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Social Work Family Services
by
Toni Naccarato, Katharine Briar-Lawson, Brian D. Roland

Introduction

Encompassing a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies, family services address individual family members and include children, parents, and elders as well as the entire family system. Services may include resources, such as income supports, counseling, and psychoeducational programs, as well as caregiving, such as child or elder care. Some services are provided by social workers and allied professionals, such as marriage and family therapists, while others are provided by peers or paraprofessional staff. Family services tend to be focused on one or two generational supports and strategies, such as a parent and a child or an elder and an adult child caregiver. Intergenerational services that mobilize all generations to solve problems together or to receive services simultaneously are less frequently employed. The emergence of family therapy models has added to the diversity in approaches to family services. Family services vary depending on whether the issue is alcohol and substance abuse, mental health, child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, delinquency, disabilities, school performance, poverty, parent-child conflict, marital conflict, or caregiving stress. Whether services are covered by publicly provided funds versus private insurance also determines the type and range of supports offered. Given the vast literature and diverse fields of practice, such as addictions, juvenile delinquency, mental health, schools, and aging, this entry focuses many of the selections on public sector families and often those involved with the child welfare system. Diversity and the changing composition of families add to the complexity in services and challenge practitioners, policy makers, and researchers to address their unique needs.

Introductory Works

Family services in recent decades have focused on families who receive services from the public sector. Those with financial means often receive individual, marital, or family therapy and may use private insurance to pay for services from private practitioners. Family preservation, including in-home and intensive technologies, multisystemic therapy approaches, and family group conferencing, are more recent service strategies to help public sector families. Brief strategies (task centered, cognitive-behavioral, or psychoeducational services) and concrete services, such as income supports, are part of a long tradition in services to public sector families. Family-centered practice is delineated in the foundational work in Hartman and Laird 1983, and family preservation is depicted in the groundbreaking work of Homebuilders (Whittaker, et al. 1990). Since the 1950s the family therapy movement, led by work such as Satir 1983, has helped build the foundation for developments in family therapy services. Some introductory works have served as foundations for the advancement of public sector service strategies. For example, Reid 1985 offers an empirically based task-centered approach, while Berg 1994 is a solution-focused strategy applied often with public sector families. More community-based developments that also focus on economic supports for families are discussed in Adams and Nelson 1995 and Schorr 1997. McGoldrick, et al. 2005 is one of the classics in family therapy.

  • Adams, Paul, and Kristine Nelson, eds. 1995. Reinventing human services: Community- and family-centered practice. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

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    Economic supports, integration of community, and individual practice are presented. Strategies include the British model of community social work, family preservation, comprehensive service schools, and a new model for policing. Systems changes in family-centered social services and an integrated strategy for family and economic empowerment are discussed.

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  • Berg, Insoo Kim. 1994. Family-based services: A solution-focused approach. New York: W. W. Norton.

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    A solution-focused approach emphasizes competencies, strengths, and resiliencies that help empower children and families to effectively deal with issues. Chapters focus on the application of a solution-focused model of intervention, including the initial, middle, and termination stages; defining problems; developing cooperation; setting goals; and creating contracts.

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  • Hartman, Ann, and Joan Laird. 1983. Family-centered social work practice. New York: Free Press.

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    Provides the framework and rationale for using a family-centered approach for assessing and intervening with public sector families. Drawing on an ecological approach, specific practice elements include cross-systems and cross-agency collaboration, case management, contracting, and interviewing. Ecological and intergenerational assessments along with tools to discern the structure and functioning of the family system are presented.

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  • McGoldrick, Monica, Joe Giordano, and Nydia Garcia-Preto, eds. 2005. Ethnicity and family therapy. 3d ed. New York: Guilford.

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    Presents road maps and paradigms for understanding families in relation to their ethnic heritage. The authors draw on historical traits and focus on the ways families retain the cultural characteristics of their heritage. The authors highlight cultural genograms, multisystemic and solution-focused approaches, creative therapy, and intensive brief therapy.

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  • Reid, William J. 1985. Family problem solving. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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    Features task-centered strategies, procedures, and phases in serving families. An empirical orientation and collaborative relationships are emphasized. Issues involving communication, metacommunication, and rules for interaction are discussed. Types of interventions and tasks (for example, problem solving, communication, role playing) are specified.

