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Social Work Cultural Competence and Ethnic Sensitive Practice
by
Sadye L.M. Logan

Introduction

Cultural competence, cultural sensitivity, multicultural or cultural responsiveness, and ethnic-sensitive practice are interrelated and interconnected concepts but are not necessarily exchangeable terms. Researchers and practitioners in the helping or caring professions view cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice as fundamental tenets of professional practice (see Introductory Works and Origins and History). In the social work profession, a cultural competence mandate is contained in both the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards and the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics and is also promoted in practice textbooks. The initial focus of social work scholarship was on racial and ethnic-sensitive practice as a way of addressing issues of dominance, oppression, racism, identity, difference, and justice. Cultural competence emerged as a practice concept in addressing the needs of individuals and groups from nonwhite racial and ethnic backgrounds. Over time, the term has evolved to encompass group differences pertaining to gender, sexual orientation, religion, age, ability, language, nationality, and other characteristics related to cultural background. As reflected in this entry, experience and knowledge about the complexity of being and becoming human is continually evolving. Further, the contextual nature of social work problems, practices, and interventions, as well as the intersectionality of heteropatriarchy (a framework that has conjoined heterosexuality, maleness, and power) and multiple axes of other forms of oppression, has expanded the traditional conception of cultural competence. Researchers concerned with implementation and outcomes and/or effective service delivery among culturally diverse groups and scholars from both national and international perspectives have critiqued the dominant cultural competence discourse (see Ethics and Othering and Critical Analysis of Concepts and Terms). Additionally, to further enhance this evolving narrative, specialty non–social work or related publications are increasing.

Introductory Works

Social work’s evolving emphasis on ethnic sensitivity and cultural competence was greatly influenced by the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The deficit-oriented perspective coupled with heteropatriarchal and Eurocentric biases in social work practice and education was challenged for a more inclusive orientation. This challenge led to the Council on Social Work Education’s (CSWE’s) adoption of standards for addressing race, racism, and people of color. The initial response for meeting CSWE’s mandate was Solomon 1977, a textbook on strategies for empowering African American communities. DeVore and Schlesinger 1981, the very popular and best-known text on ethnic perspective practice, followed. Written five years following DeVore and Schlesinger 1981, Lum 1986 is a text that provided a process approach to thinking about and working with people of color. Cross, et al. 1989 was viewed as pivotal in the cultural competence movement. Potocky 1997 provided a historical review of multicultural social work in the United States. Lum 1999 followed with a framework for addressing both self-awareness and skills development in developing cultural competence. With the exception of Lum 1986; Lum 1999; and Cross, et al. 1989, the primary focus of these introductory works was on race, ethnicity, and culture.

  • Cross, Terry L., Barbara J. Bazron, Karl W. Dennis, and Mareasa R. Isaacs. 1989. Toward a culturally competent system of care. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Child Development Center.

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    This monograph was viewed as pivotal in defining a culturally competent system of care that acknowledges and incorporates the importance of culture, the assessment of cross-cultural relations, and vigilance toward the dynamics that result from cultural differences.

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  • DeVore, Wynetta, and Elfriede G. Schlesinger. 1981. Ethnic-sensitive social work practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    This book was among the first attempts to integrate understanding of the impact of ethnicity, social class, and historically underrepresented groups with principles and strategies of social work practice.

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  • Lum, Domain. 1986. Social work practice with people of color: A process-stage approach. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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    This book offers a practical and well-defined five-stage model of social work practice with culturally diverse communities. It specifically focuses on practice with persons of color but is intended to be relevant for culturally and ethnically sensitive practice with any individual or population.

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  • Lum, Domain. 1999. Culturally competent practice: A framework for growth and action. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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    This text presents a model for understanding, measuring, and evaluating cultural competency. It is a practical, experiential approach with numerous exercises, which makes it an excellent choice for courses at all levels of social work.

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  • Potocky, Miriam. 1997. Multicultural social work in the United States. International Social Work 40:315–326.

    DOI: 10.1177/002087289704000307Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides a review of the historical context in which multicultural social work developed in the United States and its current status and describes the need for an expanded approach to multicultural social work.

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  • Solomon, Barbara. 1977. Black empowerment: Social work in oppressed communities. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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    This book is a classic and was written to provide social workers and other caring professionals with effective strategies for working with clients in black communities to achieve personal and collective goals.

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Textbooks

There is a proliferation of literature as cultural competences assume increasing importance in the caring or helping professions such as social work, nursing, and medicine. The literature is proliferating across disciplines. In social work, most if not all textbooks are written for undergraduate as well as graduate students. DeVore and Schlesinger 1999 focuses on ethnic-sensitive practice, while Garcia and Van Soest 2006 and Lum 2010 incorporate emphasis on social justice issues. Fong and Furuto 2001 emphasizes skills, intervention, and evaluation. Marsiglia and Kulis 2009 addresses diversity and oppression. Rothman 2008 addresses cultural competence as process and practice. With variations as suggested above, these texts generally reconceptualize social work’s Eurocentric purviews, promote the awareness of multiple oppression, and place emphasis on the intersectionality of multiple categories of identity. Solomon 1977 has the distinction of being the first scholarly work to provide social workers and other caring professionals with effective strategies for providing culturally sensitive practice to clients in African American communities. The author’s focus was on empowerment strategies. Weaver 2005 brings a fresh new look at diversity and provides examples and practice skills for specific populations as a means of helping students and practitioners to practice in a culturally sensitive manner.

  • DeVore, Wynetta, and Elfriede G. Schlesinger. 1999. Ethnic-sensitive social work practice. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    This fifth edition represents a broader view of ethnic-sensitive practice. Included in this expanded view is an emphasis on the fourteen axes of difference as potential sources of oppression and diversity.

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  • Fong, Rowena, and Sharlene Furuto. 2001. Culturally competent practice: Skills, interventions and evaluations. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    Discusses how to work with clients of four major ethnic groups: African Americans, Latinos/Hispanic Americans, First Nations people, and Asian/Pacific Islanders.

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  • Garcia, Betty, and Dorothy Van Soest. 2006. Social work practice for social justice: Cultural competence in action. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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    This book is intended for both undergraduate and graduate students. Its aim is to help prepare professional social workers to transform oppressive and unjust systems into nonoppressive and just alternatives.

