Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Social Work Victims of Human Trafficking
by
Rowena Fong

Introduction

Human trafficking has become a growing problem at both the international level and the domestic level in the United States. Trafficking is a form of human slavery, manifested largely through the sex industry but also in labor. International concerns cover sex and labor slavery, as well as organ and adoption trafficking. Domestic concerns about human trafficking have focused on the prostitution of young women or children, primarily by pimps and rings of traffickers. Child sex tourism is a national as well as international problem. Concerns about mental health and public health, as well as policies, legal procedures, and law enforcement issues, are covered.

General Overviews

Väyrynen 2003 includes definitions of terms related to trafficking, smuggling, and illegal immigration. Reasons for, and the social and psychological impacts of, trafficking are discussed in Jones, et al. 2007. Both Bertone 2004 and Lowe 2007 cover trafficking legislation and the history of trafficking, with a specific focus on sex and labor trafficking. Nonprofit organizations and funding resources for human service programs are presented on the Polaris Projectand US Department of State websites.

  • Bertone, Andrea M. 2004. Transnational activism to combat trafficking in persons. Brown Journal of World Affairs 10.2: 9–22.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Gives a very brief overview of the history of sex and labor trafficking, and of the efforts of large multilateral organizations, such as the United Nations, to confront the issue during the 20th century. Provides a contemporary view and criticism of governmental and nongovernmental organizations’ attempts to address trafficking through policies and programs. Would be most helpful to policy practitioners and program planners.

    Find this resource:

  • Jones, L., D. W. Engstrom, T. Hilliard, and M. Diaz. 2007. Globalization and human trafficking. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 34.2: 107–122.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides general background information about trafficking and examines the definition of human trafficking and its complexities. Also examines the reasons trafficking occurs and trafficking’s social and psychological impacts. The authors conclude by evaluating multilateral responses to trafficking as well as implications for social work as a profession.

    Find this resource:

  • Lowe, Allison H. 2007. Human trafficking: A global problem with solutions that begin at home. Praxis 7: 50–57.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the history of human trafficking and current antitrafficking legislation, outlines the challenges facing those who work to fight human trafficking and advocate for victims, and provides suggestions on how to end trafficking in persons.

    Find this resource:

  • Polaris Project.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The Polaris Project is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to combat human trafficking in the United States and around the world. The site provides general information about human trafficking, as well as ways to get involved in the fight and links to other resources on the topic.

    Find this resource:

  • US Department of State. . Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Dedicated to the topic of human trafficking, this site contains reports, tools, and links of interest regarding trafficking in the United States and internationally. Also includes information regarding funding available for human service agencies delivering human trafficking services. In addition, provides information on programs funded by the Department of State that directly address trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Väyrynen, Raimo. 2003. Illegal immigration, human trafficking, and organized crime. Helsinki: World Institute for Development Economics Research.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the difference between trafficking, smuggling, and illegal immigration, and highlights this distinction and the very different implications of each practice, legally and politically. The causes of the increase in migration, in its various forms, are discussed, as is the profitability of these illegal enterprises and the immigration and border-crossing policy that allows this crime to flourish.

    Find this resource:

International

Farquet, et al. 2005 and the HumanTrafficking.org website both comprehensively address the issues of trafficking according to regions of the world. Herro 2006 explores international concerns about fighting human trafficking, while Anderson 2004 discusses what drives human trafficking. Richards 2004 and the International Labour Organization website raise concerns about labor trafficking, and Naim 2005 examines the economics, politics, and relationships among nations.

  • Anderson, Bridget. 2004. Is trafficking in human beings demand driven? A multi-country pilot study. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines demand as a factor driving the trafficking industry. The researchers conducted interviews in Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Thailand, India, Hong Kong, and Japan to explore this issue. This study would be most beneficial to macro-level social workers.

    Find this resource:

  • Farquet, Romaine, Heikki Mattila, and Frank Laczko. 2005. Human trafficking: Bibliography by region. International Migration 43.1–2: 301–342.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00321.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A bibliography of trafficking literature categorized by region, general trafficking literature, country reports on the Internet, and a list of other bibliographies and trafficking resources. Social work practitioners operating at the micro, mezzo, and macro level would all find this publication useful in understanding, planning, and evaluating trafficking-focused human services.

    Find this resource:

  • Herro, Alana. 2006. Small victories in the battle against human trafficking. World Watch 19.4: 9.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Outlines the progress that has been made in fighting human trafficking. This article highlights the implementation of antitrafficking legislation by many countries around the world, a general increase in awareness of the crime, and greater media attention as key developments.

    Find this resource:

  • HumanTrafficking.org.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains human trafficking information specific to many individual countries. Also provides links to research reports on a variety of trafficking topics, from services provided to policy and legal issues. Also contains downloadable resources for professionals working in the area of anti–human trafficking, such as lawmakers, human service professionals, and researchers.

    Find this resource:

  • International Labour Organization.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides information on international labor, organized by such themes as forced labor and child labor, and by world regions. Contains reports, statistics, and data on issues related to international labor. Includes contact information for different departments within the organization. Would be helpful for social work practitioners working at all levels for any population of labor trafficking victims.

