In This Article Islam in North America

  • Introduction
  • General Overviews
  • Bibliographies
  • Mosques
  • Contemporary North American Muslim Voices
  • Muslims and the Media

Islamic Studies Islam in North America
by
Amir Hussain
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0057

Introduction

Many North Americans are surprised to learn that Muslims have a long history on their continent. Historians estimate that between 10 and 20 percent of the slaves who came from West Africa were Muslim. Thomas Jefferson, to take a noted figure in American history, purchased a translation of the Qur’an in 1765, more than a decade before he drafted the Declaration of Independence. The first Muslim immigrants to North America other than slaves were from the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Many were itinerants who came to make money and then return to their countries of origin. Some, however, were farmers and settled permanently. Mosques sprang up in 1915 (Maine), 1919 (Connecticut), 1928 (New York), and 1937 (North Dakota). In the late 19th century, the first Muslims came to Canada as Arab merchants who often landed in the east but wandered west to the frontier selling goods to remote farms and to the north selling to fur traders. This early population was small, with the first Canadian census of 1871 listing thirteen Muslims. The first established Muslim settlement was in Lac Labiche in northern Alberta. The descendants of those settlers helped build the first Canadian mosque, the Al-Rashid Mosque in Edmonton in 1938. The immigration policies of Canada in the 1970s meant that many of the Muslim immigrants were professionals or well-qualified business people. They often did well in their new country. Most of these Muslims emigrated either from South Asia or from the Arab world. In addition, however, there are Canadian Muslims whose ethnic backgrounds reflect immigration from almost every part of the world, from Bosnia to Indonesia. The 2001 Canadian census listed 579,600 Muslims in Canada, meaning that Islam became the second-largest religious tradition in Canada—well behind Christianity but ahead of Judaism. In the last half-century, the Muslim population of the United States increased dramatically through immigration (especially following the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965), strong birth rates, and conversion. The U.S. census does not ask the question of religious affiliation, so there is less certainty about the size of the U.S. Muslim population. Some estimates are as low as 2 million people and as high as 10 million. Research into America’s immigration patterns, birth rates, and conversion rates—similar to those of Canada—indicates that both of these estimates are extreme. Instead, many researchers estimate that there are between 6 and 7 million American Muslims as of the first decade of the 21st century.

General Overviews

Introductory work on Islam in North America includes Haddad 1991, Haddad 1994, and Waugh, et al. 1983. Curtis 2008 is a collection of primary source documents, and Alan Godlas has an excellent website called Islam, the Modern World, and the West: Contemporary Topics.

  • Cesari, Jocelyne, ed. Encyclopedia of Islam in the United States. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007.

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    This is a two-volume encyclopedia that is a good introductory reference work.

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    • Curtis, Edward E., IV, ed. The Columbia Sourcebook of Muslims in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

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      Edward Curtis has compiled a collection of primary source documents written by American Muslims.

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      • Godlas, Alan. Islam, the Modern World, and the West: Contemporary Topics.

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        Alan Godlas, who teaches about Islam at the University of Georgia, has the best website for the academic study of Islam. This section of his website provides information about North American Muslims as well as links to North American Muslim groups.

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        • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, ed. The Muslims of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

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          Yvonne Haddad has done the most scholarly work on Muslims in the United States. All who work in this area are indebted to her. This is a good collection of essays about Muslims in the United States.

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          • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Jane Idleman Smith, eds. Muslim Communities in North America. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

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            Yvonne Haddad and Jane Smith have edited this volume that updates the earlier work of Waugh, et al. 1983.

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            • Hussain, Amir. Oil and Water: Two Faiths, One God. Kelowna, BC: Wood Lake/Copper House, 2006.

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              This is a basic introduction to Islam with a focus on North America. It helps introduce Islam to a North American Christian audience. It has also been adopted as a textbook for several courses on Islam and Islam in North America.

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              • Kepel, Gilles. Allah in the West: Islamic Movements in America and Europe. Translated by Susan Milner. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

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                A noted French scholar of Islam writes an introduction to Islam in the United States with comparisons to Europe.

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                • Smith, Jane Idleman. Islam in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

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                  An introduction to Islam in the United States. This could be used as a textbook for a course on Islam in America.

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                  • Waugh, Earle H., Baha Abu-Laban, and Regula Qureshi, eds. The Muslim Community in North America. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1983.

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                    One of the best early edited collections on Muslims in North America. The book is invaluable for information on early Muslim communities.

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                    Bibliographies

                    There are two useful bibliographies on Islam in North America: Haddad, et al. 1997 and Leonard 2003.

                    • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbek, and John L. Esposito with Elizabeth Hiel and Hibba Abugideiri. The Islamic Revival Since 1988: A Critical Survey and Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.