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  • Lum, Doman. 2010. Culturally competent practice: A framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues. 4th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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    This text emphasizes cultural competence as a dialogical process and challenges students and professors to continue the conversation to achieve greater mutual understanding and social justice. It also provides a model for understanding, measuring, and evaluating cultural competence.

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  • Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco, and Stephen Kulis. 2009. Diversity, oppression and change: Culturally grounded social work. Chicago: Lyceum.

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    This book, divided into four parts―an introduction to cultural diversity and social work practice, theories and perspectives on oppression, cultural identities, and the profession of social work grounded in culture―provides readers with the knowledge and skills needed to move beyond cultural awareness into social action.

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  • Rothman, Judith C. 2008. Cultural competence in process and practice: Building bridges. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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    This text is intended to prepare students to work with all client populations. It is divided into three parts: Unit 1 covers social work processes, Unit 2 contains student case examples, and Unit 3 contains student exercises.

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  • Solomon, Barbara. 1977. Black empowerment: Social work in oppressed communities. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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    This text, one of the first of its kind in social work, focused its content across the professional disciplines of psychology, nursing, and education. Effective practice strategies for working with clients in black communities emphasized theory as well as experiential learning.

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  • Weaver, Hilary N. 2005. Explorations in cultural competence: Journeys to the four directions. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

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    The author provides a fresh new look at diversity by presenting a more historical and sociological perspective that speaks to the evolution of diversity consciousness within social work, which has been built from a variety of disciplines. Examples and practice skills are provided for specific populations to help students learn how to apply specific concepts and practice in a culturally competent manner.

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Reference Resources

A diverse and varied set of reference resources are available in social work and allied disciplines to support education, research, and practice. Resources exist in multimedia formats, including films, DVDs, and online materials. These online resources include the National Association of Social Workers Standards for Cultural Competence, the US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health for national standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services, the American Refugee Committee, and Healthy People 2010. All of the foregoing resources, in addition to the Cultural Competence monograph series, the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy, the National Quality Forum (NQF), and the National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC), are excellent resources for anyone interested in culturally and linguistically competent service delivery. DiversityRx is an active listserv with more than eight hundred participants from health-care organizations, government, business, academia, national and community-based organizations, and philanthropy that allows its subscribers to stay current with DiversityRx and cross-cultural health-care news.

Manuals and Guides

The following manuals and guides attempt to bridge the complex nature of cultural competency and ethnic-sensitive practice. These guides maybe used to facilitate discussions (NC Office of Economic Opportunity), improve practice skills (Laird 2008), gain critical knowledge (People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond), and identify research needs (Littrell and Salas 2005). Demo, et al. 2000 and Lynch and Hanson 2004 are excellent resources for highlighting diversity among and within families. Solomon, et al. 2007 provides practitioners with all necessary information to launch an effective, culturally sensitive HIV prevention program.

  • Demo, David H., Katherine R. Allen, and Mark A. Fine, eds. 2000. Handbook of family diversity. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This handbook serves as an excellent compendium on diversity among and within families.

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  • Laird, Siobhan. 2008. Anti-oppressive social work: A guide for developing cultural competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    The aims of this guide are to improve social work training and practice. The author argues that a thorough understanding of people’s values, social norms, and family arrangements are crucial to achieving culturally sensitive practice. The author moves beyond the traditional conceptions of anti-oppressive and antiracist practice by identifying the many forms that racism can take.

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  • Littrell, Lisa N., and Eduardo Salas. 2005. A review of cross-cultural training: Best practice guidelines and research needs. Human Resources Development Review 4.3: 305–334.

    DOI: 10.1177/1534484305278348Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The purpose of this article is to present the best practices of cross-cultural training in terms of what organizations are doing and what they should be doing.

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  • Lynch, Elenor W., and Marci J. Hanson. 2004. Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families. 3d ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

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    The book highlights the cultural and ethnic diversity of families in the United States and is designed to be used as a guide for a broad audience of preservice professionals and interventionists who work with families and children with disabilities from diverse backgrounds.

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  • NC Office of Economic Opportunity, OEO Video Library.

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    This collection of videos provides in-depth information on a variety of equal opportunity issues. Included is the recommended two-part video “Racial Legacies and Learning: How to Talk about Race.” Questions are included to guide group discussions. This “How to Talk about Race” video is designed to help faculty, students, and staff facilitate meaningful conversations and take action in the classroom, on campus, and in local communities.

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    • People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond.

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      Based on the notion that racism has been consciously and systematically erected in American society, the People’s Institute teaches that it is each individual’s responsibility to dismantle the legacy of racism. The Undoing Racism workshop is the flagship program of the People’s Institute. The institute teaches basic skills in effective community organizing, leadership development, coalition building, fundraising, and publicity skills.

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    • Solomon, Julie, Jacqulines Bermon, and Josefina Card. 2007. Tools for building culturally competent HIV prevention programs. New York: Springer.

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      This guide shows practitioners everything they need to launch an effective program: from identifying program goals and objectives, to developing program models, to recruiting and retaining staff, and finally to conducting evaluations and reporting results. Includes CD-ROM.

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    Bibliographies

    Bibliographies addressing the nature of cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice are diverse and multifaceted. The Council on Social Work Education has provided leadership in the production of bibliographic resources on specific ethnic groups and diverse issues. Included are comprehensive bibliographies on spirituality (Canda, et al. 2003); disability (Gilson, et al. 2002); aging (Kropf and Tompkins 2002); populations at risk (Logan 2007); Latinos (Ortega, et al. 2006), Asian and Pacific Americans (Siu, et al. 2005), and Native Americans (White 2001); and language barriers in health-care settings (Jacobs, et al. 2003).

    • Canda, Edward R., Mitsuko Nakashima, Virginia L. Burgess, Robin Russel, and Sharon Barfield. 2003. Spiritual diversity and social work: A comprehensive bibliography with annotations. 2d ed. Teaching Social Work. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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      This comprehensive bibliography consists of more than 750 references on spirituality and social work. It includes more than 150 paragraph-length annotations that highlight a wide range of works within each topic. The volume’s broad coverage of topics in spirituality makes it an excellent resource for readers with diverse interests in the field.

