Classics Roman Spain
by
Scott De Brestian
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 June 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0229

Introduction

Spain was one of Rome’s first overseas provinces beyond the Italian islands (Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica) and remained under Roman control for longer than most parts of the Western Empire, with northeastern Spain under at least nominal Roman control until 474 CE. From its earliest days Roman Spain (or Hispania) was divided into two or more provinces, eventually encompassing all of the modern countries of Spain and Portugal (although for convenience, the term “Roman Spain” generally includes both). This article therefore will focus on the mainland territory of those two countries, leaving aside Spain’s Mediterranean and African possessions (Balearic and Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla), which will be treated elsewhere. Traditionally the study of Roman Spain is divided into three chronological periods: the Roman Republic, which extends from Rome’s first dealings in Spain at the start of the Second Punic War to the rise of Augustus as first emperor in 27 BCE, although this period is sometimes extended to the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BCE, which mark the completion of the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. The Early Empire spans the period from the late 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE. No universally acknowledged date marks the end of this period, although the end of the Severan dynasty in 235 CE or the Frankish invasion of 258 CE is sometimes used; this article employs the former. The Late Empire stretches from the 3rd century to the invasions of 409 CE or the final conquest of Spain by the Visigoths in 474 CE, depending on the region being discussed. Roman Spain has often been somewhat neglected by scholars outside the peninsula, due to the political history of Spain and the lack of a large number of prominent international schools, as are found in Italy and Greece, although the Deutsches Archäologisches Institute in Madrid and the French-sponsored Casa de Velázquez are important exceptions. The result is that scholars working in other parts of the Roman world are not as acquainted with Roman Spain as its importance in Roman history would otherwise merit.

General Overviews

One difficulty in composing a bibliographic article on Roman Spain has to do with trends in Spanish scholarship. Prior to the end of Francoist Spain there was a trend toward ambitious synthesizing scholarship that sought to provide comprehensive narratives for many aspects of Roman Spain. Alarcão 1988 and Blázquez 1996 are useful overviews despite their age, Keay 1988 is a similarly useful introductory work in English, and Montenegro Duque, et al. 1991–1996 provides somewhat more detail; all four discuss material culture. Richardson 1996 is a more historical treatment that looks primarily at the written sources and is a good starting point for those new to Roman Spain.

  • Alarcão, Jorge de. 1988. Roman Portugal. 4 vols. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.

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    A thorough treatment of the Romans in Portugal; the first volume contains an overview of the Roman presence, while Vols. 2–4 provide a detailed gazetteer and bibliography of Roman archaeological sites, with many useful maps and plans. Still useful despite its age.

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    • Blázquez, José María. 1996. España romana. Madrid: Cátedra.

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      Blázquez is one of the most prominent scholars of Roman Spain, and this volume represents the fruits of a lengthy career on the topic. Looks at the history of Roman Spain from Republic to Late Empire, with a particular emphasis on issues of acculturation.

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      • Keay, Simon J. 1988. Roman Spain. Exploring the Roman World. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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        Although now rather dated, this is still the only good overview of the society and material culture of Roman Spain, with many maps and plans and end-of-chapter guides to further reading.

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        • Montenegro Duque, Ángel, José María Blázquez Martínez, Julio Mangas Manjarrés, et al. 1991–1996. España romana (218 a. de J. C.–414 de J. C.). 2 vols. 2d ed. Historia de España 2. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.

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          One of the later attempts to put together a multidisciplinary, synthetic treatment of Roman Spain; the original publication dates to 1982. Vol. 1 looks at the history of Roman Spain in two lengthy articles, with a third on the economy of Roman Spain. The second volume deals with thematic issues such as the army, society, religion, and art.

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          • Richardson, J. S. 1996. The Romans in Spain. History of Spain. Oxford: Blackwell.

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            Readable basic history in English of the Roman encounter with Spain, from the years before the Second Punic War to 409 CE. Notes point the reader to the most-important ancient sources on the Iberian Peninsula.

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            Journals

            There are numerous small journals that cover the history and archaeology of Roman Spain. Most provinces will have one or more local journal, although these often include material covering all periods of Spanish history. Hispania Antiqua and Gerión are useful for those interested in Roman history. Those investigating material culture should look at the Archivo Español de Arqueología, Madrider Mitteilungen, and O Arqueólogo Português. Conimbriga, Empúries, Pyrenae, and Salduie have a more regional focus, although the articles frequently cover topics germane to the Iberian Peninsula, or the Roman world, as a whole. Nearly all the articles in these journals are in languages other than English.

            Series

            There are several series that cover topics relating to Roman Spain. Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae is a useful source for literary references to Roman Spain, particularly from obscure sources. Ciudades Romanas de Hispania is a series covering important cities of Roman Spain. The Corpus de Mosaicos de España and the Corpus des Mosaïques Romaines du Portugal aim to publish all Roman mosaics from Spain and Portugal, respectively. Monografías Ex Officina Hispana presents material related to ancient ceramics from Iberia, and Studia Lusitana publishes material related to the city of Emerita Augusta (Mérida). Periodic conferences on Roman sculpture have been published as part of the series Escultura Romana en Hispania.

            • Ciudades Romanas de Hispania. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider.

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              An early-21st-century series, begun in 2004, focused on individual cities in Roman Hispania; the first three volumes have focused on the provincial capitals (Tarragona, Mérida, and Córdoba), with additional volumes published on Zaragoza and Empúries. Each follows a common organization, with a historical introduction followed by chapters on the city plan, architectural types, sculpture, and museum collections.

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              • Corpus de Mosaicos de España. Salamanca, Spain: Europa Artes Gráficas.

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                Each of the thirteen volumes in this series (1978–2011) consists of a catalogue of Roman mosaics from one or more Spanish provinces, grouped by province and findspot. The amount of discussion on each mosaic varies depending on the amount of scholarship published. There are photos and sometimes drawings of each mosaic, which are often invaluable, although the former are generally black and white and mostly of rather poor quality.

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                • Corpus des Mosaïques Romaines du Portugal. Lisbon: Instituto Português de Museus.

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                  Begun in 1992, the Corpus des Mosaïques Romaines du Portugal is the counterpart to Corpus de Mosaicos de España, although issued with significantly better plates. New volumes are being issued fairly infrequently, with the first two devoted to the House of the Water Jets in Conimbriga and the Villa of Torre de Palma.

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                  • Escultura Romana en Hispania. Murcia: Tabularium.

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                    This series, begun in 1993, collects papers given at the periodic conferences on Roman sculpture in Spain held as part of the Reuniones sobre Escultura Romana en Hispania. Contributions are both thematic (various subject matters, forgeries, techniques) and geographical in their focus and cover sculpture both in stone and metal.

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                    • Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona.

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                      Series started in 1922, covering the Latin sources (geographical, historical, and poetic) that mention Spain during the period of Roman rule. Individual volumes are organized by chronology or topic (e.g., geography).

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                      • Monografías Ex Officina Hispana. Madrid: Sociedad de Estudios de la Cerámica Antigua en Hispania.

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                        A series started in 2013 that is devoted to topics relating to ancient ceramics. The first two volumes contain papers from a 2011 conference in Cádiz on kilns and workshops in Hispania.

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                        • Studia Lusitana. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura.

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                          A series dedicated to Roman Lusitania, begun in 2004; nine volumes have been issued as of 2015, mainly looking at regional topics such as Roman baths, Roman cities, and the road network in Lusitania.

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                          Ancient Sources

                          Despite the importance of Roman Spain to the Roman economy, few ancient sources deal specifically with it in any detail. Most of our information comes from geographical sources that sometimes incorporate ethnographic detail, often in a highly biased manner. Strabo 1988 and Pliny 1942 provide geographic information for Spain as a whole, while Avienus 1977 is an idiosyncratic discussion of the coastline. Appian 1990 presents the history of early Roman military engagement in the Iberian Peninsula.

                          • Appian. 1990. Roman history. Vol. 1, Books I–VIII. Translated by Horace White. Loeb Classical Library 2. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                            First published in 1912. Book VI of Appian’s Roman History covers the various military engagements of Rome in Spain, beginning with the Second Punic War through the 1st century BCE, although the last century of warfare is dealt with in extremely summary fashion.

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                            • Avienus. 1977. Ora maritima; or, Description of the seacoast from Brittany round to Massilia. Translated by J. P. Murphy. Chicago: Ares.

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                              Rufius Festus Avienus wrote a description in poetic hexameter of the seacoasts of the Roman Empire, titled the Ora maritima, ostensibly drawing from material dating to the 6th century BCE. Numerous anachronisms have led scholars to identify his work as a product of the 3rd or 4th century CE, mingled with archaisms.

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                              • Pliny. 1942. Natural history. Vol. 2, Books 3–7. Translated by Harris Rackham. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                Book 3 of Pliny’s Natural History is devoted to the geography of the Western Mediterranean, beginning with Spain. More narrowly focused on geography than Strabo 1988, Pliny nevertheless provides information regarding the administrative organization of Roman Spain.

