugoslavia: Arheoloski muzej.

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                    A study on the archaeology of Pelagonia (at the southern end of former Yugoslavia and a small part of northern Greece) with German summary. The study begins with the Bronze Age and ends in the Roman era; it focuses on pottery, settlements, and burial customs. The German summary gives a good overview of the book for anyone who does not read Serbo-Croatian.

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                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula, Dj Stričević, and Petar Mačkić. 1961. Heracleja I. Bitola, Yugoslavia: Kiro Dimitrovski-Dandaro.

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                    A collection of articles on the literary and epigraphical sources for Herakleia Lyncestis, colony of Philip II (Papazoglou), the archaeological excavations at the area from 1936 to 1938 (Stričević), and a catalogue of ancient objects (Mačkić and Mikulčić).

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                  • Rhomiopoulou, Katerina, Cressida Ridley, K. A. Wardle, Catharine A. Mould, and Jill Carington Smith. 2000. Servia I: Anglo-Hellenic rescue excavations 1971–1973. London: British School at Athens.

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                    The report of the prehistoric excavations jointly carried out by an Anglo-Greek team at Servia in the years 1971–1973.

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                  • Vučkovič-Todorovič, Dyšanka. 1963. Styberra antičnoe poselenie v sele Čepigove v okrestnostjah Prilepa. Archaeologia Yugoslavica 4:59–101.

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                    An important article on the excavations at Styberra in Serbo-Croatian (no summary in a European language).

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                  • Wiseman, James, ed. Studies in the antiquities of Stobi. 3 vols. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: National Museum of Titov Veles, 1973–1981.

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                    A publication of the excavations at Stobi in Serbo-Croatian and English of the joint collaboration of the Yugoslav Institution for International Technical Cooperation and the Smithsonian Institution, sponsored by the National Museum of Titov Veles and the University of Texas. The three-volume publication comprises article reports of special, limited excavations; technical studies and reports on methodology; and special studies on archaeology, history, and art history. The project was inaugurated in May 1970.

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                  The Old Kingdom

                  The Old Kingdom is the cradle of the Macedonian power, from where the Temenid kings set forward to conquer new territories in the East and to subdue the principalities of upper Macedonia. The works listed below include guides for cultivated travelers (Drougou and Saatsoglou-Paliadeli 2005, Lilimbaki-Akamati and Kottaridi 2006, Rhomiopoulou 1997), scholarly coffee-table books (Chrysostomou 2008, Drougou and Saatsoglou-Paliadeli 2005, Lilimbalki-Akamati and Akamatis 2003, Pandermalis 1999), or original research works (Brocas-Deflassieux 1999, Papakonstantinou-Diamantourou 1971, Tataki 1988).

                  The New Territories

                  The term “New Territories” refers to the areas annexed to Macedonia by a series of kings from Alexander I to Philip II.

                  Central Macedonia

                  The works listed below are catalogues of exhibitions (Adam-Veleni, et al. 2008; Vokotopoulou, et al. 1985), scholarly coffee-table volumes (Vokotopoulou, et al. 2002), excavation reports (Cambitoglou, et al. 2001), monographs (Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulou 1992–1996, Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulou 1989, Zahrnt 1971), archaeological guides (Sismanidis 2003), collective volumes (Vokotopoulou, et al. 1985), and excavations series (Robinson 1929–1952).

                  • Adam-Veleni, Polyxeni, et al., eds. 2008. Καλίνδοια: Μια αρχαία πόλη στη Μακεδονία. Thessaloniki, Greece: Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.

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                    An illustrated catalogue of an exhibition at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki on the recently discovered remains of the ancient city of Kalindoia, rich in statuary and inscriptions.

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                  • Cambitoglou, Alexander, John K. Papadopoulos, and Olwen Tudor Jones. 2001. Torone I: The excavations of 1975, 1976 and 1978. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society of Athens.

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                    A publication of the excavations held at Torone (Chalcidice) with chapters on pottery, terracottas, glass, bone, metal objects, and coins.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B., and Louisa D. Loukopoulou. 1989. Morrylos, cité de la Créstonie. Meletēmata 7. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation/KERA.

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                    An exploration of Crestonia, particularly of the cities Morrylos, Klitai, Bragylos, and Ioron, including their epigraphic corpora and personal names.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B., and Louisa D. Loukopoulou. 1992–1996. Recherches sur les marches orientales des Téménides (Anthémonte–Kalindoia). 2 vols. Meletēmata 11. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    An exploration of the ancient remains of Anthemous and Kalindoia including the epigraphic corpora of these two cities and studies on their political institutions, society, demographic composition, and onomastics.

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                  • Robinson, David M. 1929–1952. Excavations at Olynthus. 14 vols. Baltimore: John Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                    A series of studies on the excavations at Olynthus directed by John Hopkins University. Each volume is dedicated to a specific topic and covers all the remains and material culture found in the area. For an updated reconsideration of the domestic material published in this series, one should also note Nicholas D. Cahill’s Household and City Organization at Olynthus (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale Univ. Press, 2002).

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                  • Sismanidis, Kostas. 2003. Αρχαία Στάγειρα: Η πατρίδα του Αριστοτέλη. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    An archaeological guide of the city of Stageira, home city of Aristoteles.

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                  • Vokotopoulou, Ioulia, et al. 1985. Σίνδος, Κατάλογος της έκθεσης. 2d ed. Athens: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A lavishly illustrated catalogue of the exhibition on Sindos, with a profusion of archaic and early classical artefacts, many of them in gold (such as the funerary masks).

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                  • Vokotopoulou, Ioulia, Ioakeim A. Papangelos, and Euangelia Kampouri, eds. 2002. Χαλκιδική. Ormylia, Greece: Iero Koinovio tes Theotokou.

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                    A scholarly, lavishly illustrated, collectable coffee-table volume on the history and culture of the Chalcidic peninsula through the ages.

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                  • Zahrnt, Michael. 1971. Olynth und die Chalkidier: Untersuchungen zur Staatenbildung auf der Chalkidischen Halbinsel im 5. und 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Vestigia 14. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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                    The authoritative work on the topography, institutions, and history of the cities of the Chalcidic peninsula.

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                  Eastern Macedonia

                  The works listed comprise monographs, such as Collart 1937 and Liampi 2005, and archaeological guides, such as Lazaridis 1993.

                  Prehistoric to Early Classical Macedonia (Second Half of the 7th Millenium to 360 BCE)

                  Our knowledge of early Macedonia is limited because of the scarcity of available sources. Until the classical period, we dispose only of passing or fragmentary references to mythological figures, genealogies, and settlements. Random archaeological finds could not effectively supplement such lacunae. Only very recently have archaeological discoveries become sufficiently abundant as to allow, in combination with linguistic and onomastic data, a partial reconstruction of the demographic, political, and cultural conditions that prevailed in the Old Kingdom and upper Macedonia in Archaic times. Evidence is forthcoming from the Persian Wars onward and becomes more and more abundant down to the reign of Alexander the Great. General works on archaic and early classical Macedonia, besides general histories of the kingdom, include a handbook of Macedonian prehistory (Heurtley 1939); a couple of monographs (Geyer 1930 and Borza 1992); an important article (Edson 1970); and a monograph on the Chalcidic League, the rival state of the Macedonian kingdom (Psoma 2001).

                  • Borza, Eugene. 1992. In the shadow of Olympus: The emergence of Macedon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                    An ambitious attempt to reconstruct the early history of Macedonia before Alexander the Great as that of a non-Greek-speaking Balkan nation has been partly outdated by later discoveries.

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                  • Edson, Charles F. 1970. Early Macedonia. Paper presented at the First International Symposium at Thessaloniki’s Institute for Balkan Studies. In Αρχαία Μακεδονία 1 (Ἀνακοινώσεις κατὰ τὰ πρω̑το διεθνές συμπόσιο ἐν Θεσσαλονίκη, 26–29 Αὐγούστου 1968). Edited by Vasilios Laourdas and Charalambos Makaronas, 17–44. Hetaireia Makedonikon Spudon 122. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies.

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                    Seminal article by the American pioneer of Macedonian studies. A rare combination of deep knowledge of literary and epigraphic sources and of a firsthand experience on the Macedonian landscape, both of which make the reading of this paper mandatory.