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    • Gilson, Stephen French, Elizabeth DePoy, and Heather MacDuffie, eds. 2002. Integrating disability content in social work education. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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      The editors have compiled a diverse range of books, articles, dissertations, chapters, websites, and videos that offer multiple approaches to understanding disability and integrating related content into the social work curriculum.

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    • Jacobs, Elizabeth A., Niels Agger-Gupta, Alice H. Chen, Adam Piotrowski, and Eric J. Hardt. 2003. Language barriers in health care settings: An annotated bibliography of research literature. Woodland Hills, CA: The California Endowment.

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      The authors have included articles that are intentionally multidisciplinary and include quantitative and qualitative data, international studies, studies from the United States, and studies pertaining to diverse language groups.

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    • Kropf, Nancy P., and Catherine J. Tompkins. 2002. Teaching aging: Syllabi, resources, and infusion materials for the social work curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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      The selected syllabi represent aging courses at bachelor of social work and master of social work programs and cover a wide range of topics, including direct practice, human behavior, policy, death and bereavement, introduction to aging, and aging and the family. Other curriculum materials include sample assignments, exercises, modules, case studies, media recommendations, and an annotated list of online and traditional resources on aging and intergenerational matters.

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    • Logan, Sadye L. 2007. Social and economic justice and populations at risk: A bibliography. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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      This bibliography contains more than five hundred entries on social justice. Entries are classified under subheadings according to the following major topics: just practice and diversity intersections, just practice by client systems, just practice teaching and learning, and educational issues and resources. Available online for purchase.

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    • Ortega, Robert M., Lorraine M. Gutiérrez, and Anna Yeakley. 2006. Latinos and social work education: A bibliography with annotations. CD-ROM. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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      This collection focuses on issues and discussions that illustrate Latino and Latina concerns in the social work literature. The searchable CD-ROM provides users with quick and easy access to bibliographic entries that pertain to their areas of interest.

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      • Siu, Sau-Fong, Angela Lee, and Yuhwa Eva Lu. 2005. Asian and Pacific Americans: A selected bibliography (1995–2004) with annotations and teaching resources for social work educators. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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        Compiled as a resource guide for educators, this bibliography covers a wide range of social work topics in formats such as articles, books, book chapters, videos, and websites.

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      • White, Joyce Z. 2001. Social work with the First Nations: A comprehensive bibliography with annotations. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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        This is a user-friendly bibliography that contains more than five hundred citations for practice with First Nations clients. Also included are one hundred annotations organized according to thirty topics.

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      Journals

      The array of social work journals for cultural competence-related topics offers a wide variety of teaching opportunities and practice resources. As the literature on cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice has increased, so has the number of journals. These journals include Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work and Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies. However, the journals included here have devoted significant attention to cultural competence and related topics. These journal include the Journal of Social Work Education, Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, and Journal of Teaching in Social Work. Some of these sources are electronic, some continue to be in paper form, and some are interdisciplinary and global in nature.

      Journals in Allied Disciplines

      Journals in allied disciplines provide excellent supplementary resources to teachers, students, and practitioners in the caring professions. The journals are usually cutting edge and challenge traditional pedagogical approaches. Health Care for Women International provides a unique interdisciplinary approach to health care that concerns women. The International Journal of Cultural Studies publishes work that suggests new directions, ideas, and modes of inquiry. Included in this category are the Indigenous Policy Journal, International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations, Journal of Cultural Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Journal, and Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. The journal Race and Social Problems promises an international and multidisciplinary focus. Substance Abuse covers a diversity of topics including education, training, organization, applied research, and policy. The journals in allied health disciplines are useful in terms of their focus on current research funding that has direct implications for the preparation of health-care professionals and the delivery of culturally congruent health care. Among these journals is the ABNF Journal. These specialty journals in areas of mental health, substance abuse treatment, and program evaluation include special issues on racial/ethnic diversity that directly address cultural responsiveness particularly in the service environment.

      Origins and History

      As explained in the Introduction, cultural competence as an ethnic-sensitive social work ideology and pedagogy had its origins and development in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Spencer, et al. 2000 traces the evaluation of social work’s response to cultural competence and diversity and ethnic sensitivity. Dumpson 1970 was among the Council on Social Work Education’s (CSWE’s) first responses to addressing racism and oppression in the social work curriculum and in the academy. Council on Social Work Education 2001 educational policy and accreditation standards identify fourteen variables as potential sources of human oppression and control.

      Diversity and Ethnic Sensitivity

      This section focuses on three related areas of diversity and ethnic sensitivity. Included are Culture and Cultural Diversity, Multicultural and Multiracial issues, and Intersectionality and Multiple Identities. The current Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) identifies fourteen different sources of client diversity that require social work student awareness in practice. Section 2.1.4 of EPAS suggests that social workers demonstrate this competency when they appreciate the role of oppression, poverty, marginalization, and alienation on the life experiences of many clients. This appreciation includes culture, cultural diversity, and sensitivity to all of the “isms” (racism, sexism, ageism, ableism, classism, and hetrosexism) as reflected in Adams, et al. 2010; ethnic diversity, as reflected in Tsang 2001; and the representation of ethnic identity in North American social work literature. Peters 2003 and Lawson 2003 focus on sensitive areas of practice and education that are usually neglected in the helping professions. Van Soest and Garcia 2003 discusses social justice issues and several teaching tools for developing cultural sensitivity among social work students. Webb 2007 argues for a rethinking of social work ethics as it relates to issues of diversity and difference.

      • Adams, Maurianne, Warren J. Blumanfield, Rosie Castaneda, Heather W. Hackman, Madelene Peters, and Ximina Zunga. 2010. Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, antisemitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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        For nearly a decade, this text has been the definitive sourcebook for social justice teaching practice. This second edition offers coverage of current issues and controversies and provides instructors with an accessible pedagogical approach to issues of oppression in the classroom.

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      • Lawson, James. 2003. The wounds we hide: The silent scars of racism are not limited to communities of color; Until we confront how racism shapes the lives of Whites, we will not be healed. Other Side 9: 10–17.