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  • Satir, Virginia. 1983. Conjoint family therapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior.

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    This classic book addresses the dysfunctional and functional family triangle and provides tools for assessing incongruent communication patterns. Ways to foster self-esteem, interpret messages, reeducate, and create rules for interactions are addressed. The effects of stress and marital dysfunction on the family are discussed along with parental and environmental factors that help increase a child’s self-esteem.

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  • Schorr, Lisbeth B. 1997. Common purpose: Strengthening families and neighborhoods to rebuild America. New York: Anchor.

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    Building on her earlier book, Within Our Reach (1989), Schorr offers innovative proposals to rebuild inner cities and to address the poor and the marginalized. An array of social programs and practices are cited that show promise in improving the life chances of high-risk children. The author discusses ways to scale up pilots.

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  • Whittaker, James K., Jill Kinney, Elizabeth M. Tracy, and Charlotte Booth, eds. 1990. Reaching high-risk families: Intensive family preservation in human services. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

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    Introduces the Homebuilders approach to helping high-risk public sector families. Characteristics of family preservation services are discussed along with the history, development, and features of the Homebuilders model. Administrative practices and organizational requisites are presented. Implications for innovation and replication are cited.

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Textbooks

Numerous texts support varying approaches to family services. Family therapy texts, used in marriage and family therapy courses, often support social workers planning to work with privately paying families. In child welfare courses texts focus on approaches to the public sector families with cross-systems needs. Some may be problem specific, focusing on child welfare, juvenile delinquency, alcohol and substance abuse, aging, poverty, or mental health. A few of the more seminal books, especially those in child welfare, that represent a vast literature involving a variety of approaches in serving families are cited here. Most important, the emergence of evidence-based texts adds to the growing attention to rigor in the promotion of family services. Corcoran 2000, Corcoran 2003, Janzen, et al. 2006, and Fraser 2004 build on the earlier work in Franklin and Jordan 1999, which set the stage for effective strategies with families. Pecora, et al. 1995, an important text on evaluation, also reinforces the focus on effectiveness. Diversity remains a challenge given the focus on evidence-based practice, especially since many service approaches have not been tested with diverse populations. For that reason Congress and Gonzalez 2005 is germane, as it presents practitioners with ways to develop culturally tailored practice. Dunst, et al. 1994 is a classic in some domains, especially those involving families with special needs and disabilities. Families are intergenerational, and Kahana, et al. 1994 provides family service strategies for caregivers and their families.

  • Congress, Elaine P., and Manny J. Gonzalez, eds. 2005. Multicultural perspectives in working with families. 2d ed. New York: Springer.

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    Micro and macro approaches utilizing a culturagram are presented. Applying an intergenerational perspective, ethnographic approaches are cited. Spirituality and ethical issues in serving culturally diverse families are discussed.

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  • Corcoran, Jacqueline. 2000. Evidence-based social work practice with families: A lifespan approach. New York: Springer.

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    Reviews the research base for selected interventions addressing child abuse, conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), eating disorders, juvenile offenses, adolescent and adult substance abuse, family violence, schizophrenia, and stressed caregivers of the elderly. Each chapter reviews theoretical orientations and clinical research studies and tools.

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  • Corcoran, Jacqueline. 2003. Clinical applications of evidence-based family interventions. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Addresses a range of childhood, adolescent, and adult problems, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder, physical and sexual abuse, conduct disorders and substance abuse, juvenile offenses, teen pregnancy, depression, schizophrenia, and caregiver stress. Interventions such as psychoeducation; behavioral parent training; solution-focused, cognitive-behavioral, and structural family therapy; and multisystemic treatment are cited.

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  • Dunst, Carl J., Carol M. Trivette, and Angela G. Deal, eds. 1994. Supporting and strengthening families. Vol. 1, Methods, strategies, and practices. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

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    Focuses on an empowerment and family-centered approach to strengthening individual and family functioning. The authors present family-centered interventions, such as needs- and strengths-based approaches, and resource mobilization for children and families, especially those challenged by issues such as disabilities.

