Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Social Work Translational Science and Social Work
Haluk Soydan, Lawrence A. Palinkas


Translational science is the study of the processes and outcomes of the translation and implementation of evidence-based practices in social work. Translation and implementation are not to be limited to evidence-based practices. Although implementation historically has been attributed to application of a broader range of scientific knowledge to practice, translation is a product of the development of the evidence-based practice movement and increased awareness of the quality of evidence supporting what works and what is potentially harmful in social work. Translational science in social work involves translating practices found to be both efficacious and effective into real-world conditions. Translational science addresses issues of barriers and facilitators of evidence dissemination, translation, and implementation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States has been an important promoter of translational science. Translational science is also connected to other important concepts. These include diffusion (the passive spread of evidence), dissemination (active and planned efforts to induce defined groups to adopt an evidence-based intervention), and sustainability (when an adopted innovation becomes routine). This entry goes beyond original thoughts in translational science as translation of basic discoveries, to interventions by biomedical sciences. Translational research in social work today also includes effective interventions by professionals.

Introductory Works

Translational science is a new research field; consequently, specialized literature is still scarce or in progress. A large body of literature addresses translational science and implementation science jointly. However, an introductory textbook on the science of translation with specific reference to social work is now available (Palinkas and Soydan 2012). Brownson, et al. 2012 focuses on health sciences but has great relevance to social work. In addition, Brekke, et al. 2007 and Palinkas 2010 are two easily accessible articles that position the social work profession in the field of translational research. The NIH Roadmap provides a good window into background concerns regarding the gap between evidence production and everyday utilization and strategies necessary to overcome the knowledge gap. Two brief articles, Westfall, et al. 2007, and Woolf 2008, elaborate on some the complexities of the science of translation and are complementary reading to About the NIH Roadmap. Rogers 2003 provides an early theoretical and historical perspective.

  • National Institutes of Health: About the NIH Roadmap.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This website describes a major research program on translational research launched by the NIH in 2004. The Roadmap was originally designed for the biomedical field but developed, in practice, to include mental health and behavioral sciences including social work.

    Find this resource:

  • Brekke, John, Kathleen Ell, and Lawrence A. Palinkas. 2007. Translational science at the National Institute of Mental Health: Can social work take its rightful place? Research on Social Work Practice 17.1: 123–133.

    DOI: 10.1177/1049731506293693Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This relatively early article—in terms of the development of translational science in social work—serves as a programmatic introduction to increased awareness of the profession in terms of the gap between evidence production and implementation of the evidence in real-life situations. It also makes a case for social work to contribute actively to research funded by the NIH. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Brownson, R. C., G. A. Colditz, and E. K. Proctor, eds. 2012. Dissemination and implementation research in health: Translating science to practice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751877.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited book provides a large number of chapters that present and discuss all aspects of dissemination and translation of evidence in health sciences and health-related practices, including pertinent theories, available empirical evidence, and population-specific issues. Although this book has a health research and practice focus, it is useful for social workers.

    Find this resource:

  • Palinkas, Lawrence A. 2010. Commentary: Cultural adaptation, collaboration, and exchange. Research on Social Work Practice 20.5: 544–546.

    DOI: 10.1177/1049731510366145Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This commentary article describes social workers as both culture brokers and change agents in their work with individual clients, families, and communities. The author argues that the specific nature of the social work profession makes it particularly well positioned in the process of translational research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Palinkas, Lawrence A., and Haluk Soydan. 2012. Translation and implementation of evidence-based practice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a pioneering publication that outlines a strategy for conducting translational research within the field of social work. The authors describe the challenges of conducting translational research and provide a comprehensive introduction to the field of translational science from both theoretical and methodological perspectives.

    Find this resource:

  • Rogers, Everett M. 2003. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. New York: Free Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    First published in 1962, this book became a classic over the years. Based on a broad range of empirical data from many fields, it offers a theoretical model of innovation diffusion. The model provides terminology that still supports contemporary efforts to develop dissemination, translation, and implementation models. The book is relative lengthy but can be reviewed selectively.

    Find this resource:

  • Westfall, John M., James Mold, and Lyle Fagnan. 2007. Practice-based research—“Blue Highways” on the NIH Roadmap. Journal of the American Medical Association 297.4: 403–406.