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        This article represents the experience and reflection of an author who concludes that no matter how much organizing people of color do, unless the white community breaks silence and determines that race is not a peripheral issue but is central to all the values we hold dear for our nation, racism will never be conquered.

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      • Peters, Andrew J. 2003. Isolation or inclusion: Creating safe spaces for lesbians and gay youth. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services 3: 331–334.

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        The author reports on the isolation or inclusion of lesbian and gay youths and the creation of spaces for them. This report includes the successful development of PEERS (Pride, Equality, Education, and Respect in Schools). It speaks to our professional mission to remove barriers to anyone reaching their full potential, especially barriers of racism, sexism, and homophobia.

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      • Tsang, Ka Tat. 2001. Representation of ethnic identity in North American social work literature: A dossier of the Chinese people. Social Work 46.3: 229–254.

        DOI: 10.1093/sw/46.3.229Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Using Foucault’s dossier approach, the author uses the Chinese people as a case example to illustrate the politics of identification and identity assignment in professional social work literature in North America.

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      • Van Soest, Dorothy, and Betty Garcia. 2003. Diversity education for social justice: Mastering teaching skills. 2d ed. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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        This updated text discusses social justice in classroom instruction, student development, social change, and contemporary social work practice. Numerous teaching paradigms and methodologies are presented, including a chapter on using critical events in the classroom for developing cultural competence among social work students.

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      • Webb, Stephen. 2007. Against difference and diversity in social work: The case of human rights. International Journal of Social Welfare 18.8: 307–316.

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        This article offers a set of conceptual devices based on the writings of Alan Baldwin for rethinking social work ethics as it relates to issues of diversity and difference.

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      Culture and Cultural Diversity

      UNESCO defines “culture” as a set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual, and emotional features of society or a social group that encompasses art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions, and beliefs. Additionally, it encompasses the more obvious cultural differences that exist between peoples, such as language, dress, and traditions. In short, how does one identify him- or herself? Anderson and Carter 2003; Green 1999; Gray, et al. 2008; Marsella and Yamanda 2010; and Barrio and Yamanda 2010 provide diverse perspectives on viewing and understanding practice with diverse groups in a culture-specific context. Hurdle 2002 and Sue 2004 provide insight about the role of culture in racial identity development. Park 2005 brings an expanded perspective to the discussion of culture and its place in contemporary social work discourse. Taken together, these works emphasize not only the significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, their shared moral values, and the ways they interact with their environment, but also how these differences may impact social work practice, education, and research.

      • Anderson, Joseph, and Robin Wiggins Carter, eds. 2003. Diversity perspectives for social work practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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        This text examines perspectives and conceptual frameworks for viewing and understanding diversity in social work practice. Each framework has a chapter devoted to expounding upon its development, core principles, practice applications, and case examples. The “how-to” approach of this book provides a flexible use of the various practice guidelines.

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      • Barrio, Concepcion, and Ann-Marie Yamada. 2010. Culturally based intervention development: The case of Latino families dealing with schizophrenia. Research and Social Work Practice 20: 483–492.

        DOI: 10.1177/1049731510361613Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        The authors describe the process of developing a culturally based family intervention for Spanish-speaking Latino families with a relative diagnosed with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence suggests that intervention is effective and has implications for real-world settings for culturally diverse populations.

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      • Gray, Mel, John Coates, and Michael Yellow Bird. 2008. Indigenous social work around the world: Toward culturally relevant education and practice. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

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        The essays in this text are mostly from indigenous social workers from around the world. They report on the ways in which Western methods of social work have been adapted to serve the needs of non–Anglo-American cultures. This includes Native Americans.

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      • Green, James W. 1999. Cultural awareness in the human services: A multi-ethnic approach. 3d ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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        This book is distinguished by the anthropological or ethnographic approach to cross-cultural or multicultural social work practice. The author brings a unique perspective to social work practice, moving well beyond cultural “sensitivity” to issues of professional practice. The chapters on major ethnic groups in America have been updated with current material from the social services literature.

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      • Hurdle, Donna E. 2002. Native Hawaiian traditional healing and culturally based interventions for social work practice. Social Work 47.2: 183–193.

        DOI: 10.1093/sw/47.2.183Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article discusses the importance of culturally based interventions within a cultural competence framework and offers examples of such interventions used with Native Hawaiians. Two interventions are discussed, targeted to the direct practice level and community practice level of practice.

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      • Marsella, Anthony J., and Ann Marie Yamada. 2010. Culture and psychopathology: Foundations, issues, directions. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology 4.2: 103–115.

        DOI: 10.1375/prp.4.2.103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Issues associated with culture and psychopathology are examined within the context of historical influences, conceptual assumptions, and major research findings. Conclusions are drawn about “cultural competence” and “multilevel” approaches to behavior.

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      • Park, Yoosun. 2005. Culture as deficit: A critical discourse analysis of the concept of culture in contemporary social work discourse. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 32.3: 11–33.

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        This author proposes that culture should replace race and ethnicity as the preferred marker for minority status.

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      • Sue, Derald Wing. 2004. What does it mean to be white? The invisible whiteness of being. DVD. Framingham, MA: Microtraining Associates.

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        The author explores white identity and issues associated with privilege. The DVD format is a very effective tool in facilitating this discussion.

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      Intersectionality and Multiple Identities

      Intersectionality is a theory that seeks to examine how various socially and culturally constructed categories, such as the fourteen different sources of client diversity listed in CSWE EPAS 2.1.4., and other axes of identity intersect on multiple and often-simultaneous levels to contribute to systematic social inequality. Schiele 2007 (cited under Training, Education, and Research), however, warns that assumptions of intersectionality are inconsistent with the assumptions of single-group patterns that supported the original logic justifying the need for content on people of color. Almeida 2008 focuses on East Indian couples. Almeida, et al. 1998 uses the same theory to broaden the perspective on child development. Andersen and Collins 2006 use the concept of intersectionality to demonstrate its impact on the experience of different racial/ethnic groups. Wilchins 2004 provides a practical, useful understanding of queer theory and feminist politics.