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                                • Strabo. 1988. Geography. 8 vols. Translated by Horace L. Jones. Loeb Classical Library 196. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                  Originally published in 1923. Book 3 of Strabo’s Geography deals with the topography and ethnography of Iberia. Strabo’s attitude toward Spain was heavily influenced by his sources, since he did not visit the peninsula, and demonstrates considerable disdain for the indigenous peoples of the peninsula. Nevertheless he provides documentation of many local customs not recorded elsewhere.

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                                  Roman Republic: 237–27 BCE

                                  Roman interaction with Spain began as a result of the conflict with Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–203 BCE). That war ended with Rome in possession of much of eastern and southern Spain. Curchin 1991 is a good overview for those interested in the processes of conquest. Salinas de Frías 1996 is more focused on central Spain, and Schulten 1914–1931 concentrates on the singular site of Numantia. Sala Sellés and Moratalla Jávega 2014 looks at the later Republic.

                                  • Curchin, Leonard A. 1991. Roman Spain: Conquest and assimilation. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                    Curchin explores the history of the Roman conquest of Spain in the first part of this book, followed by a discussion of the increased urbanization and cultural and economic changes that followed in the reign of Augustus and later.

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                                    • Sala Sellés, Feliciana, and Jesús Moratalla Jávega, eds. 2014. La guerras civiles romanas en Hispania: Una revisión histórica desde la Contestania. Alicante, Spain: Universidad de Alicante.

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                                      Collection of papers bringing together scholars working on the Sertorian War (with some limited references to Caesar’s wars in Spain) from the perspective of historians and archaeologists. Military camps, coin finds, and fortifications are some of the categories of evidence studied.

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                                      • Salinas de Frías, Manuel. 1996. Conquista y romanización de Celtiberia. Acta Salamanticensia, Estudios Históricos y Geográficos 50. Salamanca, Spain: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.

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                                        Investigation of the literary sources for the Roman conquest of Celtiberia, followed by a study of the effects of the Roman conquest on the material culture, urbanization, religious belief, and economy of the region through the 3rd century CE.

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                                        • Schulten, Adolf. 1914–1931. Numantia: Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen 1905–1912. 4 vols. Munich: F. Brückmann.

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                                          The Celtiberian town of Numantia is one of the most significant early sites in Spain, not least for its role as the center of the famed siege by Scipio Aemilianus in 133 BCE. Schulten’s excavations were never fully published, but these four volumes provide some of his conclusions about the site and the surrounding Roman camps.

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                                          Contact and Acculturation

                                          Since the mid-1990s there has been a strong interest in the processes of contact between Romans and the indigenous inhabitants and the ways in which new identities were forged in the wake of the Roman conquest. Keay 2001 is the best starting point, while Burillo Mozota 1998 and Curchin 2003 present regional case studies on the topic of acculturation. Abad Casal 2003 and Caballos Rufino and Lefebvre 2011 are useful for those interested in identity and ethnicity. Theoretical issues are highlighted in Jiménez Díez 2008, while the contributions in Santos Yanguas and Cruz Andreotti 2012 are more narrowly focused.

                                          • Abad Casal, Lorenzo, ed. 2003. De Iberia in Hispaniam: La adaptación de las sociedades ibéricas a los modelos romanos; Actas del seminario de arqueología organizado por la Fundación Deques de Soria, Soria, Convento de la Merced, del 23 al 27 de julio de 2001. Anejo a la Revista Lucentum 10. Alicante, Spain: Universidad de Alicante.

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                                            Collection of conference papers looking at Hispania during the Roman Republic, with a focus on the southern and eastern portions of the peninsula. Topics covered include landscape, urbanization, sculpture, funerary commemoration, art, and ceramics.

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                                            • Burillo Mozota, Francisco. 1998. Los celtíberos: Etnias y estados. Barcelona: Crítica.

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                                              Detailed examination of the indigenous peoples of central Spain, through written sources, archaeology, and numismatics. Burillo focuses on interactions between the Celtiberians and the Romans, the spread of coinage, and settlement changes in the wake of the Roman conquest.

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                                              • Caballos Rufino, Antonio, and Sabine Lefebvre, eds. 2011. Roma generadora de identidades: La experiencia hispana. Papers presented at a conference held in May 2008 in Seville, Spain. Collection de la Casa de Velázquez 123. Madrid: Casa de Velázquez.

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                                                Collection of papers dealing with provincial identities in the Roman Republic and Empire, with a focus on Hispania. Useful as a guide to current Spanish thinking on the topics of identity and ethnicity, and how these changed in the wake of the coming of Rome.

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                                                • Curchin, Leonard A. 2003. The Romanization of central Spain: Complexity, diversity, and change in a provincial hinterland. Routledge Classical Monographs. London and New York: Routledge.

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                                                  Curchin uses inscriptions as a primary source for examining the ways in which the Roman conquest altered indigenous society. Extensive discussion of onomastics, urban development, and elements of identity such as indigenous and Roman tribes.

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                                                  • Jiménez Díez, Alicia. 2008. Imagines hybridae: Una aproximación postcolonialista al estudio de las necrópolis de la Bética. Anejos de Archivo Español de Arqueología 43. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

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                                                    An examination of funerary practices in three cities in Baetica (now Andalusia): Córdoba, Baelo Claudia, and Castulo. Particularly strong for its theoretical grounding. Jiménez rejects traditional notions of “Romanization” in favor of a process of identity renegotiation through cultural hybridity.

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                                                    • Keay, Simon J. 2001. Romanization and the Hispaniae. In Italy and the West: Comparative issues in Romanization. Edited by Simon Keay and Nicola Terrenato, 117–144. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                      Broad overview of Rome’s contact with Spain and the processes of cultural change and exploitation that resulted from the Roman conquest. The role of local elites in the development of a “Roman” culture in Spain is emphasized.

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                                                      • Santos Yanguas, Juan, and Gonzalo Cruz Andreotti, eds. 2012. Romanización, fronteras y etnias en la Roma antigua: El caso hispano. Revisiones de Historia Antigua 7. Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain: Universidad del País Vasco.

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                                                        Twenty-five contributions covering the ways in which Romans and indigenous inhabitants in Spain interacted in the wake of the Roman conquest. Topics include colonies, the organization of territory, geography, clientela, religion, ethnicity, and law.

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                                                        Early Imperial Period: 27 BCE–235 CE

                                                        Relatively few sources deal with the Early Imperial period by itself, but Keay 1998 is a good starting point. Haley 2003 is useful on rural and economic issues. A good introduction to urbanism in the Early Empire can be found in Abad Casal, et al. 2006.

                                                        • Abad Casal, Lorenzo, Simon Keay, and Sebastián F. Ramallo Asensio, eds. 2006. Early Roman towns in Hispania Tarraconensis. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                          Most of the papers in this collection deal with cities whose origins lie in the Roman Republic, but their later histories are generally discussed in some detail.

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                                                          • Haley, Evan W. 2003. Baetica felix: People and prosperity in southern Spain from Caesar to Septimius Severus. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                            Those interested in the social history of Roman Spain during the Early Empire will be interested in this book’s discussion of local elites and their patronage activities in southern Spain during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE.

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                                                            • Keay, Simon, ed. 1998. The archaeology of early Roman Baetica. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                              Although there is no modern synthetic volume on Early Imperial Spain, the papers in this volume offer the next best thing. Very useful to those interested in the development of urbanism and the economy of Spain in the 1st century CE and later.

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                                                              Late Imperial Period: 235 CE–474 CE

                                                              Spain during the Late Imperial period experienced many social, political, and religious changes. Bowes and Kulikowski 2005 and Teja 2002 are ideal starting points because they contain articles from many perspectives. Diarte Blasco 2012 focuses on urban change, and Fernández-Ochoa and Morillo 2005 looks at urban defenses.

                                                              • Bowes, Kim, and Michael Kulikowski, eds. and trans. 2005. Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current perspectives. Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World 24. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                This collection provides a good overview of work on late antique Hispania through 2005. Subjects covered include Christianity in Spain, the provincial organization of the Late Roman diocese, and trade and the economy.

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                                                                • Diarte Blasco, Pilar. 2012. La configuración urbana de la Hispania tardoantigua: Transformaciones y pervivencias de los espacios públicos romanos (s. III–VI d.C.). BAR International Series 2429. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                  Originating as a dissertation, this volume is particularly useful for its thorough catalogue of Late Roman urban centers in Spain and a detailed bibliography for each. The second half of the work looks at evidence for fora, commercial buildings, baths, entertainment buildings, and walls.

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                                                                  • Fernández-Ochoa, Carmen, and Ángel Morillo. 2005. Walls in the urban landscape of late Roman Spain: Defense and imperial strategy. In Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current perspectives. Edited by Kim Bowes and Michael Kulikowski, 299–341. Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World 24. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                    Authors discuss evidence for Late Roman wall building in western and northwestern Spain and propose a Tetrarchic origin for many of the city circuits attested archaeologically. They propose that a desire to safeguard the extraction of precious metals and to ensure the protection of food and other supplies destined for Roman forces on the northern frontiers lay behind the system.

