Classics Panaetius of Rhodes
by
Francesca Alesse
  • LAST MODIFIED: 15 January 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0218

Introduction

Panaetius of Rhodes was a Stoic philosopher of the 2nd century BCE. A pupil of the Stoic scholarchs Diogenes of Babylon and Antipater of Tarsus, he was himself at the head of the Stoa, probably beginning in the year 129 BCE. He played a central role in connecting Stoic philosophy and Roman culture, thanks to his relations with the group of politicians and intellectuals gathered around Scipio Africanus Aemilianus (or Scipio Africanus Minor, b. 185–d. 129 BCE). Scholars have often presented Panaetius as the initiator of, or the main contributor to, a new phase of Stoic philosophy called “Middle Stoicism.” This phase is said to be characterized, in short, by a decisive preference for moral casuistry and for rules available to ordinary people, the replacement of cosmic periodic destruction with the thesis of the eternity of the world, and the Platonic-Aristotelian idea of the human soul as divided into rational and nonrational components. It is necessary to take into account that the division of the history of Stoicism into “Early” Stoicism (from Zeno to Chrysippus, or to Diogenes, or to Antipater), “Middle” Stoicism (from Diogenes/Antipater, or from Panaetius, to Posidonius), and “Late” Stoicism (or the Imperial Stoa, represented by Musonius, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius) is a modern categorization. Nonetheless, according to several ancient sources, the 2nd-century BCE Stoics introduced some modifications, and Panaetius in particular is described as a great admirer of Plato and Aristotle and a Stoic who adopted some ideas from the Academy and Peripatos (Herculaneum Papyri [PHerc] 1018, column 61). Since the late 20th century, scholars have disputed the novelty of Panaetius’s philosophy, claiming for him a substantial orthodoxy. However, it is a matter of fact that Panaetius’s fortune in late Hellenism and the early Imperial age was due to the reception of his philosophy as a partial renewal of ancient Stoicism, and this suggests at least that Panaetius was seen as a true Stoic but not entirely in line with his school. Another issue in Panaetian studies is the presence of his works into later literature (above all, Cicero, Plutarch, and Seneca). This trend of studies, particularly successful during the first half of the 20th century, has declined in the 2nd half of the 20th century because it can hardly be supported by uncontroversial arguments. Nonetheless, there are cases in which it can be prosecuted, at least for Cicero’s De officiis Books I–II, which Cicero himself claims to have composed on the footsteps of Panaetius’s On Duty.

Biography

The evidence on Panaetius’s biography is not abundant, even though his reputation was high during his life. We are informed about his writings, thought, and social relations from several bio-doxographical reports as well as philosophical works, while some epigraphical and papyrological sources inform us about his family, early education, and scholarly career. Nothing is known about the precise date and circumstances of his death, except that he lived thirty years after composing his main philosophical work, On Duty (Cicero, De officiis, III 8). Panaetius was born c. 185/180 BCE in Lindos, the acropolis of the isle of Rhodes. He belonged to a noble and rich family whose members had often been invested with political and religious authority, or social celebrity. He first attended the school of the grammarian Crates of Mallus, in Pergamon, then studied in Athens as a pupil of the Porch. During Antipater’s scholarchate, he began to stay frequently in Rome, where he became a friend of Scipio Africanus Minor and a member of his entourage. Panaetius had both Greek and Roman adherents: apart from Posidonius of Apamaea, who was by far the most important of his pupils and the most influential philosopher of the late Hellenistic age, we should remember Hecato of Rhodes, Stratocles of Rhodes, Paramonos of Tarsos, Caius Laelius, Rutilius Rufus, and Marcus Vigellius. Sources of major importance in reconstructing Panaetius’s biography and contextualizing his social origin and early education include some epigraphs from Rhodes, of which the most-recent and complete contributions are Haake 2007 and Haake 2012. Dorandi 1991 remains a seminal study on late Hellenistic philosophers’ biographies, including Panaetius’s chronology. As regards papyrological evidence, the most informative source is Herculaneum Papyri (PHerc.) 1018, the most recent critical edition of which is Dorandi 1994. Regarding the relationship between Panaetius and Scipio, and, more generally, Panaetius’s Roman connections, including his presumed relation to the Gracchi, the best critical position is established in Astin 1967, whose prudent perspective about the influence of Panaetius’s political thought on Scipio’s beliefs is consolidated by later studies. Important contributions to this matter can be found in Griffin 1989, Rawson 1989, and Lintott 1997.

  • Astin, Alan Edgar. 1967. Scipio aemilianus. Oxford: Clarendon.

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    See especially pp. 294–306. Provides a cautious representation of the so-called “Scipionic circle” as well as of Panaetius’s role in the Roman milieu, questioning his presumed justification of Roman imperialism.

