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Social Work Intervention with Traumatized Populations
by
Cheryl Regehr

Introduction

This entry identifies materials from the social work, psychology, and psychiatry literature on the treatment of individuals who have experienced trauma. Individual response to distressing events is highly varied. Several studies have demonstrated that rates of trauma exposure over the life course are between 60 and 80 percent, but rates of experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are only 5 to 8 percent. The reported lifetime prevalence for post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population of the United States is reported to be 5 percent for men and 10 percent for women. Traumatic stress is reported in a wide variety of populations, including victims of shared events, such as wars, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters, and victims of highly personalized events, such as sexual assault or torture. Certain occupational groups are frequently identified as vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder by virtue of their repeated exposure to gruesome events, such as emergency responders or military personnel. Given the wide range of individuals who experience trauma responses, considerable study and effort has gone into the development and evaluation of trauma treatment.

Introductory Works

This section includes important foundational works on the nature of trauma reactions and treatment for trauma. These keys works include Herman 1997, Horowitz 1976, Lindemann 1944, McCann and Pearlman 1990, and Van der Kolk, et al. 1996. In addition it includes review articles on risk factors for developing traumatic responses (Brewin, et al. 2000), interventions (Ehlers and Clark 2003), and the psychobiology of traumatic stress, which is increasingly becoming an important factor in treatment approaches (Pole 2007, Yehuda 2002).

  • Brewin, C. R., B. Andrews, and J. D. Valentine. 2000. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68.5: 748–766.

    DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.748Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Wide-ranging studies examine risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper provides a useful meta-analysis to determine the relative moderating effects of pretrauma characteristics (demographics and previous trauma exposure) and posttrauma factors (trauma severity and social supports).

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  • Ehlers, A., and D. Clark. 2003. Early psychological interventions for adult survivors of trauma: A review. Biological Psychiatry 53:817–826.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01812-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reviews trials of early cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) after trauma.

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  • Herman, Judith L. 1997. Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.

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    Describes the potentially devastating effects of sexual violence on victims and strategies for intervention.

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  • Horowitz, Mardi J. 1976. Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.

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    Now in its fourth edition, published in 2001, this is a foundational book outlining the concept of traumatic stress.

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  • Lindemann, Erich. 1944. Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry 101:141–148.

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    Published shortly after the Cocoanut Grove fire, this article gives an excellent descriptive account of the symptomatology of acute grief and trauma response as well as a discussion of the principles involved in its management.

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  • McCann, I. Lisa, and Laurie Anne Pearlman. 1990. Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy, and transformation. New York: Brunner Mazel.

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    An introduction to the concept of self-schema theory as it relates to psychological trauma.

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  • Pole, N. 2007. The psychophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 133.5: 725–746.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.5.725Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the three clusters of symptoms for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is hyperarousal. This paper provides a meta-analysis of a wide range of studies comparing psychophysiological arousal between individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder and controls. It confirms the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and hyperarousal responses.

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  • Van der Kolk, Bessel A., Alexander C. McFarlane, and Lars Weisaeth, eds. 1996. Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford.

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    As rape is now viewed as one of the archetypal events leading to post-traumatic stress disorder, this book provides an excellent grounding in concepts of etiology, consequences, and possible treatments for traumatic stress.

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  • Yehuda, Rachel. 2002. Clinical relevance of biologic findings in PTSD. Psychiatric Quarterly 73.2: 123–133.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1015055711424Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides an excellent overview of research findings related to biological correlates to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The author deciphers the early 21st-century knowledge and describes the implications of the findings for the clinical presentation, symptom duration, and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

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Textbooks

Traditional textbooks are not found in this field of study. Rather, courses tend to select edited books with chapters on specific topics or textbooks that are somewhat broader in nature, such as Burgess, et al. 2010, which addresses victimology. Further, issues related to treatment of victims of trauma are often imbedded in more general textbooks related to mental health treatment. Many of the edited books throughout this bibliography are used in courses on treatment of victims of trauma. Examples in this section include books by experts in the field, such as Brown 2008, Courtois and Ford 2009, Foa, et al. 2009, and Yehuda 2002.