      • Almeida, Rhea. 2008. Couples in the Desi community: The intersect of culture, gender, sexual orientation, class and domestic violence. In Multicultural couple therapy. Edited by Mudita Rastogi and Volker K. Thomas, 277–296. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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        Using the concept of intersectionality as a standpoint for families, the author examines couple relationships where there is domestic violence. She argues that implications for training, supervision, and further research require an interrogation around the misfit between cultural practices and colonial perspectives. This process would result not only in expanding existing conceptions of therapy but in rethinking multicultural practice and bringing a social justice perspective into the therapy room.

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      • Almeida, Rhea, Rosemary Woods, and Theresa Messino. 1998. Child development: Intersectionality of race, gender and culture. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy 10.1: 23–37.

        DOI: 10.1300/J086v10n01_02Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article presents a theory of child development that integrates race, class, gender, and culture as central factors that structure this development in fundamental ways. The theory can also be used to assess a child’s maturity and to guide clinical intervention.

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      • Andersen, Margaret L., and Patricia H. Collins. 2006. Race, class, and gender. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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        In this anthology of sixty-four articles, the authors introduce students to ways in which race, class, and gender shape the experiences of diverse groups in the United States. Twenty-two selections have been added to this sixth edition with elaboration on the framework of intersectionality.

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      • Wilchins, Riki. 2004. Queer theory, gender theory: An instant primer. Los Angeles: Alyson.

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        The author combines straightforward prose with concrete examples from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and feminist politics, as well as her own life, to guide the reader through the ideas that have forever altered our understanding of bodies, sex, and desire. This is a rare postmodern theory book that combines accessibility, passion, personal experience, and applied politics.

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      Multicultural and Multiracial

      Multiculturalism and multiracialism are concepts that suggest diversity in terms of culture and race or ethnicity. Multiculturalism has been defined as an ideology that suggests that society should consist of or at least recognize and include with equal status diverse groups (see the Oxford Bibliographies article Multiculturalism) Multicultural also refers to families composed of people from different racial or ethnic groups and individual persons whose parents are from two separate races or cultures (Brown 2007). Logan 2003 critically examines the various issues reflected in the concept of multiculturalism. Fong 2004 and Nguyen, et al. 2012 address immigrant and refugee issues. Villalba and Redmond 2008 utilizes multimedia as a learning activity to explore the intersection of various socially and culturally constructed categories.

      • Brown, Chanda. 2007. Mental health needs of multiethnic families. In Mental health care in the African-American community. Edited by Sadye Logan, Ramona W. Denby, and Priscilla A. Gibson, 283–298. Binghamton, NY: Haworth.

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        This book chapter addresses issues related to families and children who have one black parent and one white parent. It is argued that despite other racial pairing that can occur, historically it has been the case that black and white pairings have held the greatest controversy in the United States.

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      • Fong, Rowena, ed. 2004. Culturally competent practice with immigrant and refugee children and families. New York: Guilford.

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        Focuses on issues involved in working with immigrant families. Author uses detailed case vignette to illustrate culturally informed principles with thirteen specific ethnic groups.

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      • Logan, Sadye. 2003. Issues of multiculturalism; Multicultural practice, cultural diversity, and competency. In The encyclopedia of social work. 19th ed. 2003 supp. Edited by Richard L. Edwards, 95–105. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

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        Discusses issues reflected in multiculturalism and related terms and proposes an expanded framework for conceptualizing and experiencing multiculturalism.

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      • Nguyen, Hannah T., Ann Marie Yamada, and Dinh, Tam Q. 2012. Religious leaders’ assessment and attribution of the causes of mental illness: An in-depth exploration of Vietnamese American Buddhist leaders. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture 15.5: 511–527.

        DOI: 10.1080/1367467.2011.594037Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article, using qualitative analytic techniques, explores the perceptions of five Vietnamese American Buddhist leaders in regard to mental illness. Findings inform faith-based initiatives and mental health service delivery to religiously affiliated Asian Americans.

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      • Villalba, Jose A., and Rachel E. Redmond. 2008. Crash: Using a popular film as an experiential learning activity in a multicultural counseling course. Counselor Education and Supervision 47: 264–276.

        DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2008.tb00056.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        The authors describe an experiential learning activity that is based on using Crash, a film by Paul Haggins (2004), to depict the intersection of race, ethnicity, religion, and social class in a culturally and politically charged environment. The intention was to stimulate students’ awareness and reflection as a part of their affective development. The film places the viewer in situations that are void of simple right-or-wrong solutions.

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      Dissemination and Implementation

      Given the complexity inherent in the delivery of effective cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice, this section is divided into five parts: Training, Education, and Research; Anti-oppressive Practice and Critical Race Theory; Privilege, Power, and Oppression; Just Practice; and Critical Analysis of Concepts and Terms. Taken together, these five areas pose pedagogical pitfalls for the instructors and serious challenges with respect to student readiness and acceptance of the cultural competence approach to education and practice.

      Training, Education, and Research

      Despite challenges raised regarding student readiness and instructor preparedness, scholars are providing an expanding body of literature on cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice. The meaning and impact of how helping or caring professions conceptualize, teach, research (including measurement and outcomes), and implement culturally responsive service delivery continue to evolve. Abrams and Gibson 2007 provides an expanded teaching approach for dealing with student hesitancy; Booth 2009 addresses international concerns in the teaching of cultural competence (see Critical Analysis of Concepts and Terms; and Carter-Black 2007 innovates with storytelling as a teaching tool. Gutierrez, et al. 2000 focuses on issues related to teaching a specific ethnic group, while Krentzman and Townsend 2008 examines the diverse research instruments used in measuring cultural competence. Ortiz and Jani 2010, Schiele 2007, and Werkmester-Rozas and Miller 2009 focus on the impact of race, racism, and oppression on the teaching-learning process.

      • Abram, Laura S., and Priscilla Gibson. 2007. Reframing multicultural education: Teaching white privilege in the social work curriculum. Journal of Social Work Education 43.1: 147–160.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2007.200500529Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A model for teaching diversity in social work education that includes significant content on white privilege is proposed. Concrete suggestions are offered for infusing this material across the curriculum as well as addressing students’ hesitancy.