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  • Franklin, Cynthia, and Catheleen Jordan. 1999. Family practice: Brief systems methods for social work. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole.

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    Addresses solution-focused, psychoeducational, structural, strategic, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral family therapies that help families. Time-limited family practice models are analyzed and include theoretical basis and therapeutic methods.

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  • Fraser, Mark W., ed. 2004. Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective. 2d ed. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

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    Ecological and multisystemic perspectives are provided for examining risk, resilience, and protective factors for childhood disorders. Evidence-based risk and protective factors affecting such problems as child maltreatment, conduct disorders, school failure, substance abuse, depression, and health issues are discussed. Practice implications are cited.

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  • Janzen, Curtis, Oliver Harris, Catheleen Jordan, and Cynthia Franklin. 2006. Family treatment: Evidence-based practice with populations at risk. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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    Structural, strategic, social learning, family preservation, and family psychoeducational approaches are presented along with the evidence base for them. The authors also address single-parent families, families with aging members, families with multiple problems, mental disorders, the chronically and terminally ill, child abuse and other family violence, substance abuse, separation and divorce, and reconstituted families.

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  • Kahana, Eva, David E. Biegel, and May L. Wykle, eds. 1994. Family caregiving across the lifespan. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    Chronic illnesses that necessitate family caregiving and the negative effects are discussed. The authors describe models of family psychoeducational interventions, such as long-term programs (for example, multifamily group activities) and short-term programs (for example, family crisis intervention, communication skills training, problem solving).

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  • Pecora, Peter J., Mark W. Fraser, Kristine E. Nelson, Jacquelyn McCroskey, and William Meezan. 1995. Evaluating family-based services. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

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    Family-based evaluation and effective research strategies for measuring changes in child and family functioning are presented. Phase-specific evaluation designs are cited. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are discussed.

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Manuals, Guides, and Reference Resources

Fugitive literature makes up an important piece of family services resource materials. Although it is not always composed of peer-reviewed materials, it is still important for practitioners, students, policy makers, and researchers to review. The information tends to encompass a wide breadth of materials and is updated on a more frequent basis than the peer-reviewed scholarly journals. Several citations reflect national organizations whose work is both advocacy oriented and rich in demonstration projects. This includes the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the American Humane Society. The other seven sources provided in this section represent nationally recognized agencies and institutions that provide up-to-date resource materials based on policy, research, and practice-related information, all pertaining to family services. The journal Future of Children is published twice per year and focuses on interdisciplinary issues related to children. Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago is a policy research center. The US Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families’ Child Welfare Policy Manual updates and reformats the relevant federal policy issuances. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration supports states’ efforts to develop community-based systems of care and to promote public information initiatives that address critical concerns. The National Indian Child Welfare Association focuses on American Indian children and topics related to child abuse and neglect. The National Family Preservation Network focuses on topics related to family preservation, reunification, and fatherhood. The Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children’s Mental Health focuses on children’s mental health and families.

Bibliographies

Bibliographies provide source materials that can save students, practitioners, policy makers, and researchers time and effort. Many focus on specialized topics related to family services and may provide comprehensive resources beyond book and article citations and annotations. Specialized topics include adoption and reunification, child abuse and well-being, child welfare system concerns, family-centered practice, evidence-based and promising programs, American Indian child welfare issues, domestic violence, substance abuse and treatment, pregnancy and parenting, education, crime and justice, and building the research base for social work. The Child Welfare Information Gateway is a national child welfare clearinghouse and a service of the Children’s Bureau, US Department of Health and Human Services. The Alliance for Children and Families is a listing of resources in the field of child welfare and evidence-based and promising programs and practices. The Indian Child Welfare Act Bibliography was prepared by the National Indian Law Library and focuses on topics and issues related to American Indian children and their families. The Child Welfare League of America Annotated Bibliographies hosts in the early 21st century eleven annotated bibliographies on child welfare. The Minnesota Center against Violence and Abuse Electronic Clearinghouse provides annotated bibliographies in areas related to all types of violence, including stranger, workplace, and youth and family violence. The National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare produced an annotated bibliography that is organized in fourteen topics. The Campbell Collaboration is an international research network that produces systematic reviews of the effects of social interventions. The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR) focuses on building the research knowledge base for the social work field.