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                  • Geyer, Fritz. 1930. Makedonien bis zur Thronbesteigung Philipps II. Historischen Zeitschrift 19. Munich and Berlin: R. Oldenbourg.

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                    A balanced account of the history of Macedonia before Philip II, still useful in spite of its date of publication.

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                  • Heurtley, W. A. 1939. Prehistoric Macedonia: An archaeological reconnaissance of Greek Macedonia (west of Struma) in the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron ages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    A publication of the excavations and soundings in Chalcidike, central and western Macedonia (Part 1), of the material culture (Part 2) with a catalogue of finds and plates (Part 3), complemented by appendices on mining and a skeleton study from Neolithic Servia.

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                  • Psoma, Selene. 2001. Olynthe et les Chalcidiens de Thrace: Études de numismatique et d’histoire. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

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                    A history of the Chalcidic League and of its relation to the kingdom of Macedonia based on a thorough study of its coinage.

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                  Foundation and Political and Social Organization

                  The early institutional history of Macedonia is hardly known because of the lack of adequate evidence. One must have recourse to specialized articles, such as Zahrnt 1984; general treatises on the institutions of the Macedonian kingdom, such as Hammond 1989 and Hatzopoulos 1996 (see Institutions); or to monographs on the Chalcidic league, such as Zahrnt 1971.

                  • Hammond, Nicholas G. L. 1989. The Macedonian state: Origins, institutions, and history. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                    This follow-up to the same author’s monumental History of Macedonia is a historical rather than a systematic approach to Macedonian institutions. Written at a time of continuous epigraphic discoveries, it could not have incorporated all the important evidence that has recently come to light.

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                  • Zahrnt, Michael. 1971. Olynth und die Chalkidier: Undersuchungen zur Staatenbildung auf der Chalkidischen Halbinsel im 5. und 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Vestigia 14. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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                    The authoritative work on the topography, institutions, and history of the cities of the Chalcidic peninsula.

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                  • Zahrnt, Michael. 1984. Die Entwicklung des makedonischen Reiches bis zu den Perserkriegen. Chiron 14:325–368.

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                    An ambitious reconstruction of the expansion and evolution of the Macedonian kingdom from the earliest times to the Persian wars.

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                  Economy

                  Little is known of the economy of Macedonia before Philip II. Relevant information can be found in the volumes already cited in the overview to this section of the bibliography, and in works on the coinage of the Macedonian kingdom and the adjacent areas, such as Raymond 1953.

                  • Raymond, Doris. 1953. Macedonian regal coinage to 413 BC. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 126. New York: American Numismatic Society.

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                    The study aims to assemble a corpus as complete as possible of Macedonian regal coins and to arrange them in a coherent order. It is based on the author’s dissertation, which encompassed a survey of all Macedonian regal coinage from Alexander I to Philip II. This book, however, ends with the coinage of Perdikkas II.

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                  Religion

                  There is no word for “religion” in ancient Greek. The ancient Greeks had beliefs concerning supernatural powers and celebrated cults, while the Greek states entertained relations based on common beliefs and practices. A reference book such as that by Baege 1913 has not been replaced, but new ground has been broken by innovative works, such as Mari 2002 in the field of the relations between the kingdom of Macedonia and the major Panhellenic sanctuaries, and by Hatzopoulos 1994 in the study of cults specifically aimed at the transition of the young Macedonians from childhood to adolescence and manhood.

                  • Baege, Werner. 1913. De Macedonum sacris. Dissertationes Philologicae Halenses 22.1. Halle, Germany: Niemeyer.

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                    A still useful collection of literary, epigraphic, and numismatic evidence on the cults of Macedonia.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades, B. 1994. Cultes et rites de passage en Macédoine. Meletēmata 19. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A study on some obscure and little-understood cults of Artemis, Demeter, Xanthos, Dionysus, Herakles, and the Mother of Gods, all connected with the passage from one age to another according to the Greek system of age classes.

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                  • Mari, Manuela. 2002. Al di là dell’ Olimpo: Macedoni e grandi santuari della Grecia dall’ età arcaica al primo ellenismo. Meletēmata 34. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A thorough study of the relations between the Macedonian state and its citizens and the major Greek sanctuaries.

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                  Archaeology

                  The archaeological finds of prehistoric and early classical Macedonia are especially important and have recently enriched our knowledge on domestic and funerary topics. Archaeology is the tool for the reconstruction of past cultures, and through the studies listed below Macedonian society acquires flesh and bone from the prehistoric to historic times. Studies on bioarchaeology have also appeared.

                  Prehistoric

                  A selection of archaeological studies on prehistoric Macedonia includes Aslanis 1992; Chrysostomou, et al. 2007; Grammenos 1997; Grammenos and Kotsos 2004; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki, et al. 2008; Papadopoulos 2002, Treuil 1992; Triantaphyllou 2001; and Tsirtsoni 2001.

                  • Aslanis, Ioannis. 1992. Η προϊστορία της Μακεδονίας. Vol. 1., Η νεολιθική εποχή. Athens: Kardamitsas.

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                    An up-to-date, thorough study of the Neolithic period in Macedonia that includes chapters on the geomorphology and climatic conditions, the human presence before the Neolithic era, the Neolithic settlements (stratigraphy, pottery production, architecture, dating), the relations between the settlements (organization, religion, burial customs), and a synthetic final catalogue of the Neolithic sites in Macedonia with their bibliography.

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                  • Chrysostomou, Pavlos, Ioannis Aslanis, and Anastasia Chrysostomou. 2007. Αγροσυκιά, ένας οικισμός των προϊστορικών και ιστορικών χρόνων. Beroia and Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A publication of the site of Agrosykia (Pella prefecture) from the Neolithic period to the late 5th century CE.

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                  • Grammenos, Dimitrios. 1997. Νεολιθική Μακεδονία. Archaiologikon Deltion. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    The first part of this book focuses on the excavation at the site of Demetra (Serres) between 1978 and 1980. The second part is a compilation of various studies on questions concerning the neolithic period in Macedonia, which range from Neolithic metallurgy and writing to demography.

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                  • Grammenos, Dimitrios, and S. Kotsos. 2004. Σωστικές ανασκαφές στο νεολιθικό οικισμό Σταυρούπολης Θεσσαλονίκης. 2 vols. Thessaloniki, Greece: Archaeological Institute of Northern Greece.

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                    A two-volume publication of the rescue excavations at the Neolithic settlement of Stavroupolis (Thessalonica) with appendices and separate studies on the pottery; the use of birch bark tar; organic remains; and stone, bone, and faunal artifacts.

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                  • Koukouli-Chrysanthaki, Chaido, Dimitria Malamidou, René Treuil, and Laurent Lespez. 2008. Dikili Tash: Village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale: Recherches franco-helléniques dirigées par la Société Archéologique d’Athènes et l’Ecole Française d’Athènes (1986–2001). Vivliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 254. Paris: de Boccard.

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                    A publication on the prehistoric site of Dikili Tash (Philippi) that focuses on the excavations of the Archaeological Society at Athens and the French School at Athens from 1986 to 2001. This volume presents the results of the later excavations on the site, while Treuil 1992 presents the results of earlier excavations.

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                  • Papadopoulos, Stratis. 2002. Η μετάβαση από τη νεολιθική στην εποχή του χαλκού στην Ανατολική Μακεδονία: Η κεραμική διαφοροποίηση. Archaiologikon Deltion/Demosieumata 82. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    Papadopoulos studies the break in the production of painted wares in the 4th millenium BCE and the transition (or cultural change) from the Neolithic Age to the Bronge Age; clarifies the term “Chalcolithic”; deals with the geographical space, settlement patterns, and economic practices adopted by settlements; and discusses society and ideology.

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                  • Treuil, René. 1992. Dikili Tash, village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale. Vol. 1, Fouille de Jean Deshayes (1961–1975). Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Supplement 24. Athens, Greece: French School at Athens.

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                    A monograph on the prehistoric site of Dikili Tash that focuses on the excavations of Jean Deshayes from 1961 to 1975.

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                  • Triantaphyllou, Sevi. 2001. A Bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from central and western Greek Macedonia. BAR International series 976. Oxford: John and Erica Hedges.