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                                                                    • Kulikowski, Michael. 2004. Late Roman Spain and its cities. Ancient Society and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                      Urban change was particularly pronounced in Late Roman Spain, and Kulikowski provides a detailed analysis of the Late Roman transformations in urban fabrics and changes in building habits. The social and administrative importance of the Late Roman city is also discussed.

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                                                                      • Teja, Ramón, ed. 2002. La Hispania del siglo IV: Administración, economía, sociedad, cristianización. Munera 19. Bari, Italy: Edipuglia.

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                                                                        Collection of papers focusing on the 4th century in Spain, with an emphasis on literary and epigraphic sources. Topics include the formation of the diocese of Hispania, Late Roman urbanism, prosopography, the church, the Priscillianist controversy, and the Roman army.

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                                                                        Geography

                                                                        There has been a lot of interest since the late 20th century in how the preconceptions and biases of classical authors affected the ways in which they conceived of the geography of Roman Spain. The papers collected in Cruz Andreotti, et al. 2006 provide a window into this thinking, while Roldán Hervás 1975 looks at ancient sources for the geography of Roman Spain.

                                                                        • Cruz Andreotti, Gonzalo, Patrick Le Roux, and Pierre Moret, eds. 2006. La invención de una geografía de la Península Ibérica: Actas del coloquio internacional celebrado en la Casa de Velázquez de Madrid entre el 3 y el 4 de abril de 2005. 2 vols. Madrid: Casa de Velázquez.

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                                                                          Publication of papers from a 2005 conference on the geography of Spain in the Roman period and how Roman conceptions of space and territory shaped the way that geographers, the army, and other governmental bodies understood the Iberian Peninsula. The first volume covers the Roman Republic; the second covers the Roman Empire.

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                                                                          • Roldán Hervás, José Manuel. 1975. Itineraria Hispana: Fuentes antiguas para el estudio de las vías romanas en la Península Ibérica. Anejos de Hispania Antigua. Valladolid, Spain: Universidad de Valladolid.

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                                                                            Much of our knowledge of the geography of Roman Spain is based on our knowledge of road networks, and the sources collected in this volume show how the Roman roads shaped ancient understanding of the peninsula as well.

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                                                                            Roads and Travel

                                                                            Solana Sáinz and Sagredo San Eustaquio 2006 summarizes our evidence for the road network of Roman Spain, while Lostal Pros 1992 catalogues the evidence for Roman roads in northern and eastern Spain in the form of milestones. Roldán Hervás 1975 collects the ancient sources for roads in Spain.

                                                                            • Lostal Pros, Joaquín. 1992. Los miliarios de la provincia tarraconense: Conventos tarraconense, cesaraugustano, cluniense y cartaginese. Publicación 1314. Zaragoza, Spain: Institución Fernando de Católico.

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                                                                              Comprehensive catalogue and discussion of every attested Roman milestone from Tarraconensis. An invaluable resource for those interested in the Roman road system.

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                                                                              • Roldán Hervás, José Manuel. 1975. Itineraria Hispana: Fuentes antiguas para el estudio de las vías romanas en la Península Ibérica. Anejos de Hispania Antigua. Valladolid, Spain: Universidad de Valladolid.

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                                                                                Collection of literary, geographic, and epigraphic sources preserving evidence for the Roman roads of Spain, including extracts from the Antonine Itinerary, the Ravenna Cosmography, the bronze vases from Vicarello, and the inscribed tablets from Astorga.

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                                                                                • Solana Sáinz, José María, and Luis Sagredo San Eustaquio. 2006. La red viaria romana en Hispania: Siglos I–IV d.C. Serie Historia y Sociedad 119. Valladolid, Spain: Universidad de Valladolid.

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                                                                                  Text- and epigraphy-based examination of roads in Spain. Brief discussion of sources (Antonine Itinerary, Ravenna Cosmography, milestones) followed by many spreadsheet tables listing different stops in the network and the evidence for each in the sources. Also many two-color maps showing roads in Spain, at differing levels of detail, though omitting smaller stops.

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                                                                                  Provinces

                                                                                  In the first two centuries of the Roman presence in Spain, it was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior, comprising the northeastern and eastern coast, and Hispania Ulterior, more or less coincident with the modern region of Andalusia. The gradual expansion of the frontier westward made these provinces somewhat unwieldy, so under Augustus, western Iberia was formed into the province of Lusitania, while the new province of Tarraconensis included most of the former Hispania Citerior including the northwest, and that of Baetica consisted of the core of the former Hispania Ulterior. In the early 3rd century the province of Gallaecia was carved out of the northwestern territories of Tarraconensis. Tarraconensis was further subdivided in the later 3rd century, but most modern studies are structured around the Provinces of the Early Imperial period.

                                                                                  Tarraconensis

                                                                                  Most research in the area of Tarraconensis has focused on the eastern coast of Spain. Abad Casal, et al. 2006 looks at evidence for early urbanization, while Carreté, et al. 1995 and Prevosti and Guitart i Duran 2010– examines the hinterland of the provincial capital, Tarraco (Tarragona), over a longer period. In the early 21st century there has been a renewed interest in the interior of the province, represented here by Hurtado Aguña 2005.

                                                                                  • Abad Casal, Lorenzo, Simon Keay, and Sebastián F. Ramallo Asensio, eds. 2006. Early Roman towns in Hispania Tarraconensis. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                                                    This volume is important for its presentation of work in urbanism in northern and eastern Spain, with a pair of articles on northwestern Spain. Particularly valuable for the extensive articles on important sites not often discussed in English publications, particularly Labitolosa in the Pyrenees and the Celtiberian sites of Segeda and Segobriga.

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                                                                                    • Carreté, Josep-Maria, Simon Keay, and Martin Millet. 1995. A Roman provincial capital and its hinterland: The survey of the territory of Tarragona, Spain, 1985–1990. Ann Arbor, MI: Cushing-Malloy.

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                                                                                      One of the few comprehensive published archaeological surveys in Spain prior to 2000, this project focused on the region around Tarragona (ancient Tarraco). The survey covered the late Iron Age to the Late Empire, with a focus on the Republic and Early Empire. The results showed a close integration between the town and its rural hinterland at least until the later Roman Empire.

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                                                                                      • Hurtado Aguña, Julián. 2005. Los territorios septentrionales del Conventus Carthaginiensis durante el imperio romano: Estudio de la romanización de Carpetania. BAR International Series 1415. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                        Hurtado looks at Carpetania, located in the southern Meseta, through the lens of literary sources and epigraphy from the Republican period through the Early Empire. Major themes discussed include onomastics, the Roman army, and economic activity. He connects the later urbanization of the region with an expansion of already-existing hillforts.

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                                                                                        • Prevosti, Marta, and Josep Guitart i Duran, eds. 2010–. Ager Tarraconensis. Documenta 16. Barcelona: Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica.

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                                                                                          Series covering the results of the large, multidisciplinary Projecte Ager Tarraconensis sponsored by the Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica from 2006 to 2008, which included an extensive survey west of the town and a close analysis of previously excavated material and remote sensing of some of the more significant sites. A good case study of the use of spatial analysis, remote sensing, and quantitative analysis in regional archaeology projects. Published in Catalan.

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                                                                                          Baetica

                                                                                          Baetica was the most urban province of Hispania, as well as one of its most agriculturally fertile areas. The wealth of material has led to many specific studies of the region, including Fear 1996 and Haley 2003. The contributions in Keay 1998 collectively provide a good introduction to the different aspects of life in Roman Baetica.

                                                                                          • Fear, Arthur T. 1996. Rome and Baetica: Urbanization in southern Spain c. 50 BC–AD 150. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford: Clarendon.

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                                                                                            Baetica possessed the greatest density of urban centers in all of Roman Spain, and Fear looks at the evidence for urbanism by combining textual and archaeological sources. He argues against the thesis that the urbanization of Baetica developed as a result of Roman initiative, instead contending that it was the product of social interactions within the largely indigenous local elites.

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                                                                                            • Haley, Evan W. 2003. Baetica felix: People and prosperity in southern Spain from Caesar to Septimius Severus. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                              Analysis of Early Imperial Baetica from a socioeconomic viewpoint. Useful as a general history of Roman Baetica. Seeks to extend scholarly discussion beyond the major urban centers through an examination of rural communities.

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                                                                                              • Keay, Simon, ed. 1998. The archaeology of early Roman Baetica. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                                                                The papers in this volume form an excellent synthesis of our understanding of Baetica in the Early Imperial period at the end of the 20th century. Covers the development of urbanism, mints, the rural economy, and Baetica’s role in the larger Roman economy.

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                                                                                                Lusitania

                                                                                                Lusitania composed the southern two-thirds of modern Portugal as well as part of western Spain. The papers in Gorges and Rodríguez Martín 1999 form the best overview, while Osland 2006 focuses on urbanism. Gorges and Nogales Basarrate 2000 and Pérez Vilatela 2000 are more narrowly focused on ethnicity and acculturation.