    Find this resource:

  • Naim, Moises. 2005. Illicit: How smugglers, traffickers, and copycats are hijacking the global economy. New York: Doubleday.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Outlines how human trafficking and smuggling have become so expansive and what effect they have had on the world’s economy, politics, and international relationships. The author explores the role of organized crime and illegal enterprise in the functioning of the world.

    Find this resource:

  • Richards, Kathy. 2004. The trafficking of migrant workers: What are the links between labour trafficking and corruption? International Migration 42.5: 147–168.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2004.00305.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides background information on labor trafficking and presents a profile of persons who are typically trafficked for labor. Also examines the relationship between trafficking and corruption in business and government and concludes by recommending that victims of trafficking receive protection from violations of human rights.

    Find this resource:

Domestic

This subsection focuses on human trafficking—primarily sex trafficking—that is occurring in the United States at the national level. Shirk and Webber 2004 and Gozdziak and Collett 2005 analyze domestic trafficking in the context of Mexico and Canada. Hodge 2008 and Schauer and Wheaton 2006 provide overviews of sex trafficking in the United States and research on human trafficking in North America. Clawson, et al. 2003 focuses on needs assessments for service providers, while Shigekane 2007 explores rehabilitation options for trafficking survivors. Soderlund 2005 and the US Department of Health and Human Services’ Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking website provide advocacy in the forms of documenting crusades against sex trafficking and rescuing and restoring victims.

  • Clawson, Heather J., Kevonne M. Small, Ellen S. Go, and Bradley W. Myles. 2003. Needs assessment for service providers and trafficking victims.. Fairfax, VA: ICF International.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This report was conducted to identify available services for victims of human trafficking, the effectiveness of those services, obstacles to service provision, and gaps in services. The data were collected through telephone interviews and focus groups with victims and social service providers across the United States.

    Find this resource:

  • Gozdziak, Elzbieta M., and Elizabeth A. Collett. 2005. Research on human trafficking in North America: A review of literature. International Migration 43.1/2: 99–128.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00314.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This literature review seeks to provide an overview of publications regarding human trafficking in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The authors do so with a framework of questions that address funding, research, methodologies, data sources, and gaps in research that need to be filled.

    Find this resource:

  • Hodge, D. R. 2008. Sexual trafficking in the United States: A domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work 53.2 (April): 143–152.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A general overview of sex trafficking in the United States. Discusses trafficking within an international context as it relates to the United States, along with recruitment methods used by traffickers. Examines US antitrafficking policy and alternative recommendations for potential national responses. Identifies and discusses the social work profession’s unique ability to contribute to sex trafficking solutions.

    Find this resource:

  • Schauer, Edward J., and Elizabeth M. Wheaton. 2006. Sex trafficking into the United States: A literature review. Criminal Justice Review 31.2: 146–169.

    DOI: 10.1177/0734016806290136Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A review of the literature on human trafficking, specifically of women and children. The authors strive to uncover the scope and intricacies of the phenomenon, its impact on society and the victims, and important priorities in future research and efforts to fight this crime, including changing legislation and law enforcement policy.

    Find this resource:

  • Shigekane, Rachel. 2007. Rehabilitation and community integration of trafficking survivors in the United States. Human Rights Quarterly 29.1: 112–136.

    DOI: 10.1353/hrq.2007.0011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses services for and the needs of trafficking victims who are rescued, and how best to assist victims with their reintegration into society. Also discusses services available to victims and advocacy initiatives that have been established since the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. Reviews immigrant communities’ responses to trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Shirk, David, and Alexandra Webber. 2004. Slavery without borders: Human trafficking in the U.S.-Mexican context. Hemisphere Focus 12.5: 1–5.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focuses on human trafficking between Mexico and the United States, and analyzes the challenges facing US law enforcement, given Mexico’s own law enforcement problems in the border region. Discusses how the prosecution of traffickers and the legal certification of victims have not been as successful as expected, despite the best efforts of advocates, law enforcement, and policymakers.

    Find this resource:

  • Soderlund, G. 2005. Running from the rescuers: New U.S. crusades against sex trafficking and the rhetoric of abolition. NWSA Journal 17.3: 64–87.

    DOI: 10.2979/NWS.2005.17.3.64Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines changes and developments in US antitrafficking efforts, especially since the 2000 change of administration from Clinton to Bush. Argues that the conservative approaches to combat trafficking, implemented under the Bush administration, must be assessed from a feminist perspective and understood in the greater context of gender and sexuality.

    Find this resource:

  • US Department of Health and Human Services. The Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This website provides general information about human trafficking, the US campaign to fight human trafficking (Rescue and Restore), and other important links related to human trafficking and antitrafficking efforts. Would be most useful to local providers seeking resources and information about fighting human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

Trafficking of Women and Children

The trafficking of women and children is happening worldwide. General background information regarding sex slavery of women and girls can be found in Parrot and Cummings 2008 and in Hodge and Lietz 2007. Orlova 2005 discusses the trafficking of women and children in Russia, including trends of the phenomenon and the challenges facing governments and nongovernmental organizations in addressing it. Asian Development Bank 2003 covers human trafficking in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and reports the results of research conducted to assess the reality and status of human trafficking in these countries. Rahman, et al. 2004 presents research, commentary, and reaction to UN and US policy regarding trafficking in Bangladesh. Ugarte, et al. 2003 relates historical and cultural norms of female sex trafficking and prostitution from Mexico to the United States, while Clark 2003 reveals how the security of women and children is put at risk in the trafficking process. Finally, Raymond 2001 discusses the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2003. Combating trafficking of women and children in South Asia: Regional synthesis paper for Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Manila, The Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text, prepared by staff of the Asian Development Bank, reports the results of research conducted to assess the reality and status of human trafficking in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Provides additional analysis of international responses to trafficking. Valuable for practitioners planning and executing trafficking interventions on all levels of social service for these regions.

