Social Work Women and Macro Social Work Practice
by
F. Ellen Netting, M. Lori Thomas
  • LAST REVIEWED: 28 April 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 11 January 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389678-0101

Introduction

This article primarily identifies historical and contemporary resources on women’s roles and activities in social work practice within US organizations and communities (macro practice), including a sampling of readings on international women’s efforts. While the majority of references are focused on social work research and practice, relevant references from colleagues in women’s studies, feminist history, and various other disciplinary perspectives are included. For the purpose of this entry, women in social work macro practice are engaged in decision-making and participatory processes that occur in programmatic, organizational, community, and policy arenas. Early historical references focus on women’s roles and gender division prior to the development of social work as a profession in (1) the development and oversight of benevolent (charitable) work, (2) the reform of social problems, and (3) the rights movement prior to and during the Progressive Era in the United States. Contemporary references elucidate what is known about women’s roles in founding and running organizations, community organizing efforts, and policy analysis and implementation. Finally, resources on women’s content and female faculty in macro social work education and research are provided.

Textbooks

The textbooks in this section make a special effort to integrate content on women and are not intended to be inclusive. Barusch 2015 is a policy text. Appleby, et al. 2011 and van Wormer and Besthorn 2017 are for a human behavior audience. Finn and Jacobson 2016 and Netting, et al. 2017 offer practice textbooks that integrate macro and micro content. These five books are good resources for foundation learning. Day and Schiele 2013, a history text, is a helpful supplement in beginning courses on social welfare. Lengermann and Niebrugge 2007 is an insightful treatment of contributions made by women theorists and is an eye-opening view of how women’s theoretical contributions have been subjugated.

  • Appleby, George A., Edgar A. Colon, and Julia Hamilton, eds. 2011. Diversity, oppression, and social functioning. 2d ed. Boston: Pearson.

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    Chapter 7, written by Barbara Worden, is “Women and Sexist Oppression.” Following an introduction to the person-in-environment (PIE) classification system for problems in social functioning and the empowerment framework, macro analysis based on feminist epistemologies, gender roles, and the feminization of poverty are explored.

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    • Barusch, Amanda Smith. 2015. Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. 5th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

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      Chapter 12 in the section “Vulnerable Populations: Discrimination and Oppression” is on “Women” and incorporates content on gender-relevant policy. In addition, this chapter focuses on women’s roles, reproductive rights, violence against women, workplace issues, military service, and political equality.

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      • Day, Phyllis J., and Jerome Schiele. 2013. A new history of social welfare. 7th ed. Boston: Pearson.

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        A special effort is taken to include women’s history, women’s movements, and women’s issues throughout this history textbook.

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        • Finn, Janet L., and Maxine Jacobson. 2016. Just practice: A social justice approach to social work. 3d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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          A feminist approach is used in this introductory practice textbook, integrating micro and macro practice within the principle of social justice. Finn and Jacobson offer an historical context of the profession’s progressive roots and encourage critical thinking about women’s roles.

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          • Lengermann, Patricia Madoo, and Gillian Niebrugge. 2007. The women founders: Sociology and social theory, 1830–1930. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

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            Lengermann and Niebrugge describe how women sociologists and social theorists were written out of sociology textbooks until feminists began to reconstruct women’s social science contributions in the 1980s. Specially, they include Harriett Martineau (b. 1802–d. 1876), Jane Addams (b. 1860–d. 1935), Charlotte Perkins Gilman (b. 1860–d. 1935), Anna Julia Cooper (b. 1858–d. 1964), Ida B. Wells-Barnett (b. 1862–d. 1931), Marianne Weber (b. 1870–d. 1854), The Chicago Women’s School of Sociology (b. 1890–d. 1920), and Beatrice Potter Webb (b. 1848–d. 1943).

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            • Netting, F. Ellen, Peter M. Kettner, Steven L. McMurtry, and M. Lori Thomas. 2017. Social work macro practice. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

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              Throughout this text, there is content on women’s historical and contemporary roles within the context of macro social work practice. Issues related to intersectionality, sexism, gender, and feminist theories are highlighted.

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              • van Wormer, Katherine, and Fred Besthorn. 2017. Human behavior and the social environment: Groups, communities and organizations. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                This textbook integrates feminism and women’s issues throughout and defines basic assumptions and concepts of feminism, antioppression, and empowerment as a foundation for all chapters.

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                Anthologies

                The anthologies in this section provide the reader with a number of possibilities for learning and teaching. Historical collections that highlight women’s activism in the United States are provided in Carlton-LaNey 2001 and Green 1999. Essays of strategies and tactics used by women to address injustices in Africa are highlighted in Browdy de Hernandez, et al. 2010, whereas international anthology Morgan 2016 provides a plethora of examples across seventy countries. In addition, Scott and Cayleff 2017 offers international, interdisciplinary perspectives from women from all walks of life who tell their personal stories of activism and change, and Pennington 2016 provides a safe space for women to express themselves in multiple ways.

                • Browdy de Hernandez, Jennifer, Pauline Dongala, Omotayo Jolaosho, and Anne Serafin, eds. 2010. African women writing resistance: An anthology of contemporary voices. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                  This is the first transnational anthology focusing on strategies used by women to address challenges in Africa today. Contributors include internationally recognized activists as well as new interdisciplinary voices who highlight social issues particular to Africa but also of worldwide concern.

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                  • Carlton-LaNey, Iris B., ed. 2001. African American leadership: An empowerment tradition in social welfare history. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.

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                    A collection of short biographies about African American leaders, this anthology includes women organizers and reformers, such as Victoria Earle Matthews, Birdye Henrietta Haynes, Margaret Murray Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Janie Porter Barrett, Mary Church Terrell, Thyra J. Edwards, Sarah Collins Fernandis, and others.

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                    • Green, Elna C., ed. 1999. Before the New Deal: Social welfare in the South, 1830–1930. Athens, GA: Univ. of Georgia Press.

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                      Green provides a collection of historical essays that focus on the development of services for persons living in poverty in the southern United States. The editor highlights a number of feminist scholars who provide brief case studies of women reformers and the roles they played in developing service organizations.

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                      • Luther, Rashmi, Vanaja Dhruvarajan, Ikram Ahmed Jama, et al., eds. 2015. Resilience and triumph: Immigrant women tell their stories. Toronto: Second Story Press.

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                        Compiled by the Book Project Collective, this collection of lived history accounts provides insight into how women immigrants and refugees persevered against injustice. Each firsthand account focuses on tactics used to overcome adversity.

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                        • Morgan, Robin, ed. 2016. Sisterhood is global: The international women’s movement anthology. New York: Open Road Media.

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                          This anthology contains original essays written by feminist leaders from seventy countries plus the United Nations, covering everything from reproductive health to workplace equity for women throughout the world. Contributors span the generations and use a personal voice, making this a readable and consciousness-raising volume.

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                          • Pennington, Louise, ed. 2016. A room of our own: An anthology of feminist and womanist writing. United Kingdom: EVB.

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                            This collection creates a space for women to write their thoughts, express themselves, and celebrate feminist creativity in a space without men. It is designed to combat what has been called “cultural femicide.”

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                            • Scott, Bonnie Kime, and Susan E. Cayleff, eds. 2017. Women in culture: An intersectional anthology for gender and women’s studies. 2d ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                              Each chapter in this book begins with an outstanding piece of creative writing that connects the lives of diverse women within the larger world, followed by an exploration of feminist issues. Work related to racially diverse and LGBTQ feminisms are highlighted.

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                              Reference Works

                              The websites in this section provide additional information and publications on women’s issues and concerns at the macro level. Centers, institutes, and associations with websites are particularly helpful for students and faculty who are seeking up-to-date data for teaching and research. For example, the National Women’s Studies Association website specifically targets faculty members interested in resources on women’s and gender studies. Many sites have links to bibliographies on selected aspects of feminism and women’s issues. For state policy information, the Center for Women in Government and Civil Society is linked to state-level policies that impact immigrant women, whereas the National Council for Research on Women links to state membership offices. Advocacy issues and advice for activists related to critical concerns, such as peace and antiviolence, are at Feminist.com, Feminist Theory Website, and National Organization for Women. Designed to connect activists across the world, Feministnetworkproject, Sisterhood Is Global Institute, and Women’s Media Center provide resources to use for worldwide interaction and change. The WomanStats Project is uniquely prepared to offer the most comprehensive data on women worldwide.

                              • Center for Women in Government and Civil Society.

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                                This center was founded in 1978 as part of the Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, University at Albany, State University of New York. Sponsored by the New York Assembly Puerto Rican & Hispanic Task Force, the Center’s immigrant integration index is a model policy tool for illustrating health and human service disparities that warrant intervention.

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                                • Feminist.com.

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                                  This online community is an advocacy website fostering awareness, education, and activism. For example, a section called Women and Peace is committed to a new world vision and nonviolence. Various columns and articles are available, targeted to a practitioner-citizen audience.

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                                  • Feministnetworkproject.

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                                    This online network was created to provide a platform for feminists around the world to connect and share their activism efforts. To date, over one thousand activists in seventy countries have signed up and new members are encouraged to join so that sexism and oppression can be addressed worldwide.

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                                    • Feminist Theory Website.

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                                      This website provides research, materials, and information for students, activists, and scholars interested in women’s conditions and struggles around the world. Intended to encourage dialogue among women and men, the site offers opportunities to explore fields within feminism, including different nationalities and ethnicities in feminism, and to connect with individual feminists.