    DOI: 10.1001/jama.297.4.403.Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is an early attempt to further operationalize the NIH Roadmap. Although it is slightly complicated, it is effective in outlining various aspects of translation research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Woolf, Steven H. 2008. The meaning of translational research and why it matters. Journal of the American Medical Association 299.2: 211–213.

    DOI: 10.1001/jama.2007.26Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This brief commentary provides an overview of the implications of translational research and compares translational research (defined as translation from basic research to applied research [T1]) with translation from clinical research to routine practice (T2), emphasizing the importance of the latter. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:


The number of scientific journals dedicated to translational research is very limited, and currently no specific journal of translational research in social work exists. Articles pertinent to translational research are published in different journals with reference to diverse knowledge and practice areas. Therefore, a general journal search for pertinent articles is recommended. However, Implementation Science, an online publication, is a likely venue for pertinent translational research articles. In social work, Research on Social Work Practice is also a likely venue for translational research in social work. Two additional journals, Translational Medicine and Journal of Translational Medicine, are devoted to the science of translation. Journal of Mixed Methods Research is also a good resource in which studies of translational research are reported.

Internet-Based Resources

Advancement of the evidence-based knowledge movement stimulated development of a large body of Internet-based resources that cover various aspects of evidence-based knowledge production, dissemination, translation, and implementation. Most web-based resources cover one specific aspect of evidence while others provide a mix of various topics. Thus, coverage of evidence translation is available to a limited extent on a number of websites. This section presents Internet-based resources that are more explicitly dedicated to issues of evidence translation in the human services. The National Implementation Research Network and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs’ Quality Enhancement Research Initiative are two sites that are dedicated to issues of translation and implementation and that provide valuable support. The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research: Dissemination and Implementation website is a rich online resource that can also be used by social workers, especially if they are located in the United States. Among many clearinghouses that are primarily dedicated to retrieval, appraisal, and dissemination of evidence-based practices, the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare is the most outstanding resource in terms of providing useful tools of evidence translation. The Biennial Global Implementation Conference has considerable potential for becoming a major international venue for implementation researchers and practitioners.

Models of Research Translation Strategies

Numerous models of evidence-based strategies for the translation of evidence-based programs, practices, and interventions in the field of health services exist. Some of the models of translation strategy have potential relevance for social work practice, and other models are tested for their applicability in mental health and social work services. In this section, four specific models of interest are presented: RE-AIM; precede–proceed; availability, responsiveness, continuity; and community-based participatory research.

RE-AIM Model

The RE-AIM model was originally developed in health settings by Russell E. Glasgow and his colleagues (Glasglow 2009) and is often used to understand and monitor the feasibility and success of intervention effectiveness, dissemination, and implementation in real-life settings. The acronym RE-AIM stands for reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. The RE-AIM model was developed as a result of needs observed in health-care delivery service organizations. It has, however, been empirically tested in various local contexts and has since evolved into a model of translation and implementation of innovations in diverse settings of service delivery, including social work.

Precede–Proceed Model

Lawrence Green and Marshall Kreuter, both public health researchers and practitioners, developed the precede–proceed model (Green and Kreuter 2005). The precede–proceed model is designed for diagnostic planning, implementation, and evaluation of population-based health programs. It takes an ecological and educational approach to handling the complexities of human environments and allows individual agencies to work on and interact with environmental factors. Furthermore, the model is constructed to employ flexibility to respect the varied context of public health programs. Over the years, the model has been applied in many fields, such as public health, community health, and population health planning, and in the evaluation of diverse settings, including schools, workplaces, health-care venues, and neighborhoods.

  • Green, Lawrence W., and Marshall W. Kreuter. 2005. Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is an important publication that describes all aspects of the precede–proceed model, provides guidance through the complicated model phases, and illustrates real-life applications in various human services settings.

    Find this resource:

Availability, Responsiveness, Continuity Model

The availability, responsiveness, continuity model is a community- and organization-oriented model that emphasizes the role of the social context in the implementation of evidence-based interventions (Glisson 2002). The core purpose of the model is to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatment effectively to clients in specific social and organizational environments. The model is based on three fundamental assumptions: (1) The implementation of an evidence-based intervention, which is an innovation or core technology, is a social process as much as it is professional and technical; (2) social and mental health services are delivered in a complex context of organizations and social institutions including service providers, services organizations, families, and communities; and (3) the effectiveness of service delivery is a function of how well the evidence-based intervention is mediated by the social environment in which it is delivered. Empirical studies (Glisson and Schoenwald 2005; Glisson, et al. 2006) show that this model is promising.