    Find this resource:

  • Clark, Michele Anne. 2003. Trafficking in persons: an issue of human security. Journal of Human Development 4.2: 247–263.

    DOI: 10.1080/1464988032000087578Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looks at trafficking from a human security perspective and discusses the magnitude of human trafficking, its definitions, and how it occurs. Concludes by examining existing and needed policy responses to the problem. Would be helpful to macro-level practitioners.

    Find this resource:

  • Hodge, D. R., and C. A. Lietz. 2007. The international sexual trafficking of women and children: A review of the literature. AFFILIA: Journal of Women and Social Work 22.2: 163–174.

    DOI: 10.1177/0886109907299055Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides general information and background on female sex trafficking, and explanations of why and how sex trafficking happens. The authors also offer macro-, mezzo-, and micro-level intervention recommendations specifically designed for social work professionals who deal with female sex trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Orlova, Alexandra V. 2005. Trafficking of women and children for exploitation in the commercial sex trade: The case of the Russian Federation. Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law 6.2: 157–178.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Details Russia’s efforts to combat the trafficking of women and children. This article would be beneficial for social service providers as well as government officials and policymakers involved in service provision and policymaking regarding human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Parrot, Andrea, and Nina Cummings. 2008. Sexual enslavement of girls and women worldwide. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides definitions of five categories of sex slavery, and includes a discussion of sex trafficking. The most helpful part of this text is the brief discussion of individual success stories and of programs and legislation acted to combat sex slavery and trafficking in several nations.

    Find this resource:

  • Rahman, Mahfuzur, Farid Ahmed, and Rezaul Karim. 2004. Human trafficking: Children and women are the worst victims; Bangladesh must act fast to stop the scourge. Dhaka, Bangladesh: NewsNetwork.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Primarily a review of literature that discusses human trafficking in Bangladesh. Many of its sources are research reports and news articles from Bangladesh. This book’s main use by practitioners would be for familiarization with a limited perspective of trafficking in Bangladesh for program and policy planning.

    Find this resource:

  • Raymond, Janice G. 2001. Guide to the new UN trafficking protocol.Guide to the new UN trafficking protocol. North Amherst, MA: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children; the purpose of this protocol; and its implications in the global effort to fight trafficking. Describes how the protocol has established definitions of trafficking, ways of assisting victims, methods of prevention, and a proposal for internationally coordinated collaboration efforts.

    Find this resource:

  • Ugarte, Marisa B., Laura Zarate, and Melissa Farley. 2003. Prostitution and trafficking of women and children from Mexico to the United States. Journal of Trauma Practice 2.3/4: 147–165.

    DOI: 10.1300/J189v02n03_08Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Asserts that traffickers employ historical trends and cultural norms to coerce and control women. The authors argue that interventions should take this into consideration to be more effective in service formulation and delivery.

    Find this resource:

Women

Women who are trafficked suffer mental and physical health effects. Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart 2007 recommends best practices and highlights the level of harm this human rights violation causes its victims. Banzon 2005 examines the effectiveness of gender-based strategies in combating human trafficking. The demand for prostitution, discussed in Raymond 2004, and the organization of crime groups, explored in Shelley 2003, both contribute to the violence women experience as a result of human trafficking. Hughes 2000 and Van Hook, et al. 2006 would be helpful for social workers learning about the nature of sexual trafficking in Eastern Europe and attempting to devise or deliver services. Thapa and Chishti 2003 provides a rich description of the experience and aftermath of trafficking for a small population of study participants in Nepal. Finally, Oxman-Martinez, et al. 2001 (cited under International)would be helpful to social work practitioners and other professionals involved in macro-level policymaking, because it describes how Canadian immigration policy leaves women more vulnerable.

  • Banzon, Marie Yvette L. 2005. Combating trafficking in persons through gender-focused strategy. UN Chronicle 42.1: 56–60.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and provides a case study from the Philippines of gender-based efforts to fight trafficking in person.

    Find this resource:

  • Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga, and Donna E. Stewart. 2007. Women trafficked into prostitution: Determinants, human rights and health needs. Transcultural Psychiatry 44.3: 338–358.

    DOI: 10.1177/1363461507081635Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Defines human trafficking, discusses the problem’s scope, and highlights how trafficking is often perpetrated specifically against women. Reviews trafficking’s various effects on women and what responses are used to assist victims in different countries. Also discusses the role that mental and medical health providers play in identifying and assisting victims.

    Find this resource:

  • Hughes, D. M. 2000. The “Natasha” trade: The transnational shadow market of trafficking in women. Journal of International Affairs 53.2: 625–652.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides background information on female sex trafficking in Eastern Europe. The author presents an overview that includes statistics of prevalence, criminal underpinnings, methods of recruitment, and governmental and economic factors associated with female sex trafficking. Discusses policy-level solutions that have been implemented in some European countries.