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                                      • National Council for Research on Women.

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                                        This site is an excellent resource for programs, global initiatives, publications, and reports. Particularly helpful is the listing of more than one hundred member centers by state and areas of expertise. Complete contact information for member centers is provided.

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                                        • National Organization for Women.

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                                          This website connects to the National Organization for Women, providing access to “hot topics,” events, and ways to take action. Contemporary issues on reproductive rights, economic justice, ending sex discrimination, lesbian rights, promoting diversity and ending racism, and stopping violence against women, among others, are highlighted.

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                                          • National Women’s Studies Association.

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                                            This association is committed to providing support and resources for women’s and gender studies scholars. Established in 1977, the association is a resource for any faculty member wanting to challenge existing power structures on campus and “create a world built upon principles of social justice.” An annual conference is featured, along with members’ publications.

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                                            • Sisterhood Is Global Institute.

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                                              Founded in 1984, this institute is described as the first female think tank on international feminism. Organized as an NGO, the Sisterhood has consultative status with the United Nations and is currently headquartered in New York. Representing seventy countries, the Institute pioneered the first Urgent Action Alerts on women’s rights and is an excellent resource for current action alerts on women’s issues.

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                                              • WomanStats Project.

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                                                The WomanStats Project hosts a website designed to provide the most comprehensive statistics available on women in the world. Researchers and scholars will find this site especially helpful as a source for data on women in 175 countries with populations over 200,000.

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                                                • Women’s Media Center.

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                                                  This project’s website provides up-to-date media coverage of women’s issues around the world. Of particular interest to social work faculty and students will be the Women Under Seige Project focusing on immediate and urgent needs by women in dangerous areas of the world and offering guidance in addressing women’s needs.

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                                                  Journals

                                                  Within the field of social work, one journal stands out as focusing on women and social work. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work is a resource for anyone interested in women’s issues, both micro and macro. Although their focus is not specific to women, Journal of Community Practice and Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance are macro social work journals that carry articles with women’s content as well as those written by women in the field of social work. In addition Social Service Review often contains articles on historical and contemporary aspects of women’s roles in social welfare.

                                                  • Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work. 1986–.

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                                                    Affilia publishes manuscripts, poetry, articles, reports, essays, and literary pieces pertaining to dialogue and development of feminist values, theories, and knowledge as they relate to social welfare, research, education, and practice. The journal is dedicated to providing insight into discrimination and oppression related to gender, race, ethnicity, class, age, disability, and sexual orientation.

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                                                    • Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance. 2014–.

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                                                      Formerly known as Administration in Social Work, this is a long-established journal in social work, providing information relevant to human services administrators, managers, and educators. Focused on theory, practice, and research, special attention is given to the relationship between social administration and social policy planning. It is affiliated with the National Network for Social Work Managers.

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                                                      • Journal of Community Practice. 1994–.

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                                                        A 2006 issue of the Journal of Community Practice was on “Women, Organizing, and Empowerment” (14.3), written entirely by women scholars and practitioners. Since then, many macro social work women have published their work here. This journal is affiliated with the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA).

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                                                        • Social Service Review. 1927–.

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                                                          This journal is known for its thought-provoking manuscripts on social welfare policy, organization, and practice. Interdisciplinary in its approach, it analyzes issues from various theoretical and critical perspectives. In addition to in-depth historical analyses that focus on women’s roles and accomplishments, many articles focus on contemporary issues pertinent to women.

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                                                          Feminist/Women’s Journals

                                                          Note that all of the journals listed in this section are interdisciplinary and international in their orientations and tend to publish in a variety of formats. The oldest of the journals on this list, Feminist Studies, is well established as a source of content for courses on women. Since feminist journals view the personal as political, there is no false dichotomy between micro and macro issues. There is a both/and approach in which one is likely to find an article on national politics side-by-side with an article on sexual identity, all with implications for micro and macro concerns. Given the inclusive nature of these journals, Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy is particularly concerned with political participation, whereas Feminist Review seeks to unite theory and research in political practice. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Gender and Society, and Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society are broadly concerned with the interface of gender, race, and other status characteristics in society.

                                                          • Feminist Review. 1979–.

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                                                            Edited by a collective in the United Kingdom, this international journal was founded with the intent of uniting research and theory with political practice. Particularly focused on women’s socioeconomic realities, it welcomes both qualitative and quantitative work that contributes to ongoing gendered debates.

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                                                            • Feminist Studies. 1972–.

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                                                              Feminist Studies is seen as the oldest continuing US scholarly journal in the field of women’s studies. Intent on linking gender with racial identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, place, and physical ability, the journal addresses social and political issues that affect women and men in the United States and the world.

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                                                              • Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 1975–.

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                                                                First published in 1975, Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies examines the diversity in women’s lives in the western and midwestern United States, particularly in relationship to race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, and location. The editors are particularly interested in bridging disciplines and in appealing to both academic and practitioner audiences.

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                                                                • Gender and Society. 1987–.

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                                                                  Devoted to women’s studies and sociology, this journal focuses on the social and structural study of gender as a primary status characteristic and a principle of the social order. Interdisciplinary in its orientation, Gender and Society features original research, reviews, international perspectives, and a large number of thoughtful book reviews.

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                                                                  • Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy. 1980–.

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                                                                    Formerly known as Women and Politics, the current title was designed to reflect its expanded focus on the roles women play in the political process, from voting to holding public office. In this multidisciplinary, international journal, authors explore issues through a gendered lens with a special emphasis on gender, race and ethnicity, and class. Articles provide excellent resources for teaching social work policy practice.

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                                                                    • Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 1975–.

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                                                                      Published by the University of Chicago Press, Signs: Journal of Woman in Culture and Society was founded as an interdisciplinary journal focusing on theory and methods relating to gender, race, culture, sexuality, and nation. Articles provide diverse perspectives on a broad range of macro concerns.

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                                                                      Historical Perspectives

                                                                      Feminist historians in the United States have generally divided the public roles performed by women in the 1800s and early 1900s into three categories: benevolence, reform, and rights. In the late 1700s and early 1800s women’s benevolence often took the form of missionary work and orphan asylums created to target urgent needs. The reform tradition began in the 1830s, establishing vehicles designed to advocate for abolishing slavery, closing brothels, providing sex education, and criminalizing seduction. The third tradition, beginning in the 1840s and 1850s, included women’s organizing focused on rights. Each tradition predates social work as a profession and is based on different sets of assumptions and goals. Each tradition continued unabated until and even after the development of the profession of social work in the early 1900s.

                                                                      Women’s Traditions

                                                                      Feminist historians provide well-documented books that focus on various aspects of the three traditions that formed around women’s public activities. Abramovitz 1996, an examination of social welfare policy from colonial times to the late 20th century, is a classic in the field. Given the racial segregation of the times, the more visible activities were those of white women. Thus works such as Brown 2006, have been instrumental in providing content on little-known African American women pioneers in social welfare history. Beemyn 2013 offers a unique historical perspective on transgender people and the political, legal, and cultural issues they have faced and are facing. McCarthy 1990 addresses the concept of “lady bountiful” that served to subjugate the importance of early women’s benevolent work, and Ginzberg 1990 offers an in-depth treatment of the benevolent movement. Anne Firor Scott has written multiple books on various aspects of feminist history, but Scott 1992 is particularly useful in raising consciousness about the vast number and nature of women’s community organizing pertinent to all three traditions. Kemp and Brandwein 2010 bridge feminist history with that of the profession of social work. Skocpol 1992 provides an incredible compendium on women’s involvement in public policy following the Civil War and questions a number of assumptions in earlier works. Boylan 2015 tells the story of the women’s rights movement in the United States, and Sorensen 2015 offers a unique perspective on the work of Grace Abbott, one of social work education’s early pioneers. The books and articles listed in this section can be used in undergraduate or graduate classes to illustrate the involvement of women in social change as social work training and education emerged as a field. Finally, the article by Cote 2013 reveals what she refers to as “fierce limitations” in perceptions of women who wanted to become professional social workers.

                                                                      • Abramovitz, Mimi. 1996. Regulating the lives of women. Boston: South End.

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                                                                        Focusing on the impact of US social welfare policy on the lives of women, Abramovitz revisits policy development from colonial to contemporary times. Inclusive of women from various walks of life, a feminist perspective raises consciousness and provides a historical context missing in previous writings.

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                                                                        • Beemyn, Genny. 2013. A presence in the past: A transgender historiography. Journal of Women’s History 25.4: 113–121.

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                                                                          Beemyn offers an historical review of the literature and research about transgender people, focusing on trans political, legal, and cultural issues. Materials on a great range of transgender people’s experiences are included with particular attention to the lives of trans people of color.

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                                                                          • Boylan, Anne M. 2015. Women’s rights in the United States: A history in documents. Pages from history. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                            This compendium of primary documents is a diverse collection of everything from letters and diary entries to court records and newspaper clippings that tell the story of the women’s rights movement in the United States. Organized thematically, each set of documents is prefaced with an analytical essay.

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                                                                            • Brown, Nikki. 2006. Private politics and public voices: Black women’s activism from World War I to the New Deal. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

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                                                                              Focuses on the activism of black women and the strategies and methods they used to engage in a public arena bent on subjugating their voices. For persons wanting to focus on social justice concerns and highlight racial politics, Brown offers an excellent resource.