Journals

Some social work journals focus exclusively on families and children and related services. None focus exclusively on family services and the aging. Other social work journals frequently publish family service–related articles even though a family focus is not their primary topic. Many journals focus on children, and thus family services are somewhat tangential to their child focus, such as Children and Schools, Child Welfare, and Children and Youth Services Review. Other sources in this section may be more family oriented and offer both conceptual as well as empirical articles, such as Families in Society, Journal of Family Social Work, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Family Preservation Journal, and Journal of Gay and Lesbian Services. The Journal of Public Child Welfare is a specialty journal.

European and International Views

Innovation exchanges across nations are on the increase as families face similar risk factors. Some service models that inform practice in the United States involve inclusive and empowerment-based strategies in which the expertise and resources of intergenerational family systems are tapped. Because the need for innovations in family engagement is great, family service models are often replicated even when the evidence for success may be lacking. The selections reflect works by authors in other countries depicting promising programs as well as works by US authors who have inventoried new models in other nations. Some services to families are provided while their children are in residential care. Thus Ainsworth 1997 is useful in offering promising approaches with cross-national implications. In keeping with such innovations, McAuley, et al. 2006 also offers an array of practices that could be replicated in the United States. Similarly, family group conferences have had a vast impact on practice in the United States and in other Western industrialized counties. For this reason Burford and Hudson 2000 is foundational for such practice. Cross-national comparisons such as those in Cameron, et al. 2007 provide models for child welfare systems, and the family support movement depicted by Campbell and Mitchell 2007 helps inform family support and capacity-building in the United States. Much international practice occurs in the United States with immigrant and refugee families, and this practice is well represented in Fong 2004. Ng 2003, an inventory of family therapy models from other parts of the world, illustrates cultural variations in such services that may be applicable in the United States.

  • Ainsworth, Frank. 1997. Family centred group care: Model building. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.

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    A research-based child- and family-centered group care model is presented that focuses on the child in the context of family. The author introduces the empirically based Trieschman Carolinas Project Instrument that is used to measure a model of group care and its effectiveness with different groups of children.

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  • Burford, Gale, and Joe Hudson, eds. 2000. Family group conferencing: New directions in community-centered child and family practice. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

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    An ecological approach to building on families’ strengths and their social networks is presented. Family conferences, circles, and wraparound services are cited along with the Patch and Just Therapy models. Comparative practices in New Zealand, Sweden, England, Wales, Ireland, the United States, and Australia are examined.

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  • Cameron, Gary, Nick Coady, and Gerald R. Adams, eds. 2007. Moving toward positive systems of child and family welfare. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press.

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    Compares child-protective and family-service systems in North America and Europe. Community models of child and family welfare developed by aboriginal populations in Canada are explored. Topics include aboriginal child welfare, understanding and preventing burnout and turnover, placement decisions and the child welfare worker, and pathways to children’s mental health services.

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  • Campbell, Lynda, and Gaye Mitchell. 2007. Victorian family-support services in retrospect: Three decades of investment, challenge, and achievement. Australian Social Work 60.3: 278–294.

    DOI: 10.1080/03124070701519652Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Historical antecedents to current family support models and practices are delineated along with pressures and constraints from the more dominate child protection service approaches. Roles for social workers in developing family support services are discussed.

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  • Fong, Rowena, ed. 2004. Culturally competent practice with immigrant and refugee children and families. New York: Guilford.

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    Understanding and building on clients’ cultural values, the author presents a strengths-based empowerment model. Culturally congruent strategies for assessing and intervening with an array of ethnic and racially diverse immigrant families are cited along with common challenges they face.

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  • McAuley, Colette, Peter Pecora, and Wendy Rose. 2006. Enhancing the well-being of children and families through effective interventions: International evidence for practice. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.

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    The legislative, policy, and practice context of child welfare research in the United Kingdom and the United States is discussed. An array of interventions with abused and neglected children and their families is presented, including family support programs in schools and the community, such as peer support, mentoring, and after-school programs.

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  • Ng, Kit S., ed. 2003. Global perspectives in family therapy: Development, practice, and trends. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

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    Differing family structures and practices of family therapy in selected countries are presented. This includes different types of clinical diagnoses, presenting problems, family dynamics, intervention techniques, and cultural variations in family therapy.