    Find this resource:

  • Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline, Andrea Martinez, and Jill Hanley. 2001. Trafficking women: Gendered impacts of Canadian immigration policies. Journal of International Migration and Integration 2.3: 297–313.

    DOI: 10.1007/s12134-001-1000-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the different types of human trafficking, including sexual exploitation and labor trafficking, and how gender plays an important role in trafficking trends. The authors use interviews, questionnaires, and an evaluation of official documents to assess the immigration policy and its implications in gender and human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Raymond, Janice G. 2004. Prostitution on demand: Legalizing the buyers as sexual consumers. Violence Against Women 10.10: 1156–1186.

    DOI: 10.1177/1077801204268609Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the demand side of prostitution and sex trafficking—namely, the men who hire prostitutes and pay for sex. The author argues that the demand for prostitution is at the root of sex trafficking and advocates for policies and programs that intervene with those who seek out and purchase prostitution services.

    Find this resource:

  • Shelley, L. 2003. Trafficking in women: The business model approach. Brown Journal of World Affairs 10.1: 119–132.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides information on how organized crime groups who traffic in persons use a business model approach in their endeavors. Discusses the growth of this enterprise, the destructive approaches traffickers use, and the differences by region and culture in the perpetration of this crime.

    Find this resource:

  • Thapa, Pranita, and Kuslum Chishti. 2003. Nepal, resisting trafficking in women: Auditing testimonies and restoration approaches. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himalayan Human Rights Monitors.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text is a report of a mixed-methods study regarding trafficked persons in Nepal. Findings include information on survivors’ depth of knowledge of available services, living conditions, and education levels. The authors also discuss the availability and effectiveness of social service programs for survivors.

    Find this resource:

  • Van Hook, M. P., E. Gjermeni, and E. Haxhiymeri. 2006. Sexual trafficking of women: Tragic proportions and attempted solutions in Albania. International Social Work 49.1: 29–40.

    DOI: 10.1177/0020872806057086Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the trafficking of women, particularly in the Eastern European region and Albania, and the conditions that contribute to women’s increased vulnerability to being trafficked. Also examines governmental efforts to prevent and combat trafficking, as well as to assist victims.

    Find this resource:

Children

Information about children who have been trafficked domestically and internationally is available from ECPAT International, an organization committed to end child prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. EPCAT’s site would be useful to practitioners at all levels of social work practice, particularly those involved in local advocacy and service provision for child victims. For practitioners involved in policy-level antitrafficking efforts, Boxhill and Richardson 2007, Snell 2003, and Bokhari 2008 address the trafficking of children in the United States, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, respectively. Bokhari 2008 in particular would aid macro-level professionals in planning and carrying out policy and program efforts. Van de Glind and Kooijmans 2008 provides historical and modern perspectives on child slavery. Bump, et al. 2005 and Bump and Duncan 2003 provide a brief background on domestic child trafficking and a discussion of federal, state/local, and nongovernmental responses to trafficking. Practitioners working in all levels of social work could use these conference proceedings for the planning and execution of services for trafficking victims. Finally, Bhabha 2004 discusses the treatment of separated and trafficked children.

  • Bhabha, Jacqueline. 2004. Seeking asylum alone: Treatment of separated and trafficked children in need of refugee protection. International Migration 42.1: 141–148.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2004.00277.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses a study on children who are trafficked, or forced to migrate, and who have been separated from their families in the process. The study specifically focuses on legal protections that these children have in seeking asylum, and on how effective these laws are in both domestic and transnational contexts.

    Find this resource:

  • Bokhari, Farrah. 2008. Falling through the gaps: Safeguarding children trafficked into the UK. Children and Society 22.1: 201–211.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00151.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article relates the status of children trafficked into the United Kingdom and identifies their origins (primarily Asia and Africa) and reason for being trafficked, sex or labor. Discusses the United Kingdom’s response to these children and the problems experienced in the identification and provision of services. Offers policy recommendations to improve the delivery of services to these children.

    Find this resource:

  • Boxill, N. A., and D. J. Richardson. 2007. Ending sex trafficking of children in Atlanta. AFFILIA: Journal of Women and Social Work 22.2: 138–149.

    DOI: 10.1177/0886109907299054Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a review of literature that focuses on child sex trafficking. Relates a case study told in the first person of a coalition in Atlanta that formed to combat female child sex trafficking. The coalition’s work centered on public policy change and the provision of direct services to victims.

    Find this resource:

  • Bump, Micah N., and Julianne Duncan. 2003. Conference on identifying and serving child victims of trafficking. International Migration 41.5: 201–218.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2003.00266.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A conference report of the proceedings of the first Conference on Identifying and Serving Child Victims of Trafficking. Provides an overview of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 and its services as well as of immigration resources and victims’ challenges. Presents nine recommendations for policymakers to improve services and aid to trafficked children.

    Find this resource:

  • Bump, Micah, Julianne Duncan, Elzbieta Gozdziak, and Margaret MacDonnell. 2005. Second conference on identifying and serving child victims of trafficking. International Migration 43.1/2: 343–363.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00322.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A conference report of the proceedings of the second Conference on Identifying and Serving Child Victims of Trafficking. Includes recommendations for appropriate procedures and services for children who are identified as victims of trafficking, as well as policy recommendations. Does not contain an extensive reference base, but is nevertheless based on expert opinion and experience.