  • Brown, Laura S. 2008. Cultural competence in trauma therapy: Beyond the flashbacks. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    DOI: 10.1037/11752-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While many models have been developed for working with trauma survivors, few consider the impact of unique cultural experiences on trauma response. The well-known feminist writer Laura S. Brown considers the impact of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation on the presentation and subsequent treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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  • Burgess, Ann Wolbert, Cheryl Regehr, and Albert R. Roberts. 2010. Victimology: Theories and applications. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

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    Aimed at students in the areas of mental health and crime and justice, this book provides an overview of legal, theoretical, and practice issues related to victims of crime. The focus is on understanding the nature of the crime and the social structure in which it occurs, typologies of offenders, and implications for victims.

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  • Courtois, Christine A., and Julian D. Ford, eds. 2009. Treating complex posttraumatic stress disorders: An evidenced-based guide. New York: Guilford.

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    This book focuses on complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from prolonged abuse, such as childhood trauma or persistent intimate partner violence. Well-known authors in the field contribute to chapters on a wide range of treatment interventions.

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  • Foa, Edna B., Terence M. Keane, Matthew J. Friedman, and Judith A. Cohen. 2009. Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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    This book is edited by leading clinical researchers in the field of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It discusses assessment and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in both adults and children. Treatment guidelines are presented for a broad range of intervention strategies based on reviews of the late-20th- and early 21st-century empirical literature.

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  • Reyes, Gilbert, Jon D. Elhai, and Julian D. Ford, eds. 2008. The encyclopedia of psychological trauma. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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    This encyclopedia presents the best available scientific evidence, clinical practice guidelines, and social policies and initiatives from experts on psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in those fields. It is intended to be a reference for academic researchers, educators, and students and for traumatic stress clinical specialists.

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  • Yehuda, Rachel, ed. 2002. Treating trauma survivors with PTSD. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric.

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    An edited volume that covers treatment planning for trauma survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); diagnosis, assessment, and monitoring outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder; and specialized treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder that matches survivors to the appropriate modality.

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Reference Resources

Large databases are available online in this area. Centralized websites are related either to veterans’ services such as the National Center for PTSD and Operational Stress Injury Social Support, victim services such as National Center for Victims of Crime, or to traumatic stress organizations including the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Israel Centre for the Treatment of Psychotrauma, National Child Traumatic Stress Network, and the UK Trauma Group. The National Institute of Mental Health and the World Health Organization also devote sections of their websites to trauma. Each of these websites contains vast amounts of materials, including articles, guidelines, and research reports. These websites maintain up-to-date resources in general because they receive their core funding from government sources or are associated with university-based researchers. Statistics are available from national sources, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and in Canada at Statistics Canada.

Statistics

Canada (Statistics Canada) and the United States (U.S. Department of Justice) conduct national government-funded surveys on crime victimization and mental health. These statistics are collected by health agencies, census bureaus, and criminal justice divisions. In addition the World Health Organization (Krug, et al. 2002) collects information about victimization and mental health on a global level. The results of these surveys, which are available online, provide important data for service planning.

Manuals and Guidebooks

Manuals and guidebooks provide specific strategies and guidelines for posttraumatic stress assessment and interventions. Briere 2004 is an excellent overview of assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Follette and Ruzek 2006, Foa, et al. 2007, and Resick and Schnicke 1993 focus on specific types of interventions. Foa, et al. 2009, cited under Textbooks, provides guidelines for a range of interventions under the auspices of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  • Briere, John. 2004. Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic states: Phenomenology, diagnosis, and measurement. 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    DOI: 10.1037/10809-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Briere provides an accessible manual for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He covers structured clinical interviews; diagnostic interviews; general psychological assessment measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and specific trauma-related scales. He ends with a chapter outlining the way pretrauma functioning, trauma exposure, social supports, comorbidity, and posttraumatic response can be integrated into a comprehensive assessment.

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  • Foa, Edna B., Elizabeth A. Hambree, and Barbara Olasov Rothbaum. 2007. Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences; Therapist guide. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This book provides a comprehensive overview of prolonged exposure therapy, a particular model of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for individuals suffering from persistent and severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is based on the authors’ extensive research and clinical expertise in the area.