  • Glisson, Charles. 2002. The organizational context of children’s mental health services. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 5.4: 233–253.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1020972906177Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article describes the main components of the availability, responsiveness, continuity model and reviews organizational factors that impact the uptake of evidence-based practices in various organizational settings. This article is both empirical and prescriptive. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Glisson, Charles, Denzel Dukes, and Phillip Green. 2006. The effects of the ARC organizational intervention on caseworker turnover, climate, and culture in children’s service systems. Child Abuse and Neglect 30.8: 855–880.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.12.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reporting on outcomes of a randomized experimental study, this article demonstrates the usefulness of the availability, responsiveness, continuity model in urban and rural child welfare and juvenile justice systems, especially with regard to reduction of staff turnover, which has an adverse impact on service quality. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Glisson, Charles, and Sonja K. Schoenwald. 2005. The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children’s mental health treatments. Mental Health Services Research 7.4: 243–259.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11020-005-7456-1.Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on outcomes of an organizational and community intervention study of the model in the field of child mental health care. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Community-Based Participatory Research

Initially developed to promote international and rural development, community-based participatory research has been widely used in the field of public health (Israel, et al. 1998; Israel, et al. 2005; Wells, et al. 2006) to identify risks and suggest solutions to issues as diverse as HIV/AIDS, domestic violence and sexual assault, cancer, diabetes, mental health, and workplace health. This model builds heavily on strengths and resources within the community, facilitates a collaborative and equitable partnership with the community, focuses on the local relevance of social problems, and involves a long-term process and commitment to sustainability (Minkler and Wallerstein 2008).

  • Israel, Barbara A., Eugenia Eng, Amy J. Schulz, and Edith A. Parker, eds. 2005. Methods in community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book introduces students, researchers, practitioners, and community members to innovative methods for designing and conducting community-based participatory research. Emphasis is placed on strategies for developing effective community–research partnerships to address issues related to community health, disease prevention and health promotion, health disparities, and environmental health.

    Find this resource:

  • Israel, Barbara A., Amy J. Schulz, Edith A. Parker, and Adam B. Becker. 1998. Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health 19:173–202.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.173Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This review article provides an excellent summary of key components of community-based research as well as challenges and facilitators of implementing community-based participatory research in public contexts. Interestingly, this review also places community-based research models in alternative inquiry paradigms. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Minkler, Meredith, and Nina Wallerstein, eds. 2008. Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is a compilation of chapters by the leaders of the field of community-based participatory research. The chapters describe the origins and evolution of the principles and practice of the research model, illustrating them through a series of excellent case studies. The book is designed for both researchers and practitioners.

    Find this resource:

  • Wells, Kenneth B., Anne Staunton, Keith C. Norris, et al. 2006. Building an academic–community partnered network for clinical services research: The Community Health Improvement Collaborative (CHIC). Ethnicity and Disease 16.1 (Supp. 1): 3–17.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This RAND Corporation study describes the Los Angeles Community Health Improvement Collaborative as an example of a multicenter consortium to support community-based intervention and research in a clinical services setting. As a case study of community-based participatory research in practice, this article illustrates some of the challenges of this model.

    Find this resource:

Barriers and Facilitators of Translation

A considerable amount of literature is published on the barriers to and facilitators of the evidence-based translation and implementation process in various fields of intervention, including social work. Translational and implementation issues are often intertwined in this literature. The issue of barriers and facilitators is an important concern as these are the factors that impact efforts to introduce innovations and evidence-based practices in real-world situations. Translation of evidence-based practices may take place on individual, organizational, and community levels; on each level, different or concurrent barriers and facilitators may interfere to various degrees. Two comprehensive literature reviews, Greenhalgh, et al. 2004, and Fixsen, et al. 2005, provide summaries of a large body of publications. A selection of recently reported empirical studies pertaining to supported employment interventions (Menear, et al. 2011; Rapp, et al. 2010) and youth treatment services (Palinkas, et al. 2009) provides examples of what processes take place in the translation of evidence-based practices.