    Find this resource:

  • ECPAT International.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The ECPAT (End Child Prostitution Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes) International website provides information about the organization and its anti–child prostitution, trafficking, and pornography efforts, which include coalition-building, education, and advocacy. Also provides links to local and national ECPAT groups, and general links and resources on child exploitation.

    Find this resource:

  • Snell, Cudore L. 2003. Commercial sexual exploitation of youth in South Africa. Journal of Negro Education 72.4: 506–514.

    DOI: 10.2307/3211201Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the commercial sexual exploitation of children in South Africa. Includes a literature review of labor exploitation both worldwide and in South Africa, a description of domestic and international policy initiatives that have been implemented in relation to this issue in South Africa, a recent study’s findings on the issue, and recommendations for policy, programmatic, and research needs on this subject.

    Find this resource:

  • Van de Glind, Hans, and Joost Kooijmans. 2008. Modern-day child slavery. Children and Society 22.1: 150–166.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00147.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers child slavery from both a historical and modern perspective. Notes children’s particular susceptibility to exploitation as slaves, which has been addressed by several international entities, including the UN (the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child), the ILO (Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention), and the Palermo Protocol on human trafficking. Examines these international efforts with regard to how they can help influence government antitrafficking legislation.

    Find this resource:

Mental Health

Chung 2005 discusses professional counseling for trafficking victims with mental health issues, while Tsutsumi, et al. 2008 examines the mental health of both sex workers and others who were survivors of trafficking in Nepal. Unaccompanied refugee adolescents were the focus of the study discussed in Bean, et al. 2006 on the use of mental health services among victims of trafficking. Courtois 2004 examines complex trauma that results from distressing experiences, such as being trafficked, and Clawson, et al. 2008 and the Project REACH website discuss effective therapeutic programs.

  • Bean, Tammy, Elisabeth Eurelings-Bontekoe, Ab Mooijaart, and Philip Spinhoven. 2006. Factors associated with mental health service need and utilization among unaccompanied refugee adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 33.3: 342–355.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10488-006-0046-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Researchers collected data on the needs of unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) and their degree of use of mental health services. The information was collected directly from URM, legal guardians, and teachers, and compared with information on a sample of Dutch minors to determine differences in need and mental health services use. Findings revealed that a large percentage of URM have unmet mental health care needs.

    Find this resource:

  • Chung, Rita Chi-Ying. 2005. Women, human rights, and counseling: Crossing international boundaries. Journal of Counseling and Development 83.3: 262.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses women’s issues in a global context, with a specific focus on women as victims of crime, social injustice, and violence. Also discusses professional counseling as it relates to these issues, and what interventions and counseling methods are most effective with this population from an international, cross-cultural perspective.

    Find this resource:

  • Clawson, Heather J., Amy Salomon, and Lisa Goldblatt Grace. 2008. Treating the hidden wounds: Trauma treatment and mental health recovery for victims of human trafficking. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Part of a project funded by US Health and Human Services to assess the effectiveness of existing programs for victims of human trafficking. Addresses the mental health needs of trafficking victims, focusing especially on victims’ trauma, and recommends improvements regarding the treatment of trauma of human trafficking victims.

    Find this resource:

  • Courtois, Christine A. 2004. Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training 41.4: 412–425.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-3204.41.4.412Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses assessment tools that direct service practitioners can use to evaluate trauma in clients. Also discusses the mental health treatment of persons who have suffered complex trauma. Does not present original research findings, but nevertheless presents information that is well founded in empirical research literature.

    Find this resource:

  • Project REACH.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Project REACH is a program within the Trauma Center at Justice Resource Institute in Brookline, MA, that provides social service consultation and mental health services to victims of human trafficking, and focuses on victims’ trauma. Trauma specialists with Project REACH provide these services and training throughout the United States.

    Find this resource:

  • Tsutsumi, A., T. Izutsu, A. K. Poudyal, S. Kato, and E. Marui. 2008. Mental health of female survivors of human trafficking in Nepal. Social Science and Medicine 66.8: 1841–1847.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.025Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reports and discusses findings from a study of 164 women—some of whom were sex workers—who were interviewed and assessed using mental health measures, and compares these findings with those from similar populations. Suggests treatment and policy-level interventions. Would be valuable for social workers engaging in micro, mezzo, and macro practice in this region of the world or with this population.

    Find this resource:

Public Health

Victims of human trafficking may suffer from health issues such as HIV/AIDS, as well as other issues, such as nonvolitional sex. Beyrer and Stachowiak 2003 and Busza, et al. 2004 discuss the risk of transmission of HIV/AIDS, while Gushulak and MacPherson 2000 looks at those health concerns through the lens of migration. Spice 2007 outlines the types of public health services available to sex workers in the United Kingdom, and assesses these services and the United Kingdom’s response to this problem. Zimmerman, et al. 2008 discusses a study of women who were trafficked for sex and rescued in Europe, and suggests that because of the many physical and psychological traumas trafficked women experience, services should be provided to victims immediately. Barrows and Finger 2008 and Moynihan 2006 focus on the important roles medical and healthcare professionals play. Finally, Beyrer and Pizer 2007 discusses how public health concerns are connected to human rights. Social workers attempting to create policy and programmatic interventions would find Beyrer and Pizer 2007 helpful in their planning and evaluation efforts.

