Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Social Work Neuroscience and Social Work
by
Robert J. MacFadden

Introduction

Social work has historically embraced a biopsychosocial perspective, but in teaching, practice, and research there has been much less emphasis on the biological side of this professional stance. Recent advances in neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, education, and related fields have provided an exciting new paradigm to explore the issues that are central to social work, such as coping, adjustment, mental health, child and adult development, attachment, learning, emotion, and relationships. Social work is at the earliest of stages in translating the meaning and significance of this emerging knowledge for its own professional purposes. As has been the tradition, social work will continue to benefit from knowledge developed from cognate professions, such as psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and education. At the same time, neuroscience itself is at an early stage in the development and refinement of knowledge relevant to the understanding of the brain, mind, emotions, thinking, and behavior. However, even in this early stage of knowledge, neuroscience and related fields are providing some insights for social work.

Introductory Works

There are several texts that provide background information useful to understanding neuroscience and neurobiology. Additionally, a few authors have focused specifically on how this new knowledge can inform social work practice and education. Applegate and Shapiro 2005 offers one of the best introductions to how neurobiology is relevant to social work practitioners and educators through an emphasis on attachment. Johnson 2004 explores addictions and neurobiology, with an emphasis on their relevance to social workers and nonscientists. Joseph LeDoux is a leading neuroscientist in the study of fear; LeDoux 1996 focuses on the fundamental nature of emotion and how this relates to cognition and behavior. Nunn, et al. 2008 presents information about the brain, its components, and its functions through the metaphor of an English village. Siegel 1999 offers a seminal look at how the brain is involved in attachment and in the development of self. Zull 2002 presents an educator’s view of how the brain learns, including the implications of this for educators.

  • Applegate, Jeffrey S., and Janet R. Shapiro. 2005. Neurobiology for clinical social work: Theory and practice. New York: Norton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The emphasis in this book is on the neurobiology of attachment and its implications for knowledge building and clinical social work practice. The book is written for clinical social workers and social work educators and emphasizes neural integration and emotional regulation.

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Harriette C. 2004. Psyche and synapse: Expanding worlds. 2d ed. Greenfield, MA: Deerfield Valley.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The first edition of this book (published in 1999 and titled Psyche, Synapse, and Substance: The Role of Neurobiology in Emotions, Behavior, Thinking, and Addiction for Non-Scientists) presents basic information about neurobiology and discusses the relevance of this content for social workers. Mental health and addictions are particularly emphasized with many illustrations and “fill in the blanks” sections to reinforce learning. This second edition offers an expanded range of topics, including a more expansive exploration of the biological and social approach to social work assessment and treatment.

    Find this resource:

  • LeDoux, Joseph. 1996. The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a classic and engaging text written by an eminent neuroscientist. Focuses on topics relevant to social workers, including how the brain generates emotions and feelings, especially fear and anxiety. LeDoux points out that the emotions were our earliest form of decision making and that many emotions are products of evolutionary wisdom. In addition, he argues that emotion cannot be separated from reason, since emotions are part of the very edifice of reason.

    Find this resource:

  • Nunn, Kenneth, Tanya Hanstock, and Bryan Lask. 2008. Who’s who of the brain: A guide to its inhabitants, where they live, and what they do. London: Kingsley.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Given that many social workers may not have a biology background, this text uses the metaphor of a small English town, with key inhabitants reflecting the central functions of the brain. It is a well-illustrated book that may help social workers both understand and remember brain biology.

    Find this resource:

  • Siegel, Daniel J. 1999. The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: Guilford.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this seminal work on attachment, emotions, and the brain, Daniel J. Siegel, a psychiatrist and attachment researcher, makes fundamental connections between how the brain develops and its relationships to attachment, communication of emotions, and the developing self. This is a very densely written book, but the fundamental insights it offers are worth the effort.

    Find this resource:

  • Zull, James. 2002. The art of changing the brain: Enriching teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a well-written text for educators that connects learning and teaching with the brain. The basic structure and functions of the brain are discussed in clear, nontechnical language and then related to how students learn. The author is a biologist and teacher in higher education, and he provides rich examples from his experience that highlight teaching as the art of changing the brain.