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                    Triantaphyllou’s dissertation (University of Sheffield, UK) studies a series of transformations referring to different types of settlement and spatial organization at the inter- and intrasite level, respectively; substinence patterns; differential management of agricultural resources and stock raising; as well as differential production; consumption; and distribution of pottery, metal, bone, and other artifacts. The principal aims of the thesis were to explore aspects of biological quality of life held by the prehistoric populations and to shed light on population subgroups.

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                  • Tsirtsoni, Zoi. 2001. Les poteries du début du Néolithique récent en Macédoine. Vol. 1, Les types de récipients. Athens, Greece: French School at Athens.

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                    A study of more than seven hundred excavated vases from around ten sites in Macedonia and dated to the beginning of the Late Neolithic period. It is a thorough study of manufacture, shapes, methods of finishings, and decoration.

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                  Iron Age to Early Classical

                  A selection of studies on Iron Age and Early Classical Macedonia includes Andronikos 1969, Kaltsas 1998, Kephalidou 2009, and Rhomiopoulou and Touratsoglou 2002.

                  • Andronikos, Manolis. 1969. Βεργίνα. Vol. 1, Τὸ νεκροταφει̑ο τω̑ν τύμβων. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    A publication of the cemetery of tumuli between the modern villages of Vergina and Palatitsia dated to the Early Ιron Αge and Ηellenistic times. This volume by the major excavator of Vergina provides important information on the early history of the site and the origins and customs of its inhabitants since the late 11th century BCE.

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                  • Kaltsas, Nikolaos. 1998. Άκανθος. Vol. 1, Η ανασκαφή στο νεκροταφείο κατά το 1979. Demosieumata tou Archaiologikou Deltiou 65. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the cemetery at Akanthos that dates from the 7th to the 4th centuries BCE.

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                  • Kephalidou, Evrydiki. 2009. Ασώματα: Ένα αρχαϊκό νεκροταφείο στην Ημαθία. Thessaloniki, Greece: Ekdotikos Oikos Adelphon Kyriakide.

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                    A publication of the layout, the burial customs, and the finds from the archaic cemetery at Asomata (Emathia).

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                  • Rhomiopoulou, Katerina, and Ioannis Touratsoglou. 2002. Μίεζα: Νεκροταφείο υστεροαρχαϊκών και πρώιμων ελληνιστικών χρόνων. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the cemetery at Kamara (Naousa at Emathia) from the last quarter of the 6th century to the late 4th century BCE with a useful overview of the historical events that took place during that period.

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                  Late Classical to Hellenistic Macedonia (360–168 BCE)

                  The period extending from the middle of the 4th to the first third of the 2nd century BCE is that of the heyday of ancient Macedonia. The wealth and the political and military power achieved by the conquests of Philip II and Alexander the Great secured for Macedonia a hegemonic position in the Greek peninsula and rendered it a world center of art and culture. A collective volume (Ginouvès and Hatzopoulos 1993) and two symposia (Adams and Borza 1982 and Barr-Sharrar and Borza 1982) offer an adequate overview of that period.

                  • Adams, Lindsay W., and Eugene N. Borza. 1982. Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Macedonian heritage. Papers presented at a symposium held at the Art Institute of Chicago, 5–6 June 1981. Washington, DC: Univ. Press of America.

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                    Proceedings of a symposium convened at Chicago on the occasion of the exhibition titled “The Search for Alexander” offers a first historical evaluation of the new image of Macedonia resulting from the sensational discoveries of Manolis Andronikos, but also extending into aspects of the Hellenistic period.

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                  • Barr-Sharrar, Beryl, and Eugene Borza, eds. 1982. Macedonia and Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic times. Papers presented at a symposium at the National Gallery of Art, 14–15 November 1980. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art.

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                    Proceedings of a symposium that took place in Washington on the occasion of the exhibition “The Search for Alexander” at the National Gallery, focused mainly on the innovative contribution of the discoveries at Vergina to the history of Late Classical and Hellenistic art.

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                  • Ginouvès, René, and Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, eds. 1993. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman conquest. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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                    A volume aimed to “please lovers of fine books and fine pictures, be of use to teachers and students, offer an accessible synthesis to curious readers and make available to researchers as much factual and bibliographical information as possible, particularly with regard to recent discoveries” (preface, 9). An excellent introductory volume for Macedonian researchers.

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                  • Petsas, Photios. 1961–1962. Ἀνασκαφὴ ἀρχαίου νεκροταφείου Βεργίνης (1960/1961). Archaiologikon Deltion 17, part A: 218–288.

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                    A publication of sixty-five out of seventy tumuli from the rescue excavation at the cemetery of Vergina. Seven tumuli are completely or partially prehistoric; the remaining date to the early Hellenistic period.

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                  History

                  Most of the works on the history of the Late Classical and Hellenistic periods take the form of monographs devoted to kings.

                  Late Classical

                  A selection of historical studies on Late Classical Macedonia includes Briant 1973, Cawkwell 1978, Ellis 1976, and Hammond 1994.

                  Hellenistic

                  Buraselis 1982 covers the maritime policies of the Macedonian kings of the Hellenistic period. Edson 1934 and Edson 1935 are two important articles on the origins of the Antigonid dynasty and on the trustworthiness of Polybius’s treatment of Philip V and Perseus, respectively, both of which must be included in the main bibliography on Macedonian history of that period. A selection of historical studies on Hellenistic Macedonia includes Gattinoni Landucci 2003, Le Bohec 1993, Meloni 1953, Tarn 1913, and Walbank 1967.

                  • Buraselis, Kostas. 1982. Das hellenistische Makedonien und die Ägäis: Forschungen zur Politik des Kassandros und der drei ersten Antigoniden im Ägäischen Meer und in Westkleinasien. Münchener Beiträge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte 73. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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                    A study of the maritime policy of Cassander, Antigonos the One-eyed, Demetrios Poliorcetes, and Antigonos Gonatas and of their relations with the Aegean islands and the cities of western Asia Minor.

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                  • Edson, Charles F. 1934. The Antigonids, Heracles, and Beroia. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45:213–246.

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                    An exemplary interpretation of literary and epigraphic evidence that establishes the origin of the Antigonid dynasty.

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                  • Edson, Charles F. 1935. Perseus and Demetrius. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 46:191–202.

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                    A pioneer study on Polybius’s biased treatment of Macedonian affairs that led to the Third Macedonian War.

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                  • Gattinoni Landucci, Franca. 2003. L’arte del potere: Vita e opere di Cassandro di Macedonia. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

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                    A monograph on a Macedonian king who was the restorer of the “national” Macedonian kingdom out of Alexander’s multiethnic empire, but whose importance had not been sufficiently appreciated. It advantageously replaces an older monograph by Marcello Fortina, Cassandro re di Macedonia (Turin, Italy: Società Editrice Internazionale, 1965).

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                  • Le Bohec, Sylvie. 1993. Antigone Dôsôn roi de Macédoine. Études Anciennes 9. Nancy, France: Presses Universitaires de Nancy.

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                    A thorough monograph on Antigonos Doson written before important epigraphic evidence on that king had come to light.

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                  • Meloni, Piero. 1953. Perseo e la fine della monarchia macedone. Annali delle Facoltà di lettere e filosofia e di magistero 20. Rome: L’ Erma di Bretschneider.

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                    An exhaustive study of Perseus’s reign that has still not been replaced.

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                  • Tarn, William W. 1913. Antigonos Gonatas. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                    An exemplary monograph on Antigonos Gonatas, which achieved the ambitious aim of composing a global image of Macedonia from all sorts of available sources in the very poorly documented first half of the 3rd century.

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                  • Walbank, Frank W. 1967. Philip V of Macedon. Hamden, CT: Archon.

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                    An exhaustive monograph on Philip V, which is still indispensable, although a wealth of epigraphic documents recently discovered have revolutionized our knowledge about Macedonia during his reign. Originally published 1940 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press).

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                  Social, Political, and Military Organization

                  Besides studies devoted to Macedonian institutions through the ages and recorded in previous sections, there are two monographs (Billows 1990 and Billows 1995) specifically examining the origins and development of Macedonian imperialism and the role of Antigonos the One-Eyed in the creation of the states that we collectively call “Hellenistic kingdoms.” Two other monographs (Hatzopoulos 2001 and Liampi 1998) deal with various aspects of the Macedonian army organization. Rizakis and Touratsoglou 2000 (cited under Religion) is a useful overview for the type of inscriptions and funerary monuments of upper Macedonia.