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      • Booth, Margaret. 2009. Cultural competence: Its influence on the teaching and learning of international students. Journal of International Education 14.4: 405–425.

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        This article presents findings from a study that examined the influence of cultural competence on the teaching and learning process for instructors and students in higher education.

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      • Carter-Black, Jan. 2007. Teaching cultural competence: An innovative strategy grounded in the universality of storytelling as depicted in African and African American storytelling traditions. Journal of Social Work Education 43.1: 31–50.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2007.200400471Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Due to the universal characteristics of storytelling, the author proposes it as a viable tool for teaching cultural competence in schools of social work.

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      • Gutierrez, Lorraine, Robert Ortega, and Anna Yeakley. 2000. Educating students for social work with Latinos: Issues for the new millennium. Journal of Social Work Education 36.3: 541–557.

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        Given that Latinos, people of Latin American descent, will be the largest ethnic minority group in the United States in the 21st century, the authors argue that social workers and social work students must have adequate knowledge, values, and skills to be culturally competent when working with Latinos. Yet, they note that content on Latinos is often not included in the social work curriculum.

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      • Jani, Jayshree S., Larry Ortiz, Dean Pierce, and Linda Sowbel. 2011. Access to intersectionality, content to competence: Deconstructing social work education diversity. Journal of Social Work Education 47.2: 283–301.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2011.200900118Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        The authors provide an assessment within a historical context of the current situation in social work education regarding the teaching of content on diversity, with a focus on implications for social work theory, practice, and education.

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      • Krentzman, Amy R., and Aloen L. Townsend. 2008. Review of multidisciplinary measures of cultural competence for use in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 44.2: 7–31.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2008.200600003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article provides a review of nine instruments of measures of cultural competence for use in social work education.

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      • Ortiz, Larry, and Jayshree Jani. 2010. Critical race theory: A transformational model for teaching diversity. Journal of Social Work Education 49.2: 175–193.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2010.200900070Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Critical race theory (CRT) is presented as a paradigmatic framework focusing on both instructions and their impact on marginalized people.

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      • Schiele, Jerome H. 2007. Implications of the equality-of-oppressions paradigm for curriculum content on people of color. Journal of Social Work Education 43.1: 83–100.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2007.200400478Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article examines two implications of the equality-of-oppression paradigm and offers a model of differential vulnerability to help prioritize the various forms of oppression important to social work education.

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      • Werkmester-Rozas, Lisa, and Joshua Miller. 2009. Discourse for social justice education: The web of racism and the web of resistance. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work 18.1: 24–39.

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        This article presents two conceptual frames to help with teaching about issues of race and racism. First the concept of the web of racism describes a matrix that helps students understand the depth of damage racism has instilled in contemporary US society. Second, the web of resistance offers a model of antiracist activities to help students participate in the fight to end systemic racism.

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      Anti-Oppressive Practice and Critical Race Theory

      The critical analysis of concepts and terms parallels the argument by scholars who contend that the focus of the cultural competence approach on individual attitudes and self-awareness leaves helping professionals underprepared or not prepared to address the impact of institutional racism and oppression on the individual, on both structural and global levels. Scholars propose an anti-oppressive approach for the critical engagement with issues of privilege, power, and exclusion. In this regard, anti-oppression practice, utilizing critical rate theory (CRT), addresses identity exclusion and oppression from within and outside the profession. Abrams and Molo 2009 contends that CRT allows educators and practitioners to analyze, deconstruct, and transform for the better the relationship among race, racism, and power. Dominelli 2002, Sakamoto 2007, and Sakamoto and Pitner 2005 focus on the impact of anti-oppressive practice and critical consciousness as ways of filling the gaps in the cultural competence approach to practice and education.

      • Abrams, Laura S., and Jene Molo. 2009. A critical race and theory and cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45.2: 245–261.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2009.200700109Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        The authors propose the use of CRT to broaden the cultural competence perspective beyond racial/ethnic categories. Six basic tenets are common to all CRT approaches: endemic racism, race as a social construction, differential racialization, interest convergence/materialist determinism, the importance of narratives by voices of color, and antiessentialism/intersectionality.

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      • Dominelli, Lena. 2002. Anti-oppressive social work: Theory and practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

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        This text tackles a subject of crucial importance to students and practitioners. The focus is on how social workers can enable their clients to challenge and transcend oppressions that disempower. It discusses social work’s purpose and mission; theory and practice for working with individuals, families, and organizations; and the wider social and political context.

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      • Sakamoto, Izumi. 2007. Anti-oppressive approach to cultural competence. Canadian Social Work Review/Revue Comedienne de Service Social 24.1: 104–114.

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        The author discusses an incident in which she traveled to Japan to attend her grandmother’s funeral. The visit awakened an awareness of her perceptions of culture, and these are discussed in relation to cultural competence and anti-oppressive practice.

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      • Sakamoto, Izumi, and Ronald Pitner. 2005. Use of critical consciousness in anti-oppressive social work practice: Disentangling power dynamics at personal and structural levels. British Journal of Social Workers 35: 1–18.

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        The authors purpose the use of critical consciousness to fill in some of the gaps found in anti-oppressive practice and argues for further integration of critical consciousness into the teaching and practice of anti-oppressive perspectives.

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      Privilege, Power, and Oppression

      Inherent in the delivery of effective cultural competence education is the challenge of having instructors and students address the privilege/power/oppression spectrum. The literature that is necessary to train teachers on how to facilitate meaningful dialogues about race and racism and more effectively implement diversity education and cultural competence includes the scholarship of Pewewardy 2007; Pewewardy and Severson 2004; Samuels 2009; and Ferber, et al. 2010.

      • Ferber, Abby, Andrea O’Reilly Herrera, Christina M. Jimenez, and Dena R. Samuels, eds. 2010. The matrix reader: Examining the dynamics of oppression and privilege. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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        This reader, unlike most books of its kind, highlights the duality of privilege and oppression and the effects that race, gender, and sexuality have on our lives. It also promotes a commitment to an intersectional approach to teaching race, class, gender, and sexuality and includes a variety of creative resources that empower students to become agents for social change.