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    • Dorandi, Tiziano. 1991. Ricerche sulla cronologia dei filosofi ellenistici. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 19. Stuttgart: Teubner.

      DOI: 10.1515/9783110950595Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      On Panaetius, see pp. 35–42. This volume is now available through subscription or payment on the De Gruyter website.

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      • Dorandi, Tiziano. 1994. Filodemo: Storia dei filosofi, La stoà da Zenone a Panezio (PHerc. 1018). Philosophia Antiqua 60. Leiden, The Netherlands, and New York: Brill.

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        The columns concerning Panaetius are 51–79. Dorandi’s edition is accompanied by Italian translation and commentary (pp. 102–129, 164–173).

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        • Griffin, Miriam T. 1989. Philosophy, politics, and politicians at Rome. In Philosophia togata: Essays on philosophy and Roman society. Edited by Miriam T. Griffin and Jonathan Barnes, 1–37. Oxford: Clarendon.

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          Learned survey on the diffusion of Greek philosophy among Roman intellectuals during the 2nd century BCE, and discussion of the true extent of Panaetius’s influence both on Scipio and Tiberius Gracchus.

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          • Haake, Matthias. 2007. Der Philosoph in der Stadt: Untersuchungen zur öffentlichen Rede über Philosophen und Philosophie in den hellenistischen Poleis. Vestigia 56. Munich: C. H. Beck.

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            Offers an extensive and precise survey on epigraphical sources related to Panaetius’s family, especially on pp. 141–145, 198–205.

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            • Haake, Matthias. 2012. Der Panaitiosschüler Paramonos aus Tarsos, der kappadokische König Ariarathes VI. und eine rhodische Inschrift. Epigraphica: Periodico Internazionale di Epigrafia 74:43–58.

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              Focuses on the evidence about Panaetius’s disciple Paramonos and provides an exhaustive survey both of primary evidence and critical literature about epigraphical evidence. This paper is now available in PDF format online.

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              • Lintott, Andrew W. 1997. The theory of the mixed constitution at Rome. In Philosophia togata, II: Plato and Aristotle at Rome. Edited by Jonathan Barnes and Miriam T. Griffin, 70–85. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                Very cautious in attributing to Panaetius the views illustrated in Cicero’s De republica about the superiority of the mixed constitution.

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                • Rawson, Elizabeth. 1989. Roman rulers and the philosophic adviser. In Philosophia togata: Essays on philosophy and Roman society. Edited by Miriam T. Griffin and Jonathan Barnes, 233–257. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                  Illustrates the part played by Panaetius (like other Greek philosophers) as adviser or counselor of the statesman rather than as teacher of political doctrines.

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                  General Overviews

                  General presentations of Panaetius are provided in histories of ancient philosophy, or in histories of Stoicism, encyclopedic entries, and introductory articles. Chapters in the history of ancient philosophy often present Panaetius as a turning point in Stoicism, or as an eclectic philosopher combining Stoicism with Platonism. As seminal studies, even though largely outdated, we should still remember Zeller 1923 and Pohlenz 1992 (first published in 1948–1949). Among the most informative and critically balanced studies we are Sandbach 1975, Steinmetz 1994, and Sedley 2003. As regards encyclopedic entries, the most authoritative for a long time has been Pohlenz 1949; the most recent is Alesse 2012. Among articles that aim at presenting a general but detailed profile of the philosopher, Abel 1971 is worth mentioning.

                  • Abel, Karlhans. 1971. Die kulturelle Mission des Panaitios. Antike und Abendland 17:119–143.

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                    Learned reconstruction of Roman cultural context in the 2nd century BCE. Although assuming a cautious attitude concerning the philhellenic circle around Scipio, the author gives Panaetius an influential role in establishing the idea of humanitas and the image of an ideal statesman on the model of Scipio.

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                    • Alesse, Francesca. 2012. Panétius de Rhodes. In Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques. Vol. 5, De Paccius à Rutilius Rufus, 1ère partie. Edited by Richard Goulet, 131–138. Paris: CNRS Éditions.

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                      Includes the main bibliographical references, biographical data, and information on Panaetius’s works and about his disciples.

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                      • Pohlenz, Max. 1949. Panaitios. In Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Vol. 18.2. Edited by Georg Wissowa, 418–440. Stuttgart: Metzler.

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                        For a long time the most influential (but also controversial) presentation of Panaetius as the philosopher who restored the cultural, ethical, and aesthetical values of Hellenism as they had flourished in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, after the “orientalization” of Greek philosophy brought by early Stoics.