                  • Billows, Richard. 1990. Antigonos the One-Eyed and the creation of the Hellenistic state. Hellenistic Culture and Society 4. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                    A monograph on the biography of Antigonos the One-Eyed, with appendices on his administration, cultural policies, and prosopography of his friends and subordinates. This study is fully devoted to one of the greatest successors of Alexander the Great, responsible for important and lasting achievements in spite of his final defeat.

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                  • Billows, Richard. 1995. Kings and colonists: Aspects of Macedonian imperialism. Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 22. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill.

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                    This monograph examines the policies of the Macedonian kings that led them to a hegemonic position in Greece and to the conquest of the East, and the practices used for the administration and colonization of the newly acquired territories.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 2001. L’organisation de l’armée macédonienne sous les Antigonides: Problèmes anciens et documents nouveaux. Meletēmata 30. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    The significant number of inscriptions pertaining to the Macedonian Army that has recently come to light has necessitated a reexamination in the form of a monograph of all of the literary and epigraphic evidence available.

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                  • Liampi, Katerini. 1998. Der Makedonische Schild. Bonn, Germany: R. Habelt.

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                    A thorough study of the Macedonian shield both as a weapon and as a “national” symbol.

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                  Economy

                  Until recently, the economy of Hellenistic Macedonia had not been the object of a thorough study comparable to the now-outdated pages in Rostovtzeff 1972. Two monographs (Le Rider 1977 and Le Rider 1996), two overlapping articles (Faraguna 1998 and Faraguna 2006) on the Late Classical and Hellenistic Macedonian economy, and Touratsoglou 1998 on the presence of gold in Hellenistic Macedonia have partially filled this gap.

                  • Faraguna, Michele. 1998. Aspetti amministrativi e finanziari della monarchia macedone tra IV e III secolo a. C. Athenaeum 86.2: 349–395.

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                    A thorough study of Macedonian administration and economy in the 4th and earlier part of the 3rd century. Its author had not been able to take into account the new epigraphic evidence on which Hatzopoulos 1996 (cited under Institutions) is based in the part devoted to administration.

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                  • Faraguna, Michele. 2006. L’economia della Macedonia ellenistica: Un bilancio. In Approches de l’économie hellénistique. Entretiens d’archéologie et d’histoire 7. Edited by J. M. Descat, 121–146. Paris: Musée archéologique de Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges.

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                    A sequel to Faraguna 1998 covering the reigns of Philip V and Perseus, with a good collection of data, but with questionable interpretations in several cases.

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                  • Le Rider, Georges. 1977. Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 à 294. Paris: Bourgey.

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                    The fundamental study of the gold and silver coinage of Philip II. A masterpiece of numismatics.

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                  • Le Rider, Georges. 1996. Monnayage et finances de Philippe II: Un état de la question. Meletēmata 23. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A thorough reconsideration of Philip II’s coinage and financial policies on the basis of recent discoveries and new interpretations.

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                  • Rostovtzeff, Mikhail. 1972. The social and economic history of the Hellenistic world. 2d ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                    Originally published 1941. The now-outdated relevant pages that focus on Macedonian economy discuss the structure of Macedonian society, the distribution of cities and wealth among generals, the circulation of coins, the commercial relations with Rhodes and Delos (Vol. 1, pp. 250–255), the economic policies of Philip and Perseus (Vol. 2, pp. 632–634), and the formation of the Roman province of Macedonia and its economic impact (Vol. 2, pp. 757–764).

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                  • Touratsoglou, Ioannis. 1998. Dated gold: The evidence from Hellenistic Macedonia. In The Art of the Greek Goldsmith. Edited by Dyfri Williams, 30–38. London: British Museum Press.

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                    Overview of the jewelry found in Macedonia in an attempt to form upper and lower termini with the use of the chronologies provided by coins found in sealed funerary groups from the time of Alexander the Great down to and including the reign of Cassander. The study includes wreaths, shield-discs, bracelets, buttons, rings, earrings, necklaces, Illyrian pins, and bow-shaped fibulae.

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                  Law

                  The understudied topic of ancient law is quite recently augmented by studies that focus on the epigraphical material concerning the education of the ephebes, and royal donations and sales of houses.

                  • Gauthier, Philip, and Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos. 1993. La loi gymnasiarchique de Béroia. Meletēmata 16. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    An edition, French translation, and commentary of the 173-line gymnasiarchical law from Beroia, followed by a study of the gymnasium of Beroia.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 1988a. Actes de vente de la Chalcidique Centrale. Meletēmata 6. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    An edition and French translation of and commentary on six deeds of sale from central Chalcidice, a re-edition of two previously published deeds from Olynthos followed by a study of the origins of the Chalcidians of Thrace, the location of Stolos and Polichne, and, finally, the chronology of the deeds of sale of the Chalcidic League.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 1988b. Une donation du roi Lysimaque. Meletēmata 5. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    This study is an edition and French translation of and detailed commentary on a donation of estates by King Lysimachos found at Kassandreia, a re-edition of a previously published donation by King Cassander and of two other documents from the Chalcidic peninsula. It is followed by two appendices on a decree of Potidaia and the provenance of inscriptions found at the village of Hagios Mamas.

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                  • Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. 1991. Actes de vente d’Amphipolis. Meletēmata 14. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    An edition or re-edition and translation of and commentary on twelve deeds of sale from Amphipolis, followed by a study of the process of integration of Amphipolis into the Macedonian kingdom, as this is revealed by these documents.

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                  • Youni, Maria. 1991. Ωναί Μακεδονίας Ι. Αγοραπωλησίες ακινήτων σε μακεδονικές επιγραφές του 4ου και 3ου π. Χ. αιώνα. Επιστημονική Επετηρίδα του Δ. Σ. Θ. Αρμενόπουλος 12:25–50.

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                    A useful collection of and commentary on the deeds of sale found in Macedonia.

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                  Religion

                  Religious phenomena are rarely chronologically limited in a precise manner and usually span a long period of time. The works mentioned under Religion in the previous chronological section bear also on the same subject in this one. Besides these, it is worth mentioning Lilimbaki-Akamati 2000 on the cults of Aphrodite and the Mother of Gods at Pella and Rizakis and Touratsoglou 2000 on a thorough overview of death in Macedonia from the Classical period to the Roman period.

                  • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria. 2000. Το ιερὸ της Μητέρας των Θεών και της Αφροδίτης στην Πέλλα. Thessaloniki, Greece: Ministry of Culture, IZ Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

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                    This volume on the Sanctuary of the Mother of Gods and Aphrodite with a thorough presentation of the clay figurines is an important study for our knowledge of religion at Pella.

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                  • Rizakis, Athanasios D., and Ioannis Touratsoglou. 2000. Mors Macedonica: Ὁ θάνατος στὰ ἐπιτύμβια μνημει̑α τη̑ς Ἄνω Μακεδονίας. Archaiologike Ephimeris 139:237–281.

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                    An important article for the understanding of death in ancient Macedonia of the Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman eras. It gives an excellent overview of the format of the inscriptions, the heroization of the dead, the glossary of the monuments, the responsibilities of the relatives, the Latin inscriptions, the epigrams, and the iconography.

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                  Archaeology

                  Hellenistic Macedonia has over the last twenty-five years revealed itself through excavations and the subsequent study of the rich material unearthed from funerary and domestic assemblages. These studies written by the excavators of the material are presented below and cover a wide range of interests from tomb architecture to domestic architecture, pottery, wall-painting, furniture, and cults. Although funerary assemblages take the first role in publications, studies on specific funerary finds that bear a unique interest are also available.

                  Domestic

                  The study of domestic archaeology and architecture has grown over the last two decades and has gained the interest of scholars working on Macedonia. A selection of monographs includes Andrianou 2009 on furniture, Andronikos 1961 on the palace of Vergina, and Makaronas-Giouri 1989 on two houses at Pella.

                  • Andrianou, Dimitra. 2009. The furniture and furnishings of ancient Greek houses and tombs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    A synthetic study of the furniture and furnishings from domestic and funerary assemblages of Greece (mainly from Macedonia). The study focuses on the material culture of excavated finds, but thoroughly presents visual, literary, and epigraphical sources on the subject.