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      • Pewewardy, Nocona. 2007. Challenging white privilege: Critical discourse for social work education. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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        The author contends that in order to eradicate racial oppression in the United States, people with privilege must come to the realization that the racial hierarchy in the United States is built on and maintained by falsely constructed notions of white supremacy. Pewewardy provides information and strategies that can be used to envision and apply liberatory alternatives in social work education.

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      • Pewewardy, Nocona, and Margaret Severson. 2004. A threat to liberty: White privilege and disproportionate minority incarceration. Journal of Progressive Human Services 14.2: 53–74.

        DOI: 10.1300/J059v14n02_03Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article critically examines the influence of white privilege as a form of social control that results in racist practices that lead to the disproportionate incarceration of African American and Hispanic men and women. Strategies to address this endemic problem through personal, political, and preventive interventions are discussed.

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      • Samuels, Dena R. 2009. Sounds and silences of language: Perpetuating institutionalized privilege and oppression. In The matrix reader: Examining the dynamics of oppression and privilege. Edited by Abby Ferber, Andrea O’Reilly Herrera, Christina M. Jimenez, and Dena R. Samuels, 514–533. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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        This author examines the manner in which discrimination and inequality manifest themselves at the institutional level in a contemporary context.

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      Just Practice

      Just practice was a practice approach proposed by Finn and Jacobson 2003. The authors define “just practice” as a new framework that builds upon five key terms. Particular attention is given to the diversity of social work practice “and to the possibilities of transforming spaces of inequality, oppression, and marginality into spaces of hope, places of connection, and bases for action” (p. xxiii). Almeida, et al. 2007 has taken the concept of just practice to a creative and practical level. Funge 2011 examines the role of the educator in promoting social justice in the social work curriculum.

      • Almeida, Rhea, Lynn Paker, and Kenneth Dolon Del-Vecchio. 2007. Transformative family therapy: Just families in a just society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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        This text is brilliant, compassionate, holistic, and based on the innovations of the Cultural Context Model. It offers practitioners grounded theory, a practical, hands-on approach, and a means to integrate the principles of practice into their own clinical contexts. It addresses some of the most challenging issues of our day―domestic violence, addiction, and racism, among others.

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      • Finn, Janet, and Maxine Jacobson. 2003. Just practice: A social justice approach to social work. Peosta, IA: Eddie Bowers.

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        The authors introduce a new framework for social work that builds upon five key themes: meaning, context, power, history, and possibility.

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      • Funge, Simons. 2011. Promoting the social justice orientation of students: The role of the educator. Journal of Social Work Education 47.1: 73–90.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2011.200900035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article reports the finding from interviews with thirteen social work educators regarding their responsibility to fulfill the Council on Social Work Education educational standard related to integrating content that prepares students to promote social justice in their practice. Findings revealed different understandings about this responsibility as well as factors in the institution that were reported to constrain the ability of social work educators to meet this responsibility.

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      Critical Analysis of Concepts and Terms

      The concept of culture and cultural competence is highly discursive and the continuing focus of theoretical and political debate (see Park 2005, cited under Culture and Cultural Diversity). Despite the global acceptance of cultural competence as an ongoing theme in social work theory, education, practice, and research, it remains subject to conflicting views. Ben-Ari and Strier 2010, Johnson and Munch 2009, and Harrison and Turner 2011 capture the essence of the critique directed at the conceptual and measurement tension in culturally competent practice. The authors argue that in addition to organizational and system constraints that prevent best practice, those who think that being race neutral in their practice intervention and analysis of social welfare institutions and policies are in denial about the existence of overwhelming health disparities, systemic social divisions, and inequity. Additionally, the contradictions discussed extend to the epistemological foundations of cultural competence, to the rights and dignity of the individual, and to the very question of whether a social worker can ever be culturally competent. It is further suggested that one of the most serious objections to the incorporation of cultural competence into social work education and effective social work practice is doubt as to whether cultural competence is humanly possible. These conceptual issues are further complicated by measurement and outcome issues, in particular construct validity and reliability, as is reflected in Gonzalez-Calvo, et al. 1997 and Hernandez, et al. 2009.

      • Ben-Ari, Adital, and Roni Strier. 2010. Rethinking cultural competence: What can we learn from Levinas? British Journal of Social Work 40.7: 2155–2167.

        DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcp153Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        The purpose of this article is to critically analyze “cultural competence” as a theoretical construct and reconceptualize it within the framework of Emanuel Levinas’s theory of the “Other.” The paper provides a theoretical overview of the concept, presents Levinas’s conceptualization of the “Other,” examines epistemological and ethical stances with regard to “Self” and “Other,” and discusses the theoretical and practical implications for the social work profession.

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      • Gonzalez-Calvo Judith, Victor M. Gonzalez, and Kate Loring. 1997. Cultural diversity issues in the development of valid and reliable measures of health status. Arthritis Care Research 10.6: 448–456.

        DOI: 10.1002/art.1790100613Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article addresses issues related to validity, reliability, and cross-cultural differences in the development of measurement instruments for use in culturally diverse settings and populations.

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      • Harrison, Gal, and Rachael Turner. 2011. Being a “culturally competent” social worker: Making sense of a murky concept in practice. British Journal of Social Work 41.2: 333–350.

        DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcq101Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article describes an exploratory study conducted with a group of social workers that explored their understandings of cultural competence. These practitioners endorsed the idea of cultural competence while also critically engaging with its limitations and ambiguities. In addition, they highlighted organizational and system constraints that limited their ability to practice in a culturally responsive manner.

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      • Hernandez, Mario, Teresa Mowery Nesman, Debra Acevedo-Polakovich, D. Ignacio, and Linda M. Callejas. 2009. Cultural competence: A literature review and conceptual model for mental health service. Psychiatric Services 60: 1046–1050.

        DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.60.8.1046Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article summarizes a model for cultural competence in mental health services. The model has emerged from research that seeks to operationalize cultural competence in order to facilitate its understanding and implementation in behavioral health organizations.

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      • Johnson, Yvonne M., and Shari Munch. 2009. Fundamental contradictions in cultural competence. Social Work 54.3: 220–231.

        DOI: 10.1093/sw/54.3.220Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        With this article, the authors intended to demonstrate that, although the notion of cultural competence has been espoused with the worthiest of intentions for social work practice, education, theory, and research, there are conceptual tensions at its center.