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                        • Pohlenz, Max. 1992. Die Hellenisierung der Stoa: Panaitios. In Die Stoa: Geschichte einer geistigen Bewegung. 7th ed. By Max Pohlenz, 191–207. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

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                          The book was originally published as two volumes in 1948–1949, with this chapter appearing in Vol. 2 (Erläuterungen). Synthetic presentation of Panaetius’s thought, consistent with the interpretation offered in more detail in Pohlenz 1949.

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                          • Sandbach, Francis Henry. 1975. The Stoics. Ancient Culture and Society. London: Chatto & Windus.

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                            Chapter 8 offers a concise but lucid presentation of Panaetius’s innovations, especially in the fields of ethics and psychology. See pp. 123–129. Second edition first published in 1989 (Bristol, UK: Bristol).

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                            • Sedley, David N. 2003. The school, from Zeno to Arius Dydimus. In The Cambridge companion to the Stoics. Edited by Brad Inwood, 7–32. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                              Presents the transformation of the Stoic school both from the point of view of doctrines and that of historical events. A considerable weight is given to Panaetius and his reappropriation of Platonism. Sedley speaks of a Stoicism not radically transformed, but “re-oriented.”

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                              • Steinmetz, Peter. 1994. Panaitios aus Rhodos und seine Schüler. In Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie. Vol. 4.2, Die Philosophie der Antike: Die hellenistiche Philosophie. Edited by Friedrich Ueberweg and Hellmut Flashar, 647–669. Basel, Switzerland: Schwabe.

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                                Fine survey in which the material is very well organized, including paragraphs on editions of texts, sources for biography, attributions of works, and theoretical opinions. It concludes with a selected bibliography.

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                                • Zeller, Eduard. 1923. Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung. Vol. 3.1, Die nacharistotelische Philosophie. 5th ed. Leipzig: Reisland.

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                                  Panaetius is considered as one of the most significant personalities of late Hellenism, recovering important features of Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy as well as promoting connections between Greek philosophy and Roman pragmatic culture. See especially section 2, Eklekticismus, erneuerte Skepsis, Vorläufer der Neuplatonismus of chapter 3, Die Stoiker: Boethus, Panätius, Posidonius (pp. 577–592). Republished as recently as 2006 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).

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                                  Monographic Studies

                                  A special class of general presentations is represented by monographic essays that include all or nearly all the aspects of Panaetius’s thought, highlighting, where possible, the innovative characters of his philosophical attitude as well as the aspects of coherence to the core of Stoic doctrines. The two earliest profiles of this Stoic are Zeller 1910 and van Lynden 1802, which, despite their remoteness in time, are worth mentioning for being the starting points of modern historiography. Two important monographic studies oriented toward making Panaetius the initiator or one of the initiators of a new phase of Stoicism are Schmekel 1892 and Tatakis 1931. But the first wide-ranging monograph on Panaetius is no doubt van Straaten 1946, the very point de repère for subsequent studies, because of the collection of the evidence and its contextualization into the Stoic system. The most recent monographs are Alesse 1994 and Vimercati 2004, both of which provide a critical consideration of the philosophical topics treated by Panaetius (but putting aside the evidence regarding non-philosophical concerns, such as biographical, geographical, and erudite interests). Alesse 1994 frames Panaetius’s position in the history of Stoicism; Vimercati 2004, in the political and cultural context of the 2nd century BCE.

                                  • Alesse, Francesca. 1994. Panezio di Rodi e la tradizione stoica. Elenchos 23. Naples: Bibliopolis.

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                                    Study articulated in three main parts corresponding to ethics, psychology, and physics, with a final appendix about the presence of Panaetius’s thought in Late Stoicism. Particular focus is put on Carneades’s reflection on justice as a background to Panaetius’s major ethical work, On Duty.

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                                    • Schmekel, August. 1892. Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa in ihrem geschichtlichen Zusammenhange dargestellt. Berlin: Weidmann.

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                                      Reconstructs Middle Stoicism represented by the succession of Panaetius to Posidonius to Panaetius’s disciples (Mnesarchus, Hecaton, Dionysius). Much space is reserved for Panaetius’s political thought and his presumed influence on the ideal of mixed constitution; see especially pp. 18–85 and 185–238. Third edition published as recently as 1989 (Hildesheim, Germany: Weidmann).

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                                      • Tatakis, Basile N. 1931. Panétius de Rhodes: Le fondateur du Moyen Stoicisme; Sa vie et son œuvre. Bibliothèque d’Histoire de la Philosophie. Paris: Vrin.

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                                        Considers Panaetius as the innovator of Stoic philosophy, especially in psychology and cosmology, and ascribes the new trend of Stoicism to the effect produced by Academic attacks.