                                                                                                • Gorges, Jean-Gérard, and Trinidad Nogales Basarrate, eds. 2000. Sociedad y cultura en Lusitania romana: IV Mesa Redonda Internacional. Papers presented at a conference on Roman Lusitania held in 2000 in Mérida, Spain. Serie Estudios Portugueses 13. Mérida, Spain: Junta de Extremadura.

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                                                                                                  Contributions span the period from the Roman Republic through the High Empire. Particular focus on epigraphy and processes of acculturation.

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                                                                                                  • Gorges, Jean-Gérard, and Fernando Germán Rodríguez Martín, eds. 1999. Économie et territoire en Lusitanie romaine. Collection de la Casa de Velázquez 65. Madrid: Casa de Velázquez.

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                                                                                                    Collection of papers on Lusitania from the pre-Roman through the Visigothic periods, with a particularly strong emphasis on rural Lusitania and the regional economy. Papers in Spanish, Portuguese, and French.

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                                                                                                    • Osland, Daniel. 2006. The early Roman cities of Lusitania. BAR International Series 1519. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                      A synthetic discussion of urbanism in Lusitania to the start of the Flavian period. Useful for its catalogue of cities and their architectural remains, and for the comprehensive bibliography.

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                                                                                                      • Pérez Vilatela, Luciano. 2000. Lusitania: Historia y etnología. Publicaciones del Gabinete de Antigüedades, Bibliotheca Archaeologica Hispana 6. Madrid: Real Academia de Historia.

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                                                                                                        Historical and linguistic study of the indigenous peoples of Lusitania. Discusses the major ancient literary sources and employs a study of personal names and toponyms to attempt to define the ethnic and political makeup of what would become Lusitania in the period prior to Augustus.

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                                                                                                        Gallaecia

                                                                                                        Although Gallaecia emerged late as a province, a strong Gallego identity in northwestern Spain has spurred a great deal of scholarly interest in this region since the 1970s. Tranoy 1981 is still a useful entry point into the region, while Curchin 2008 looks at the complicated ethnology of Gallaecia.

                                                                                                        • Curchin, Leonard A. 2008. Los topónimos de la Galicia romana: Nuevo estudio. Cuadernos de Estudios Gallegos 55.121: 109–136.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.3989/ceg.2008.v55.i121.41Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Study of Roman place names in Galicia by using literary and epigraphic sources. Curchin argues that the Roman conquest did not markedly affect local place names, since the majority continue to be derived from Celtic or non-Latin Indo-European languages.

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                                                                                                          • Tranoy, Alain. 1981. La Galice romaine: Recherches sur le nord-ouest de la Péninsule Ibérique dans l’Antiquité. Publications du Centre Pierre Paris 7. Paris: Diffusion de Boccard.

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                                                                                                            A synthetic treatment of Roman Galicia, beginning with the pre-Roman inhabitants and extending through the creation of the Suevic Kingdom in the 5th century CE. Treatment focuses on literary and epigraphic sources. Many very useful maps.

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                                                                                                            Society and Administration

                                                                                                            Navarro 2009 is a good starting point for those interested in the formation of the Roman provinces of Spain. Spain provides some of the best evidence for municipal organization in the Roman Empire and has produced multiple city charters, such as the Lex Ursonis and Lex Irnitana (studied in Stylow 1997 and González and Crawford 1986). In addition, the Tabula Contrebiensis, discussed in Richardson 1983, and the Lex Rivi Hiberiensis, analyzed in Beltrán Lloris 2006, provide important windows on local decision making and judicial norms. Mackie 1983 and Curchin 1990 look at the massive amount of epigraphic evidence for local magistrates. Rodríguez Neila and Navarro Santana 1999 is more specialized but is valuable for those wishing to delve deeper into local administration.

                                                                                                            • Beltrán Lloris, Francisco. 2006. An irrigation decree from Roman Spain: The Lex Rivi Hiberiensis. Journal of Roman Studies 96:147–197.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.3815/000000006784016242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              The Lex Rivi Hiberiensis is a document written on bronze in the 2nd century CE that sets forth regulations for access to water for irrigation by local communities along the Middle Ebro River. It is the only such document preserved from the Roman Empire and therefore is of the foremost significance. Beltrán provides the text of the decree along with a translation and a detailed commentary.

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                                                                                                              • Curchin, Leonard A. 1990. The local magistrates of Roman Spain. Phoenix 28. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                Detailed look at urban magistrates in Roman Hispania, drawing largely from epigraphic sources. The primary focus is the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, although the Republic and Late Imperial periods are discussed briefly.

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                                                                                                                • González, Julián, and Michael H. Crawford. 1986. The Lex Irnitana: A new copy of the Flavian municipal law. Journal of Roman Studies 76:147–243.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/300371Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  The Lex Irnitana is the most complete of several civic law codes dating to the Flavian period from Spain, and this article provides an accessible edition and discussion of the bronze tablets. Note that corrections to the text by Crawford appeared in the Journal of Roman Studies 98 (2008): 182.

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                                                                                                                  • Mackie, Nicola. 1983. Local administration in Roman Spain, A.D. 14–212. BAR International Series 172. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                    Originally a doctoral dissertation, the author uses epigraphy to examine the structure of local government, with a discussion of local elites, community organization, and citizenship. Issues of patronage and the construction and maintenance of public buildings are also treated.

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                                                                                                                    • Navarro, Francisco Javier. 2009. La organización provincial de Hispania durante el Imperio romano. In Hispaniae: Las provincias hispanas en el mundo romano. Edited by Javier Andreu Pintado, Javier Cabrero Piquero, and Isabel Rodà de Llanza, 345–360. Sèrie Documenta 11. Tarragona, Spain: Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica.

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                                                                                                                      General overview of the provinces of Hispania during the Roman Empire and their internal organization.

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                                                                                                                      • Ozcáriz Gil, Pablo. 2013. La administración de la provincia Hispania Citerior durante el Alto Imperio romano: Organización territorial, cargos administrativos y fiscalidad. Instrumenta 44. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.

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                                                                                                                        Examination of the provincial administration of the province of Hispania Citerior (i.e., Tarraconensis) from 27 BCE to 288 CE. Focus of the work is on the magistracies of the province (governor, legates, and procurators) and epigraphic testimony regarding their activity. An additional section treats offices of lower rank within the province.

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                                                                                                                        • Richardson, J. S. 1983. The Tabula Contrebiensis: Roman law in Spain in the early first century B.C. Journal of Roman Studies 73:33–41.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/300071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Important early publication and discussion of the unique bronze tablet found in 1979 near Zaragoza that details a water rights dispute between two local tribes. The analysis here is the starting point for all later discussion of the text.

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                                                                                                                          • Rodríguez Neila, Juan Francisco, and Francisco Javier Navarro Santana, eds. 1999. Elites y promoción social en la Hispania romana. Colección Mundo Antiguo, n.s. 5. Pamplona, Spain: EUNSA.

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                                                                                                                            Short collection of papers covering study of aristocratic families in Hispania on the basis of literary and epigraphic sources. Individual papers cover Roman senators and equestrians from Spain, the organization of provincial government, and the priesthood in Baetica.

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                                                                                                                            • Stylow, Armin U. 1997. Texto de la Lex Ursonensis. In Special issue: La Lex Ursonensis: Estudio y edición crítica. Studia Historia: Historia Antigua 15:269–301.

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                                                                                                                              Urso (modern Osuna) was a Roman colony founded as Colonia Genetiva Iulia in 44/43 BCE by Marc Antony. Parts of nine bronze tablets containing the city’s founding legislation regarding the civil magistracies of the city were discovered in 1870–1871. This article contains the most recent critical edition of the Latin text, though without commentary.

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                                                                                                                              Economy

                                                                                                                              Spain played an important role in the Roman economy as a source of food for the army and, particularly from the 3rd century CE onward, as an exporter of oil to Rome, where amphoras from Spain are found in huge quantities. Spain was also an important source of mineral wealth, particularly the gold mines in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Blázquez 1978 provides a fairly comprehensive overview, although it is somewhat dated. Ponsich 1998 and Lowe 2009 are good starting points for those who are interested in the rural economy. Those with an interest in trade should begin with Remesal Rodríguez 1998 and Reynolds 2010.

                                                                                                                              • Blázquez, José María. 1978. Historia económica de la Hispania romana. Madrid: Ediciones Cristianidad.

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                                                                                                                                This relatively slim volume packs a large quantity of information gleaned from literary and archaeological sources regarding the economy of Roman Spain, including topics such as mining, taxes, agricultural production, and manufacturing. Its age limits its usefulness, but nevertheless this contains a cornucopia of information.

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                                                                                                                                • Lowe, Benedict. 2009. Roman Iberia: Economy, society and culture. London: Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                  Looks at Roman Spain from an economic point of view, emphasizing changes in production and distribution of olive oil, wine, and fish sauce during the Roman Republic and Early Imperial period. Detailed discussion of the Spanish export industry.

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                                                                                                                                  • Ponsich, Michel. 1998. The rural economy of western Baetica. In The archaeology of early Roman Baetica. Edited by Simon Keay, 171–183. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                                                                                                    Provides a good overview of economic activity in Baetica, building on scholarship since Ponsich’s seminal survey work in the Guadalquivir River valley in the 1970s.