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  • Follette, Victoria M., and Josef I. Ruzek, eds. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma. New York: Guilford.

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    This edited book contains chapters from leading clinicians and researchers and applies a range of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) models to different aspects of the posttraumatic experience. Victims of different types of trauma (for instance, sexual assault and combat) and victims experiencing different symptoms (for instance, guilt and dissociative states) are covered.

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  • Resick, Patricia M., and Monica K. Schnicke. 1993. Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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    While this volume is not new, it continues to provide excellent guidance to therapists. The result of extensive research on the assessment and treatment of sexual assault survivors, this book provides a thorough description of the problem of rape; a complete, session-by-session presentation of cognitive processing therapy that includes case descriptions, homework assignments, and worksheets; and consideration of special problems therapists are likely to encounter with both clients and themselves.

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  • Rubin, Allen, and David W. Springer, eds. 2009. Treatment of traumatized adults and children: Clinician’s guide to evidence-based practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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    This is an excellent guidebook that provides information about evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches to treatment of adults and children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It provides a good description of evidence-based practice in general, the research evidence that supports these interventions, and practitioner-friendly guidelines for practice.

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Bibliographies

Online bibliographies provide quick access to a wide range of sources related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health provides resources related to the co-occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use. The U.S. Army War College Library focuses on combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Disaster Technical Assistance Center (DTAC) focuses on victims of disaster. The International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) provides information on a broad spectrum of trauma-related issues.

Journals

The international and interdisciplinary journals specifically devoted to issues related to trauma and its treatment are wide-ranging, including the Journal of Traumatic Stress, the Journal of Loss and Trauma, Traumatology, Victims and Offenders, Violence and Victims, and Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. Other journals, such as Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment and the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, focus on specific populations of trauma victims.

Empirical Reviews of Studies on Trauma Treatment

While thousands of articles can be found in the scholarly literature on the issue of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this section focuses on empirical reviews of treatments for trauma. Three of these (Bisson and Andrew 2007, Regehr, et al. 2009, and Stein, et al. 2006) are systematic reviews for the Campbell Collaboration and the Cochrane Collaboration databases. Others are meta-analyses or helpful summaries of the research literature (Harvey, et al. 2003, Solomon and Johnson 2002).

  • Bisson, J., and M. Andrew. 2007. Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3.

    DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a frequently cited Cochrane Collaboration review focusing on effective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The review determines that various forms of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are effective but other forms of psychological intervention do not reduce symptoms.

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  • Davidson, P. R., and K. C. Parker. 2001. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69.2: 305–316.

    DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.69.2.305Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been one of the more controversial forms of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis considers thirty-four studies evaluating eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. It concludes that this form of treatment is no more effective than other forms and indeed that the eye movement component is unnecessary.

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  • Harvey, Allison G., Richard A. Bryant, and Nicholas Tarrier. 2003. Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review 23:501–522.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0272-7358(03)00035-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written by leaders in the field, this article provides an excellent synthesis of the general principles of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and how the techniques can be applied to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Efficacy of treatments is also reviewed. This article is excellent for those wishing to obtain a general overview of the topic.

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  • Regehr, Cheryl, Ramona Alaggia, and Michael Saini. 2009. Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape.

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    A systematic review of controlled and clinical trials of psychotherapies for victims of rape and sexual assault and a synthesis of effective treatments for addressing distress and trauma.

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  • Solomon, S. D., and D. M. Johnson. 2002. Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: A practice-friendly review of outcome research. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58:947–959.

    DOI: 10.1002/jclp.10069Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This review is directed at practitioners and summarizes treatment outcome research for a variety of forms of psychological treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While these authors are more supportive of some models than other authors, they also conclude that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has the greatest empirical support.

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  • Stein, D. J., J. C. Ipser, and S. Seedat. 2006. Pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. Art. no. CD002795.

    DOI: 10.1002/14651858Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A systematic review of pharmacological treatments for traumatic stress.