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                  • Andronikos, Manolis, Ch. Makaronas, and G. Bakalakis. 1961. Τὸ ἀνάκτορο τη̑ς Βεργίνας. Athens, Greece: K. Tziropoulos.

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                    A preliminary and brief publication of the excavations held at the Palace of Vergina between 1954 and 1956 by Ch. Makaronas and 1959–1961 by G. Bakalakis and M. Andronikos. This edition is celebrating one hundred years of excavations at the palace.

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                  • Makaronas, Charalambos, and Evgenia Giouri. 1989. Οἱ οἰκίες τη̑ς Ἁρπαγη̑ς τη̑ς Ἑλένης καὶ του̑ Διονύσου τη̑ς Πέλλας. Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 109. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    A study of the House of the Abduction of Helen and the House of Dionysos at Pella, dated to the last quarter of the 4th century BCE. The study analyzes the architecture and the mosaics of these establishments.

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                  Funerary in Vergina

                  These sources report on archeological findings in Vergina.

                  • Andronikos, Manolis. 1976. Ἀνασκαφή στὴ Μεγάλη Τούμπα τη̑ς Βεργίνας. Archaiologika Analekta ex Athenon 9:123–130.

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                    An archaeological report of the excavations at Vergina and the emergence of the inscribed stelai at the Great Tumulus that verified (1) the violent destruction of the tumulus in the beginning of the 3rd century BCE and (2) Hammond’s proposition that Aigeai should be identified with modern Vergina. These stelai were further studied in Saatsoglou-Paliadeli 1984(cited under Geographical Corpora). The royal tombs under the tumulus were unearthed in 1977.

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                  • Andronikos, Manolis. 1984. Βεργίνα: Οἱ βασιλικοὶ τάφοι καὶ οἱ ἄλλες ἀρχαιότητες. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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                    A fully illustrated publication of the history and archaeology of the royal tombs and the civic buildings at Vergina. This volume remains a great source of the finds from the royal tombs, since it includes photographs and brief descriptions of objects that still await a more detailed, scholarly publication.

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                  • Andronikos, Manolis. 1994. Βεργίνα. Vol. 2, Ὁ τάφος τη̑ς Περσεφόνης. Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 138. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    A publication of the tomb with the exceptional painting of the Abduction of Persephone by Hades, dated to the third quarter of the 4th century BCE.

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                  • Andronikos, Manolis. 1997. Τὸ χρονικὸ τη̑ς Βεργίνας, Ἡ Βεργίνα καὶ τὰ εὑρήματά της. 2 vols. Athens, Greece: National Bank of Greece.

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                    Α superbly written “diary” of the events that led to the discovery of the Vergina tumulus with the royal tombs. The book is not actually a “diary,” since Manolis Andronikos, the chief excavator of Vergina, writes his thoughts and imprints his feelings by memory. The “diary” stops in 1978, after the discovery of the Tomb of the Prince. The narrative balances discovery and scholarship with the feelings of the excavator before his discovery in a unique and moving way. The second volume, titled Ἡ Βεργίνα καὶ τὰ εὑρήματά της, contains fourteen loose plates with the illustations of the finds.

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                  • Drougou, Stella, et al. 1994. Vergina: The great tumulus. Thessaloniki, Greece: Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki.

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                    An illustrated guide in Greek and English on the Great Tumulus and the three royal tombs at Vergina with an appendix comprising the most elaborate finds (the paintings, the chryselephantine klinai, the armor, the pottery, and metal vessels).

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                  • Kyriakou, Athanasia. 2008. Η στενόμακρη τούμπα της Βεργίνας: Ταφικές πρακτικές στη Μακεδονία του 4ου αι. π.Χ. Athens, Greece: K. Sfakianaki.

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                    A study of the burial mound to the northwest of the Iron Age cemetery at Vergina that covered three looted tombs. The tombs are dated to the middle of the 4th century BCE. This study is based on the author’s 1999 doctoral dissertation.

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                  • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria, and Angeliki Kottaridi. 2003. Το Μουσείο των Βασιλικών Τάφων των Αιγών: Αναζητώντας την χαμένη μνήμη. Vergina, Greece: IZ Ephorate for Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

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                    A fully illustrated guide of the Museum of the Royal Tombs at Aigeai.

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                  • Rhomaios, Constantinos. 1951. Ὁ μακεδονικὸς τάφος τη̑ς Βεργίνας. Makedonike Vivliotheke 14. Athens, Greece: Institute for Macedonian Studies.

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                    A publication of the Macedonian tomb (known in later bibliography as “Rhomaios’ Tomb”) situated close to Vergina and excavated in 1938. The tomb housed an elaborate throne and a kline; it is dated to the beginning of the 3rd century BCE.

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                  • Saatsoglou-Paliadeli, Chrysoula. 2004. Ὁ τάφος του̑ Φιλίππου: Ἡ τοιχογραφία μὲ τὸ κυνήγι. Vivliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 231. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    This publication of Philip’s Tomb and its famous painting with the royal hunt focuses on the presentation of the monument, a detailed analysis of the wall painting (its meaning, significance, and dating) and, finally, a discussion of the proposed painter.

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                  Funerary in Derveni

                  These sources report on archeological findings in Derveni.

                  • Barr-Sharrar, Beryl. 2008. The Derveni krater: Masterpiece of Classical Greek metalwork. Ancient Art and Architecture in Context 1. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

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                    A detailed, fully illustrated volume of the krater found at Derveni. Three chapters of the book deal with the significance and the origin of the krater’s complex iconography with an attempt to place it in historical and artistic perspective. This book complements Eugenia Giouri 1979 (cited under Archaeology: Domestic, a dissertation on the krater (University of Thessaloniki).

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                  • Themelis, Petros, Ioannis Touratsoglou, Dimitra Aktseli, et al. 1997. Οι τάφοι του Δερβενίου. Dimosieumata tou Archaiologikou Deltiou 59. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the cemetery at Derveni dated to the later part of the 4th century BCE.

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                  Funerary in Pella

                  These sources report on archeological findings in Pella.

                  • Chrysostomou, Pavlos. 1998. Μακεδονικοί Τάφοι Πέλλας. Vol. 2, Ο ασύλητος. Thessaloniki, Greece.

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                    A publication of the unlooted Macedonian tomb at Pella.

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                  • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria. 1994. Λαξευτοί θαλαμωτοί τάφοι Πέλλας. Demosieumata tou Archaiologikou Deltiou 53. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A thorough publication of the rock-cut chamber tombs at Pella that focuses on their architecture and finds with a chapter devoted to the technique, typology, and iconography of the pottery vessels and figurines. The study includes a brief mention of the tombs found outside Macedonia and outside Greece. The rock-cut chamber tomb of Marina (Naousa) is presented in the appendix.

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                  • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria. 2007. Κιβωτιόσχημος τάφος με ζωγραφική διακόσμηση από την Πέλλα. Thessaloniki, Greece: Ministry of Culture.

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                    The study of the architecture and exceptional painted decoration of a 4th-century cist-grave at Pella.

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                  • Lilimbaki-Akamati, Maria. 2008. Ο πολυθάλαμος τάφος της Πέλλας. Thessaloniki, Greece: Ministry of Culture, IZ Ephorate of Antiquities.

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                    A publication of the cist-grave with the exceptional painted decoration from Pella. This is one of the largest tombs of the kind found to date.

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                  Funerary in Beroia

                  These sources report on archeological findings in Beroia.

                  • Drougou, Stella, and Ioannis Touratsoglou. 1980. Ἑλληνιστικοὶ λαξευτοὶ τάφοι Βεροίας. Demosieumata tu Archaiologiku Deltiu 28. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the architecture, pottery, and burial customs of five chamber tombs at Beroia, dated to the end of the 3rd to after the middle of the 2nd century BCE.

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                  • Rhomiopoulou, Katerina. 2000. Εὑρήματα ἀπὸ τοὺς δίδυμους Μακεδονικούς τάφους τη̑ς Βέροιας. In Α’ Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστική Κεραμική, Πρακτικά, Ιωάννινα 6 Δεκεμβρίου 1986, Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. 2d ed. Edited by Angeliki Giannikouri and Melina Philimonos, 33–48. Ioannina, Greece: Dodecanese Archaeological Institute.