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                                                                                                                                    • Remesal Rodríguez, José. 1998. Baetican olive oil and the Roman economy. In The archaeology of early Roman Baetica. Edited by Simon Keay, 183–200. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

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                                                                                                                                      Newcomers to the study of Roman amphoras and their connection to economic activity often have to navigate a convoluted literature with many unfamiliar terms and methods. This article succinctly summarizes our knowledge of the role of Baetica in the larger supply of oil to Rome and provides a good starting point for the topic.

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                                                                                                                                      • Reynolds, Paul. 2010. Hispania and the Roman Mediterranean, AD 100–700: Ceramics and trade. London: Gerald Duckworth.

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                                                                                                                                        Examination of the external trade of Hispania with the rest of the Roman world during the Roman Empire and the early Visigothic period, through the lens of ceramic distribution. Discussion includes goods traded in bulk via amphoras: oil, wine, and fish sauce. Finewares, both those produced in Spain and those imported from abroad, are also treated.

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                                                                                                                                        Coinage

                                                                                                                                        The minting of coinage in Spain is associated with the need to pay Roman troops engaged in conflict in the peninsula. Many urban mints are known from the Republican period, coining mainly silver, with bronze issues appearing in the Late Republic and Early Empire. Ripollès 2005 provides a high-quality overview. Bost, et al. 1979 presents a highly influential early discussion of coin circulation, while Blázquez Cerrato 2002 and Lledó Cardona 2007 build on Bost, et al. 1979 and extend it geographically and chronologically. Those interested in individual coin types should look at the excellent reproductions in Ripollès and Abascal 2000.

                                                                                                                                        • Blázquez Cerrato, Cruces. 2002. Circulación monetaria en el área occidental de la Península Ibérica: La moneda en torno al “Camino de la Plata.” Archéologie et Histoire Romaine 6. Montagnac, France: Éditions Monique Mergoil.

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                                                                                                                                          Regional catalogue of coin hoards, coins from museum collections, and coins from archaeological contexts from western Spain, from Badajoz to León, ranging in date from the 2nd century BCE to end of the reign of Commodus (192 CE).

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                                                                                                                                          • Bost, Jean-Pierre, Marta Campo, and José María Gurt. 1979. La circulación monetaria en Hispania durante el período romano-imperial: Problemática y conclusiones generales. Paper presented at a conference held on 27–28 February 1979 in Barcelona. In Symposium Numismático de Barcelona. Vol. 2. Edited by Asociación Numismática Española, 174–202. Barcelona: Asociación Numismática Española.

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                                                                                                                                            Valuable study of coin circulation in Spain during the Imperial period, but based primarily on uncontextualized finds rather than coin hoards with clear archaeological provenience.

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                                                                                                                                            • Lledó Cardona, Nuria. 2007. La moneda en la tarraconense mediterránea en época romana imperial. Serie de Trabajos Varios 107. Valencia, Spain: Diputación Provincial de Valencia.

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                                                                                                                                              Study of coin finds from coastal urban sites on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, from Emporiae (Empúries) to Carthago Nova (Cartageña). Author examines patterns of coin circulation from the Julio-Claudian period through the 5th century, with a brief excursus on the 6th and 7th centuries. She argues for a relatively high level of monetization in the coastal urban centers of Hispania.

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                                                                                                                                              • Ripollès, Pere Pau. 2005. Coinage and identity in the Roman provinces: Spain. In Coinage and identity in the Roman provinces. Edited by Christopher Howgego, Volker Heuchert, and Andrew Burnett, 79–93. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                An introduction to the Roman mints of Spain, making connections with their political, cultural, and economic contexts. Useful summary of the extent of minting in the Imperial period and a brief discussion of types and legends. No illustrations.

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                                                                                                                                                • Ripollès, Pere Pau, and Juan Manuel Abascal. 2000. Monedas hispánicas. Catálogo del Gabinete de Antigüedades II.1. Madrid: Real Academia de Historia.

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                                                                                                                                                  Detailed catalogue (though without interpretation) of coins minted in Spain between the 3rd century BCE and the 1st century CE, from the coin cabinet of the Real Academia de Historia. Mints represented include the Greek and Punic colonies, Iberian mints, and Roman civic mints. Valuable for its comprehensive photographs.

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                                                                                                                                                  Archaeology

                                                                                                                                                  The best overview is still Keay 1988. Collins 1998 is ideal for those planning to travel to Spain or Portugal.

                                                                                                                                                  • Collins, Roger. 1998. Spain: An Oxford archaeological guide. Oxford Archaeological Guides. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Although somewhat dated, this handbook offers brief summaries of important archaeological sites in Spain from the Paleolithic through the Islamic periods. Often accompanied by plans, the entries discuss what is visible to the visitor today, summarizing their scholarly importance.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Keay, Simon J. 1988. Roman Spain. Exploring the Roman World. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      Has a strong focus on the material culture of Spain and provides a good introduction to the material evidence relating to issues such as urbanism, infrastructure, villas, pottery production, mining, the army, and religion.

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                                                                                                                                                      Cities

                                                                                                                                                      Those interested in the Roman city in Spain have a wealth of material to choose from. Revell 2009 and Mierse 1999 are the most-accessible general works. Beltrán Fortes and Rodríguez Gutiérrez 2012 collects a variety of early-21st-century approaches, and Trillmich and Zanker 1990 and Mierse 1999 look at urban planning and the ways cities in Spain positioned themselves in relation to Rome. Revell 2009 compares the experience of Spain to Roman Britain, and Diarte Blasco 2012 and Kulikowski 2004 focus on the changes experienced by Spanish cities during the Late Empire. Alarcão and Etienne 1974–1979 and Keay, et al. 2000 are more-specialized studies of single cities.

                                                                                                                                                      • Alarcão, Jorge de, and Robert Etienne, eds. 1974–1979. Fouilles de Conimbriga. 7 vols. Paris: Diffusion, E. de Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                        Conimbriga is one of the most extensively excavated cities in Hispania, and while for other cities one frequently has to sort through many publications (if their excavations have been published at all), Conimbriga is by contrast highly accessible. Useful to anyone interested in Roman urbanism, public sculpture, or ceramics.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Beltrán Fortes, José, and Oliva Rodríguez Gutiérrez, eds. 2012. Hispaniae urbes: Investigaciones arqueológicas en ciudades históricas. Serie Historia y Geografía 203. Seville, Spain: Universidad de Sevilla.

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                                                                                                                                                          Collection of studies of Roman cities in Hispania from an archaeological viewpoint. One section covers cities from southern Tarraconensis (Valentia, Carthago Nova) and western and northwestern Spain, while two others cover cities located in Andalusia and the province of Sevilla, respectively, with the greatest number of contributions looking at evidence for the Roman city Hispalis (Seville).

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                                                                                                                                                          • Diarte Blasco, Pilar. 2012. La configuración de la Hispania tardoantigua: Transformaciones y pervivencias de los espacios públicos romanos (s. III–VI d.C.). BAR International Series 2429. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                                                            Diarte looks at the evidence for public buildings and spaces in Late Roman cities of Hispania. Her catalogue is very useful for a summary and bibliography of the archaeological remains for each city. Concludes that urban spaces underwent a progressive transformation in the later Roman period, followed by a disarticulation in the post-Roman period, the result of which led to the creation of the early medieval city.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Keay, Simon, John Creighton, and José Remesal Rodríguez. 2000. Celti (Peñaflor): The archaeology of a Hispano-Roman town in Baetica; Survey and excavations, 1987–1992. University of Southampton Department of Archaeology Monograph 2. Oxford: Oxbow.