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                                                                              • Cote, Jennifer. 2013. “The West Point of the philanthropic service”: Reconsidering social work’s welcome to women in the early twentieth century. Social Service Review 87.1: 131–157.

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                                                                                It is often assumed that social work was a woman’s field from its early days of professionalization. Cote’s article elaborates on the way in which women were perceived as unscientific and emotional in a field that sought to be scientific and objective. She contends that women were often marginalized, finding themselves snared within a tangled web of gender roles and expectations.

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                                                                                • Ginzberg, Lori D. 1990. Women and the work of benevolence: Morality, politics, and class in the nineteenth-century United States. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                  Focusing on middle- and upper-class American women and their benevolent work from the 1820s to 1885, Ginzberg provides a new interpretation of the shifting political contexts and meanings of what has been called women’s reform activities.

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                                                                                  • Kemp, Susan P., and Ruth Brandwein. 2010. Feminisms and social work in the United States: An intertwined history. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 25.4: 341–364.

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                                                                                    Bridging histories of feminism and of the social work profession in the United States, Kemp and Brandwein focus on how feminist social work has evolved. Focused on three waves of feminist activism, the authors discuss how to build more inclusive feminist theories and practices.

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                                                                                    • McCarthy, Kathleen D., ed. 1990. Lady bountiful revisited: Women, philanthropy, and power. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                      “Lady bountiful” emerged as a derogatory concept used to describe volunteer women of means who placed their values on others. McCarthy takes this concept and reconsiders these women within their historical context. This insightful book is worth reading for any student interested in gender and social welfare history.

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                                                                                      • Scott, Anne Firor. 1992. Natural allies: Women’s associations in American history. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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                                                                                        Well researched and eye-opening, Scott’s work reveals an amazing array of women’s activities over two centuries. Engaging and scholarly, this is a must read for anyone interested in the creative and innovative ways women participated in founding and sustaining viable voluntary associations.

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                                                                                        • Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting soldiers and mothers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                          In-depth analysis reveals how social spending for elderly, disabled, and dependent citizens was influenced by women’s voluntary organizations and individual women leaders in ways ignored by previous scholars. Skocpol has written a thick compendium in which the political origins of social policy in the United States are reconsidered in terms of gender.

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                                                                                          • Sorensen, John, ed. 2015. A sister’s memories: The life and work of Grace Abbott from the writings of her sister, Edith Abbott. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                            Edith and Grace Abbott were early champions of social work practice and training. The older sister, Edith, was an economist who was instrumental in founding The University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. This beautifully written book compiles Edith’s reflections of her younger sister’s life as an advocate for the development and provision of services for disadvantaged children and their immigrant families.

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                                                                                            Studies of Black Women’s History

                                                                                            An increasing literature about various aspects of African American women’s history pertaining to social welfare is in refereed journals and in books in social work and related fields. Tate 2003 reveals the deep history of black women’s roles in maintaining family and sustaining community prior to the Civil War, whereas Carlton-LaNey and Hodges 2004 offers insight into African American women’s early reform efforts during the Progressive Era. Gordon 1991 provides a more general comparative analysis of black and white women reformers. The majority of references in this section highlight specific black women’s lives and their experiences, providing biographical information. Chandler 2005 focuses on Addie Hunton and the peace movement, DeCosta-Willis 1995 introduces the primary writings of Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and Schiele, et al. 2005 highlights the life of Maggie Lena Walker, the first American woman to establish a bank, which is still in existence in the early 21st century. Sterling 1988 examines the lives of Ellen Craft, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell, O’Donnell 2001 elaborates on the contributions of Irene McCoy Gaines, and Peebles-Wilkins 1989 focuses on Fredericka Douglass Sprague Perry.

                                                                                            • Carlton-LaNey, Iris, and Vanessa Hodges. 2004. African American reformers’ mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 19.3: 257–272.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0886109904265853Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              With special attention to strategies used by service organizations—such as women’s clubs, sororities, schools, and settlement houses—the authors focus on African American women’s early reform efforts in the Progressive Era. This article offers an alternative view of reform and can be incorporated into social welfare history courses.

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                                                                                              • Chandler, Susan. 2005. Addie Hunton and the construction of an African American female peace perspective. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 20:270–283.

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                                                                                                Hunton served in France with the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I. Chandler examines her peace and social justice work in comparison to white women reformers, such as Jane Addams and Jeannette Rankin. The comparison between black and white reformers offers new insights into privilege and social justice.

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                                                                                                • DeCosta-Willis, Miriam, ed. 1995. The Memphis diary of Ida B. Wells: An intimate portrait of the activist as a young woman. Boston: Beacon.

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                                                                                                  Wells was a famous public figure and journalist who took on a crusade against lynching. Wells’s diaries reveal the thoughts and feelings that undergirded her activism. This is an excellent source for anyone wanting to return to primary sources and to better understand the motivations of this remarkable African American woman.

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                                                                                                  • Gordon, Linda. 1991. Black and white visions of welfare: Women’s welfare activism, 1890–1945. Journal of American History 78:559–590.

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                                                                                                    Gordon’s provocative article sets up a comparison between black and white women welfare reforms with three differences based on views of entitlement, attitudes toward mothers’ employment, and strategies for protection against sexual exploitation. Gordon’s work is useful in teaching political philosophy with an eye toward gender and race.

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                                                                                                    • O’Donnell, Sandra M. 2001. “The right to work is the right to live”: The social work and political and civic activism of Irene McCoy Gaines. Social Service Review 75.3: 456–478.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/322223Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      O’Donnell writes about the career of African American social worker Irene McCoy Gaines whose political activism spanned both world wars and beyond. Emphasizing how black activists had different voices than their white counterparts, O’Donnell reveals how racism and sexism made it difficult for Gaines to be recognized as the remarkable social work leader she was.

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                                                                                                      • Peebles-Wilkins, Wilma. 1989. Black women and American social welfare: The life of Fredericka Douglass Sprague Perry. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 4.1: 33–44.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/088610998900400104Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Providing a backdrop of the importance of mutual-aid networks within the black community, Peebles-Wilkins writes an overview of the contributions and activities of the granddaughter of Frederick Douglass, who was a pioneer in the reform of child welfare for black adolescents.

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                                                                                                        • Schiele, Jerome H., M. Sebrena Jackson, and Colita Nichols Fairfax. 2005. Maggie Lena Walker and African American community development. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 20.1: 21–38.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0886109904272012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Walker was the first woman in the United States to establish a bank, which still existed in the early 21st century. She developed a department store and a newspaper and was prominent in a major African American mutual aid organization. This makes an excellent case study for undergraduates in African American studies, women’s studies, or social justice courses.

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                                                                                                          • Sterling, Dorothy. 1988. Black foremothers: Three lives. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press.

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                                                                                                            Sterling elaborates on the lives of Ellen Craft, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell. Provides a general overview for anyone wanting to know about the contributions of these three women and incorporate their stories into the classroom.

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                                                                                                            • Tate, Gayle T. 2003. Unknown tongues: Black women’s political activism in the antebellum era, 1830–1860. East Lansing: Michigan State Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                              Tate examines the resistance sustained by African American women as they sought to maintain family under slavery in the southern United States and eventually to create community in the urban northeast. Her skill in using multiple methods to document her analysis allows her to raise the voices of women who have been neglected in more dominant historical treatises.

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                                                                                                              Studies of White Women’s History

                                                                                                              Abrams and Curran 2004 provides an illuminating overview of white women’s roles and attitudes, particularly in relation to race and social control. The benevolence tradition is explored further in Becker 1987, Luquet 2005, Melder 1967, and Netting and O’Connor 2005. The intersection of the benevolence and rights traditions is examined in Boylan 1990. A joint biography of Anna Rochester and Grace Hutchins, Allen 2013, offers an intimate view of women whose commitment to each other empowered their political activism in the Communist movement. In addition to more general treatments of white women’s historical activities, there is an increasing number of specialty books that focus on specific movements. Blair 1980, a study of the development of women’s clubs, is informative in illustrating the manner in which women organized within their community norms, as is Sander 1998 on the women’s exchange movement as a forerunner of women’s cooperatives. Downey 2009 and its focus on the life of Frances Perkins is a particularly interesting treatment of how one social worker influenced national social welfare policy during the New Deal era and played a critical role as the first female Secretary of Labor.

                                                                                                              • Abrams, Laura S., and Laura Curran. 2004. Between women: Gender and social work in historical perspective. Social Service Review 78.3: 429–446.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/421920Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                The authors pose new questions, apply new lenses to older questions, and consider a range of primary source materials in elaborating on a new type of gender scholarship. This is a useful article for demonstrating the importance of alternative historical analysis.

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                                                                                                                • Allen, Julia M. 2013. Passionate commitments: The lives of Anna Rochester and Grace Hutchins. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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                                                                                                                  Allen provides an unexpected and rare view into the lives of Anna Rochester (b. 1880–d. 1966) and Grace Hutchins (b. 1885–d. 1969), women committed to social activism through the US Communist Party. The intersection of feminist, LGBTQ, and revolutionary histories provides insight into the social and political conditions that defined the first half of the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                  • Becker, Dorothy G. 1987. Isabella Graham and Joanna Bethune: Trailblazers of organized women’s benevolence. Social Service Review 61.2: 319–336.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/644443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Pivotal to understanding the rise of the benevolent movement, Becker’s work focuses back to the late 1700s, when a mother-daughter team founded the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children in New York City. This is an excellent resource for nonprofit management and social welfare history courses.