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                                        • van Lynden, Frans Godard. 1802. Disputatio historico-critica de Panaetio Rhodio philosopho Stoico. Leiden, The Netherlands: A. & J. Honkoop.

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                                          Provides a well-informed reconstruction (considering the evidence then available) of biographical data and works.

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                                          • van Straaten, Modestus. 1946. Panétius: Sa vie, ses écrits et sa doctrine avec une édition des fragments. Amsterdam: H. J. Paris.

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                                            This must be considered the first complete edition of Panaetius’s testimonies, introduced by an extensive monograph. It collects the texts containing the name of the philosopher or plausibly related to him and his influence, including the evidence concerning scientific and not strictly philosophical topics.

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                                            • Vimercati, Emmanuele. 2004. Il mediostoicismo di Panezio di Rodi. Milan: Vita e Pensiero.

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                                              Besides the analysis of ethics, physics, and psychology, this study pays attention to the political and historical context in which Panaetius lived and to biographical data; it also dedicates a chapter to Panaetius’s linguistic interests and political reflection.

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                                              • Zeller, Eduard. 1910. Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Stoikers Panätius. In Kleine Schriften. Vol. 1. Edited by Otto Leuze, 179–190. Berlin: G. Reimer.

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                                                Pioneering study—although not the very first one, considering L. K. Günther’s Panaetii iunioris Stoici philosophi vita et merita (Leipzig, 1734), an erudite treatment based on doxography—focusing on Panaetius’s not adopting any Stoic beliefs such as the eternity of the world. Originally published in Commentationes philologae in honorem Theodori Mommseni scripserunt amici (Berlin: Weidmann, 1877), pp. 402–410.

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                                                Texts and Commentaries

                                                Panaetius’s work has come down only through indirect and fragmentary evidence. His “texts” are actually testimonia—that is, paraphrases of his words and compendious reports of his thought in posterior literature. There are several editions of Panaetius’s testimonia, some of them accompanied by translation and commentary: Fowler 1885 provides the first selection of Panaetius’s (and Hecato’s) testimonies, but it is van Straaten 1946 (cited under Monographic Studies) that offers the most complete and critically established edition of his texts. Revised editions by the same scholarch are van Straaten 1952 and van Straaten 1962, the latter containing some significant additions and modifications. Both Alesse 1997 and Vimercati 2002 have commentaries.

                                                • Alesse, Francesca, ed., and trans. 1997. Panezio di Rodi: Testimonianze. Elenchos 27. Naples: Bibliopolis.

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                                                  Modifies Modestus van Straaten’s way of extrapolating evidence from Cicero’s De officiis, considering both the structure of Panaetius’s On Duty as described by Cicero, and the context in which Panaetius presumably wrote his treatise. Italian translation and commentary are added.

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                                                  • Fowler, Haroldus N. 1885. Panaetii et Hecatonis librorum fragmenta. Bonn, Germany: Carol-Georg.

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                                                    Includes extracts from Cicero’s, Plutarch’s, Gellius’s, Diogenes Laertius’s and Nemesius’s reports, all of which explicitly mention Panaetius. The collection is preceded by brief discussions of the doxographical contexts.

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                                                    • van Straaten, Modestus. 1952. Panaetii Rhodii fragmenta. 2d ed. Philosophia Antiqua 5. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                      Slightly revised edition of the texts, published as an appendix to van Straaten 1946 (cited under Monographic Studies).

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                                                      • van Straaten, Modestus. 1962. Panaetii Rhodii fragmenta. 3d ed. Philosophia Antiqua 5. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                        Replaces Domenico Comparetti’s edition of Herculaneum Papyri (PHerc.) 1018 (published in 1875) with Traversa’s edition (1953); adds new texts, among which are some extracts from Porphyry’s Commentary to Ptolaemeus Harmonics.

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                                                        • Vimercati, Emmanuele, ed. 2002. Panezio: Testimonianze e frammenti. Bompiani Testi a Fronte 61. Milan: Bompiani.

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                                                          Distinguishes among fragments of certain attribution, fragments of plausible attribution, and fragments of dubious attribution. Italian translation and commentary are added.

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                                                          Ethics

                                                          The part of Panaetius’s philosophy that has raised the most interest is ethics, mainly because it is the part on which we can collect the most evidence. There are a number of ethical topics that have been seen as characteristic of Panaetius’s thought, partly inherited from school tradition, even if somehow adapted and modified in relation to the cultural context in which Panaetius lived, and partly due to his original reflection. The most-debated issues of Panaetius’s ethics are the following: the notion of moral end, in which he seems to show more interest in individual character than did his predecessors; his doctrine of “appropriate actions,” or, less technically, the doctrine of duties, which Panaetius would have meant as actions based on common morality and not on a sage’s perfect virtue, as early Stoics claimed. There are other important topics considered by scholarship, such as the notion of decorum, or that of friendship. Another important subject of critical treatment has been the structure of Cicero’s De officiis, in that it is the largest piece of evidence for Panaetius’s moral thought.