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                    An article about a closed funerary group of finds from three tombs at Beroia dated to the 4th, 3rd, and 2nd centuries BCE. Of particular interest is the architectural layout of two of these tombs (of Macedonian type) that were built simultaneously.

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                  Funerary in Akanthos

                  This source reports on archeological findings in Akanthos.

                  • Kaltsas, Nikolaos. 1998. Aκανθος Ι: Η ανασκαφή στο νεκροταφείο κατά το 1979. Demosieumata tu Archaiologiku Deltiu 65. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the excavations at the cemetery of the Andrian colony of Akanthos (eastern Chalkidice) with remains that extent from the 7th to the 4th centuries BCE and occasionally the Roman era.

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                  Funerary in Nikesiani

                  This source reports on archeological findings in Nikesiani.

                  • Lazaridis, Dimitrios, Katerina Rhomiopoulou, and Ioannis Touratsoglou. 1992. Ὁ τύμβος τη̑ς Νικήσιανης. Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    A publication of the tumulus at Nikisiani (north of Mount Pangaion) that contained at least seven tombs and is dated to the last quarter of the 4th century BCE.

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                  Funerary in Foinikas and Agios Athanasios

                  This source reports on archeological findings in Foinikas and Agios Athanasios.

                  • Tsimbidou-Avloniti, Maria. 2005. Μακεδονικοί Τάφοι στον Φοίνικα και στον Άγιο Αθανάσιο Θεσσαλονίκης. Demosieumata tu Archaiologiku Deltiu 91. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the Macedonian tombs at Phoinikas and Agios Athanasios at Thessalonica with the exceptional funerary paintings, dated to the last quarter of the 4th century BCE.

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                  Funerary in Aineia

                  This source reports on archeological findings in Vokotopoulou.

                  • Vokotopoulou, Ioulia. 1990. Οι ταφικοί τύμβοι της Αίνειας. Demosieumata tou Archaiologikou Deltiou. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the burial mounds at Aineia (Nea Michaniona, Thessalonica) with an English summary. These consist of two mounds of the late archaic and classical cemetery and belong to a city that extended to the nearby mound of Tampia. The excavation of the cemetery left no doubt as to the identification of the area known from literary and epigraphic sources as Aineia.

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                  Funerary in Lefkadia (Ancient Mieza)

                  These sources report on archeological findings in Lefkadia.

                  • Miller, Stella G. 1993. The tomb of Lyson and Kallikles: A painted Macedonian tomb. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philip von Zabern.

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                    A thorough publication of the architecture and painted decoration of the Macedonian tomb of Lyson and Kallikles with a concise overview of the architectural genre of the Macedonian tombs. This book touches on many questions concerning the origin and significance of the tomb type and specifics regarding mortuary practices and rituals.

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                  • Petsas, Photios. 1966. Ὁ τάφος τω̑ν Λευκαδίων. Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 57. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    A pioneer publication of the Lefkadia tomb (Naousa) with the exquisite painting of the Judgment, dated to the beginning of the 3rd century BCE.

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                  Funerary in Thessalonica

                  Rhomiopoulou 1986–1990 reports on archeological findings in Thessalonica.

                  • Rhomiopoulou, Katerina. 1986–1990. Κλειστὰ ταφικὰ σύνολα ὑστεροκλασικω̑ν χρόνων ἀπὸ τὴν Θεσσαλονίκη. In Φίλια ἔπη εἰς Γεώργιον Μυλωνα̑ν. Vol. 3. Edited by K. Dakari, 194–218. Athens, Greece: Athens Archaeological Society.

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                    An article on four closed funerary groups of finds from east and west Thessalonica (Stavroupolis and Kalamaria) dated to the Late Classical period. The findings of the tombs range from clay and metal pottery to armor, decorative inlays, jewelery, furniture, and a wreath.

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                  Pottery

                  A selection of studies on Hellenistic pottery from Macedonia includes Drougou 1991 and Drougou 2005.

                  • Drougou, Stella, ed. 1991. Ελληνιστική Κεραμική από τη Μακεδονία. Thessaloniki, Greece: Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki.

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                    A publication in Greek and English of the pottery found at Pydna, Vergina, Beroia, Pella, Edessa, Aiane, and Eordaia; a glossary of shapes and names; and a chronological table of various Hellenistic pottery shapes written by the main excavators of these sites. The aim of the publication is to “sketch out the character of pottery in Macedonia and to formulate a basic methodology for its study with pictures and drawings.”

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                  • Drougou, Stella. 2005. Βεργίνα: Τὰ πήλινα ἀγγει̑α τη̑ς Μεγάλης Τούμπας. Bibliotheke tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetaireias 237. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society of Athens.

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                    A publication of the pottery from the Great Tumulus at Vergina with a chapter on the burial customs and the other finds of the tombs. The importance of the book lies on the dating of the pottery vessels to the middle or the third quarter of the 4th century BCE, since this is a crucial aspect that affects the dating of other objects.

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                  Architecture

                  A selection of studies on Hellenistic architecture from Macedonia includes Drougou 1999, Gossel 1980, and Miller 1970.

                  • Drougou, Stella. 1999. Το αρχαίο θέατρο της Βεργίνας. Thessaloniki, Greece: Univ. Studio Press.

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                    A short guide in Greek on the ancient theatre of Vergina and its excavations with a brief chapter on the theatres in ancient Macedonia and a selective bibliography.

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                  • Gossel, Berthild. 1980. Makedonische Kammergräber. PhD diss., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität zu München.

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                    A dissertation on the Macedonian tomb structure and its individual architectural elements (tumulus, structure, façade, disposition of interior, painting and furniture) with a catalogue of 43 monuments.

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                  • Miller, Stella G. 1970. Hellenistic Macedonian architecture: Its style and painted ornamentation. PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College.

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                    The dissertation investigates whether a recognizable Macedonian style existed in the Hellenistic period. By isolating its components, this study determines both the stylistic antecedents of Macedonian architecture and the pattern of its own diffusion to other ancient places. It successfully proves that Macedonian architects increasingly regarded architectural elements as having a decorative rather than a structural function.

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                  Funerary Material Culture

                  Funerary material culture from Hellenistic Macedonia has been studied in the monographs of Daumas 2009 and Sismanidis 1997.

                  • Daumas, Michèle. 2009. L’or et le pouvoir: Armement scythe et mythes grecs. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Paris Ouest.

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                    An interesting study of Greek-Scythian art that focuses on the gorytos. One of the pieces analyzed is the gorytos found in the Tomb of Philip at Vergina (Aigeai). The author proposes a tentative interpretation of the scenes based on the now-lost Cyclic Epics Cypria and Epigoni and discusses the possible origin of the workshop. On iconographic grounds she suggests that what is depicted on the Macedonia gorytos is actually the battle between the Kabiroi and Epigonoi; it is thus associated with the Kabirian cult and possibly offered as a funerary gift to Philip by Seuthes III, an initiate of the Thracian cult.

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                  • Sismanidis, Kostas. 1997. Κλίνες και κλινοειδείς κατασκευές των Μακεδονικών τάφων. Demosieumata tou Archaiologikou Deltiou 58. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A thorough study of beds and bed-shaped structures of Macedonian tombs comes to fill a big gap in bibliography concerning ancient furniture and, in particular, furniture from Macedonia. Sismanidis’s study (on funerary remains) along with Andrianou 2009 (on domestic and funerary remains; see Archaeology: Domestic) are the only studies thus far fully devoted to ancient Macedonian furniture, and the most recent books on ancient furniture in general since Richter’s 1966 study Furniture of the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans (London: Phaidon).

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                  Painting

                  Hellenistic painting in Macedonia has recently been enriched by Brecoulaki 2006, a monograph on funerary painting.

                  • Brecoulaki, Harikleia. 2006. La peinture funeraire de Macédoine: Emplois et fonctions de la couleur IVe–IIe a. av. J.-C. 2 vols. Meletēmata 48. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A detailed study of the funerary paintings of Macedonia from the time of Philip II to that of Philip V. The book presents the funerary monuments that fall within this period along with a thorough exploration of the specific aspects of color, such as the choice of materials.

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                  Religion

                  Hellenistic religion is the focus of the Lilimbaki-Akamati 1996 monograph on the Thesmophorion at Pella.