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                                                                                                                    • Blair, Karen J. 1980. The clubwoman as feminist: True womanhood redefined, 1868–1914. New York: Holmes and Meier.

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                                                                                                                      This insightful work focuses on the concept of domestic feminism and how it emerged in the women’s club movement. Persons teaching courses on social movements and gender politics might find this a readable supplementary text.

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                                                                                                                      • Boylan, Anne M. 1990. Women and politics in the era before Seneca Falls. Journal of the Early Republic 10:365–385.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3123393Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Boylan recognizes that women were involved in political action prior to the official beginning of the suffragette movement. Boylan’s work would be a helpful addition to teaching about women’s roles in social welfare history.

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                                                                                                                        • Downey, Kirstin. 2009. The woman behind the New Deal. New York: Doubleday.

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                                                                                                                          Focusing on the life and legacy of Frances Perkins, Downey offers a detailed account of how major social welfare policies such as Social Security, unemployment insurance, and the minimum wage were influenced by the first female U.S. Secretary of Labor.

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                                                                                                                          • Luquet, Wade. 2005. The contributions of the Sisters of Mercy to the development of social welfare. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 20.2: 153–168.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0886109905274545Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Luquet poses the possibility that the Sisters of Mercy may have founded a prototype of the settlement movement in England before the men who established Toynbee Hall received the credit for inspiring the movement. This eye-opening article provides an example of what gets privileged and who gets subjugated.

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                                                                                                                            • Melder, Keith. 1967. Ladies bountiful: Organized women’s benevolence in early nineteenth century America. New York History 65:231–254.

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                                                                                                                              The significance of this piece is that it was written when Melder was associate curator in charge of the political history division at the Smithsonian Institution. He recognized that most commentators on American voluntarism had focused on men, neglecting women’s roles in establishing charitable associations.

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                                                                                                                              • Netting, F. Ellen, and Mary Katherine O’Connor. 2005. Lady boards of managers: Subjugated legacies of governance and administration. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 20.4: 448–464.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886109905279801Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                The rediscovering of lady boards of managers is elaborated, providing macro social workers with insight into the roles women played in chartering, governing, managing, and overseeing many early human service organizations. This overview could be used to integrate gender into an administrative and planning course.

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                                                                                                                                • Sander, Kathleen Waters. 1998. The business of charity: The woman’s exchange movement, 1832–1900. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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                                                                                                                                  Based on dissertation research, Sander provides an in-depth study of women’s cooperatives that provided venues for women to sell their wares. Sander’s book could be used in conjunction with Blair 1980 to supplement traditional social movement literature.

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                                                                                                                                  Women-Founded and Women-Run Organizations

                                                                                                                                  Over the last three decades of the 20th century there was a growing debate over what makes an organization “feminist” and what goes into the creation of feminist organizations. Rothschild-Whitt 1979 developed an organizational typology of “collectivist” organizations, and Perlmutter 1988 identified characteristics of “alternative” agencies. Both were further examined in the research on women’s nonprofits in Bordt 1997. Alternative and collectivist conceptualizations appear to have been helpful to those persons studying “feminist” organizations. Hyde 2001 reveals the hybrid nature of feminist organizations and raises provocative questions for future research. Belenky, et al. 1997 adds insight into this debate, particularly related to African American women and Nichols 2014 focuses on victim advocacy through a gendered organizational perspective. Other authors focus on lines of inquiry into alternative, collectivist, and feminist organizations that tend to overlap in their conceptualizations. Four such studies are included in this section. The three case studies in Iannello 1992, the research on five feminist service organizations in Kravetz 2004, the critical ethnographic study conducted in Bracken 2011, and the pilot study of fifteen feminist organizations in Metzendorf 2005 add to this burgeoning scholarship, examining what it means to be a women-run human services organization and how women build capacity and sustainability. The books in this section could be used to supplement management textbooks in administration and planning courses that have not always included “alternative” approaches or feminist perspectives.

                                                                                                                                  • Belenky, Mary Field, Lynne A. Bond, and Jacqueline S. Weinstock. 1997. A tradition that has no name. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                    The concept of “public homeplaces” is elaborated in this book, defined as places where unheard and excluded people go to find nurturance from one another and to emerge as leaders in their communities. Public homeplaces are often incubators for women-founded and women-run organizations as well as other initiatives.

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                                                                                                                                    • Bordt, Rebecca L. 1997. The structure of women’s nonprofit organizations. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                      Based on Bordt’s dissertation research, this book contains a study of women’s nonprofit organizations established in the five boroughs of New York City. Informative in the identification of structural forms and possible “hybrids,” Bordt’s research offers insights into nontraditional ways of organizing.

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                                                                                                                                      • Bracken, Susan J. 2011. Understanding program planning theory and practice in a feminist community-based organization. Adult Education Quarterly 61.2: 121–138.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0741713610380446Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Based on a critical ethnographic study of a community-based Latin American organization, Bracken elaborates on the relevancy of a feminist identity in understanding the programmatic and organizational issues faced in social work practice. This article would be helpful in a program-planning course.

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                                                                                                                                        • Hyde, Cheryl A. 2001. The hybrid nonprofit: An examination of feminist social movement organizations. Journal of Community Practice 8.4: 45–67.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1300/J125v08n04_04Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Six feminist social movement organizations (FSMOs) that changed from grassroots associations are studied, revealing structural forms that do not conform to traditional classifications of human services organizations.

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                                                                                                                                          • Iannello, Kathleen P. 1992. Decisions without hierarchy: Feminist interventions in organization theory and practice. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                            Based on three case studies, Iannello’s work compares and contrasts the assumptions of traditional hierarchies in organizational theory and those of feminist theory. Her focus is on how decisions are made, and she identifies the concept of “modified consensus” as an alternative approach to organizational change and intervention.

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                                                                                                                                            • Kravetz, Diane. 2004. Tales from the trenches: Politics and practice in feminist service organizations. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.

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                                                                                                                                              Kravetz studies five feminist service organizations: a shelter for battered women, a rape crisis center, a rape-prevention ride service, a residential facility for female offenders, and a statewide organization for chemically dependent women. Particular insight is provided on how women translated radical feminist ideology into goals, strategies, services, and programs.

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                                                                                                                                              • Metzendorf, Diane. 2005. The evolution of feminist organizations. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.

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                                                                                                                                                Based on a pilot study, Metzendorf developed a framework consisting of four dimensions (goals, structures, division of labor, and personal relationships) to study fifteen feminist organizations in Philadelphia. Her findings are particularly helpful in terms of implications for social work practice and the potential for burnout in these high-intensity agencies.

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                                                                                                                                                • Nichols, Andrea J. 2014. Feminist advocacy: Gendered organizations in community-based responses to domestic violence. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

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                                                                                                                                                  Nichols develops her book based on in-depth interviews with domestic violence victim advocates who have experience in the justice system and with battered women’s shelters. The policies and practices of these organizations underscore the importance of gender in every aspect of their operation.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Perlmutter, Felice Davidson, ed. 1988. Alternative social agencies: Administrative strategies. New York: Haworth.

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                                                                                                                                                    Perlmutter identifies seven characteristics of alternative organizations: (1) commitment to social change, (2) values of equality and collegial participation in governance and policymaking, (3) new services meeting the unmet needs of a special population, (4) exploratory or innovative services, (5) commitment of organization personnel to the cause, (6) small size, and (7) marginal economic position within the larger social service system.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Rothschild-Whitt, Joyce. 1979. The collectivist organization: An alternative to rational-bureaucratic models. American Sociological Review 44:509–527.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/2094585Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      A study of five alternative organizations reveals how decisions were made not to increase staff, clientele, and annual budget in order to maintain their alternative characteristics.

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                                                                                                                                                      Women in Administration and Management

                                                                                                                                                      In the last few decades of the 20th century a number of writers in various fields examined gender differences in administrative and managerial style between women and men. Works listed in this section provide perspectives on gender difference research and the continuing debate. Acker 2012 offers an especially insightful overview of the subject. Gender discrimination and the concept of the glass ceiling are the focus of Morimoto and Zajicek 2014 and its research on public initiatives to infuse gender equity and justice into established organizations. D’Enbeau and Buzzanell 2013, as well as Kapur, et al. 2017, examine the importance of intersectionality in constructing a feminist organizational identity. Findler, et al. 2007 provides a broader, more global view of diversity (including gender) in the management of human resources, and Collins-Camargo and McBeath 2017 offer insight into the complexity of managing a child welfare system. A case study from Holland is provided in Damman, et al. 2014 on gender inequities in the workforce that block women from higher-level managerial positions. The list in this section offers a variety of viewpoints on women, management, and administration across sectors and can be used in courses on administration and planning.

                                                                                                                                                      • Acker, Joan. 2012. Gendered organizations and intersectionality: Problems and possibilities. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 31.3: 214–224.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1108/02610151211209072Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        If there is a leading scholar on gendering organizations, it is Joan Acker. This thought-provoking article provides an excellent overview of theorizing about gendered organizations over the last thirty years and sets the stage for future scholarship on women’s leadership roles.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Collins-Camargo, Crystal, and Bowen McBeath. 2017. Child welfare practice within the context of public-private partnerships. Social Work 62.2: 130–138.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/sw/swx004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          This article focuses on the oversight and management of public agencies that have statutory mandates for child protection and related services and private agencies with which they contract. The authors raise critical questions about the impact of management and administrative practice on this complex interorganizational system and its implications for families and children.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Damman, Marleen, Liesbet Heyse, and Melina Mills. 2014. Gender, occupation, and promotion to management in the nonprofit sector. Nonprofit Management & Leadership 25.2: 97–111.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1002/nml.21114Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Whereas much study has focused on gender inequality in for-profit organizations, less is known about women’s access to and opportunities for managerial positions in nonprofits. This case study of a Holland-based humanitarian INGO highlights the importance of examining occupational sex segregation’s impact on promotion.