                                                          On Moral End

                                                          The moral end is often illustrated in Panaetius’s testimonia by imagery about the notion of “role” or “individual task”: he employed the metaphor of men as archers who aim at getting a single part of a target (see Stobaeus’s Eclogae II, sections 63, 10–64, 12) and seems to have employed the simile of the virtuous man as a good actor who plays those roles that are consistent to his individual attitudes and capacities (see Cicero’s De officiis I 113–114). Panaetius proposed the idea of consistency both with rational and individual nature as the highest target of human life. On this, see Philippson 1930, Puhle 1987, Gill 1988, Gill 1993, and Gill 1994. On the impact this conception may have had on Late Stoicism, especially in a Roman milieu, see Lévy 2002 and Setaioli 2014.

                                                          • Gill, Christopher. 1988. Personhood and personality: The four-personae theory in Cicero, De officiis I. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 6:169–199.

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                                                            Extensive and detailed analysis of the theory of the personae; that is, the “roles” or “characters” nature gives each individual, as it is illustrated by Cicero’s De officiis (see especially Book 1, pp. 107–114) but depending on Panaetius’s doctrine.

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                                                            • Gill, Christopher. 1993. Panaetius on the virtue of being yourself. Paper presented at a conference held 7–9 April 1988 at the University of California at Berkeley. In Images and ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Edited by Anthony Bulloch, 330–353. Hellenistic Culture and Society 12. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                              Treats Panaetius’s ideal of euthymia, or tranquility of mind, as an example of his reflection about the self.

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                                                              • Gill, Christopher. 1994. Peace of mind and being yourself: Panaetius to Plutarch. In Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Vol. II.36.7. Edited by Wolfgang Haase and Hildegard Temporini, 4599–4640. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

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                                                                Fine and influential study about the contribution offered by Panaetius’s prosopa theory on the topics of “peace of mind” and acquaintance with self (theme of “being yourself”). The inquiry is focused on the testimonies of Panaetius’s On Duty and On Tranquility of Mind.

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                                                                • Lévy, Carlos. 2002. Philosophie et rhétorique à Rome: À propos de la dialectique de Fronton. Euphrosyne 30:101–114.

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                                                                  Suggests that Fronto’s employment of some technical Stoic terms may descend from Panaetius’s theory of characters (or personae).

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                                                                  • Philippson, Robert. 1930. Das Sittlichschöne bei Panaitios. Philologus 85:357–413.

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                                                                    Studies Panaetius’s doctrine of the moral end against the Early Stoic doctrine and provides an analysis of the evidence from Stobaeus and Clement of Alexandria regarding the theory of aphormai and the metaphor of the archers.

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                                                                    • Puhle, Annekatrin. 1987. Persona: Zur Ethik des Panaitios. Frankfurt: Lang.

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                                                                      Studies Panaetius’s opinions on moral end, individual character, and social and private tasks of the common man, in the light of the notion of persona (prosopon).

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                                                                      • Setaioli, Aldo. 2014. Ethics I: Therapy, self-transformation, “Lebensform.” In Brill’s companion to Seneca, philosopher and dramatist. Edited by Gregor Damschen, Andreas Heil, and Mario Waida, 239–256. Brill’s Companions in Classical Studies. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                        On Panaetius’s theory of duties and its impact on Seneca’s ethics.

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                                                                        Duties, Decorum, and Friendship

                                                                        Great attention has been given to Panaetius’s theory of “appropriate actions” (Stoic kathekonta), or duties, and the related notion of decorum (πρέπον). The notion of decorum, or decus, is largely treated by Cicero in De officiis—probably under Panaetius’s influence—as a sort of common character of every kind of virtuous action. The decorum reflects the capacity to act according to everyone’s own character and social tasks. The principal studies introducing this line of research are Pohlenz 1933 and Labowsky 1934. Although the results of these studies have been surpassed by more-recent scholarship (especially Max Pohlenz’s idea of the re-Hellenization of Stoic ethics by Panaetius), they have had the merit to promote a durable interest for late Hellenistic ethics of duties. Early-21st-century contributions on Panaetius’s conception of duty and its ethical as well as political implications are Lefèvre 2001 and Roskam 2005. The most complete study focused on Panaetius’s conception of philia, meant as the main social task of man, remains Steinmetz 1967.

                                                                        • Labowsky, Lotte. 1934. Der Begriff des πρέπον in der Ethik des Panaitios: Mit Analysen von Cicero De officiis I 93–149 und Horaz Ars poetica. Heidelberg, Germany: Meiner.