                  Roman Period (168 BCE TO 565 CE)

                  Although excavations in Macedonia have for obvious reasons brought to light architectural remains and artefacts from the upper strata of occupation of the sites mostly dated in the Roman period, interest in these discoveries has until recently lagged behind. For this reason, there have been numerous reports on excavations at particular sites but relatively few scholarly works attempting a synthesis of the available data. Fanoula Papazoglou was the most eminent scholar who devoted her life to the study of Macedonia under the Romans. Her major contribution in this field was her article in the series Aufstieg und Untergang der römischen Welt (Papazoglou 1979) and her chapter in Macedonia: 4000 Years of Greek History and Civilization (Papazoglou 1983). These studies are recently followed by Sverkos 2000 and the superb picture book Zahrnt 2010, which gives a useful overview of the history and culture of the Roman province of Macedonia.

                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1979. Quelques aspects de l’histoire de la province de Macédoine. In Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt 2.7.1. Edited by Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase, 302–369. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

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                    A most valuable contribution examining the formation of the Roman province, listing the provincial governors and describing the reorganisation by Augustus, the territorial extension and the population, the armed forces and the local political units of the province.

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                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1983. Macedonia under the Romans. In Macedonia: 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Edited by Michael Sakellariou, 192–207. Greek Lands in History. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.

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                    A synthesis of the political and administrative history of Macedonia between 148 BCE and the late 3rd century CE, with special sections on economy, society, and intellectual life.

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                  • Sverkos, Ilias. 2000. Συμβολὴ στὴν ἱστορία τη̑ς Ἄνω Μακεδονίας τω̑ν ρωμαϊκω̑ν χρόνων (Πολιτικὴ Ὀργάνωση, Κοινωνία, Ἀνθρωπωνύμια). Thessaloniki, Greece: Enyaleion Klirodotima.

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                    The goals of this book, based on the author’s dissertation (Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Greece, 1997), are collection and historical evaluation of the epigraphical sources that pertain to the history of Upper Macedonia in the Imperial Roman era. The book incorporates several remarks on the political institutions of the cities or settlements, the social life, and the use of Greek and foreign historical names.

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                  • Zahrnt, Michael. 2010. Die Römer im Land Alexanders des Grossen, Geschichte der Provinzen Macedonia und Epirus. Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philip von Zabern Verlag.

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                    Α fully illustrated volume of the historical and cultural evolution of the Roman province of northern Greece (from Dodona to Thessalonica) from its foundation down to late antiquity.

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                  Political Organization

                  Studies on the political organization of the Roman province of Macedonia are still few in number and include the more specific topics of historical geography (Papazoglou 1988), Roman officials (Sarikakis 1971–1977), and an edict that concerns the history of Beroia (Nigdelis and Souris 2005)

                  • Nigdelis, Pantelis M., and Georgios A. Souris. 2005. Ἀνθύπατος λέγει: Ἕνα διάταγμα τω̑ν αὐτοκρατορικω̑ν χρόνων γιὰ τὸ γυμνάσιο τη̑ς Βέροιας. Tekmiria 1. Thessaloniki, Greece: Nomarchiaki Autodioikisi Imathias.

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                    Edition and detailed commentary on an edict, more than 120 lines long, on the finances of the gymnasium of Beroia, by a hitherto-unknown, early-2nd-century CE proconsul of Macedonia. A document important for our knowledge not only of the sociopolitical history of Beroia, but also of characteristics of the administration of the province.

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                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1988. Les Villes de la Macédoine à l’époque romaine. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Supplément 16. Athens, Greece: French School at Athens.

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                    An exemplary study of the historical geography of Macedonia under the Romans with a fully documented inventory of its cities.

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                  • Sarikakis, Theodoros. 1971–1977. Ρωμαι̑οι ἄρχοντες τη̑ς ἐπαρχίας Μακεδονίας. 2 vols. Makedoniki Vivliothiki 36, 51. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Macedonian Studies.

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                    This study deals with the Roman officials of the provincia Macedonia divided into two parts: Volume 1 deals with the officials between 148 and 27 BCE, and Volume 2, with the officials from 27 BCE to the time of Diocletian. The study is based on literary, epigraphic, and numismatic sources and categorizes the officials according to their dating and office. A separate list of “incerti” (the dubious officials) is also provided.

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                  Society

                  Societal studies have attracted more scientific interest, as the epigraphic studies on Roman names (Tataki 2006, Nigdelis 2009), the formation of Roman colonies (Papazoglou 1990, Rizakis 2002), and the research on civic elites (Bartels 2008) have advanced.

                  • Bartels, Jens. 2008. Städtische Eliten im römischen Makedonien: Untersuchungen zur Formierung und Struktur. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 242. Berlin: de Gruyter.

                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110209921Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    The study thoroughly investigates the criteria for the formation and structure of civic elites in Macedonia. It questions the meaning of wealth, ancestry, “εὐγένεια,” education, and their impact in the formation of civic elites.

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                  • Nigdelis, Pantelis M. 2009. Μία προσωπογραφία για τους Ρωμαίους της Μακεδονίας: Addenda και corrigenda. Egnatia 13:23–44.

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                    A review of Tataki 2006 with additions and corrections to the Roman names from Macedonia.

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                  • Papazoglou, Fanoula. 1990. La population des colonies romaines en Macédoine. Ziva Antika 40:111–124.

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                    This article focuses on the formation and character of four Roman colonies in Macedonia, namely Pella, Dion, Cassandreia, and Philippi after the battle of Actium. It examines the consequences of the implantation of the colonies for the indigenous population, the historical and political circumstances for their foundation and, finally, the synthesis—the social and judicial situation of the population after the establishment of the colony based on epigraphical sources.

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                  • Rizakis, Athanasios D. 2002. L’émigration romaine en Macédoine et la communauté marchande de Thessalonique: Perspectives économiques et sociales. In Les Italiens dans le monde grec IIe siècle av. J.-C. – Ier siècle ap. J.-C: Circulation, activités, integration; Actes de la table ronde, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris (14–16 Mai 1998). Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Supplement 41. Edited by Christel Müller and Claire Hasenohr, 109–132. Paris: De Boccard.

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                    Italian emigration to Macedonia fell into two phases: the first under the Republic and the second during the Empire. The study investigates the phenomenon, the means by which the colonists were integrated into the local society, and the origin of the emigrants.

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                  • Tataki, Argyro. 2006. The Roman presence in Macedonia: Evidence from personal names. Meletēmata 46. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    A complete catalogue, with prosopographic references, of all persons with a Roman name—whether praenomen, nomen, or cognomen—attested in Macedonia.

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                  Economy

                  Studies on Roman economy that pertain to the province of Macedonia deal with the coins of Dion (Kremydi-Sicilianou 2004, Kremydi-Sicilianou 1996) and the aspects of banking, investment, prices, rentals, wages, and cost of living in various provinces of Greece, including Macedonia (Larsen 1975).

                  • Kremydi-Sicilianou, Sophia. 1996. Η νομισματοκοπία της ρωμαϊκής αποικίας του Δίου. Vivliotheke tes Hellenikes Nomismatikes Hetaireias 4. Athens, Greece: Greek Numismatic Society.

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                    The study of 838 coins from the excavations at Dion that focuses on the presentation of the coins, their distribution, and their attribution to the mint of Dion. The study is based on the author’s doctoral thesis at the University of Thessaloniki.

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                  • Kremydi-Sicilianou, Sophia. 2004. Multiple concealments from the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios at Dion: Three Roman provincial coin hoards. Meletēmata 35. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    The study of three Roman provincial coin hoards that were unearthed during excavations at Dion conducted by the University of Thessaloniki. The aims of the study are (1) to provide a detailed presentation of the new material and (2) to attempt an interpretation of the evidence and place it within the general context of other Roman hoards from Macedonia and the Balkans.

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                  • Larsen, Jakob A. O. 1975. Roman Greece. In An Economic survey of ancient Rome. Vol. 4. Edited by Frank Tenney, 259–498. New York: Octagon.

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                    The article focuses on the presentation of history from the Illyrian Wars (229 BCE) to the establishment of the Roman principate in Greece. More specifically, it studies the circulation of coins in the last two centuries BCE; Delos in the economic life of the period; the aspects of banking, investment, prices, rentals, wages, and cost of living in Greece; and, finally, the economic conditions of the provinces of Macedonia, Achaea, and Epirus.