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Policy

Some key policy strategies foster more family-centered or family-driven approaches. In addition, since many families with high needs cross several systems, common principles may be adopted, such as the least restrictive placements, family-centered systems of care, and family-centered practices, to foster more coherence if not systems and service integration. Systems performance is an ongoing concern as child and family service reviews in public child welfare attempt to infuse more standardized outcome measures involving child welfare systems. Thus the Children’s Bureau Express offers child welfare and related federal policy information along with research syntheses that also help guide policy makers. A thoughtful example of research from national data sets that helps set policy agendas and inform practice is Wulczyn, et al. 2005. Stein 2006, for social workers and courts, examines legal work. A classic depicting legislative initiatives that promote services for families is Moroney 1976, which sets the foundation for understanding the context and the contract between the state and families. Similarly Zimmerman 2001 provides conceptual grounding in how policy is devised to help families with problem solving. Historical as well as analytical tools addressing risk and protective factors to advance effective policy are cited in the important text Jenson and Fraser 2006. Effectiveness issues are addressed in Pecora, et al. 2009. Lindsey 2003 offers historical frameworks on practice and services and makes the case for investment strategies using a demogrant strategy. Philosophical as well as practice models in the family versus the child debates are well captured in Walton, et al. 2001.

  • Children’s Bureau Express.

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    This online digest provides guides and synopses of studies related to key practice issues in public child welfare. Topics include workforce development, collaboration, and the array of initiatives, grants, and policy findings fostered by the US Children’s Bureau.

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    • Jenson, Jeffrey M., and Mark W. Fraser, eds. 2006. Social policy for children and families: A risk and resilience perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      Using the principles of risk, resilience, and protection, this book examines the history, design, and delivery of social policies and programs for children and families. Child welfare, mental health, education, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and health policies are probed.

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    • Lindsey, Duncan. 2003. The welfare of children. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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      Historical perspectives and major programs and policies for child welfare are provided for the child welfare system. Effects of welfare reform legislation are delineated. A demogrant program involving a “social savings” account is proposed.

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    • Moroney, Robert M. 1976. The family and the state: Considerations for social policy. New York: Longman.

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      Addresses the needs of families caring for those with disabilities and the aged. The author attempts to answer questions pertaining to the shifting responsibility of the mentally handicapped and the elderly from the family to the state.

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    • Pecora, Peter J., Jeffrey K. Whittaker, Anthony N. Maluccio, and Richard Barth. 2009. The child welfare challenge: Policy, practice, and research. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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      Strengthening families and supporting children requires data-driven policy and practice from a family-centered perspective. Group care, reunification, adoption, and family foster care issues are discussed along with family support and family-based services.

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    • Stein, Theodore J. 2006. Child welfare and the law. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.

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      Judicial systems and child welfare practice are examined. This book discusses the impact of court decisions on the rights of biological parents, the impact of class action suits on child welfare, and the responsibilities of child welfare workers in the legal process.

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    • Walton, Elaine, Patricia Sandau-Beckler, and Marc Mannes, eds. 2001. Balancing family-centered services and child well-being: Exploring issues in policy, practice, theory, and research. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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      Family-centered services for child welfare families are framed against the challenges of protecting abused children and ensuring child well-being. Values and ethics of family-centered practice, cultural competence, family group conferencing, and revitalizing the family-centered services reform movement are examined.

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    • Wulczyn, Fred, Richard P. Barth, Ying-Ying T. Yuan, Brenda Jones Harden, and John Landsverk. 2005. Beyond common sense: Child welfare, child well-being, and the evidence for policy reform. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

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      Draws on data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive, and the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Chapters cover the bioecological, life course, and public health perspectives; the epidemiology of maltreatment and foster care placement; and child welfare services.

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    • Zimmerman, Shirley L. 2001. Family policy: Constructed solutions to family problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      Definitions and meanings of family policy are explored along with policy frameworks and theories used to guide policy practice and to solve family problems. Each chapter ends with questions for student discussion.