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      Ethics and Othering

      There is a growing body of literature addressing the concept of the “Other” (Riggins 1997). In this literature, the conception of the “Other” is viewed as knowable. It is believed that this knowledge of the “Other” is necessary for cultural competence to occur. Banks 2008, Ben-Ari and Strier 2010 (cited under Critical Analysis of Concepts and Terms), and Beals 2007 have proposed a different usage of the term “Other” as one not knowable, and this essentially includes each person with whom we come in contact, not only those we consider diverse and oppressed. It follows, in this line of reasoning, that ethics (see Cox, et al. 2009) precedes knowledge, not, as we traditionally believed, that knowledge precedes ethics. This latter conceptualization of the “Other” requires a rethinking not only of our relationship with the “Other” but also of accumulated knowledge about the “Other.” Almeida, et al. 2011 addresses the construction of the “Other” as a standpoint of multiculturalism.

      • Almeida, Rhea, Pilar Hernandez-Wolfe, and Carolyn Tubbs. 2011. Cultural equity: Bridging the complexity of social identities with therapeutic practices. International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work 3: 43–56.

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        This article proposes the construct of cultural competence to guide family and community therapeutic work that addresses social and interpersonal complexity from a social justice perspective.

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      • Banks, Sarah. 2008. Critical commentary: Social work ethics. British Journal of Social Work 38: 1238–1249.

        DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcn099Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This short but powerful article charts the broadening of the field beyond a focus on professional codes of ethics, principle-based theories, difficult cases, and decision-making models toward more embedded and situated approaches to ethics in professional life. The article explores the expanding and contested terrain of social work ethics, considering the form and content of future areas for development.

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      • Beals, Corey. 2007. Levinas and the wisdom of love: The question of invisibility. Waco, TX: Baylor Univ. Press.

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        This article directly challenges the prevailing interpretation of ontology over ethics and explores the ideas of 20th-century philosopher Emmanuel Levinas’s concept of love, love’s relation to wisdom, and how love makes the “Other” visible to us. Distinguishing love from other types of wisdom, Beals argues that Levinas’s “wisdom of love” is a real possibility, one that grants priority to ethics over ontology.

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      • Cox, Kathleen, Nancy Sullivan, Jennifer Reiman, and Cher Vang. 2009. Highlighting the role of cross-cultural competence in ethically sound practice. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics 6.1: 4–12.

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        The authors present a case study that is used to illustrate the impact of cultural competence on value and ethics.

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      • Riggins, Stephen H. 1997. The language of politics of exclusion: Others in discourse. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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        This is a collection of eleven essays on the “Other” in discourse.

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      Policy

      The terms “cultural competence” or “culturally responsive policies” refer to the integration and transformation of knowledge about individuals and groups of people into specific policies (Andrulis, et al. 2010; Campbell, et al. 2009; Heidemann, et al. 2011; Sakamoto and Truong 2008; Waldergove 2009) and standards and practices used in appropriate cultural settings to increase the quality of services or service outcomes, respectively. Specific policies impact all aspects of cultural competence and ethnic-sensitive practice (Furman, et al. 2007; Vidal de Haynes and Kilty 2007).

      • Andrulis, Dennis, Nadia J. Siddiqui, Jonathan P. Purlie, and Lisa L. Duchon. 2010. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies.

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        This report provides a comprehensive review of general and specific Affordable Care Act provisions with the potential to significantly improve health and health care for millions of members of diverse populations and their communities.

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      • Campbell, Cynthia I., Jeffery A. Alexander, and Christy H. Lemak. 2009. Organizational determinants of outpatient substance abuse treatment duration in women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 39.4: 329–339.

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        This study examined how tailored women’s programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substance abuse treatment of women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substance abuse treatment unit survey (n = 571 in 1999–2000, n = 566 in 2005).

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      • Furman, Rich, Carol L. Langer, Thomas Wayne Sanchez, and Nalini Junko Nagi. 2007. A qualitative study of immigration policy and practice dilemmas for social work students. Journal of Social Work Education 43.1: 133–146.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2007.200500532Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This qualitative study explores potential practice dilemmas as a result of Proposition 200, an Arizona immigration law that requires social workers employed in the public sector to deny services to undocumented clients.

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      • Heidemann, Gretchen, Ralph Fertig, Bruce Janson, and Hansung Kim. 2011. Practicing policy, pursuing change, and promoting social justice: A policy instructional approach. Journal of Social Work Education 47.1: 37–52.

        DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2010.2010.200800118Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This article proposes a new instructional approach so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change and promote social justice. Examined thirteen social work educators understanding the Council on Social Work Education educational standard related to integrating content that prepares students to promote social justice in practice.

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      • Sakamoto, Izumi, Yi Wei, and Lele Truong. 2008. How do social service organizations and social policies “acculturate” to immigrants? Social service provision for Chinese skilled immigrants in Canada. American Journal of Community Psychology 42.3–42.4: 343–354.

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        It is the intention of this grounded theory study to explore the efforts of human service organizations to “acculturate” to an increasingly diverse immigrant population, through interviews conducted with service providers serving mainland Chinese immigrants. To contextualize these organizational efforts, an analysis of how policy changes (macro-level acculturation) interact with organizational practice is presented. Finally, the meaning of acculturation for the host society is discussed.

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      • Vidal de Haynas, Maria, and Reith M. Kilty. 2007. Latino population growth, characteristics, and settlement trends: Implications for social work education in a dynamic political climate. Journal of Social Work Education 43.11: 101–116.

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        Latino population growth, characteristics, and settlement trends are discussed with a focus on social welfare practice, programming, policy, and social work education.

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      • Waldergove, Charles. 2009. Cultural, gender are socio-economic contexts in therapeutic and social policy work. Family Process 48.1: 85–101.

        DOI: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01269.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Contends that the context of social and therapeutic problems is critical to their resolution and that many of these problems stem from historical and structural injustice. It focuses on the contextual issues of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic equity as providing important insights into authentic notions of social inclusion and well-being and encourages therapists, service providers, researchers, and policy makers to take responsibility to ensure that these injustices are addressed.

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      LAST MODIFIED: 06/26/2012

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0060

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