    Find this resource:

Reference Resources

There are a number of web-based resources related to neuroscience. While none are specifically based in social work, many provide content and additional links that have relevancy to social work. Most of these are developed by foundations, such as the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, schools of higher education, such as Bryn Mawr College (Serendip), and societies, such as the Society for Neuroscience. Brains.org links psychological topics with neuroscience research and education in an alphabetized listing. It also includes references to recent brain-based books. Brain Mysteries is formatted to profile the latest research summaries in a news format that connects neuroscience with diverse topics, such as personality, anger, Alzheimer’s disease, and sexual orientation. It includes an archive of issues dating back to 2007. Eric Chudler’s website Neuroscience Education focuses on fundamental brain knowledge in areas such as neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and behavioral neuroscience. It also includes other interesting topics, such as brain quotes and neuroscience milestones. Brain-Based Learning is a website run by Emerging Technologies that offers an extensive alphabetized listing of brain-based links, with a special emphasis on education and learning.

Textbooks

Several important texts provide a foundation in the areas of neuroscience and clinical practice and education. Arden and Linford 2009 approaches the topic from a clinical practice perspective with a heavy emphasis on evidence-based research. Badenoch 2008 emphasizes an interpersonal neurobiology perspective heavily rooted in everyday clinical practice. Cameron and McDermott 2007 offers a unique exploration of the roles of the body and the brain in social work practice. Cozolino 2010 presents an updated approach to psychotherapy that is rooted in interpersonal neurobiology. Farmer 2009 emphasizes a social work perspective to neuroscience that includes addictions and mental health and a biopsychosocial-spiritual approach to practice. Fosha, et al. 2009 deepens the discussion of how emotions relate to the brain, cognition, and behavior. Grawe 2007 brings a neuropsychotherapy perspective to practice with a detailed exploration of the implications of research findings to clinical practice. Jensen 2008 approaches the neuroscience literature from an educator’s perspective and explains its implications for educators. Pliszka 2003 presents fundamental knowledge about neuroscience and mental health for clinicians.

  • Arden, John B., and Lloyd Linford. 2009. Brain-based therapy with adults: Evidence-based treatment for everyday practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors describe this book as being based on evidence-based psychotherapy grounded in neuroscience. It is written for psychotherapists, including social workers who wish to incorporate an understanding of neuroscience into their assessment and intervention. It includes some fundamental brain biology and explores a range of psychotherapies, particularly the therapeutic relationship.

    Find this resource:

  • Badenoch, Bonnie. 2008. Being a brain-wise therapist: A practical guide to interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author is a marriage and family therapist whose work is part of the interpersonal neurobiology approach led by Daniel Siegel. The book synthesizes much of the research on neuroscience and neurobiology and translates the findings into implications for therapy in a clear and compelling way. The discussion includes working with children, couples, and families from this brain-wise perspective.

    Find this resource:

  • Cameron, Nadine, and Fiona McDermott. 2007. Social work and the body. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book focuses on exploring theories that inform a social work theory of the body that includes neuroscience. Part 1explores these theories, and Part 2 discusses implications for settings such as mental health, child protection, the aged, the body and health, and alcohol and drugs.

    Find this resource:

  • Cozolino, Louis J. 2010. The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Healing the social brain. 2d ed. New York: Norton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This second edition of this text is intended for psychotherapists who are interested in neuroscience and how both problems and interventions are related to brain functioning. Cozolino highlights the neuroplasticity of the brain and argues that all forms of psychotherapy are effective to the extent that they enhance change in relevant neural circuits. Social workers may benefit from viewing psychotherapy and other forms of intervention from this new brain-based paradigm.

    Find this resource:

  • Farmer, Rosemary L. 2009. Neuroscience and social work practice: The missing link. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines attachment perspectives as well as trauma, child neglect, psychotherapy, psychotropic medications, and addictions. Farmer notes that social workers have not traditionally seen the “social” as having anything to do with the brain. She argues that a neuroscientific perspective is a “missing link” for social workers that needs to be added to a transactional model so the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual can be understood in interaction with each other.

    Find this resource:

  • Fosha, Diana, Daniel J. Siegel, and Marion Solomon, eds. 2009. The healing power of emotion: Affective neuroscience, development, and clinical practice. New York: Norton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text is part of the Interpersonal Neurobiology Series by Norton and contains leading researchers and clinicians discussing the role of emotions in psychotherapy. The editors claim that emotions are at the nexus of thought and action, self and other, person and environment, biology and culture. Includes specific therapies that incorporate an understanding of interpersonal neurobiology.