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                                                                                                                                                            • D’Enbeau, Suzy, and Patrice M. Buzzanell. 2013. Constructing a feminist organization’s identity in a competitive marketplace: The intersection of ideology, image, and culture. Human Relations 66.11: 1447–1470.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0018726713479621Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This article fills a gap in the research on feminist organizations, focusing on how and where ideological domains are drawn between popular culture, image, and branding. Lessons learned about identity challenges are elaborated.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Findler, Liora, Leslie H. Wind, and Michálle Mor Barak. 2007. The challenge of workforce management in a global society: Modeling the relationship between diversity, inclusion, organizational culture, and employee well-being, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Administration in Social Work 31.3: 63–94.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1300/J147v31n03_05Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Using social identity theory and inclusion-exclusion conceptual frameworks, this study offers implications for social work management. The reader benefits from empirically based recommendations about how to promote an inclusive organizational culture that is sensitive to gender.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Kapur, Sonia, Anna M. Zajicek, and John Gaber. 2017. Nonprofit organizations serving domestic violence survivors: Addressing intersectional needs of Asian Indians. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 32.1: 50–66.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0886109915592669Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Interviewing female domestic violence advocates who work in South Asian nonprofit organizations in the United States, Kapur and her colleagues identify the structural and cultural issues they face within organizational practice. In meeting intersectional client needs, the necessity of coalition-building between Asian Indian-focused and mainstream organizations is emphasized.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Morimoto, Shauna A., and Anna Zajicek. 2014. Dismantling the “Master’s House”: Feminist reflections on institutional transformation. Critical Sociology 40.1: 135–150.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0896920512460063Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The concept of dismantling the master’s house is introduced to emphasize the challenges of infusing gender equity and justice into existing organizational systems. This thoughtful piece raises questions for scholars and students to ponder, one of which is “can the master’s tools dismantle the master’s house?” (p. 135).

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                                                                                                                                                                    Women and Leadership

                                                                                                                                                                    Berzin, et al. 2015 offer an alternative perspective to the language of business that has defined leadership and innovation. The barriers that women of color continue to face for upward mobility in salary in both the profit and nonprofit sectors are particularly sobering. McLane-Davison 2016 documents black women’s leadership experiences and the challenges they face. Dias and Elesh 2012 provide insight into how different leadership styles can impact client outcomes in welfare-to-work programs, whereas English and Peters 2011 examine founder’s syndrome in ten feminist organizations as it impacts leadership opportunities for younger women members. Bailey, et al. 2008 offers an uplifting view of women’s leadership potential, and Gardella and Haynes 2004 focuses on what can be learned from women’s leadership. These resources can be used in macro courses at both foundation and concentration levels.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Bailey, Darlyne, Kelly McNally Koney, Mary Ellen McNish, Ruthmary Powers, and Katrina Uhly. 2008. Sustaining our spirits: Women leaders thriving for today and tomorrow. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Based on a five-year exploration of the connections among women, leadership, and spirituality, this book provides an unconventional approach to women and leadership. It is useful for anyone wanting to be challenged to think positively about possibilities and to increase self-awareness.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Berzin, Stephanie Cosner, Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, and Pablo Gaitan-Rossi. 2015. Defining our own future: Human service leaders on social innovation. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance 39.5: 412–425.

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                                                                                                                                                                        In this study twenty-three human service leaders explore their perspectives on social innovation. Since business concepts have driven the language of collaboration and integration, this study offers an alternative view of how to define leadership and innovation and gives voice to difference.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Dias, Janice Johnson, and David Elesh. 2012. Structuring performance: Performance contracts, organizational logics, and leadership in welfare-to-work programs. Social Service Review 86.1: 143–168.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1086/664953Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Johnson and Elesh study two welfare-to-work organizations (one for-profit and one nonprofit) to determine how managers with differing leadership styles influence service provision practices. They discover stark differences in organizational processes, structures, and women’s employment outcomes.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • English, Leona, and Nancy Peters. 2011. Founders’ syndrome in women’s nonprofit organizations: Implications for practice and organizational life. Nonprofit Management & Leadership 22.2: 159–171.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1002/nml.20047Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            English and Peters study the impact of founders’ syndrome in ten feminist organizations. In these community-based settings, founders provide stability but their control over decision making has implications for how younger women contribute and influence action.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Gardella, Lorrie Greenhouse, and Karen S. Haynes. 2004. A dream and a plan: A woman’s path to leadership in human services. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Written in an inclusive and multicultural way, this book provides tools for women who are trying to break through the glass ceiling. Relevant to students, social workers, and human services providers (both experienced and not), this book is useful as a stand-alone reader or a text, complete with exercises and recommended readings.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • McLane-Davison, Denise. 2016. Lifting: Black feminist leadership in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 31.1: 55–69.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886109915583545Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                This study reports on the unique insights about the intersection of race, gender, and power that ten black women leaders identified in their HIV/AIDS community work. Their contemporary work is framed within the history of liberation (racial uplift work) that emerged from the 19th-century black Women’s Club Movement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Women and FundRaising

                                                                                                                                                                                Since fundraising is critical to organizational survival, it is helpful to examine the ways women engage in development work, either as professional or as volunteer staff. Netting and O’Connor 2012 provides an historical perspective on women’s long-established engagement in a diverse range of human service fundraising activities. Sampson and Moore 2008 pose a number of provocative questions about the role of women in development positions and the challenges they face. Shaw-Hardy and Taylor 2010, whose authors are affiliated with the Women’s Philanthropy Institute, provides insight into the women’s funding movement, offering numerous examples and “takeaways” for practitioners. Caster 2008 examines “giving circles” and their development, whereas Panic, et al. 2016 focuses on how social media has changed fundraising interaction. De Wit and Bekkers 2016 reports research on how gender differences influence charitable giving. A critical point is that women around the world have been entrepreneurial in their activities and have long-established traditions of creative approaches to locating resources for their families, their places of employment, and their communities. Foster and Meinhard 2005 offers interesting perspectives on how women’s organizations are viewed by funding sources and the challenges they face, followed by Doerfel, et al. 2017, which reports on how funding sources control their grantees and leverage their relationships with other community agencies. Social workers who find themselves in fund-raising positions will find these books and articles of particular interest. Courses on financial management will discover contextual material about the politics of fundraising in these readings.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Caster, Jacqueline Jacobs. 2008. A new direction in women’s philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 37.2: 353–363.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0899764007310870Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Jacobs reports a case study of Everychild Foundation, a women’s giving circle located in Los Angeles, California. The giving circle concept came into popularity a number of years ago as an alternative to fundraising events, and Jacobs elaborates on the process of making this an effective strategy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • de Wit, Arjen, and René Bekkers. 2016. Exploring gender differences in charitable giving: The Dutch case. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 45.4: 741–761.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0899764015601242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    The majority of studies of women’s charitable giving have been conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This study focuses on the Netherlands and reveals contrary findings to those in the U.S. and U.K.—that males donate higher amounts than Dutch females.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Doerfel, Marya L., Yannick Atouba, and Jack L. Harris. 2017. (Un)Obtrusive control in emergent networks: Examining funding agencies’ control over nonprofit networks. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 46.3: 469–487.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0899764016664588Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      This study reveals the challenges faced by agencies and their managers when funding sources leverage them to partner with other organizations. Although agencies typically build networks, the influence of funders has implications for how and with whom they engage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Foster, Mary K., and Agnes G. Meinhard. 2005. Diversifying revenue sources in Canada: Are women’s voluntary organizations different? Nonprofit Management and Leadership 16.1: 43–60.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1002/nml.89Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Targeted to managers interested in fund-raising, Foster and Meinhard’s article offers a Canadian perspective. This is a useful article for a course on financial management in which the instructor wants to provide an alternative view.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Netting, F. Ellen, and Mary Katherine O’Connor. 2012. Maidens fair, matrons plump, fat cats and sugar daddies: Fundraising in a human service community. Affilia: Journal of Women in Social Work 27.3: 249–262.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0886109912452643Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Netting and O’Connor report on an historical study of lady boards of managers and how they fundraised in the early 1900s in Richmond, Virginia. The diversity of fundraising strategies used rival those used in contemporary times and reinforce the conclusion that women have long been incredibly creative in thinking outside the box.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Panic, Katharina, Liselot Hudders, and Veroline Cauberghe. 2016. Fundraising in an interactive online environment. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 45.2: 333–350.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0899764015587715Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Focusing on the contemporary social media environment, Panic and her colleagues study how nonprofits could design websites to enhance their fundraising capabilities. This article provides helpful information for anyone interested in developing an online presence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sampson, Susan D., and Lynda L. Moore. 2008. Is there a glass ceiling for women in development? Nonprofit Management and Leadership 18.3: 321–339.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              In this article, the glass ceiling is explored in nonprofit and public agencies in terms of leadership and executive positions. Sampson and Moore study the phenomenon for development officers. This is a helpful piece for anyone teaching financial as well as human resources management.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Shaw-Hardy, Sondra, and Martha A. Taylor. 2010. Women & Philanthropy: Boldly Shaping a Better World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This book is written by women who are affiliated with the Women’s Philanthropy Institute at Indiana University-Purdue University in Indianapolis. This Institute is worth accessing online because they post numerous resources on gender and fundraising.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Women and Community Organizing