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                                                                          Cicero’s description of decorum in De officiis is considered as an effect of Panaetius’s conception of πρέπον. Much attention is given to the metaphor of the actor as an image of moral behavior.

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                                                                          • Lefèvre, Eckard. 2001. Panaitios’ und Ciceros Pflichtenlehre: Vom philosophischen Traktat zum politischen Lehrbuch. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

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                                                                            Cicero’s treatment of virtues and utility is compared to what is known about Panaetius in order to reestablish the pragmatic and practical character of Cicero’s project.

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                                                                            • Pohlenz, Max. 1933. τὸ πρέπον: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des griechischen Geistes. Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaftlichen zu Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.

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                                                                              The notion of πρέπον is presented as a major feature of Hellenic ethical and aesthetic culture and the very mark of “pure” Greek esprit: in this conceptual context, Panaetius is seen as the thinker who restored this mark in Stoic tradition. Republished in Kleine Schriften, Vol. 1, edited by Heinrich Dörrie (Hildesheim, Germany: G. Olms, 1965), pp. 100–139.

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                                                                              • Roskam, Geert. 2005. On the path to virtue: The Stoic doctrine of moral progress and its reception in (Middle-) Platonism. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy 33. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                In this large-scale survey of the concept of moral progress, a chapter “The Doctrine of Moral Progress in Later Stoic Thinking” is devoted to Panaetius’s moral theories. Panaetius’s ethics, with its pragmatic orientation and attention to common morality, encourages the idea of gradual moral improvement and approaching to virtue. See especially the section “Panaetius” (pp. 33–45)

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                                                                                • Steinmetz, Fritz-Arthur. 1967. Die Freundschaftslehre des Panaitios: Nach einer Analyse von Ciceros Laelius de amicitia. Palingenesia 3. Wiesbaden, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag.

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                                                                                  Panaetius’s On Duty is the main source and model of composition of Cicero’s Laelius and, accordingly, of the large part of De officiis II, devoted to social duties. The inquiry also contains a methodical analysis of a set of notions related to friendship, such as utile and conciliatio.

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                                                                                  The Structure of Cicero’s De officiis

                                                                                  There is a line of study more or less directly touching Panaetius’s scholarship: the study of the structure and composition of Cicero’s De officiis. Many attempts have also been made on other works by Cicero himself or by Plutarch, in order to reconstruct the main lines of Panaetius’s treatises. In most cases these attempts are based on conjectures. De officiis, however, is written, even though with some correction and addition, on the very footsteps of Panaetius’s On Duty, as Cicero himself declares in Epistulae ad Atticum XVI 11, 4, and De officiis III 7 (“Panaetius . . . quemque nos correctione quadam adhibita potissimum secuti sumus”). This makes the analysis of the structure of De officiis much more relevant to the comprehension of Panaetius than that conducted on other works that might be influenced by this Stoic. The most informative study in this field must be considered Dyck 1996. A fresh contribution is Brunt 2013.

                                                                                  • Brunt, Peter A. 2013. Studies in Stoicism. Edited by Miriam Griffin and Alison Samuels. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                    On pp. 172–179 we find some observations on Cicero’s De officiis, I 150–151, seen as a fairly faithful account of Panaetius’s ideas of liberality and attitude toward money. Following (chapter 5, pp. 180–241) is a thorough examination of the presence of Panaetius in Cicero’s De officiis.

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                                                                                    • Dyck, Andrew R. 1996. A commentary on Cicero, De officiis. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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                                                                                      Extensive commentary of Cicero’s treatise, preceded by an account of the main philological and philosophical questions related to the composition of the text, its contents, and its sources, including a section (pp. 17–29) focused on Panaetius’s On Duty.

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                                                                                      Politics

                                                                                      Panaetius has often been considered a supporter of the “mixed constitution” and a believer of the legitimacy of Roman imperialism; see Schäfer, 1960, Walbank 1965, and Erskine 1990. The most vivid picture of Panaetius as the theoretician of political power is advanced in Pohlenz 1934. This radical vision has been largely corrected, and some scholars, such as the author of Lefèvre 2001 (cited under Duties, Decorum, and Friendship), have called attention to the inadequacy of evidence for attributing to him a definite political position. However, some more recent studies cautiously reaffirm the possibility of deriving some information on Panaetius’s political opinions from Cicero’s political and rhetorical works; see Stone 2008.

                                                                                      • Erskine, Andrew. 1990. The Hellenistic stoa: Political thought and action. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                        On Panaetius, see pp. 158–161 and 192–200. Proposes a rather traditional view about Panaetius as influencing Scipio and his adherents, and also as the philosophical defender of the legitimacy of Roman imperialism.