    Find this resource:

  • Grawe, Klaus. 2007. Neuropsychotherapy: How the neurosciences inform effective psychotherapy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The series editor, Bruce Wampold, describes this text as one of the most popular German psychotherapy books. Translated into English, it meticulously describes how neuroscience findings inform modern psychotherapy practice, including a focus on what psychotherapists need to know, neural correlates of mental disorders, and implications for practice. It is heavily research based and offers both basic and advanced content.

    Find this resource:

  • Jensen, Eric. 2008. Brain-based learning: The new paradigm of teaching. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Brain-based learning is presented as a new paradigm for educators, and the text explores fundamental biology associated with learning, along with a wide array of related topics, including sensory contributions, emotions, teacher communication, nonconscious climate, memory, sense, meaning, brain-compatible classrooms, curriculum, learning assessment, and teaching strategies.

    Find this resource:

  • Pliszka, Steven. 2003. Neuroscience for the Mental Health Clinician. New York: Guilford.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text provides fundamental information about neuroscience and how this knowledge informs mental health practitioners. The book is divided into two sections: basic principles of neuroscience and knowledge about specific mental disorders as informed by neuroscience. The text contains numerous illustrations that illuminate the content.

    Find this resource:

Bibliographies

Given the newness of neuroscience in social work, there are no online bibliographies in this area. The bibliographic sites listed here include both general neuroscience bibliographies and a range of special sites associated with social work interests, such as parenting, education, autism, and ethics. The Committed Parent website includes the Brain Bibliography, which offers parents a comprehensive list of texts that help them understand how neuroscience research can be applied to parenting. Neurodiversity.com has a number of online bibliographies on the site, including Books on Cognitive Psychology, Books on Neuroscience, and Neuropsychology and Autism. They offer information on almost all aspects of autism as well as associated links to relevant resources, including bibliographies on neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and autism and neuroscience. Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz offers the Neuroethics Bibliography: 1985–Today, which includes citations for books and journals from international sources that discuss various ethical issues associated with neuroscience advances and applications.

Journals

There are no known journals in social work and neuroscience. This list includes journal articles that are relevant to social work and neuroscience. Cozolino and Sprokay 2006 makes the neuroscience connection between education and psychotherapeutic change. Carter 2003 asserts that emotion and cognition are directly linked. Fishbane 2007 employs the latest neuroscience research to emphasize the social nature of the brain and how the brain fundamentally influences and is influenced by relationships. Immordino-Yang and Damasio 2007 reminds us that knowledge from neuroscience confirms that learning is not a rational or disembodied process or a lonely one. It is intimately tied into emotions and relationships. Siegel 2006 succinctly describes the interpersonal neurobiology approach to psychotherapy, which is the most researched and well-articulated psychotherapy perspective in the neuroscience area. Schore and Schore 2008 offers a view of attachment that has been updated to include new neuroscience knowledge that has transformed attachment thinking into a theory of regulation. Matto and Strolin-Goltzman 2010 presents a neuroscience-informed, multimodal treatment approach for substance abuse. Teicher 2002 cautions that early trauma in children can lead to more than psychological and social problems; it can also physically alter children’s brains.

  • Carter, Sid. 2003. The nature of feelings and emotion-based learning within psychotherapy and counselling: Neuroscience is putting the heart back into emotion. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling 6.3: 225–241.

    DOI: 10.1080/0967026042000269683Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors indicate that neuroscience research is highlighting the connections among emotion, psychotherapeutic change, and learning. They further emphasize that cognition cannot be separated from emotion and that emotion, thinking, behaving, and learning are all intimately linked.

    Find this resource:

  • Cozolino, Louis, and Susan Sprokay. 2006. Neuroscience and adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 110:11–19.

    DOI: 10.1002/ace.214Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors assert that changes in psychotherapy reflect a particular type of learning and that the fundamentals of learning are the same in a classroom and across the life span. They articulate key principles of learning that are similar in both education and psychotherapy.

    Find this resource:

  • Fishbane, Mona Dekoven. 2007. Wired to connect: Neuroscience, relationships, and therapy. Family Process 46.3: 395–412.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2007.00219.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is an excellent article that presents fundamental neuroscience knowledge for social workers and emphasizes the essential social nature of the brain, including communication, attachment, self, and other emotional regulation.

    Find this resource:

  • Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen, and Antonio Damasio. 2007. We feel, therefore we learn: The relevance of affective and social neuroscience to education. Mind, Brain, and Education 1.1: 3–10.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-228X.2007.00004.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A seminal paper connecting the process of emotion to the key cognitive processes of learning, attention, memory, decision making, and social functioning. Emotions provide a rudder to guide judgment and action, which is essential to decision making.