                                                                                                                                                                                                Community organizing efforts often result in the development of organizations that become service delivery or advocacy coalitions. Thus it is difficult to separate the literature on community organizing from women-founded and women-run organizations. This section therefore is intended to focus on the strategies and tactics used by women in the organizing process as opposed to the management of resulting organizations. Themes that permeate the community organizing literature are social change, empowerment, and power. Alzate, et al. 2013 provides insightful overviews of feminist organizing, particularly at the grassroots level in multiple countries, and Simmons 2016 calls for new community organizing strategies to redress problems of wage inequity. Naples and Bickman 2015 examines community organizing and the revisioning of borders, whereas Manzanera-Ruiz and Lizarraga 2017, as well as Rawsthorne, et al. 2017, focus on how organizers must be sensitive in adjusting their methods for use in different parts of the world. Since women’s voluntarism is a strategy to engage in community change efforts, most of these articles provide important lessons learned about volunteer roles. Mizrahi 2007 switches focus to women organizers themselves and the principles that emerge from their experiences. Ennis and West 2014 offer new insights into the importance of building community-based networks in Australia, Forde and Lynch 2014 challenge discourses about community practice in the Republic of Ireland, and Itzhaky, et al. 2013 reveal incentives for community activities to engage in macro-level interventions in Israel. The literature in this section is useful in teaching community organizing and works well in courses on social justice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Alzate, Monica Marie, Janki Andharia, Gina Agnes N. Chowa, Marie Weil, and Alison Doernberg. 2013. Women and leadership in development, planning, organizing, and social change. In Handbook of community practice. Edited by Marie Weil, 653–681. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Now in its second edition, the Handbook of Community Practice is a compendium of excellent resources for all social workers. This citation is Chapter 31 in the Handbook. This chapter focuses specifically on women community organizers and contains case studies from multiple countries. Feminist community practice principles and methods are listed on pages 672–674.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ennis, Gretchen, and Deborah West. 2014. Community development and umbrella bodies: Networking for neighbourhood change. The British Journal of Social Work 44.6: 1582–1601.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bct010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ennis and West explore a community development project in Northern Australia using a network approach. Focusing on an umbrella group of volunteers who were committed to developing a cohesive community network, the authors expand on the insights learned when inspiring ideas are generated from participants and a feminist approach is used.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Forde, Catherine, and Deborah Lynch. 2014. Critical practice for challenging times: Social workers’ engagement with community work. The British Journal of Social Work 44.8: 2078–2094.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bct091Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Forde and Lynch explore the community work done by social workers in the Republic of Ireland. Based on qualitative interviews with practitioners, the authors challenge dominant discourses and focus on active engagement that addresses inequality and injustice, re-emphasizing the importance of community work in the profession.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Itzhaky, Haya, Lea Zanbar, Drorit Levy, and Chaya Schwartz, et al. 2013. The contribution of personal and community resources to well-being and sense of belonging to the community among community activists. The British Journal of Social Work 45.6: 1678–1698.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bct176Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Feminist social work researchers study a large group of community activists who worked in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status in Israel. Residents include new immigrants, single mothers, and people with disabilities. Findings reveal positive outcomes of community activity that could be used to recruit community activists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Manzanera-Ruiz, Roser, and Carmen Lizarraga. 2017. Women’s social movements and social development: Opportunities for social work in Tanzania. International Social Work 60.1: 219–233.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0020872815574132Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focusing on Tanzania in Africa, this article makes clear the importance of understanding context when engaging in organizing social movements and the importance of not making assumptions about the application of methods used in other parts of the world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mizrahi, Terry. 2007. Women’s ways of organizing: Strengths and struggles of women organizers over time. Affilia: The Journal of Women and Social Work 22.1: 39–55.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0886109906295762Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Particularly relevant to social work is this study of twenty-seven women organizers from 1989 to 2003. The organizers produced A Framework for Feminist Organizing, which provides practice principles, making this a must-use piece for any course on social work macro practice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Naples, Nancy A., and Jennifer Bickman. 2015. Border politics: Social movements, collective identities, and globalization. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Naples is a pioneer in community organization, and her work on grassroots warriors and the War on Poverty in 1998 is classic. This book is a must-read for any practitioner or student engaged in community organizing because the authors argue for a feminist revisioning of border studies and activism. Using case examples from geographical contexts around the world, Naples and Bickman underscore the complexity of defining, constructing, and reconstructing geographical, cultural, and symbolic dividing lines.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rawsthorne, Margot, Kayleigh Ellis, and Alison de Pree. 2017. “Working with COW”: Social work supporting older women living in the community. Journal of Gerontological Social Work 60.1: 32–47.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/01634372.2016.1267671Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Drawing on over a decade’s community development experience in Glebe, Australia, the authors discuss their work with the Concerned Older Women’s (COW) Group. Targeting older low-income women, the purpose of COW is to enhance community life so that residents feel safe and can access supportive services, as well as more fully participate in building a stronger community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Simmons, Louise. 2016. Opportunities for community organizing in the realm of economic justice and low wage worker struggles. Journal of Community Practice 24.2: 166–181.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2016.1165779Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Simmons focuses on the latest efforts in community organizing to fight for economic justice in the form of fair wages and union rights for low-wage workers. Viewed as a global struggle, she encourages macro social workers to ignite the cause for workers and immigrants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  International Women’s Efforts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For a comprehensive overview Finn, et al. 2013 is a marvelous resource for any social work student or educator in their book on gender oppression and globalization. Focusing specifically on older women, Choi, et al. 2017 uses the human rights framework to approach gender equalities, violence, abuse, and poverty worldwide and to discuss international movements to address human rights. Recent interdisciplinary studies have focused on women founders of grassroots nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries and the community organizing approaches they use. Research conducted in Connor and Bent-Goodley 2016 provides insight into enterprises founded and run by women in Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, East Africa. The article is ripe with examples of successful women’s efforts in a community context. The journal International Social Work is a particularly helpful resource for faculty and students hoping to locate studies in countries around the world, as illustrated by the Bonnycastle 2017 and Wachter, et al. 2016 articles about Columbian and Congolese refugee women, respectively. Jani and Felke 2015 focus on human trafficking in India and its impact on women and girls. Gates 2017 provides an example of how Mexican immigrant mothers lobby for their rights as undocumented immigrants. The references in this section speak to how critical it is to examine diverse approaches to feminist practice in teaching about women’s international efforts, and Pandey 2017 examines how Affilia has become a social work-based platform for nurturing feminist scholarship from around the world.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bonnycastle, Marleny M. 2017. What they bring to the new land: Stories of Colombian refugee women in Canada. International Social Work 60.3: 654–666.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0020872816633888Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This study examines the knowledge and skills that Colombian women war survivors bring to Canada and how they adjust to forced migration. Practitioners can learn a great deal about appropriate intervention from the resiliency and community-building capabilities of displaced women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Choi, Moon, Patricia Brownell, and Stefana I. Moldovan. 2017. International movement to promote human rights of older women with a focus on violence and abuse against older women. International Social Work 60.1: 170–181.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0020872814559562Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Framing this article is a critical review of United Nations documents focused on international movements to promote the rights of older women. Gender inequities, violence, abuse, and poverty affect older women more than older men, and the implications for global social work practice are explored.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Connor, Ronya Foy, and Tricia B. Bent-Goodley. 2016. Zanzibari social entrepreneurs and poverty alleviation strategies: Understanding efforts to build local community sustainability. Journal of Community Practice 24.3: 302–318.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2016.1201784Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The US government, the United Nations, and various other governmental bodies have been intent on promoting women’s entrepreneurship. Interviews with women entrepreneurs in rural East Africa reveal how these creative ventures can be supported by social workers in their efforts to empower women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Finn, Janet L., T. E. Perry, and S. Karandikar, eds. 2013. Gender oppression and globalization: Challenges for social work. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This book raises consciousness about gender oppression and globalization, including essays with examples from around the world. Ghanaian women living with HIV/AIDS, Korean women immigrating to Canada, Nicaraguan women creating sustainable food gardens, and a host of other illustrations convey the challenges faced by women worldwide. A final section focuses on teaching and learning about gender oppression and globalization within social work education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gates, Alice B. 2017. “No one will speak for us”: Empowering undocumented immigrant women through policy advocacy. Journal of Community Practice 25.1: 5–28.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2016.1270244Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gates’s exploratory study of Mexican immigrant mothers focuses on the rights of undocumented immigrants. Based on what is learned in her study, she proposes ways to turn community organizing, collective action, and policy practice skills into mobilized advocacy efforts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jani, Nairruti, and Thomas P. Felke. 2015. Gender bias and sex-trafficking in Indian society. International Social Work 60.4: 831–846.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0020872815580040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In this article gender bias, prostitution, and human trafficking are examined in South Asian societies with a focus on India, having the largest marketplaces for the sex trade. The authors propose a practice model designed to support female empowerment and international efforts to address regional human trafficking.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pandey, Shanta. 2017. The road from millennium development goals to sustainable development goals by 2030: Social work’s role in empowering women and girls. Affilia: Journal of Women in Social Work 32.2: 125–132.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886109917704040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This editorial expounds on the founding and development of Affilia as a social work–based platform for expanding the reach of feminist scholarship around the world. Citing the goals of the United Nations, Pandey calls attention to increasing attention on the fluidity of gender expression and rights of trans and gender nonbinary individuals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wachter, Karin, Laurie Cook Heffron, Susanna Snyder, Maura Busch Nsonwu, and Noël Bridget Busch-Armendariz. 2016. Unsettled integration: Pre-and post-migration factors in Congolese refugee women’s resettlement experiences in the United States. International Social Work 59.6: 875–889.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0020872815580049Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This authors study the challenges, risks, and strengths of Congolese refugee women who are being settled within the United States and provide direction for service providers and policy makers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Women and Social Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Organization, community, and policy practice cannot be easily separated in real life, but for the sake of categorizing resources they are cautiously placed in separate categories here. Educators and students need to be critical of policy analysis frameworks just as they are of standardized measurement tools because the questions asked may be gender insensitive. In this section policy analysis frameworks that are particularly sensitive to gender are introduced, followed by a section on readings examining policy implementation and advocacy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gender-Sensitive Policy Analysis Frameworks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A good starting place to locate the state of the art in terms of gender-sensitive policy analysis frameworks for policy, research, and planning is March, et al. 1999 and O’Connor and Netting 2011. Lejano 2006 and Stone 2011 are derived from from public policy backgrounds, and Nussbaum 2011 from law. Although Nussbaum 2011 focuses specifically on women, Lejano 2006 and Stone 2011 offer interpretive policy analysis frameworks that are particularly sensitive to differences. McPhail 2003 and Kanenberg 2015 introduce gender sensitive frameworks into the social work literature. Thus the frameworks in this section are gender sensitive and could be used by analysts hoping to add a gender lens to their work. These frameworks can be introduced in social policy courses so that students learn the importance of asking targeted questions to interrogate how policies impact women.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kanenberg, Heather. 2015. Feminist policy analysis: Expanding traditional social work methods. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 33.2: 129–142.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/08841233.2013.772935Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Targeting social work educators, Kanenberg compares traditional policy analysis models with feminist approaches, offering the opportunity for curricular integration of gender sensitive frameworks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lejano, Raul P. 2006. Frameworks for policy analysis: Merging text and context. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lejano carefully explains how approaches to policy analysis based in rationality have dominated the social work field. He then offers an alternative way of interpreting policy that is more sensitive to gender and other status characteristics. This is a deep treatment probably most useful if targeted to advanced students.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • March, Candida, Ines Smyth, and Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay. 1999. A guide to gender-analysis frameworks. Oxford: Oxfam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.3362/9780855987602Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors identify the main analytical frameworks for gender-sensitive research, planning, and policy analysis. Each framework is provided, with details about its use as well as strengths and limitations. Introductory sections provide accessible overviews. Students and practitioners interested in grassroots planning and policy development will find this uniquely focused resource useful.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • McPhail, Beverly A. 2003. A feminist policy analysis framework: Through a gendered lens. The Social Policy Journal 2.2–3: 39–61.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1300/J185v02n02_04Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In one of the first attempts in social work to publish a feminist policy analysis framework, McPhail provides an excellent approach to examining policy with gender in mind.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nussbaum, Martha C. 2011. Creating capabilities: The human development approach. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674061200Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As a feminist, Nussbaum has written extensively about the capabilities approach and offers an alternative to traditional ways of viewing social justice. The capabilities approach acknowledges that not everyone comes to the table with the same abilities and encourages a reframing of how to respect these differences in policy development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • O’Connor, Mary Katherine, and F. Ellen Netting. 2011. Analyzing social policy: Multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Viewing policy analysis as research, the questions asked in any policy analysis process set the stage for what the analyst will find. This book offers multiple policy analysis approaches, inclusive of feminist and interpretive frameworks that recognize the importance of values in policy formulation, content, implementation, and impact.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stone, Deborah. 2011. Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. 3d ed. New York: Norton.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stone offers an alternative, interpretive approach to policy analysis, emphasizing the importance of context and thus fitting well with a feminist approach. For students of interpretivism, this policy analysis book is an essential resource.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Policy Implementation and Advocacy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pritzker and Lane 2017 is an historical piece that mentions women’s historic roles in influencing social policy. For an overview of policy analyses conducted from a feminist perspective, three websites are particularly helpful in providing examples of policy analyses (Center for Women Policy Studies), public policy analysis research (Institute for Women’s Policy Research), and state-level policy analysis (Women’s Policy Institute). There are multiple approaches to policy analysis focusing on the politics of the process, the content of the policy, and its implementation and subsequent impact. The results of these analyses are particularly important to inform policy advocacy. The references in this section are selected as a sample of how gender can be used in macro-policy practice to gain insights regarding the impact of policy actions on women. Bjørnholt and McKay 2014 elaborates on Marilyn Waring’s eye-opening work based on her governmental experience and the recognition that the roles that many women spend their lives performing are often unpaid and invisible in calculations by all the world’s economies. Viewing the concept of reproductive labor as central to understanding gender inequality (including the devaluing of “women’s work”), Duffy, et al. 2015 analyzes challenges in addressing occupational segregation in the labor market. World Bank 2001 offers resources on gender rights, and Ely and Dulmus 2010 focuses on examining the repressive nature of reproductive health policies and conflict in the policymaking and implementation process. Netting 2011 examines the work of feminist gerontologists who critically reframe the politics of civic engagement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bjørnholt, Margunn, and Alisa McKay, eds. 2014. Counting on Marilyn Waring: New advances in feminist economics. Toronto, ON: Demeter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1988) by Marilyn Waring is a classic analysis of how all the acceptable worldwide accounting systems for what “counts” as productive work subjugate women’s “work.” Waring used her role in New Zealand’s government to raise consciousness in her country and others. Bjornholt and McKay build their book around Waring’s work and it is a provocative book for consciousness-raising in world studies, social justice, and international courses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Center for Women Policy Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Founded in 1972, this center’s mission is “to shape public policy to improve women’s lives.” It is seen as “the nation’s first feminist policy analysis, research and advocacy institution,” with programs in women’s health, poverty, and global engagement. One initiative focuses on US policy advocacy to combat trafficking of women and girls.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Duffy, Mignon, Amy Armenia, and Clare L. Stacey. 2015. Caring on the clock: The complexities and contradictions of paid care work. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reproductive labor is a central concept to a gendered analysis of inequality, including the devaluing of cleaning, cooking, child care, and other forms of “women’s work.” Duffy, Armenia, and Stacey analyze the challenges in understanding this occupational segregation according to gender and race. For courses in social justice and policy, this is a provocative book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ely, Gretchen E., and Catherine N. Dulmus. 2010. Abortion policy and vulnerable women in the United States: A call for social work policy practice. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 20.5: 658–671.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10911351003749177Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ely and Dulmus focus on vulnerable groups of women and repressive abortion policies. Their focus on reproductive health care emphasizes the importance of social work advocacy efforts in addressing federal and state policies that constrain women’s rights.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Institute for Women’s Policy Research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This institute disseminates research findings that address the needs of women, promote public dialogue, and strengthen families, communities, and societies. Recent research focuses on women’s voting, women activists, and workplace issues. The site links to resources pertaining to women and social security and the economic status of women in the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Netting, F. Ellen. 2011. Bridging critical feminist gerontology and social work to interrogate the narrative on civic engagement. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 26.3: 239–249.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0886109911417689Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Public policy and societal values converge in creating gender role expectations and in valuing certain types of activities over others. Netting draws from the work of feminist gerontologists to encourage social workers to put on a gender lens in critically thinking about how gender bias becomes institutionalized.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pritzker, Suzanne, and Shannon R. Lane. 2017. Political social work: History, forms, and opportunities for innovation. Social Work 62.1: 80–82.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/sw/sww072Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pritzker and Lane focus on political social work practice and how it has developed over the last fifty years. They provide a substantial section on history mentioning the importance of women’s roles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Women’s Policy Institute. Women’s Foundation of California.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A California-based organization, the Women’s Policy Institute is an example of how one state created a vision to bring together diverse women from around the state to participate in policy change. This is an exemplar of what a state-level organization can do to effect change and is an excellent model for similar efforts in other locations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • World Bank. 2001. Engendering development: Through gender equality in rights, resources, and voice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This comprehensive view of development throughout the world is an excellent resource for consciousness-raising. Written for the practice audience, it is useful for training in global awareness and gender.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Women in Macro Social Work Education