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                                                                                        • Pohlenz, Max. 1934. Antikes Führertum: Cicero De officiis und das Lebensideal des Panaitios. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner.

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                                                                                          Reconstruction of Panaetius’s presumed ideal of the political leader as it can be taken from Cicero’s De officiis. Republished in 1967 (Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert).

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                                                                                          • Schäfer, Maximilian. 1960. Des Panaitios ἀνὴρ ἀρχικός bei Cicero: Ein Interpretationsbeitrag zu Ciceros Schrift De republica. Gymnasium 67:500–517.

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                                                                                            Considers Cicero’s De republica as largely influenced by Panaetius’s political thought, and Cicero’s image of the statesman as tutor or procurator rei publicae as derived from Panaetius’s notion of προστάτης.

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                                                                                            • Stone, A. M. 2008. Greek ethics and Roman statesmen: De officiis and the Philippics. In Cicero’s Philippics: History, rhetoric and ideology. Edited by Tom Stevenson and Marcus Wilson, 214–239. Prudentia 37–38. Auckland, New Zealand: Polygraphia.

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                                                                                              Comparison between Cicero’s Philippics and De officiis to find out the same virtues, scheme, and vocabulary inherited from Panaetius. The result is that although Panaetius’s thought is not absent in Philippics, later speeches by Cicero are fundamentally Roman from the political standpoint.

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                                                                                              • Walbank, Frank William. 1965. Political morality and the friends of Scipio. Journal of Roman Studies 55.1–2: 1–16.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/297426Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                While reducing the idea of a decisive influence of Greek thought on Scipio’s action, claims the traditional vision of Panaetius as one of the first defenders of Roman imperialism.

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                                                                                                Psychology

                                                                                                Panaetius’s psychology has long been thought of as considerably innovative in restoring the partition between reason and nonrational motions in the human soul. Besides, some evidence attributes to him a reduction of the parts of the soul, in that he seems to have considered the capacity of procreation as depending on the principle of physis, not psyche. More recently, this aspect of presumed novelty has been reappraised, and Panaetius’s conception of the structure of the human soul has been traced back to the general lines of early Stoic psychology. The character of novelty is claimed, among many, in Pohlenz 1949 and Pohlenz 1992 (both cited under General Overviews) as well as Rist 1969, corrected in Philippson 1937 and van Straaten 1976, and refuted in Prost 2001 and Tieleman 2007. Another issue of Panaetius’s psychology, less controversial, is the idea of the immediate mortality of the soul, on which see the views in Hoven 1971, Bels 1982, and Drozdek 2002. An interesting discussion on the persistence in Latin literature of the reflection on mortality of the soul as promoted by Panaetius is in Smith 2014.

                                                                                                • Bels, Jacques. 1982. La survie de l’âme de Platon à Posidonius. Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 199.2: 169–182.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3406/rhr.1982.4714Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Panaetius claims, as did his predecessors, the temporary survival of the individual soul.

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                                                                                                  • Drozdek, Adam. 2002. Theology of the middle Stoa. Giornale di Metafisica: Rivista Bimestrale di Filosofia 24.3: 333–364.

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                                                                                                    Outline of Panaetius’s (and Posidonius’s) theological views, especially concerning divination and the issue of the destiny of the soul after the death of the body.

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                                                                                                    • Hoven, René. 1971. Stoïcisme et stoïciens face au problème de l’au-delà. Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège 197. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

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                                                                                                      Panaetius treats the question of the mortality of the individual soul in the same line as his predecessors (pp. 50–55).

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                                                                                                      • Philippson, Robert. 1937. Zur Psychologie der Stoa. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, n.s., 86.2: 140–179.

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                                                                                                        Panaetius’s conception of the origin of human emotions is fundamentally in line with that of Early Stoicism because the emotions derive from the rational component of the soul (whereas physiological functions are irrational).

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                                                                                                        • Prost, François. 2001. La psychologie de Panétius: Réflexions sur l’évolution du stoïcisme à Rome et la valeur du témoignage de Cicéron. Revue des Etudes Latines 79:37–53.

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                                                                                                          Refutes the interpretation attributing a dualist psychology to Panaetius, arguing that he was, in fact, in line with the psychological monism held by ancient Stoics.

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                                                                                                          • Rist, John M. 1969. Stoic philosophy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                            On Panaetius’s psychology, see pp. 180–187; attributes to him the distinction of three parts of the human soul: reason, emotion, and vegetative function.