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                                                                                                                                                              The archaeological work done at Celti in southern Spain is an excellent example of a multidisciplinary approach to urban studies. Survey, excavation, remote sensing, faunal and pollen analysis, and pottery studies all are combined to paint a detailed picture of the life of Celti from its pre-Roman origins through Late Antiquity.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Kulikowski, Michael. 2004. Late Roman Spain and its cities. Ancient Society and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                One of the few treatments of the Late Roman city in Spain from a synthetic point of view. Kulikowski covers the period between the late 3rd and 6th centuries, arguing for a continuous tradition of urbanism that survived the fall of the Roman Empire into the Visigothic period.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Mierse, William E. 1999. Temples and towns in Roman Iberia: The social and architectural dynamics of sanctuary designs from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Mierse situates the urban temple complex within its larger architectural frame, using examples from throughout the Iberian Peninsula. The chronological focus is the late Republic through the Flavian period, the time of greatest temple construction. Mierse argues for the role of the temple as an expression of local identity within a larger Roman cultural milieu.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Revell, Louise. 2009. Roman imperialism and local identities. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A comparative study of urban development in Roman Britain and Spain, through a series of case studies looking at the construction of public buildings in these centers during the 1st through 3rd centuries CE. Revell looks both to common patterns and local variation as expressions of different ways of “being Roman” within the empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Trillmich, Walter, and Paul Zanker, eds. 1990. Stadtbild und Ideologie: Die Monumentalisierung hispanischer Städte zwischen Republik und Kaiserzeit; Kolloquium in Madrid vom 19. bis 23. Oktober 1987. Veröffentlichungen der Kommission zur Erforschung des Antiken Städtewesens. Munich: Verlag der Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This well-researched volume looks at city design in the Early Imperial period and argues that the urban centers of Spain were constructed according to a pattern that expressed Roman imperial ideology and the relationship between the provinces and Rome as center of the empire. A very influential work, which many of the other entries in this section respond to.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Countryside

                                                                                                                                                                      Studies of the Roman countryside have become increasingly common since the early 1980s. Most of the work has come from archaeological survey, of which Ponsich, et al. 1991 is a classic example. Gorges and Rodríguez Martín 2000 and Sánchez Barrero 2000 look more closely at the example of Emerita Augusta (Mérida). Beltrán Lloris 2006 is an extremely important look inside rural institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Beltrán Lloris, Francisco. 2006. An irrigation decree from Roman Spain: The Lex Rivi Hiberiensis. Journal of Roman Studies 96:147–197.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3815/000000006784016242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        The Lex Rivi Hiberiensis provides valuable information for the organization of rural areas in Roman Spain, particularly the presence of a council for each pagus or district and the existence and roles of elected magistrates who exercised executive functions.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Carreté, Josep-Maria, Simon Keay, and Martin Millet. 1995. A Roman provincial capital and its hinterland: The survey of the territory of Tarragona, Spain, 1985–1990. Ann Arbor, MI: Cushing-Malloy.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This survey is one of the few available in English that focus on the rural hinterland of an important urban center. Combining extensive surface survey with the examination of material from individual sites, it demonstrates a dense occupation in the Roman period of areas up to 20 kilometers away from Tarragona.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Gorges, Jean-Gérard, and Francisco Germán Rodríguez Martín. 2000. Voies romaines, propriétés et propriétaires à l’ouest de Mérida: Problèmes d’occupation du sol en moyenne vallée du Guadiana sous le Haut-Empire. Paper presented at a conference on Roman Lusitania held in 2000 in Mérida, Spain. In Sociedad y cultura en Lusitania romana: IV Mesa Redonda Internacional. Edited by Jean-Gérard Gorges and Trinidad Nogales Basarrate, 101–154. Serie Estudios Portugueses 13. Mérida, Spain: Editora Regional de Extremadura.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the broader regional context of the city of Mérida, focusing on the roads and rural establishments west of Mérida to the modern Portuguese border. Attempts to link communication routes with the presence of rural occupation, particularly villas.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Ponsich, Michel, Antonio Caro Bellido, Josep Pérez, and María Luisa Lavado Florido. 1991. Implantation rurale antique sur le Bas-Guadalquivir. 4 vols. Collection de la Casa de Velázquez 33. Madrid: Laboratoire d’Archéologie de la Casa de Velázquez.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The first large-scale survey project in Spain, this work remains very influential, and the data that are presented are still frequently mined for information about the Roman countryside, particularly since many of the described sites have succumbed to development.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Sánchez Barrero, Pedro Dámaso. 2000. Territorio y sociedad en Augusta Emerita. Paper presented at a conference on Roman Lusitania held in 2000 in Mérida, Spain. In Sociedad y cultura en Lusitania romana: IV Mesa Redonda Internacional. Edited by Jean-Gérard Gorges and Trinidad Nogales Basarrate, 203–228. Serie Estudios Portugueses 13. Mérida, Spain: Editora Regional de Extremadura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Analysis of the literary and archaeological evidence for the road network and rural settlement in the vicinity of Mérida. Sánchez argues for a dense occupation of the area around the city, with the possibility of certain areas set aside for common pastureland.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Villas

                                                                                                                                                                                The wealth of Roman villas in Spain has led to numerous publications on the topic. Gorges 1979 remains the only general overview. Chavarría Arnau 2005 and Chavarría Arnau 2007 are useful for those interested in the end of the Roman villa. Castanyer i Masoliver and Tremoleda i Trilla 1999 and Vaquerizo Gil and Noguera Celdrán 1997 offer good case studies of Roman villas with extensive material remains.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Castanyer i Masoliver, Pere, and Joaquim Tremoleda i Trilla, eds. 1999. La vil·la romana de Vilauba: Un exemple de l’ocupació i explotació romana del territori a la comarca del Pla de l’Estany. Banyoles, Spain: Ajuntament de Banyoles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Vilauba is located just north of Girona in northeastern Spain. It is a particularly well-documented villa that has been the target of excavations since 1978 and has produced material ranging from the 2nd/1st centuries BCE through the 7th century CE, making it a model for researchers into the history and development of Roman villas in Spain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Chavarría Arnau, Alexandra. 2005. Villas in Hispania during the fourth and fifth centuries. In Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current perspectives. Edited by Kim Bowes and Michael Kulikowski, 519–555. Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World 24. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This article is a shorter version, in English, of the argument made in Chavarría Arnau 2007. The author summarizes the formal elements of Late Roman villas from the Iberian Peninsula and their decoration and looks at epigraphic evidence for individual owners. Functional changes in villa architecture in the 5th century are linked to the accumulation of property by landholders during the Late Imperial period. Very useful bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chavarría Arnau, Alexandra. 2007. El final de las villae en Hispania (siglos IV–VIII d.C.). Bibliothèque de l’Antiquité Tardive 7. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Chavarría discusses the transformation of Roman villas and the new functions these important centers fulfilled. Those interested in changes in rural areas and the ways in which elites adapted to new economic and religious forces will gain much from her discussion of economic production and Christianity in Late Roman villas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gorges, Jean-Gérard. 1979. Les villas hispano-romaines: Inventaire et problématique archéologiques. Publications du Centre Pierre Paris 4. Paris: Diffusion E. de Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        An important catalogue and analysis of Roman villas in Spain, exhaustively documented as of its publication. Later works have challenged some of Gorges’s conclusions, and the corpus of well-excavated villas is much larger, but this work is still significant for setting the terms of the debate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vaquerizo Gil, Desiderio, and José Miguel Noguera Celdrán. 1997. La villa romana de El Ruedo (Almedinilla, Córdoba): Decoración escultórica e interpretación. Córdoba, Spain: Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Córdoba.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A list of important late-20th-century excavation reports of Roman villas would be extremely lengthy, but the Late Roman villa of El Ruedo, located on the Guadalquivir River, is noteworthy for the quality of the excavations and the quantity of material, particularly sculpture, that has been found there.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Ceramics