  • Fixsen, Dean L., Sandra F. Naoom, Karen A. Blase, Robert M. Friedman, and Frances Wallace. 2005. Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa: National Implementation Research Network, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Univ. of South Florida.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This excellent systematic research review, which focuses on implementation processes, is also highly pertinent to issues of translation. It concludes with a set of recommendations to promote implementation practice and science. The report is easily accessible to readers who are not familiar with the research area or terminology.

    Find this resource:

  • Greenhalgh, Trisha, Glenn Robert, Fraser Macfarlane, Paul Bate, and Olivia Kyriakidou. 2004. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Quarterly 82.4: 581–629.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is an excellent and pioneering systematic research review of pertinent literature on barriers and facilitators of translational processes and related concepts such as diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. The study also provides a model of knowledge translation. Although this systematic research review may need an update after several years of publication, given that research on evidence translation continues to evolve, it remains a very useful resource.

    Find this resource:

  • Menear, Matthew, Daniel Reinharz, Marc Corbière, et al. 2011. Organizational analysis of Canadian supported employment programs for people with psychiatric disabilities. Social Science and Medicine 72.7: 1028–1035.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This organizational study of the supported employment intervention in Canada shows that a number of factors determine the translation and implementation success of the intervention in participating provinces. These factors include agency exposure to different institutional pressures, agency interactions and relationships with other groups and organizations, and dominant values and beliefs within the agency culture. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Palinkas, Lawrence A., Gregory A. Aarons, Bruce F. Chorpita, Kimberly Hoagwood, John Landsverk, and John R. Weisz. 2009. Cultural exchange and the implementation of evidence-based practices: Two case studies. Research on Social Work Practice 19.5: 602–612.

    DOI: 10.1177/1049731509335529Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on two case studies that examine the interaction between evidence-based intervention developers and trainers and delivery agency personnel participating in a nationwide randomized intervention. The results show that cultural exchange in terms of information sharing and behavioral change through negotiation is vital to the success of translation and implementation of evidence-based interventions in agencies treating youth. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Rapp, Charles A., Diane Etzel-Wise, Doug Marty, et al. 2010. Barriers to evidence-based practice implementation: Results of a qualitative study. Community Mental Health Journal 46.2: 112–118.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10597-009-9238-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The researchers verify the negative impact of factors among agency staff. Frontline supervisors were unable to set expectations, letting staff develop their own sense of the intervention and actually sabotage the project on two occasions. Frontline practitioners were resistant to new practices. Intra-agency synergy was not successfully nurtured, and staff members other than the target personnel were counterproductive. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

Methods of Inquiry in Translational Science

Scholars of evidence translation typically employ methods of inquiry characterized by the term mixed methods. Mixed-method research refers to the integrated use of quantitative and qualitative methods in the same study or project. The main reason for using mixed methods is that a combination of quantitative and qualitative tools of data collection and analysis better capture the complex and multifaceted nature of evidence translation. Additionally, the use of mixed methods in translational research is consistent with current aggregated insights about the potential and limitations of single methods. Major funding agencies such as the US National Institute of Mental Health call for use of mixed methods in translational and implementation research. Mixed methods are also consistent with the need to conduct implementation research in collaboration with potential consumers of evidence-based practices. Cresswell and Clark 2011 and Teddlie and Tashakkori 2003 provide typologies and guidelines for the use of mixed-method designs, and Palinkas, et al. 2011 describes their use in implementation research.

  • Cresswell, John W., and Vicki L. Plano Clark. 2011. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This textbook offers perhaps the best written and most comprehensive examination of the use of mixed-method designs available today. The authors introduce six major mixed-method designs: convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, embedded, transformative, and multiphase. The book also includes examples from recently published mixed-method studies drawn from the social and behavioral sciences, health, and education.

    Find this resource:

  • Palinkas, Lawrence A., Gregory A. Aarons, Sarah M. Horwitz, Patricia Chamberlain, Michael Hurlburt, and John Landsverk. 2011. Mixed method designs in implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 38.1: 44–53.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10488-010-0314-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article describes different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, different functions of mixed methods, and ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data. Complexity of design was associated with the number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed-method designs in implementation research.