    Find this resource:

  • Matto, Holly C., and Jessica Strolin-Goltzman. 2010. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: Innovations for advancing practice-based research. Social Work 5.2: 147–156.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors stress the importance of research agendas that combine biology, behavior, and environmental transactions for social work. Using findings from neuroscience, the authors describe the development of a multimodal treatment approach for substance abuse.

    Find this resource:

  • Schore, Judith R., and Allan N. Schore. 2008. Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical Social Work Journal 36:9–20.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10615-007-0111-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors update attachment theory to reflect new neuroscience understanding, which focuses on bodily based processes, interactive regulation, experience-dependent brain maturation, stress, and nonconscious relational transactions. They assert that attachment theory has evolved to become a theory of regulation.

    Find this resource:

  • Siegel, Daniel J. 2006. An interpersonal neurobiology approach to psychotherapy. Psychiatric Annals 36.4: 248–256.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is a road map for understanding the interpersonal neurobiology approach to psychotherapy. It clearly articulates the fundamental goals of psychotherapy and presents the emerging neuroscience research that supports this perspective. Over sixteen books from the Norton series on Interpersonal Neurobiology have been published that reflect this approach.

    Find this resource:

  • Teicher, Martin H. 2002. Scars that won’t heal: The neurobiology of child abuse. Scientific American 286.3 (March): 68–75.

    DOI: 10.1038/scientificamerican0302-68Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author cites research that supports the view that early maltreatment of children not only affects the psychological and social development of children but during critical periods it physically alters the brain and can leave an indelible imprint on its structure and functioning. Such abuse can create a cascade of molecular and neurobiological changes that may irreversibly alter the neurodevelopment of the child.

    Find this resource:

Origins of Neuroscience in Social Work Practice

Saleebey 1992 offers one of the earliest challenges to social work to incorporate a biological understanding in working with people. Johnson 2001 alerts social workers to the importance of understanding addictions from a neuroscience perspective. Applegate and Shapiro 2005 uses the emerging knowledge from neurobiology to highlight new perspectives on attachment for the clinical social worker. Farmer 2009 uses recent neuroscience findings to explore their implications for social workers in areas such as attachment, mental health, and addictions.

  • Applegate, Jeffrey S., and Janet R. Shapiro. 2005. Neurobiology for clinical social work: Theory and practice. New York: Norton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The emphasis in this book is on the neurobiology of attachment and its implications for knowledge building and clinical social work practice. A special focus is on affect regulation, or how individuals regulate emotion and affect expression. Includes introductory information about the brain, memory, affect, and attachment and looks at infant mental health, exploring some applications of neurobiological knowledge in this area.

    Find this resource:

  • Farmer, Rosemary L. 2009. Neuroscience in social work practice: The missing link. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes attachment perspectives and explores trauma, child neglect, psychotherapy, psychotropic medications, and addictions. Farmer notes that social workers have not traditionally seen the “social” as having anything to do with the brain. She argues that a neuroscientific perspective is a “missing link” for social workers that needs to be added to a transactional model so the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual can be understood in interaction with each other (p. 44).

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Harriette C. 2001. Neuroscience in social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Practice and the Addictions 1.3: 88–102.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Johnson asserts that specialists in substance abuse, addictions, and co-occuring diagnoses are beginning to view these problems in less of a dualistic, mind-body way and more from an integrative biopsychosocial perspective. She argues that the neurobiological perspective is essential for social workers to have a biopsychosocial understanding of these problems.

    Find this resource:

  • Saleebey, Dennis. 1992. Biology’s challenge to social work: Embodying the person-in-environment perspective. Journal of Social Work 37.2: 112–118.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Saleebey highlights many client issues that involve the body and the brain, and he discusses utilizing “body wisdom” to inform practice. Argues that social workers need to ally with the enormous restorative powers of the body, which includes brain plasticity.