                                                                                                                                                                                          Spain was a major producer of finewares, tablewares, and amphoras during the Roman period. Mezquíriz de Catalán 1985 summarizes the “traditional view” of the fineware traditions of Roman Spain, although more-recent work has modified the picture presented therein. Bernal Casasola and Ribera i Lacomba 2008 and Bernal Casasola and Ribera i Lacomba 2012 provide a good starting point for those interested in the latest work. Roca Roumens 1976 and Garabito 1978 are important for those interested in production centers, and López Rodríguez 1985, on the later productions, is still heavily referenced. Mayet 1975 is an essential guide to the thin-walled wares.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bernal Casasola, Darío, and Albert Ribera i Lacomba, eds. 2008. Cerámicas hispanorromanas: Un estado de la cuestión. Cádiz, Spain: Asociación Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautores.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The most up-to-date treatment of Roman ceramic production in Spain. This volume concentrates on the indigenous ceramic traditions in Hispania prior to the Roman conquest and the shift to new styles of fineware pottery in the 1st century CE. A scattering of papers deals with production in Late Antiquity, amphoras, and other ceramic products such as roof tiles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bernal Casasola, Darío, and Albert Ribera i Lacomba, eds. 2012. Cerámicas hispanorromanas II: Producciones regionales. Monografías Historia y Arte. Cádiz, Spain: Universidad de Cádiz.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              This volume looks at regional variations and imitations of more widely distributed finewares, as well as more-utilitarian classes of pottery: amphoras and table wares. Like the first volume (Bernal Casasola and Ribera i Lacomba 2008), this is an essential guide to early-21st-century scholarship in Roman ceramics in Spain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ex Officina Hispana.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Website maintained by the Sociedad de Estudios de la Cerámica Antigua en Hispania. Has links to their publications on various topics relating to pottery, as well as useful links and bibliographies covering all aspects of ancient ceramics in Spain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Garabito, Tomás. 1978. Los alfares romanos riojanos: Producción y comercialización. Bibliotheca Praehistorica Hispana 16. Madrid: Instituto Español de Prehistoria, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Garabito’s monograph was the first comprehensive study of fineware production in the Najerilla River valley of northern Spain, one of the two main centers of production for Terra Sigillata Hispánica. Although dating to the late 1970s, his study is still useful for those interested in the pottery from the area because of the lack of published excavations from the region.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • López Rodríguez, José Ramón. 1985. Terra sigillata hispánica tardía decorada a molde de la Península Ibérica. Acta Salmanticensia, Filosofia y Letras 168. Valladolid, Spain: Secretariado de Publicaciones, Universidad de Valladolid.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    The later finewares produced in Spain have tended to be overlooked somewhat, but they are addressed to some degree by López’s discussion of the mold-made wares from the 3rd century CE and later. A detailed catalogue of types and decoration, with relatively little attempt to synthesize the data.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mayet, Françoise. 1975. Les céramiques à parois fines dans la Péninsule Ibérique. Publications du Centre Pierre Paris 1. Paris: Diffusion E. de Boccard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mayet’s typology of thin-walled wares from Spain was very influential and is still referenced in the early 21st century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mezquíriz de Catalán, María Ángeles. 1961. Terra sigillata hispánica. 2 vols. Valencia, Spain: F. Domenech.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Terra Sigillata Hispánica is the most common locally produced fineware in Roman Spain. This volume represents the most influential attempt at a typology and chronology and has served as a reference for subsequent publications. Since its publication, there have been many refinements to the chronology, but it is still an important reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mezquíriz de Catalán, María Ángeles. 1985. Terra sigillata hispánica. In Atlante delle forme ceramiche. Vol. 2, Ceramica fina romana nel Bacino Mediterraneo: Tardo elenismo e primo impero. Edited by Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, 97–166. Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica Classica e Orientale. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is an updated version of Mezquíriz de Catalán 1961, adding some new forms and with some adjustments to the chronology. Intended to serve as a reference, it lacks the detailed grounding of the earlier work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Roca Roumens, Mercedes. 1976. Sigillata hispánica producida en Andújar (Jaén). Jaén, Spain: Publicaciones del Instituto de Estudios Giennenses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Andújar is the region that produced the second-largest quantity of fineware in Roman Spain, surpassed only by the Najerilla River valley, and Roca Roumens’s publication played an important role in demonstrating the importance of this center in the production of finewares for Baetica.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Encyclopedic, thematic treatments of different artistic media were popular in the 1970s and 1980s, but these have fallen out of favor more recently. Nünnerich-Asmus 1993 is a useful general study and a good starting point. More-specialized treatments include Garriguet 2001, which examines Roman sculpture, and Abad Casal 1982 and Blázquez 1993, which look at painting and mosaics, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Abad Casal, Lorenzo. 1982. La pintura romana en España. 2 vols. Jerez de la Frontera, Spain: Gráficas del Exportador.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lengthy treatment of the evidence for mural painting in Roman Spain. Vol. 1 comprises a comprehensive catalogue of works from archaeological sites throughout Spain, followed by a study of techniques and a discussion of composition and motifs. Vol. 2 contains drawings and generally low-quality black-and-white photos of most (but by no means all) of the examples in the catalogue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Blázquez, José María. 1993. Mosaicos romanos de España. Historia. Madrid: Cátedra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of articles on Roman mosaics written by Blázquez, this volume includes discussions from artistic, thematic, and technical points of view and serves as a good overview of the state of research into Roman mosaics as of its publication. Images are in black and white and of poor quality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Garriguet, José Antonio. 2001. La imagen del poder imperial en Hispania: Tipos estatuarios. Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani, España 2.1. Murcia, Spain: Tabularium.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Catalogue and analysis of eighty-one male and female statues from Spain and Portugal dating between the late 1st century BCE through the 2nd century CE, mainly from the south and the eastern coast. Garriguet attempts to identify local and regional workshop traditions and establish stylistic dating criteria.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nünnerich-Asmus, Annette, ed. 1993. Denkmäler der Römerzeit. Hispania Antiqua. Mainz, Germany: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lavishly illustrated volume covering Roman culture in Spain. Contributions from prominent scholars provide a general overview of indigenous languages in Hispania, streets, bridges and arches, funerary monuments, sculptural collections from Roman villas, mosaics, and urban fortifications. Many high-quality color and black-and-white photographs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Public Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no general overview of Roman public architecture in Spain, though Mierse 1999 covers a lot of ground and is a good place to begin. Barrera Antón 2000 and Durán Cabello 2004 look at Augusta Emerita, capital of Lusitania, which has some of the best-preserved buildings in the Iberian Peninsula, while Taller Escola d’Arqueologia 1989 performs the same service for the center of Tarraco. For individual building types, see Álvarez Martínez and Enríquez Navascués 1994 on amphitheaters, Durán Fuentes 2004 on bridges, Ramallo Asensio and Santiuste de Pablos 1993 on theaters, and Fernández Ochoa and García Entero 2000 on baths.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Álvarez Martínez, José María, and Juan Javier Enríquez Navascués, eds. 1994. El anfiteatro en la Hispania romana: Coloquio internacional, Mérida, 26–28 de Noviembre de 1992. Mérida, Spain: Junta de Extremadura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A very useful selection of conference papers touching on important amphitheaters in Spain and Portugal (e.g., Itálica, Tarragona, Mérida). Particularly helpful are discussions within several papers on questions of construction, dating, and the end of amphitheater entertainment. Many excellent photos and plans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Barrera Antón, José Luis de la. 2000. La decoración arquitectónica de los foros de Augusta Emerita. Bibliotheca Archaeologica 25. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A thorough study of one of the most important architectural ensembles in Spain, the civic and provincial fora of Emerita Augusta (Mérida), providing important testimony regarding the ways in which the provincial capitals of Hispania positioned themselves in relation to imperial Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Durán Cabello, Rosalía-María. 2004. El teatro y el anfiteatro de Augusta Emerita: Contribución al conocimiento histórico de la capital de Lusitania. BAR International Series 1207. Oxford: Archaeopress.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The theater-amphitheater complex of Mérida is the best preserved in Hispania and one of the more significant such complexes in the Roman world. Durán conducts a minute analysis of the construction phases and techniques of both buildings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Durán Fuentes, Manuel. 2004. La construcción de puentes romanos en Hispania. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Xunta de Galicia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of thirty-three Roman bridges from an architectural and engineering point of view, with numerous plans and plates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fernández Ochoa, Carmen, and Virginia García Entero, eds. 2000. Termas romanas en el occidente del imperio: II Coloquio Internacional de Arqueología en Gijón, Gijón 1999. Serie Patrimonio 5. Gijón, Spain: VTP Editorial.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A large majority of the contributions to this collection discuss baths and bathing in Roman Spain. Noteworthy papers include those by Josep María Nolla on Republican baths and by María del Mar Zarzalejos Prieto, Fernández Ochoa, and Ángel Morillo Cerdán on urban public bathing complexes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mierse, William E. 1999. Temples and towns of Roman Iberia: The social and architectural dynamics of sanctuary designs from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mierse provides an overview of stylistic variation in Roman temples in Spain as well as their architectural contexts within their urban setting, usually that of the forum. His discussion of elite patronage also places these buildings within a larger social context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ramallo Asensio, Sebastián F., and Félix Santiuste de Pablos, eds. 1993. Teatros romanos de Hispania. Cuadernos de Arquitectura Romana 2. Murcia, Spain: Universidad de Murcia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This collection of papers looks at the archaeological evidence for urban theaters in Spain and Portugal. Each contribution covers a specific example, including the theaters of Tarragona, Sagunto, Zaragoza, and Itálica, albeit not comprehensively (Clunia and Segobriga, among others, being omitted).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Taller Escola d’Arqueologia. 1989. El foro provincial de Tarraco, un complejo arquitectónico de época flavia. Archivo Español de Arqueología 62:141–191.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The provincial forum of Tarraco included a large temple to the imperial cult, a terrace where the provincial assembly could gather, and a large urban circus complex. Article discusses the historiography of the forum and the evidence for its date.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Spain offers a considerable contribution to our understanding of Roman domestic architecture, both urban and rural. However, there are few syntheses. For urban housing, Institución Fernando el Católico 1991 provides the best collection, while Corrales Álvarez 2014 looks in detail at the city of Mérida. Pérez Ruiz 2013 is a more specialized look at domestic cult.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Corrales Álvarez, Álvaro. 