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Trauma Treatments for Specific Populations

There are thousands of articles on the treatment of individuals suffering from trauma response. See also the section Journals. In addition there are many edited volumes and authored manuals on the topic of trauma treatment. Frequently articles, chapters, and books focus on the treatment of specific populations. This section represents categories of trauma victims that have been the focus of considerable effort with respect to the development of treatment approaches.

Sexual Assault Victims

Victims of sexual violence have received the greatest focus with respect to trauma treatment since the 1970s. Key evidence-based approaches have focused on general cognitive behavioral approaches (Foa and Rothbaum 1998, Jaycox, et al. 2002) or specific models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (Resick and Schnicke 1993). Psychotherapy approaches, such as that described in Lubin and Johnson 2008, are also common. Kaufman 2008 presents a model for immediate emergency care of sexual assault victims. Regehr, et al. 2009 is a systematic review of effective methods of treatment.

  • Foa, Edna B., and Barbara Olasov Rothbaum. 1998. Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford.

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    Foa and Rothbaum are among the best-known authors in this field. This early book provides a step-by-step guide for treating victims of rape using empirically based methods.

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  • Jaycox, Lisa H., Lori Zoellner, and Edna B. Foa. 2002. Cognitive-behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58.8: 891–906.

    DOI: 10.1002/jclp.10065Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is in a special issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology on treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) entitled Understanding and Treating PTSD and edited by Tracie Shea and Caron Zlotnick. It provides an easily accessible and comprehensive explanation of cognitive behavioral theory and specific techniques of prolonged exposure therapy.

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  • Kaufman, Miriam. 2008. Care of the adolescent sexual assault victim. Pediatrics 122.2: 462–470.

    DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1581Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on guidelines from the American Pediatric Association, this report provides new information to update emergency room personnel on the assessment and care of sexual assault victims.

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  • Lubin, Hadar, and David Read Johnson. 2008. Trauma-centered group psychotherapy for women. New York: Routledge.

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    This book describes the application of the trauma-centered group psychotherapy model in the treatment of multiply traumatized women with heterogeneous traumas.

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  • Regehr, Cheryl, Ramona Alaggia, and Michael Saini. 2009. Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape.

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    The results of a systematic review of controlled and clinical trials of psychotherapies for victims of rape and sexual assault and a synthesis of effective treatments for addressing distress and trauma. Differences in effect sizes between treatments are assessed by considering the relative influences of different characteristics of the populations used in evaluative studies, treatment modalities, targeted outcomes, and research designs.

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  • Resick, Patricia A., and Monica K. Schnicke. 1993. Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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    This book provides a complete, session-by-session presentation of cognitive processing therapy that includes case descriptions, homework assignments, and worksheets and consideration of clinical issues that arise in the treatment of rape.

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Emergency Responders

Emergency responders have been the focus of primarily short-term, crisis-oriented interventions. Some books, such as Regehr and Bober 2005 and Violanti and Paton 1999, focus more generally on psychological trauma and interventions in emergency responders. Mitchell and Everly 2001 focuses on a particular short-term model that has subsequently been assessed in meta-analysis (Van Emmerik, et al. 2002).

  • Mitchell, Jeffrey T., and George S. Everly Jr. 2001. Critical incident stress debriefing: An operations manual for CISD, defusing, and other group crisis intervention services. Ellicott City, MD: Chevron.

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    This book provides an overview of critical incident stress management, an approach initially developed for the emergency services.

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  • Regehr, Cheryl, and Ted Bober. 2005. In the line of fire: Trauma in the emergency services. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This book addresses trauma exposure and trauma response in firefighters, paramedics, and police officers. Based on the research and clinical experience of the authors, it provides a theoretical framework for understanding trauma in the emergency services, poignant case examples, and strategies for intervention at both the individual and the organizational levels.

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  • Van Emmerik, Arnold A. P., Jan H. Kamphuis, Alexander M. Hulsbosch, and Paul M. G. Emmelkamp. 2002. Single session debriefing after psychological trauma: A meta-analysis. Lancet 360:766–771.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09897-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is an often-cited meta-analysis of the efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing. It is often used to refute the use of the model and is thus a must-read for anyone in the area.