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    Dissemination and Implementation

    Given the variety of approaches to delivering services to families, there are disparate training, textbook, and implementation guides for the variety of interventions available. An array of family team–related interventions are being promoted. This section includes a few of these dissemination and implementation resources to guide practice. Ritvo and Glick 2002 provides an excellent series of steps and guides for family therapy. Websites that offer useful foundations for specialty practices are Multisystemic Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, and Families and Schools Together (FAST). It should be noted that some family interventions, such as Functional Family Therapy, are proprietary, and thus accessible guidelines for implementation and dissemination are less readily available. While there are numerous texts on family services, few serve as explicit instructional guides. Downs, et al. 2009 is a popular and comprehensive resource for teaching. Maluccio, et al. 2002 is useful for practice, especially in child welfare, and offers an array of teaching tools and websites. Allen-Meares and Fraser 2003 is a discerning, empirically based text using a risk and resilience focus that also provides helpful guides for learning and practice. Briar-Lawson, et al. 2001 offers policy frameworks for investing in families, suggestions for how to foster family-centered policies, and sample dialogues with policy makers. Understanding and fostering family development is also a key facet of services to families. A useful framework for teaching family development is provided in Richman and Cook 2004.

    • Allen-Meares, Paula, and Mark W. Fraser. 2003. Interventions with children and adolescents: An interdisciplinary perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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      This textbook uses a risk and resilience orientation and presents interventions that affect the healthy development of children and youth in addition to information on the design of effective programs for children and youth. Instructional tools include case illustrations, charts, tables, practice guidelines, and problem-solving exercises.

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    • Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Hal Lawson, and Charles B. Hennon with Alan Jones. 2001. Family-centered policies and practices: International implications. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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      Provides guides for implementing family-centered practice. Examples include dialogues with policy makers on family-centered policies as well as examples for family-centered practice with clients.

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    • Downs, Susan Whitelaw, Ernestine Moore, Emily Jean McFadden, and Lela B. Costin. 2009. Child welfare and family services: Policies and practice. Boston: Pearson, Allyn, and Bacon.

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      This revised classic provides an understanding of services to families that addresses the legal and legislative framework for such services. Welfare reform, day care, child development programs, services to teenage parents, and family support services are analyzed along with foster care, adoption, family preservation, child protection, and juvenile delinquency services. Case examples, charts, and other tools are helpful for teaching.

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    • Families and Schools Together (FAST).

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      Serves children and families both nationally and internationally. Families and Schools Together (FAST) produces and distributes evidence-based, parental involvement programs and prevention and intervention programs that teach parents empowerment strategies. Families and Schools Together is an award-winning set of preventive and early intervention after-school programs that has been recognized by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices, and the US Justice Department as an exemplary program.

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      • Functional Family Therapy.

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        This web resource provides a comprehensive overview of Functional Family Therapy’s goals, objectives, and procedures. Functional Family Therapy’s high rates of effectiveness have been recognized by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Website resources are free, but training is proprietary.

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        • Maluccio, Anthony N., Barbara A. Pine, and Elizabeth M. Tracy. 2002. Social work practice with families and children. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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          This useful text provides helpful frameworks for assessment, intervention, family-centered practices, and social network mobilization. Relevant practice resources, websites, and related materials are presented.

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        • Multisystemic Therapy.

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          This web-based resource provides a comprehensive overview of the goals and objectives of multisystemic therapy (MST), theories, core elements and principles, clinical procedures, and cost-benefit information. Targeted risk and protective factors are also cited.

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          • Richman, Jack M., and Patricia G. Cook. 2004. A framework for teaching family development for the changing family. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 24.1–2: 1–18.

            DOI: 10.1300/J067v24n01_01Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Describes an alternative framework for considering and comprehending family development and processes that takes into account that families grow, change, and redefine themselves. Implications for using this framework are presented for both teaching and social work practice.

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          • Ritvo, Eva C., and Ira D. Glick. 2002. Concise guide to marriage and family therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric.

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            Provides explicit instructions for doing an evaluation, for family treatment strategies, and for managing issues of resistance. Ethical issues are addressed, and strategies are suggested for when the child is the identified patient or a family is in the process of divorce.

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          LAST MODIFIED: 12/27/2010

          DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0073

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