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Providing an historical context, Jabour 2012 writes about Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge, a key figure in the development of social work education, and proposes that contemporary women could learn a great deal from her legacy. In the last few decades since the early 21st century there has been a push to integrate women’s content into social work education and to recognize gender concerns for female social work educators. Figueira-McDonough, et al. 1998 is an edited book in which social work scholars from around the country focused on how to integrate gender into all curricular areas. Levin, et al. 2015 builds on earlier work to study content on women and on sexism in graduate social work education in the United States and Anglo-Canada. Alvarez, et al. 2008 highlights the early contributions made by the Women’s Council as part of the Council on Social Work Education and their ongoing efforts to infuse feminist perspectives into social work education. Focusing on social work educators and different aspects of their roles with universities are Anyikwa, et al. 2015; Tower, et al. 2015; and Zerden, et al. 2015 in a special section of The Journal of Social Work Education. Specific to social work macro education, the companion pieces Netting, et al. 2016 and O’Connor, et al. 2015 reveal the experiences of a number of women who teach macro practice across multiple universities. Romero and Villena 2017 offers an international perspective on how social work and gender studies in Spain have been devalued and also offers direction for what needs to change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Alvarez, Ann Rosegrant, Kathryn S. Collins, Helen V. Graber, and Marceline M. Lazzari. 2008. What about women? Historical perspectives on the CSWE Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (Women’s Council). Journal of Social Work Education 44.1: 63–84.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.5175/JSWE.2008.200600098Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beginning with an overview of the Council on the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education (WC) in the late 1960s, the authors use primary and secondary data sources to elaborate on two themes: (1) organizational development of the WC, and (2) contributions of the WC to social work education and practice. The mission and work of the WC remain relevant today, because there is still a need to monitor and advocate for equity for women in social work education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Anyikwa, Victoria, Christina M. Chiarelli-Helminiak, Diane M. Hodge, and Rhonda Wells-Wibon. 2015. Women empowering women. Journal of Social Work Education 51.4: 723–737.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This article examines how social work educators can advocate for leadership positions in their university systems. Through the lens of relational-cultural theory, the authors provide direction for eliminating disparities based on gender in the academy and underscore the importance of having strong macro skills in order to survive and flourish within large systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figueira-McDonough, Josefina, F. Ellen Netting, and Ann Nichols-Casebolt, eds. 1998. The role of gender in practice knowledge: Reclaiming half the human experience. New York: Garland.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This edited book contains chapters about the incorporation of content on women into all of the areas that comprise the social work curriculum. Specific chapters focus on macro practice, community practice, and policy with practical recommendations for the classroom. Following its publication sample syllabi were developed for the Council on Social Work Education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Jabour, Anya. 2012. Relationship and leadership: Sophonisba Breckinridge and women in social work. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 27.1: 22–37.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0886109912437496Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examining Breckinridge’s career, this article looks at how female leadership shaped the formative years of the social work profession and provides suggestions for contemporary women who want to recapture the reform (macro) tradition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Levin, Dana S., Michael R. Woodford, Lorraine M. Gutiérrez, and Katherine P. Luke. 2015. Graduate social work faculty’s support for educational content on women and on sexism. Social Work 60.4: 351–359.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/sw/swv029Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study of United States and Anglo-Canadian schools of social work is reported here, revealing that faculty support is greater for the inclusion of women’s content than for content on sexism. Implications for social work education are explored.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Netting, F. Ellen, Mary Katherine O’Connor, Portia L. Cole, et al. 2016. Reclaiming and reimagining macro social work education: A collective biography. Journal of Social Work Education 52.2: 157–169.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A group of macro practice educators discuss their experiences in teaching administration, planning, community, and policy content in multiple schools of social work. They reveal the challenges encountered and offer suggestions for future integration of macro content.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • O’Connor, Mary Katherine, F. Ellen Netting, Portia L. Cole, et al. 2015. Voice and community in the corporate academy: A collective biography. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 30.1: 9–25.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886109914544717Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Focusing on how universities are corporatizing, this study reveals the paradoxical interface of corporate change within academic settings and feminization in social work education. Taking a feminist stand, the authors examine the danger of losing the culture of collegial relationships.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Romero, Belén Agrela, and Amalia Morales Villena. 2017. Knowledge hierarchy of social work and gender studies in Spain. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 32.3: 276–291.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0886109917692373Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is an insightful article about how the disciplines of social work and gender studies are devalued in Spain. The authors focus on research and specialized training that are needed to raise the status of these fields of study and add an international perspective to the literature on women in social work education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tower, Leslie E., Marceline M. Lazzari, Anna C. Faul, and Ann Rosegrant Alvarez. 2015. Challenges, changes, and impact of the Council on Social Work Education Women’s Council: An update. Journal of Social Work Education 51.4: 702–722.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Council of the Role and Status of Women in Social Work Education has played an important historical role in advocating for women’s content in the curriculum. This piece provides an overview of how the Council developed over time and the causes for which it advocated.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zerden, Lisa de Saxe, Teresa L. Ilinitch, Rachel Carlston, Danielle Knutson, Betsy E. Blesdoe, and Matthew O. Howard. 2015. Social work faculty development: An exploratory study of non-tenure-track women faculty. Journal of Social Work Education 51.4: 738–753.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Focusing on women who play adjunctive and collateral roles as teachers within schools of social work, Zerden and her colleagues ask about opportunities for professional development and job satisfaction. Their findings are mixed, thus highlighting the diverse experiences of women in social work education.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Women Conducting Macro-level Research