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  • Violanti, John M., and Douglas Paton. 1999. Police trauma: Psychological aftermath of civilian combat. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

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    This book focuses on the psychological impact of police civilian combat.

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Survivors of Mass Disaster

A growing body of literature considers trauma and interventions for victims of mass disaster. This is particularly true in the wake of disasters caused by both terrorism and natural causes in the United States in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Research in this area covers responses to disaster (Flynn and Norwood 2004, Norris, et al. 2002) and various forms of intervention (Housley and Beutler 2007, Seeley 2008, Ursano, et al. 2003). Reyes and Jacobs 2006, Vernberg, et al. 2008, and Webb 2004 provide structured guidelines for intervention.

  • Flynn, B. W., and A. E. Norwood. 2004. Defining normal psychological reactions to disaster. In Special Issue: Psychiatry of mass disaster and terrorism. Edited by Larry H. Pastor. Psychiatric Annals 34.8: 597–603.

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    The authors assert that years of experience in a wide variety of extraordinary events have demonstrated a number of common factors that characterize what happens to people and how they respond to interventions and services. The article identifies the normal phases of psychological reaction to disaster that underlie the basic assumptions and principles of the mental health response to disaster.

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  • Housley, Jennifer, and Larry E. Beutler. 2007. Treating victims of mass disaster and terrorism. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber.

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    This book is part of the Advances in Psychotherapy: Evidence-based Practice series. It provides a model for aftercare that is cognizant of the stages of individual and community recovery.

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  • Norris, F. H., M. J. Friedman, and P. J. Watson. 2002. 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II; Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry 65:240–260.

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    An outstanding article summarizing the disaster mental health literature. It identifies high-risk factors, including extreme and widespread damage to property; ongoing community financial distress; human intent as a cause for the disaster; and a high prevalence of injuries, threat to life, and loss of life.

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  • Reyes, Gilbert, and Gerard A. Jacobs. 2006. Handbook of international disaster psychology: Fundamentals and overview. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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    This book combines the work of academics and front-line disaster mental health workers. It provides descriptions of various programs that have been instituted post-disaster in a wide range of locales.

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  • Seeley, Karen M. 2008. Therapy after terror: 9/11, psychotherapists, and mental health. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book focuses on the 2001 attack on the World Trade Center from the perspective of responding mental health professionals. This is an on-the-ground view of the processes by which the disaster interventions occurred.

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  • Ursano, Robert J., Carol S. Fullerton, and Ann E. Norwood, eds. 2003. Terrorism and disaster: Individual and community mental health interventions. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book considers the traumatic effects of terrorism on individuals, families, emergency responders, and society. It covers prevention strategies, interventions, and the importance of leadership in the face of terrorism-related disaster.

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  • Vernberg, Eric M., Alan M. Steinberg, Anne K. Jacobs, Melissa J. Brymer, Patricia J. Watson, Joy D. Osofsky, Christopher M. Layne, Robert S. Pynoos, and Josef I. Ruzek. 2008. Innovations in disaster mental health: Psychological first aid. In Special Issue: National child traumatic stress network. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 39.4: 381–388.

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    This article is based on the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide of the Medical Reserve Corps developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the National Center for PTSD. It provides an overview of psychological first aid and core actions required for appropriate intervention.

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  • Webb, Nancy Boyd, ed. 2004. Mass trauma and violence: Helping families and children cope. New York: Guilford.

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    An edited volume, this book covers the impacts of traumatic loss on children and families and effective interventions to ameliorate distress.

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Survivors of War and Holocaust

Individuals who are survivors of war present unique challenges due to the often prolonged and repeated exposure to traumatic images, deprivation, and torture. Several works address the issues related to treatment of this population (Gerrity, et al. 2001, Schauer, et al. 2005). Others focus on long-term consequences among both aging survivors (Kellermann 2001) and adult children of survivors (Abrams 1999).

  • Abrams, M. S. 1999. Intergenerational transmission of trauma: Recent contributions from the literature of family systems approaches to treatment. American Journal of Psychotherapy 53.2: 225–231.