    Find this resource:

  • Teddlie, Charles, and Abbas Tashakkori. 2003. Major issues and controversies in the use of mixed methods in the social and behavioral sciences. In Handbook of mixed methods in the social and behavioral sciences. Edited by Abbas Tashakkori and Charles Teddlie, 3–50. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This introductory chapter traces the origins and paradigmatic foundations of the methodology of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches. It also offers criteria for selecting the best design for a research project. The authors conclude with a discussion of the logistics of conducting mixed-method research and present three current models for professional competency and collaboration.

    Find this resource:

International Translation

International translation of evidence-based interventions and social work programs involves transport of these interventions from one country to another or from one national context to another. International translation includes complex and interrelated processes of innovation dissemination, language translation, adaptation, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based interventions and programs. The best way of determining the international transportability of an evidence-based intervention is to test the intervention in the country of intended implementation. For instance, this testing is done in association with the international transportation of multisystemic therapy as reported by Schoenwald, et al. 2008. However, testing is not always possible, and researchers and program developers use other approaches to estimate the feasibility of international transportation with the hope that the evidence-based intervention one day may be tested in full scale. Sussman and Palinkas 2008 and Sussman, et al. 2008 provide guidelines to facilitate international transportation of evidence-based interventions. One form of international transportation is the use of interventions primarily developed for and tested among the majority population of a country for ethnically diverse populations. Miranda, et al. 2005 and Wilson, et al. 2003 provide empirical evidence supporting the feasibility of mainstream interventions for use among ethnically diverse populations.

  • Miranda, Jeanne, Guillermo Bernal, Anna Lau, Laura Kohn, Wei-Chin Hwang, and Teresa LaFromboise. 2005. State of science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1:113–142.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143822Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on a comprehensive literature review of effectiveness studies of mental health interventions. This study shows that mainstream evidence-based interventions for depression developed for white Americans are equally effective for Latino and African-American populations. The authors suggest that evidence-based psychosocial treatments are appropriate for most individuals in ethnically diverse populations. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Schoenwald, Sonja K., Naamith Heiblum, Lisa Saldana, and Scott W. Henggeler. 2008. The international implementation of multisystemic therapy. Evaluation and the Health Professions 31.2: 211–225.

    DOI: 10.1177/0163278708315925Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This case study describes and discusses challenges and opportunities associated with the international transport of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for youth, using multisystemic therapy. The authors describe modifications used to address these challenges and facilitate the international transportation of multisystemic therapy. They involve preimplementation processes, selection and training of clinical staff, training materials and procedures, and clinical service delivery. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Sussman, Steve, and Lawrence A. Palinkas. 2008. Reflections on international translation of evidence-based health behavior programs. Evaluation and the Health Professions 31.3: 323–330.

    DOI: 10.1177/0163278708320168Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article elaborates on factors impacting the international translation of evidence-based interventions including language, control over the translation process, local normative challenges to transport and translation, intervention adaptation, and globalization. The authors suggest that attention to a number of measures, including language translation, partnership for intervention adaptation, and willingness to compromise, may help to overcome some of the impeding factors. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Sussman, Steve, Jennifer B. Unger, and Lawrence A. Palinkas. 2008. Country prototypes and translation of health programs. Evaluation and the Health Professions 31.2: 110–123.

    DOI: 10.1177/0163278708315918Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors explore a set of national-level variables pertinent to translation of evidence-based interventions. These variables include national stereotypes, national prototypes, country clusters, knowledge incompatibility, and absorptive capacity. In the absence of effectiveness studies in the country of intended implementation, these concepts provide direction for strategies of transportation of evidence-based interventions between nations. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilson, Sandra Jo, Mark W. Lipsey, and Haluk Soydan. 2003. Are mainstream programs for juvenile delinquents less effective with minority youth than majority youth? A meta-analysis of outcomes research. Research on Social Work Practice 13.1: 3–26.

    DOI: 10.1177/1049731502238754Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on a major meta-analysis of studies of effectiveness of mainstream interventions for delinquent youth. The study found that mainstream crime prevention interventions that are effective with white youth are equally effective with minority youth. The authors suggest that their study supports the use of mainstream crime prevention interventions without cultural tailoring for ethnically diverse youth. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 02/26/2013

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0070

back to top