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                                                                                                            • Smith, R. Scott. 2014. Physics I: Body and soul. In Brill’s companion to Seneca, philosopher and dramatist. Edited by Gregor Damschen, Andreas Heil, and Mario Waida, 343–362. Brill’s Companions in Classical Studies. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                              The author includes Panaetius and his controversial position about the mortality of the soul in the background of Seneca’s ideas about life after death.

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                                                                                                              • Tieleman, Teun L. 2007. Panaetius’ place in the history of Stoicism, with special reference to his moral psychology. Paper presented at the Tenth Symposium Hellenisticum, held in Rome in 2007. In Pyrrhonists, Patricians, Platonizers: Hellenistic philosophy in the period 155–86 BC; Tenth Symposium Hellenisticum. Edited by Anna Maria Ioppolo and David N. Sedley, 104–142. Elenchos 47. Naples: Bibliopolis.

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                                                                                                                Refutes any innovative character of Panaetius’s philosophy, especially in ethics and psychology, and any trace of Platonic influence in considering the structure of the human soul.

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                                                                                                                • van Straaten, Modestus. 1976. Notes on Panaetius’ theory of the constitution of man. In Images of man in ancient and medieval thought: Studia Gerardo Verbeke ab amicis et collegis dicata. Edited by Fernand Bossier, F. de Wachter, Jozef Ijsewijn, et al., 93–109. Symbolae Facultatis Litterarum et Philosophiae Lovaniensis A1. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                  Panaetius’s treatment of the impulses and the reproductive faculty, according to Cicero’s and Nemesius’s testimonies, is largely coherent with ancient Stoic psychology.

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                                                                                                                  Physics and Theology

                                                                                                                  The most significant theories in Panaetius’s physics and theology are his refutal of the Stoic dogma of cyclical destruction of the world, or universal conflagration, and his refutal of astrology and his doubt regarding divination. There is less terrain for debate by scholarship than in other subjects because of the scarcity of evidence and its substantial homogeneity. Besides the treatments in general overviews and monographs, we have useful surveys of Panaetius’s position in Stoic cosmology in Lapidge 1978 and Drozdek 2002 (cited under Psychology), and the contribution of Giannantoni 1994 presenting Panaetius’s attitude in relation to Academic skepticism.

                                                                                                                  • Giannantoni, Gabriele. 1994. Criticò Carneade l’astrologia stoica? Elenchos 15:201–218.

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                                                                                                                    Panaetius is the main source of Cicero’s arguments against astrology as outlined in the second book of De divinatione.

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                                                                                                                    • Lapidge, Michael. 1978. Stoic cosmology. In The Stoics. Edited by John M. Rist, 161–185. Major Thinkers 1. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                      Frames the alternative position of Panaetius (and Boethus) concerning the eternity of the physical world in the cultural context of Roman society.

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                                                                                                                      Non-philosophical Topics

                                                                                                                      Panaetius was also well known in his age and afterward for his interests in various scientific domains besides philosophy. He wrote a biography of Socrates and a doxographical work on Socratic schools; he seems to have revised the text of Plato’s Republic and perhaps of some other Platonic dialogues and other philosophers, and he also wrote about music, geography, and ethnography. On these matters there are occasional contributions, the only attempt to give a systematic survey on this side of Panaetius’s activity being Alesse 1997 (cited under Texts and Commentaries). However, there has more recently been an interesting debate about the existence of a critical edition of Plato prepared by Panaetius himself—see, in favor, Gourinat 2008; contra, Dorandi 2010. Delvaux 1996 and Lapini 1999 are also useful contributions.

                                                                                                                      • Delvaux, Georges. 1996. Panétius, le pseudo-Théopompe, une source des Vies parallèles des Grecs de Plutarque. L’Antiquité Classique 65:107–117.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3406/antiq.1996.1246Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Survey on Panaetius’s activity as historian and biographer, with a focus on his presence as the main source in large sections of Plutarch’s Lives of Aristides and Demosthenes.

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                                                                                                                        • Dorandi, Tiziano. 2010. “Editori” antichi di Platone. Antiquorum Philosophia 4:161–174.

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                                                                                                                          Considers the passage from Galen’s De indolentia 13 as the information about a copy of Plato’s dialogues owned by Panaetius, which Panaetius himself might have annotated.

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                                                                                                                          • Gourinat, Jean-Baptiste. 2008. Le Platon de Panétius: À propos d’un témoignage inédit de Galien. Philosophie Antique 8:139–151.

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                                                                                                                            Derives from Galen’s De indolentia 13 the information about the existence of a critical edition of Plato by Panaetius.

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                                                                                                                            • Lapini, Walter. 1999. Panezio e l’altro’ Socrate (T 144 Alesse). Elenchos 20.2: 345–358.

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                                                                                                                              Proposes to emend the text of the scholium to Aristophanes’ Frogs, 1491.

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