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    The long-range generational effects of trauma have been widely reported in the literature, especially regarding the Holocaust. This article reviews late-20th-century contributions in the literature of family systems approaches to treatment.

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  • Gerrity, Ellen, Terence M. Keane, and Farris Turna. 2001. The mental health consequences of torture. New York: Kluwer Academic.

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    Addresses the status of scientific knowledge on the mental health consequences of torture and related violence and trauma. Reviews of closely related traumatic stress research areas, such as studies of war veterans, Holocaust survivors, rape and domestic violence survivors, former prisoners of war, refugees, and assault survivors, are provided.

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  • Kellermann, Natan P. F. 2001. The long-term psychological effects and treatment of Holocaust trauma. Journal of Loss and Trauma 6.3: 197–218.

    DOI: 10.1080/108114401753201660Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses the intergenerational impact of the Holocaust, including the aging survivors and their now adult children. Possible intervention strategies are proposed.

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  • Schauer, Margarete, Frank Neuner, and Thomas Elbert. 2005. Narrative exposure therapy: A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror, or torture. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber.

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    Describes a short-term treatment designed by the authors (narrative exposure therapy or KIDNET) for children affected by war in developing countries.

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  • Ursano, Robert J., and Ann E. Norwood, eds. 1996. Emotional aftermath of the Persian Gulf War: Veterans, families, communities, and nations. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric.

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    This edited book addresses the effects of war trauma on returning soldiers, their children, and their families. Specific aspects of the war that contribute to trauma responses, such as chemical and biological weapons, are reviewed. In addition treatment strategies are discussed.

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Children

Children represent a specialized population due to the fact that their responses to trauma are highly varied and are related to the nature of the recovery environment and their cognitive understanding of the events (Osofsky 2004). Brom, et al. 2009 focuses on risk factors, resilience factors, and a variety of interventions. Other works present specific approaches, including art and other nonverbal therapies (Gil 2006), cognitive-behavioral approaches (Cohen, et al. 2006), and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) (Rodenberg, et al. 2009).

  • Brom, Danny, Ruth Pat-Horenczyk, and Julian Ford, eds. 2009. Treating traumatized children: Risk, resilience, and recovery. New York: Routledge.

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    This edited book originating from the Israel Center for the Treatment of Psychotrauma provides an excellent overview of clinical work with traumatized children. Topics covered by an international team of authors include developmental and social risk factors, factors that bolster resilience, and empirically based interventions.

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  • Cohen, Judith A., Anthony P. Mannarino, and Esther Deblinger. 2006. Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford.

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    This book presents a cognitive-behavioral approach to treatment of traumatized children. It covers assessment of trauma in children, developing treatment plans for children, and working with parents and other family members.

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  • Gil, Eliana. 2006. Helping abused and traumatized children: Integrating directive and nondirective approaches. New York: Guilford.

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    Clinical material is used to show how play, art, a sand tray, and other nonverbal and symbolic techniques can enable children to externalize and process overwhelming experiences in a nonthreatening way. Also emphasizes the value of cognitive and behavioral procedures for dealing with distressing thoughts, emotions, and behaviors on a more verbal, rational level.

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  • Hutchison, Sandra B. 2005. Effects of and interventions for childhood trauma from infancy through adolescence: Pain unspeakable. Binghamton, NY: Haworth.

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    This book addresses the effects of traumatic events on children from infancy through adolescence and describes tools of intervention.

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  • Osofsky, Joy D., ed. 2004. Young children and trauma: Intervention and treatment. New York: Guilford.

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    Considers the complexity of the traumatic experience for the young child, including the biological and psychological context in which it occurs, processing of the experience into memory, recall, and treatment issues.

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  • Rodenberg, Roos, Anja Benjamin, Carlijn de Roos, Ann Marie Meijer, and Geert Jan Stams. 2009. Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 29.7: 599–606.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is the first meta-analysis considering the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children. In reviewing seven studies, it concludes that eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is more effective than no treatment and marginally more effective than other forms of treatment.

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LAST MODIFIED: 06/29/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0130

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