  • Barrows, J., and R. Finger. 2008. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional. Southern Medical Journal 101.5: 521–524.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Defines and describes modern-day slavery in its various forms. Focuses on the key role medical and health care professionals play in identifying and providing physical and mental health services to human trafficking victims. Discusses the importance of educating health care professionals about trafficking and the unique needs of those who have been trafficked.

    Find this resource:

  • Beyrer, Chris, and Hank Pizer. 2007. Public health and human rights: Evidence-based approaches. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the connection between human rights and public health. Describes how human rights workers and initiatives are often directly linked to public health, and provides evidence-based measures that can help address problems that arise from this relationship. Would be useful to practitioners involved in public policy and advocacy work relating to human rights abuses, including human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Beyrer, Chris, and Julie Stachowiak. 2003. Health consequences of trafficking of women and girls in Southeast Asia. Brown Journal of World Affairs 10.1: 105–118.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses health concerns, namely HIV/AIDS, that are prevalent for women and girls who are trafficked for sex, particularly in Asia. Discusses the challenges victims face and the difficulties governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) encounter in addressing these issues. Specifically discusses policy-level solutions to female sex trafficking in Asia.

    Find this resource:

  • Busza, J., S. Castle, and A. Diarra. 2004. Trafficking and health. British Medical Journal 328.7452 (June): 1369–1371.

    DOI: 10.1136/bmj.328.7452.1369Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses public health risks, including psychological trauma, physical injuries, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, and reproductive health problems. Provides reasons trafficked women and children are at risk, including cultural and language barriers and insufficient healthcare. Addresses how antitrafficking measures may actually increase health risks to this population, reiterating the need for reformed antitrafficking initiatives.

    Find this resource:

  • Gushulak, Brian D., and Douglas W. MacPherson. 2000. Health issues associated with the smuggling and trafficking of migrants. Journal of Immigrant Health 2.2: 67–78.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1009581817682Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the health concerns that migrants and trafficking victims face as a result of the country from which they originate and their destination. A public health framework is presented for governments and NGOs to prepare for and address health issues related to migration and the trafficking of persons.

    Find this resource:

  • Kalmuss, Debra. 2004. Nonvolitional sex and sexual health. Archives of Sexual Behavior 33.3: 197–209.

    DOI: 10.1023/B:ASEB.0000026620.99306.64Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a framework for human service professionals to address and confront instances of nonvolitional sex in clinical settings as well as program and policy planning. Nonvolitional sexual encounters include sexual experiences such as those in which victims of human trafficking may engage.

    Find this resource:

  • Moynihan, B. A. 2006. The high cost of human trafficking. Journal of Forensic Nursing 2.2: 100–101.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2006.tb00067.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses human trafficking and the role forensic nurses play in identifying and assisting victims of human trafficking. Would be helpful to nursing and medical professionals who may come into contact with victims of human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Spice, W. 2007. Management of sex workers and other high-risk groups. Occupational Medicine 57.5 (August): 322–328.

    DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqm045Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the growth of the commercial sex industry and the demographic information of commercial sex workers in the United Kingdom. Outlines four main health risks facing human trafficking victims and other sex workers: the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, the risk of physical harm or violence, risks associated with drug use, and mental health problems.

    Find this resource:

  • Zimmerman, Cathy, Mazeda Hossain, Katherine Yun, Vasil Gajdadziev, Natalia Guzun, Maria Tchomarova, Rosa Angela Ciarrocchi, Anna Johansson, Anna Kefurtova, Stefania Scodanibbio, Maria Nenette Motus, Brenda Roche, Linda Morison, and Charlotte Watts. 2008. The health of trafficked women: A survey of women entering posttrafficking services in Europe. American Journal of Public Health 98.1: 55–59.

    DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.108357Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Study participants were interviewed within fourteen days of entering into services by trained counselors who inquired about the women’s mental and physical health. Recommendations based on findings suggest that services should be provided to victims immediately, and adequate time should be permitted before women are asked to participate in legal proceedings.

    Find this resource:

Policy, Legal Procedures, and Law Enforcement

International and domestic policy and practice—including migration law, criminal justice, law enforcement awareness and response, and antitrafficking legislation—are explored in the following sections.

International

Oxman-Martinez, et al. 2001 and Oxman-Martinez, et al. 2005 examine government’s role at the international level and in prevention, protection, and prosecution, while Jordan 2002 examines the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) internationally, acknowledging the challenges that NGOs may face in reaching out to government officials. Roby 2005 discusses effective implementation of international policies on sex trafficking. Most helpful for Australian and other policy officials looking to analyze what is and is not effective in antitrafficking legislation and policy would be Dorevitch and Foster 2008, which reviews Australia’s legal response to trafficking. Getu 2006 outlines the role that microfinance efforts can play in combating trafficking.

  • Dorevitch, Andrea, and Michelle Foster. 2008. Obstacles on the road to protection: Assessing the treatment of sex trafficking victims under Australia’s migration and refugee law. Melbourne Journal of International Law 9.1: 1–46.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the way Australia’s court system has treated cases of refugee women within the legal system who have claimed to be victims of trafficking. Analyzes how the United Nations’ Refugee Convention can encompass trafficked persons and how Australia’s legal system continues to operate in a discriminatory manner, overlooking key factors related to victims.