    Find this resource:

Policy

Given the fundamental nature of neuroscience, there are policy implications of neuroscience research that would interest social workers in a wide variety of areas. For example, neuroscience findings in infant and child brain development point to the importance of the very first years and reinforce the need that children receive timely, adequate, and appropriate nutrition, stimulation, challenge, and security. This has considerable implications for early childhood programs and school nutritional initiatives. Blending neuroscience with attachment research highlights how early caregivers who provide relationships characterized by consistency, security, and emotional attunement help foster children with more secure attachments. These critical attachment relationships are essential in helping the brains of infants and children develop physically, psychologically, and socially. This has implications for child welfare programs, parenting initiatives, and antipoverty programs. Emerging neuroscience research on new memory drugs may help reduce the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder for victims while raising other ethical issues, such as designer drugs for memory enhancement. An important resource in the policy area is the Society for Neuroscience. This organization addresses the significant educational and advocacy issues evolving from the research in neuroscience. The society’s website contains material that documents public policy work in the United States and includes national and international initiatives in public policy and neuroscience.

Teaching

Most of the few social work authors writing about neuroscience or neurobiology underscore the importance of teaching social workers about neuroscience and neurobiology. Social workers with more knowledge of the biological will be able to integrate this with the psychological and social to better embrace the biopsychosocial perspective that is the hallmark of the profession. There is also, however, a vibrant educational literature that employs developments from neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and related fields to inform education and educational strategies that can be useful to social work educators. This brain-based or brain-compatible learning field has been in development since the late 20th century, and there are numerous texts that provide detailed information and strategies based on much of the evidence that has been emerging. There is another compelling reason for social work practitioners and researchers to become familiar with the literature in the brain-based education area. Successful teaching and effective clinical practice both involve neural changes within the student or client. For therapy and teaching to be effective, clients and students need to experience physical change in their neural circuits. This is the nature of learning, whether its goal is for the person to become happier or to master a new task. Many of the conditions that foster optimal learning in the classroom are similar to the conditions that promote change in the therapy session. The articles cited in this section present information that helps readers understand how the brain works and how teaching can be tailored to maximize learning and neural change. Caine, et al. 2005 distills a considerable amount of brain research into twelve teaching principles to optimize learning. Johnson and Taylor 2006 focuses on neuroscience and adult learning. Materna 2007 is written for educators and is one of the few texts that focuses on adult learning. Sousa 2006 contains a significant number of sections termed the “Practitioner’s Corner” that translate the research into specialized teaching strategies. Sprenger 2007 offers teaching strategies based on neuroscience findings coupled with the author’s extensive personal experiences as an educator. Sylwester 2005 is a handbook of brain terms and cognitive processes fundamental to learning. Wolfe 2001 presents an informational processing model of brain functioning with special reference to attention, emotion, and rehearsal, and it provides a tool kit of brain-compatible strategies for teachers.

  • Caine, R., G. Caine, C. McClintic, and K. Klimek. 2005. 12 brain/mind learning principles in action: The fieldbook for making connections, teaching, and the human brain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text is characterized as a field book for making connections, teaching, and the human brain. It employs twelve research-based brain-mind principles for teaching and learning.

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Sandra, and Kathleen Taylor, eds. 2006. The neuroscience of adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 110. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited text contains a collection of articles from leading authors that focus on fundamentals of neuroscience and how these inform adult educators. Topics include brain functioning and adult learning, meaning and emotion, fear and learning, and brain self-repair in psychotherapy and its implications for education.

    Find this resource:

  • Materna, Laurie. 2007. Jump start the adult learner: How to engage and motivate adults using brain-compatible strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is written for adults and focuses on how to engage and motivate adults using brain-compatible strategies. It features a useful section on metacognitive learning strategies, including diagrams and forms that can be used directly with adult students to motivate and stimulate thinking and remembering.

    Find this resource:

  • Sousa, David A. 2006. How the brain learns. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book for educators contains excellent fundamental content on the brain and the process of learning and teaching. It is highly illustrated and presented in an easy-to-comprehend style.

    Find this resource:

  • Sprenger, Marilee B. 2007. Becoming a “wiz” at brain-based teaching: How to make every year your best year. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using the metaphor of the Wizard of Oz, the author offers some fundamental content targeted at practicing educators.

    Find this resource:

  • Sylwester, Robert. 2005. How to explain a brain: An educator’s handbook of brain terms and cognitive processes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The author presents alphabetized entries of neuroscience terms in a way that is useful for educators.

    Find this resource:

  • Wolfe, Patricia. 2001. Brain matters: Translating research into classroom practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text provides a primer on brain anatomy and physiology and then focuses on how the brain learns, concluding with a section on how research into neuroscience and related fields informs actual classroom practice.

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389678-0133

back to top

Article

Up

Down