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                  Law

                  The topic on Roman law pertaining to Macedonia is still understudied, with only one monograph on the Macedonian institutions of private law (Youni 2000) and an article on manumissions (Youni 2008).

                  • Youni, Maria S. 2000. Provincia Macedonia: Θεσμοί ιδιωτικού δικαίου στη Μακεδονία επί Ρωμαιοκρατίας. Meletes Historias Europaikon Dikaion 3. Athens, Greece: Sakkoulas.

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                    The study attempts a reconstruction of the institutions of private law in Macedonia from 167 BCE to the time of Constantine. It focuses on family law, inheritance law, property law, and criminal law through the study of inscriptions (collected in an appendix).

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                  • Youni, Maria S. 2008. Ἠ νομικὴ διάσταση τω̑ν ἀπελευθερωτικω̑ν πράξεων στὴ Μακεδονία τω̑ν Ρωμαϊκω̑ν χρόνων. In Β’ Πανελλήνιο Συνέδριο Ἐπιγραφικη̑ς, Θεσσαλονίκη 24–25 Νοεμβρίου 2001: Στὴν μνήμη τη̑ς Φανούλας Παπάζογλου. Edited by Ilias Sverkos, 73–84. Thessaloniki, Greece: Kyriakidis.

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                    An article on the judicial frame of sacred manumissions based on epigraphic sources and, in particular, the inscriptions from Leukopetra. The author studies the procedure of the sacred act.

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                  Religion

                  Studies on Roman cult include an overview of the cults of Roman Macedonia (Düll 1977, Samsaris 1984) and monographs on the cults of Thessalonica (Edson 1985) and Leukopetra (Petsas 2000). Christian inscriptions are also presented in a separate study (Feissel 1983).

                  • Düll, Siegrid. 1977. Die Götterkulte Nordmakedoniens in römischer Zeit: Eine kultische und typologische Untersuchung anhand epigraphischer, numismatischer, und archäologischer Denkmäler. Münchener archäologische Studien 7. Munich: Fink.

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                    This study deals with the cults of Roman Macedonia (with the exception of hero cults, the cult of Thracian riders, and the Imperial cult) through literary, epigraphical, numismatic, and archaeological sources. The geographical scope of the study is the area north of Greece (namely, former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria). The author aims to clarify the connections between Macedonia and the nearby regions in the sacred realm. A table of cults at the end of the book alphabetized by region is most helpful.

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                  • Edson, Charles F. 1985. Cults of Thessalonica. In Θεσσαλονίκην Φιλίππου Βασίλισσαν: Μελέτες για την Αρχαία Θεσσαλονίκη. Edited by Polyxeni Adam-Veleni, 886–939. Thessaloniki, Greece: Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.

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                    This article, originally published in Harvard Theological Review 41 1948: 153–204, deals with the pagan inscriptions from Thessalonica and certain aspects of the pagan cults in the Roman city.

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                  • Feissel, Denis. 1983. Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de Macédoine, du IIIe an VIe siècle. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Supplement 8. Athens, Greece : French School at Athens.

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                    A collection of Christian inscriptions from Macedonia dated from the 3rd to the 6th century BCE. The study does not limit itself to inscriptions on stone but presents inscriptions on mosaics and wall paintings of funerary and nonfunerary character.

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                  • Petsas, Photios, et al. 2000. Inscriptions du sanctuaire de la Mère des Dieux Autochtone de Leukopétra (Macédoine). Meletēmata 28. Athens, Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation.

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                    The study presents the inscriptions from the Sanctuary of the Autochthonous Mother of Gods that covered the sanctuary and temple, and recorded the cession or consecration of slaves or children to the service of the goddess. It gives valuable evidence on the debate over the legal and actual status of persons ceded to gods, the administration and health of a small sanctuary, the religious beliefs that may have undergirded all of the above, and the apparent diffusion of Roman legal status, concepts, and practices of Leukopetra.

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                  • Samsaris, Dimitrios. 1984. Έρευνες στην ιστορία, την τοπογραφία και τις λατρείες των ρωμαϊκών επαρχιών Μακεδονίας και Θράκης. Thessaloniki, Greece.

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                    This study is the compilation of five oral reports given at various congresses from 1980 to 1984. Of the five reports only one is fully dedicated to Macedonia and deals with the cults of western Macedonia during the Roman era, on the basis of archaeological and epigraphical sources, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the end of the Roman era. The cults presented are of Greek, Anatolian, Thracian, and Roman origin.

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                  Archaeology

                  The material culture of Roman Macedonia has so far been presented in a synthetic article on Vergina after the Roman invasions (Drougou 2009), the study of Roman Thessalonica (Grammenos 2003), the studies of two cemeteries (Malama and Darakis 2008 on Nea Kerdyllia; Marki 2006 on Thessalonica), and the studies on funerary monuments (Lagogianni-Georgakarakos 1998 and Spiliopoulou-Donderer 2002).

                  • Drougou, Stella. 2009. Βεργίνα: Η εικόνα του τέλους της πόλης των Αιγών: πρώτες σημειώσεις από μία νέα ανασκαφική απόπειρα. Egnatia 13:121–132.

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                    An important article that deals with the aftermath of the Roman invasion in Macedonia (168 BCE) and, more specifically, with the situation at Aigeai. Drougou synthesizes information from various excavation reports on the changes and/or alterations made to the known monuments at Aigeai (walls, palace, theater, Sanctuary of Eukleia, Sanctuary of the Mother of Gods, acropolis, cemeteries) until the 1st century CE.

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                  • Grammenos, Dimitrios V., ed. 2003. Roman Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum Publications 1. Thessaloniki, Greece: Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum.

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                    This publication is a result of an exhibition organized by the Ministry of Culture to celebrate the summit meeting of the European Community at Thessaloniki in 2003. The main aim of the exhibition was to display the history of Thessalonica up to late antiquity. The publication comprises six chapters that focus on the history of Rome and the history, town planning, cults, and entertainment of the Roman province of Thessalonica and concludes with a chapter on the Roman coinage.

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                  • Lagogianni-Georgakarakos, Maria. 1998. Die Grabdenkmäler mit Porträts aus Makedonien. Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani 3.1. Athens, Greece: Academy of Athens.

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                    Corpus of 160 funerary portraits from Roman Macedonia. The corpus includes stelai, reliefs, altars, medallions, and sarcophagoi.

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                  • Malama, Penelope, and Konstantinos Darakis. 2008. Νεκροταφείο ρωμαϊκών χρόνων στα Νέα Κερδύλλια Σερρών. Thessaloniki, Greece: IH Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquitites/Archaeological Institute for Macedonian and Thracian Studies.

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                    A publication of the Roman and Late Roman Cemetery of 246 Tombs at Nea Kerdyllia (Serres).

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                  • Marki, Efterpi. 2006. Η νεκρόπολη της Θεσσαλονίκης στους υστερορωμαϊκούς και παλαιοχριστιανικούς χρόνους. Archaiologikon Deltion/Demosieumata 95. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Receipts Fund.

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                    A publication of the late Roman and early Christian cemetery of Thessalonica (from the 3rd to the 8th century CE) that focuses on the emergence of Christianity, the evolution of funerary architecture and painting, and the abandonment and re-use of early Christian tombs in later times.

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                  • Sokolovska, Viktorija. 1987. Anticka skulptura vo SR Makedonija: Poseeno izdanie. Posebno izdanie/Muzej na Makedonija 2. Skopje, Yugoslavia: Muzej na Makedonija.

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                    Catalogue of almost exclusively Roman sculptures (portraits, grave stones, and full-sized statues) that have come to light in the last fifty years in FYROM (with an English summary).

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                  • Spiliopoulou-Donderer, Ioanna. 2002. Kaiserzeitliche Grabaltäre Niedermakedoniens: Untersuchungen zur Sepulkralskulptur einer Kunstlandschaft im Spannungsfeld zwischen Ost und West. Peleus 15. Mannheim, Germany: Bibliopolis.

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                    A publication of the architecture and iconography of Roman funerary altars from lower Macedonia. This group is considered fairly local and chronologically brief in lower Macedonia. The study presents 134 monuments from four city-centers of central, south, and southwestern Macedonia. None of the monuments was found in situ.

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                  LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

                  DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389661-0140

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