    Find this resource:

  • Getu, M. 2006. Human trafficking and development: The role of microfinance. Transformation 23.3: 142–156.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the role that microfinance efforts can have in combating human trafficking. Outlines how providing micro-loans to the poor, and especially to women, can provide needed economic opportunities to those who are vulnerable to being trafficked.

    Find this resource:

  • Jordan, Ann D. 2002. Human rights or wrongs? The struggle for a rights-based response to trafficking in human beings. Gender and Development 10.1: 28–37.

    DOI: 10.1080/13552070215891Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses how NGOs can advocate for better antitrafficking initiatives by working closely with government officials. Educating officials about the definition, causes, prevalence, and effects of human trafficking can enable legislators to better understand the issue and implement the most appropriate policies and laws to combat trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline, Jill Hanley, and Fanny Gomez. 2005. Canadian policy on human trafficking: A four-year analysis. International Migration 43.4: 7–29.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2005.00331.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents an overview of the United Nations’ 2000 Protocol on Trafficking, and how well the Canadian national government has implemented it. Specifically addresses how well the government has prevented trafficking, protected victims, and prosecuted traffickers. Compares Canada’s response with that of other developed nations, and presents policy and procedural recommendations to resolve the issues identified.

    Find this resource:

  • Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline, Andrea Martinez, and Jill Hanley. 2001. Human trafficking: Canadian government policy and practice. Refuge: Canada’s Periodical on Refugees 19.4: 14–23.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A study of the Canadian government’s response to human trafficking, with information from government officials and NGO personnel, and a review of government agency policy and international initiatives. Concludes that Canada’s response does not address trafficking’s causes and effects but focuses on inadequate responses, such as preventing illegal immigration through border control.

    Find this resource:

  • Roby, J. L. 2005. Women and children in the global sex trade: Toward more effective policy. International Social Work 48.2: 136–147.

    DOI: 10.1177/0020872805050206Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the growing phenomenon of trafficking in women and children, specifically for sexual exploitation. The author analyzes the situation and provides recommendations for policy changes and implementation.

    Find this resource:

Domestic

Chapkis 2003 examines the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 and its effectiveness in actually combating trafficking, contending that the law makes a distinction between those victimized by trafficking and other migrants who are often viewed as criminals. Stolz 2007 also analyzes the 2000 act but uses a symbolic politics framework. Joshi 2002 describes the various legal modes of addressing trafficking in the United States, and Munro 2008 examines the limitations of protection laws against human rights violations. Stolz 2005 looks at the development that has occurred since the 1990s with regard to anti–human trafficking policy and legislation in the United States. Desyllas 2007, DeStefano 2007, Wilson and Dalton 2008, and Wilson, et al. 2006 discuss labor policy, policy assessment, training providers, and service providers, respectively.

  • Chapkis, Wendy. 2003. Trafficking, migration and the law: Protecting innocents, punishing immigrants. Gender and Society 17.6 (December): 923–937.

    DOI: 10.1177/0891243203257477Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Concludes that the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 is actually another piece of anti-immigrant, anti-sex legislation that seeks to deter migration to the United States. This article would be helpful for legal and policy professionals looking to analyze current legislation in relation to future policy and legislative efforts.

    Find this resource:

  • DeStefano, Anthony M. 2007. The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses how US antitrafficking policy and legislation have developed. DeStefano outlines this progress, assesses the effectiveness of the policies implemented, and illustrates how the Bush administration used these pieces of legislation for a purpose other than what was intended, and how certain major events have affected the US response to human trafficking and prostitution.

    Find this resource:

  • Desyllas, M. C. 2007. A critique of the global trafficking discourse and U.S. policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 34.4: 57–80.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Critiques US and international policies on human trafficking. To address the weaknesses identified, the author suggests a labor policy framework, which shifts the focus of trafficking from sex to labor issues. Discusses the benefits of such a perspective change.

    Find this resource:

  • Joshi, Aiko. 2002. The face of human trafficking. Hastings Women’s Law Journal 13.1: 31–52.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Cooperation between activists, social service providers, law enforcement, and prosecutors is highlighted as an essential element of the process of combating human trafficking. Would be beneficial for practitioners, policymakers, and other professionals working at all levels of the antitrafficking movement.

    Find this resource:

  • Munro, Vanessa E. 2008. Of rights and rhetoric: Discourses of degradation and exploitation in the context of sex trafficking. Journal of Law and Society 35.2: 240–264.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6478.2008.00437.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the laws that protect against human trafficking and other human rights violations and discusses their limitations. Also discusses and assesses the use of exploitation as the basis for legally making a human rights claim.

    Find this resource:

  • Stolz, Barbara. 2005. Educating policymakers and setting the criminal justice policymaking agenda: Interest groups and the “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Act of 2000.” Criminology and Criminal Justice 5.4: 407–430.

    DOI: 10.1177/1466802505057718Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the role interest groups—including human rights, women’s rights, refugee, and religious organizations—have played in setting the agenda for antitrafficking policy, including the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. Examines how US interest groups’ efforts are linked to the international agenda on human trafficking, and determines that further study is needed.