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This section emphasizes the importance of evidence-based knowledge to support community and organizational macro level interventions. There are many studies that could be cited here, thus this is only a small sampling of research-based articles written by women in the field of social work to illustrate the diversity of issues studied. Three of the articles call for research of various types. Coles, et al. 2017 focuses on the use of prosopography (a historical method), Giunta and Thomas 2015 emphasizes the importance of evaluation studies, whereas Krause, et al. 2017 plead for a national research agenda on campus sexual assault. Community-based grassroots research includes multiple methods. For example, Abramovitz and Albrecht 2013 used a standard tool to analyze community loss, and Barrett, et al. 2016 conducted a content analysis of domestic violence organizational missions. Sanders 2016 evaluates a class offered for women in prisons and encourages its replication in other facilities. International examples are provided in Banerjee 2016, which focuses on gender inequity in India; Gulbrandsen and Walsh 2012, which studies power in grassroots organizations in Canada; and Vo 2016 examining cooperatives in Puerto Rico.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Abramovitz, Mimi, and Jochen Albrecht. 2013. The community loss index: A new social indicator. Social Service Review 87.4: 677–724.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1086/674112Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using a new social indicator called the Community Loss Index (CLI) the authors focus on place as the context in which stress and autobiographical experience interconnect. Capturing collective loss as a concept, they analyze six types of loss in New York City and offer insight into how public officials can intervene with vulnerable families in high-loss neighborhoods.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Banerjee, Mahasweta M. 2016. Gender differences in capabilities for work among poor: Challenges and opportunities. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 31.2: 243–256.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0886109915572847Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Banerjee explores gender inequalities in India. Using a mixed methods design, she finds differences between women and men in their abilities, skills, resources and opportunities. Preliminary findings reveal that women appear to have less freedom to pursue their goals and thus have less opportunities open to them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Barrett, Betty Jo, Salsabel Almanssori, Denise L. Kwan, and Elyse Waddick. 2016. Feminism within domestic violence coalitions: A quantitative content analysis. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 31.3: 359–371.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0886109915578729Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors conducted a content analysis of the missions of state domestic violence coalitions in the United States to investigate the frequency of feminist identity constructs. Fewer than 10 percent of coalitions identified as feminist organizations, often using the degendered language of empowerment and antioppression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bell, Karen. 2014. Exploring epistemic injustice through feminist social work research. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 29.2: 165–177.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0886109913516457Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bell uses qualitative data on women’s experiences with assisted reproduction (AR) and feminist theory in this article. She analyzes these data in light of the concept of epistemic injustice, which occurs when more powerful individuals or groups marginalize the lived experience of less powerful groups or individuals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Coles, D. Crystal, F. Ellen Netting, and Mary Katherine O’Connor. 2017. Using prosopography to raise the voices of those erased in social work history. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886109917721141Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Historical research is important in raising the subjugated voices of women who perform public roles but are forgotten to history. The authors introduce the historical method of prosopography to social workers interested in conducting studies of women’s organizations and contributions in historical context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Giunta, Nancy, and M. Lori Thomas. 2015. Integrating assessment and evaluation into partnership initiatives. Journal of Applied Gerontology 34.5: 609–632.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0733464813487587Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors report the results of a retrospective qualitative study of fifteen cross-sector partnerships designed to improve community-based long-term care service systems. They reveal the importance of using both formative and summative evaluation methods, of developing staff, of supporting flexible and creative strategies, and of including nontraditional partners.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gulbrandsen, Cari L., and Christine A. Walsh. 2012. It starts with me: Women mediate power within feminist activism. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 27.3: 275–288.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0886109912452640Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This study of ten activist women explores their experiences working in a grassroots feminist organization. Focusing on how these women negotiate and mediate power dynamics reveals the importance of recognizing the role of power within organizational practice and the tensions between privilege and oppression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Krause, Kathleen H., Stephanie S. Miedema, Rebecca Woofter, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2017. Feminist research with student activists: Enhancing campus sexual assault research. Family Relations 66.1: 211–223.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/fare.12239Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Calling for an expansion of the national research on campus sexual assault, these authors reframe the current research agenda. Instead of treating students only as objects (survivors and perpetrators), they focus on those student activists who engage in macro activities to mobilize campus efforts and to organize to change attitudes, norms, and interventions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sanders, Cynthia K. 2016. Promoting financial capability of incarcerated women for community reentry: A call to social workers. Journal of Community Practice 24.4: 389–409.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2016.1233161Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Women are the fastest growing population in US prisons, now constituting nearly 10 percent of prison and jail inmates. Sanders’s concern about the majority of women who are poor single mothers prompted her to evaluate a class on financial capability in a minimum security facility. Results indicate that this is a potentially helpful intervention to benefit women who are faced with transitioning back into the community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vo, Samantha. 2016. Concern for community: A case study of cooperatives in Costa Rica. Journal of Community Practice 24.1: 56–76.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2015.1127304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cooperatives are an organizational form often used by women around the world to develop their entrepreneurial skills. Vo conducted her research in Costa Rica, focusing on identifying opportunities for collaborations between cooperatives and social workers.

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