2014. La arquitectura doméstica de “Augusta Emerita.” PhD diss., Universidad de Extremadura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no early-21st-century general overview of Roman houses in Spain, so Corrales’s work fills a major gap. Not only does it discuss the history of the houses of Augusta Emerita (Mérida) from the origin of city through the Late Empire, it also contains a useful overview of published work on domestic architecture elsewhere in Spain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Institución Fernando el Católico. 1991. La casa urbana hispanorromana: Ponencias y comunicaciones. Papers presented at a conference held 16–18 November 1988 in Zaragoza, Spain. Publicación 1269. Zaragoza, Spain: Institución Fernando el Católico.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This work collects papers from an 1988 conference in Zaragoza. Organized by province and conventus (juridical region), each contribution discusses the evidence for domestic architecture from a specific Roman city in Spain (Portugal is omitted). Little synthesis is attempted and each paper stands on its own; however, it impresses by the sheer quantity of information.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pérez Ruiz, María. 2013. Topografía del culto en las casas romanas de la Baetica y la Tarraconensis. Madrider Mitteilungen 54:399–441.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An analysis of religious furnishings (altars, lararia, sacraria) in domestic contexts, covering a large portion of Roman Spain via a comparison with Pompeii. A useful reference for those interested in domestic Roman religion, with some evidence for indigenous traditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Epigraphy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Roman Spain has a particularly rich epigraphic tradition, and efforts to catalogue the Latin inscriptions from Spain began in the 19th century. No single, comprehensive, up-to-date source exists—the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Hübner, et al. 1975–2012) and Hispania Epigraphica: Online Database come closest, while Vives 1971–1972 is flawed but frequently referenced. Alföldy 1975 and González 1991– are important publications for those interested in urban centers. Knapp 1992 and Edmondson 2006 are useful for those interested in analysis of inscriptions. Hispania Epigraphica and Ficheiro Epigraphico are very specialized publications that are not useful for those just starting to investigate inscriptions in Spain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alföldy, Géza. 1975. Die römischen Inschriften von Tarraco. 2 vols. Madrider Forschungen 10. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Roman provincial capital of Tarraco (modern-day Tarragona) preserves one of the largest and most important collections of Roman inscriptions from Spain, and Alföldy’s publication is still the definitive source for many of them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Edmondson, Jonathan. 2006. Granite funerary stelae from Augusta Emerita. Monografías Emeritenses 9. Mérida, Spain: Ministerio de Cultura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              For those interested in funerary stelae, this monograph is of interest for its discussion of chronology, archaeological context, and the social function of funerary inscriptions. Edmondson argues for a close connection between commemorative habits in Emerita Augusta and those of northern Italy and Cisalpine Gaul, where many of the veterans who settled here originated.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ficheiro Epigraphico. 1982–. Coimbra, Portugal: Universidade de Coimbra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplement to the journal Conimbriga, this serial publishes new (and older but unpublished) inscriptions found in Portugal.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • González, Julián, ed. 1991–. Corpus de inscripciones latinas de Andalucía. Seville, Spain: Consejería de Cultura y Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The very large collection of Roman inscriptions from Baetica is covered by this series, which consists of multiple volumes corresponding to the modern provinces in Andalusia (to date: Huelva, Sevilla, Jaén, and Granada). Each inscription has an entry with its Latin text, translation, and bibliography. Black-and-white photographs of each.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hispania Epigraphica. 1989–. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The primary journal for publishing new inscriptions from Spain and Portugal.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hispania Epigraphica: Online Database.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Online database of Roman inscriptions from Spain, with excellent coverage of published inscriptions. Spanish, English, and Portuguese languages supported. An extremely helpful resource for those interested in Roman inscriptions because it provides citations and, in many cases, photos for each inscription in the database.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hübner, Emil, Armin U. Stylow, Rafael Atencia Páez, et al., eds. 1975–2012. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. 2, Inscriptiones Hispaniae Latinae. Berlin: Reimer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in 1869. Collection of Latin inscriptions intended to include all significant inscriptions from Roman Spain; with the published supplements, this is an essential source and is used as the authoritative reference for specific inscriptions. Text and notes in Latin. Published fascicules include the eastern and southern portions of the Iberian Peninsula; work on the northern and western portions is still ongoing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Knapp, Robert C. 1992. Latin inscriptions from central Spain. University of California Publications, Classical Studies 34. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Catalogue and discussion of inscriptions from the provinces of Madrid, Ávila, and Segovia. Covers evidence for onomastic habits, the demography of the epigraphic population, and the legal status of the important cities of the Meseta.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vives, José. 1971–1972. Inscripciones latinas de la España romana: Antología de 6800 textos. 2 vols. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An attempt to catalogue every Roman inscription from Roman Spain, the ambitious scope of this work is undercut by many dubious readings and a lack of photographs. However, its organization and index still make it a useful reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Religion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There are many studies of Roman religion that focus on specific deities or regions, but few general overviews. Useful case studies include Oria Segura 2000, Nogales and González 2007, and Cuesta Moratinos 2011. Morillo 2014 is more general and is useful for those interested in the Roman army. Portela Filgueiras 1984 looks at religion in a rural and household context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cuesta Moratinos, María Rosa. 2011. Cueva Román: Fuente de abastecimiento—lugar de culto de la Colonia Clunia Sulpicia. Paper presented at an international conference held 12–13 July 2011 in Girona, Spain. In Aquae sacrae: Agua y sacralidad en la Antigüedad. Edited by Ana Costa, Lluís Palahí, and David Vivó, 167–180. Girona, Spain: Institut de Recerca Històrica de la Universitat de Girona.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Cueva Román is one of the most unusual cultic places in the Roman world. Located in a cave near the city of Clunia, it preserves inscriptions and sculptures in unbaked clay that appear to be connected with a Priapic cult. Cuesta suggests it served as a nymphaeum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Morillo, Ángel. 2014. Espacios sagrados y santuarios militares romanos de Hispania. Paper presented at a seminar held on 28–29 May 2009 in Madrid. In Santuarios suburbanos y del territorio de las ciudades romanas. Edited by Julio Mangas Manjarrés and Miguel Ángel Novillo López, 123–162. Monografías del ICCA. Madrid: Instituto Universitario de Investigatión en Ciencias de la Antigüedad, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Discusses the epigraphic and archaeological evidence for Roman military shrines that appear in various camps in northwestern Spain beginning in the Flavian period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nogales, Trinidad, and Julián González, eds. 2007. Culto imperial, política y poder: Actas del Congreso Internacional Culto Imperial; Mérida, Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, 18–20 de mayo, 2006. Hispania Antigua, Serie Arqueológica 1. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Comprehensive discussion of the imperial cult in Hispania, with general papers on the role of the imperial cult in public life followed by detailed treatments of the three Early Imperial provinces (Tarraconensis, Lusitania, and Baetica). Impressive in its breadth and depth of treatment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Oria Segura, Mercedes. 2000. Dioses y ciudad en la Bética romana: Las estatuas de dioses en los espacios públicos de las ciudades béticas. Cuadernos de prehistoria y arqueología 26:151–167.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uses Baetica as a case study for the examination of public statues of gods and goddesses, using forty-eight extant statues and 105 preserved statue bases. Argues that honorific statues are found in primarily urban contexts, where they were used as a way to create civic identity and solidarity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Portela Filgueiras, María Isabel. 1984. Los dioses lares en la Hispania romana. Lucentum 1984.3: 153–180.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discussion and bibliography regarding the cult of the Lares in Roman Spain, with an emphasis on toponyms and the Lares Augustales, the Lares Romani, and the Lares Viales. Relatively little on household devotion. Extensive bibliography covering early research on the Lares in Spain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Christianity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Christianity came early to Spain, which hosted one of the first general ecclesiastical synods in the Roman West, that of Elvira in the early 4th century, discussed in Sotomayor and Fernández Ubiña 2005. Bowes 2005 looks at the Spanish context of early Christianity, while Fernández Conde 2007 addresses the heresy promulgated by the Spanish noble Priscillian, whose exact nature is still heavily debated. Arce 2006 is useful for those interested in the transition between traditional pagan worship and Christianity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Arce, Javier. 2006. Fana, templa, delubra destrui praecipimus: El final de los templos de la Hispania romana. Archivo Español de Arqueología 79:115–124.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses the Theodosian legislation regarding the destruction of pagan temples, and the evidence for its execution in Spain. Arce notes that there is little evidence either for the conversion of temples to churches or their deliberate demolition, but instead they appear to have gradually been adapted to other uses or their material was robbed after being abandoned.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bowes, Kim. 2005. “Un coterie espagnole pieuse”: Christian archaeology and Christian communities in fourth- and fifth-century Hispania. In Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current perspectives. Edited by Kim Bowes and Michael Kulikowski, 189–258. Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World 24. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bowes attempts to answer the question of whether there was any specifically Spanish form of Christianity in the Late Empire. She points out the strong links between early Christian sites and villas and suggests that the landed aristocracy played a preeminent role in the structure of the early church, independent of ecclesiastical authority.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Escribano, Victoria. 2005. Heresy and orthodoxy in fourth-century Hispania: Arianism and Priscillianism. In Hispania in Late Antiquity: Current perspectives. Edited by Kim Bowes and Michael Kulikowski, 121–150. Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World 24. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Links the beginnings of the Priscillianist controversy to earlier disputes over the control of sees, between those who had accommodated Arian views and those who had steadfastly rejected them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fernández Conde, Francisco Javier. 2007. Prisciliano y priscilianismo: Historiografía y realidad. Piedras Angulares. Gijón, Spain: Ediciones Trea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A modern reading of the Priscillianist controversy, placing it within its larger social context as a popular movement in opposition to powerful social hierarchies. Useful also for its discussion of previous scholarship on Priscillian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sotomayor, Manuel, and José Fernández Ubiña, eds. 2005. El Concilio de Elvira y su tiempo. Biblioteca Chronica Nova de Estudios Históricos 89. Granada, Spain: Universidad de Granada.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of papers on the Council of Elvira; includes an edition of the Latin text of the acts of the council, with Spanish translation. Extensive discussion of the social, ecclesiastical, and urban context of the council.

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