    Find this resource:

  • Stolz, Barbara A. 2007. Interpreting the U.S. human trafficking debate through the lens of symbolic politics. Law and Policy 29.3: 311–338.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9930.2007.00257.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article’s author conducted a content analysis of the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act using news media archives and congressional records and documents. Findings demonstrated that the act’s passage and the act itself possess symbolic meanings to lawbreakers and the general public regarding the intent of the United States to combat trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilson, Deborah G., William F. Walsh, and Sherilyn Kleuber. 2006. Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among U.S. law enforcement agencies. Police Practice and Research 7.2: 149–160.

    DOI: 10.1080/15614260600676833Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the importance of local law enforcement in the fight against human trafficking. Discusses how local law enforcement is more likely to have first contact with victims, but has been found to be ill-prepared to deal with the crime. Outlines improvements needed at the local level to render antitrafficking efforts effective.

    Find this resource:

  • Wilson, J. M., and E. Dalton. 2008. Human trafficking in the heartland: Variation in law enforcement awareness and response. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24.3: 296–313.

    DOI: 10.1177/1043986208318227Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores human trafficking in two cities in Ohio (Columbus and Toledo) by analyzing media accounts of the crime in the two cities, and through interviews with local service providers and criminal justice personnel. Examines the scope of the problem in these cities, the characteristics of the victims, and the type of trafficking being perpetrated.

    Find this resource:

Research Methodology

Savona and Stefanizzi 2007 educates scholars, researchers, and policymakers regarding several important aspects of gathering data on human trafficking. Laczko 2005 and Andrees and Linden 2005 discuss changes that can be made to improve trafficking research and literature; similarly, with its Human Trafficking Data Collection and Reporting Project, Northeastern University aims to develop a data collection and reporting system to provide accurate and detailed information about US human trafficking trends and statistics. Clawson, et al. 2006; Tyldum and Brunovskis 2005; and Cwikel and Hoban 2005 also aim to standardize and document a method of tracking cases of trafficking. For those interested in qualitative research, Brennan 2005 describes a number of methodological challenges facing those who conduct qualitative research with victims of trafficking.

  • Andrees, Beate, and Mariska N. Linden. 2005. Designing trafficking research from a labour market perspective: The ILO experience. International Migration 43.1/2: 55–73.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00312.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Highlights the importance of expanding the research and data on human trafficking to include labor trafficking, to better understand and combat the issue. Pinpoints what steps should be taken to improve the research through methodological changes.

    Find this resource:

  • Brennan, Denise. 2005. Methodological challenges in research with trafficked persons: Tales from the field. International Migration 43.1–2: 35–54.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00311.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Proposes that solutions to issues with qualitative research—as it relates to victims of trafficking—lie in a participatory action research model that includes both victims and policymakers, to empower and create a voice for advocacy and change.

    Find this resource:

  • Clawson, Heather J., Mary Layne, and Kevonne Small. 2006. Estimating human trafficking into the United States: Development of a methodology. Fairfax, VA: Caliber.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research project was established to create a methodology to determine the number of men and women trafficked from eight countries into the United States. The project aimed to standardize and document a method of tracking trafficking cases that could be adjusted as needed in the future, and to understand the need for standardized data collection methods.

    Find this resource:

  • Cwikel, J., and E. Hoban. 2005. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology. Journal of Sex Research 42.4 (November): 306–316.

    DOI: 10.1080/00224490509552286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Recognizes the global problem of human trafficking, specifically that of women and children. Discusses the importance of legislative, policy, and programmatic changes that are necessary to address the problem. Focuses mainly on the need to develop ethically and methodologically sound research methods to accurately and safely examine this issue and to find ways of combating it.

    Find this resource:

  • Laczko, Frank. 2005. Data and research on human trafficking. International Migration 43.1–2: 5–16.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00309.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The information in this compilation of papers was originally presented at a 2004 conference in Rome that was put on by the International Organization for Migration. The conference and papers focused on human trafficking research, and assessed the breadth, depth, and quality of the literature at the time.

    Find this resource:

  • Northeastern University. Human trafficking data collection and reporting project.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This project aims to develop a data collection and reporting system to provide accurate and detailed information about US human trafficking trends and statistics. Ideally, this standardized data collection system would allow the implementation of better policy, procedures, and practices in the fight against human trafficking.

    Find this resource:

  • Savona, Ernesto Ugo, and Sonia Stefanizzi, eds. 2007. Measuring human trafficking: Complexities and pitfalls. New York: Springer.

    DOI: 10.1007/0-387-68044-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Topics range from definitions of trafficking to enhancements of data collection methodology. This text would be helpful for human service professionals working in micro, mezzo, and macro levels of practice.

    Find this resource:

  • Tyldum, Guri, and Anette Brunovskis. 2005. Describing the unobserved: Methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking. International Migration 43.1–2: 17–34.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2005.00310.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that research on human trafficking inherently possesses a number of methodological challenges, and thus that many research studies on this topic are flawed. Discusses such challenges and offers solutions for researchers to increase the integrity and value of future investigations of trafficking. Would be most helpful to social work researchers studying human trafficking at all levels of practice.

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0093

back to top

Article

Up

Down