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                      This book reviews the literature on Islam from 1988 to 1994. There is a specific section that deals with Islam in North America.

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                      • Leonard, Karen Isaksen. Muslims in the United States: The State of Research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2003.

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                        An excellent introduction to the scholarly literature on Muslims in the United States.

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                        African American Islam

                        At least 25 percent of American Muslims are African American. By contrast, there is not the same history of Afro-Canadian Muslims in Canada, which is one of the reasons why the experiences of American Muslims are different from those of Canadian Muslims.

                        History

                        The documented history of Muslims in North America begins with West African Muslim slaves brought to the Americas. There are a number of books that document this history, including Austin 1997 and Diouf 1998.

                        • Austin, Allan D. African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles. Rev. ed. New York: Routledge, 1997.

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                          A good account of the early Muslims brought to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade.

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                          • Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

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                            An account of the first Muslims brought to America during the transatlantic slave trade.

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                            • Gomez, Michael A. Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                              A historian writes about the history and impact of African Muslims.

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                              • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994.

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                                One of the early standard reference works on the Nation of Islam.

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                                • Marsh, Clifton E. From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Resurrection, Transformation, and Change of the Lost-Found Nation of Islam in America, 1930–1995. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1996.

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                                  Another good account of the Nation of Islam.

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                                  • McCloud, Aminah Beverly. African American Islam. New York: Routledge, 1995.

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                                    One of the early scholarly books on African American Muslims.

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                                    • O’Connor, Kathleen Malone. “The Islamic Jesus: Messiahhood and Human Divinity in African American Muslim Exegesis.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66, no. 3 (Fall 1998): 493–532.

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                                      A scholarly article about the view of Jesus in African American Islam.

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                                      • Turner, Richard Brent. Islam in the African-American Experience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

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                                        A good scholarly look at African American Islam.

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                                        Firsthand Accounts

                                        In the 20th century, the Nation of Islam (NOI) began in the United States. Elijah Muhammad (Muhammad 1992), Malcolm X (Haley and Malcom X 1999), Louis Farrakhan (Farrakhan 1993), and Warith Deen Muhammad (Muhammad 1991) are important figures in American religious history, and their own writings listed in this section are crucial to understanding their thought.

                                        • Farrakhan, Louis. A Torchlight for America. Chicago: FCN, 1993.

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                                          A reflection by the leader of the Nation of Islam.

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                                          • Foster Brown, Jamie, ed. Betty Shabazz: A Sisterfriends’ Tribute in Words and Pictures. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998.

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                                            A reflection and recollection on the wife of Malcolm X.

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                                            • Haley, Alex, and Malcolm X. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. 2d ed. New York: Ballantine, 1999.

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                                              Required reading for all Americans, the autobiography of Malcolm X.

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                                              • Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. Newport News, VA: United Brothers Communications Systems, 1992.

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                                                Important for those who want to examine Elijah Muhammad’s own writings about the Nation of Islam.

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                                                • Muhammad, Warith Deen. Al-Islam: Unity and Leadership. Calumet City, IL: W. Deen Muhammad Publications, 1991.

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                                                  W. D. Muhammad’s own thoughts on Islam and Islamic leadership.

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                                                  • White, Vibert L., Jr. Inside the Nation of Islam: A Historical and Personal Testimony by a Black Muslim. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

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                                                    As the title implies, a first-person account by a member of the Nation of Islam.

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                                                    Secondary Literature on the Nation of Islam

                                                    There is substantial secondary literature on the Nation of Islam (NOI), including Gardell 1996 and Curtis 2006.

                                                    • Clegg, Claude Andrew, III. An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

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                                                      A biography of Elijah Muhammad.

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                                                      • Cone, James H. Martin and Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1991.

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                                                        A reflection by a noted African American theologian on the lives and impacts of Malcom X and Martin Luther King Jr.

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                                                        • Curtis, Edward E., IV. Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960–1975. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

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                                                          Edward Curtis has written a great deal about African American Islam. This scholarly book examines religion in the Nation of Islam.

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                                                          • DeCaro, Louis A., Jr. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

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                                                            A look at the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X within the matrix of American Christianity.

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                                                            • Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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                                                              An analysis of the importance of Malcolm X. Not so much a biography, but how that biography has been used by various groups.

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                                                              • Gardell, Mattias. In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996.

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                                                                Perhaps the finest single volume on the Nation of Islam. Required reading for anyone interested in the history of Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam.

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                                                                • Perry, Bruce. Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. New York: Station Hill, 1991.

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                                                                  An important scholarly biography of Malcolm X.

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                                                                  • Perry, Theresa, ed. Teaching Malcolm X. New York: Routledge, 1996.

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                                                                    A good introduction to the issues raised in teaching about Malcolm X.

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                                                                    Secondary Literature on African American Islam

                                                                    It was through the Nation of Islam (NOI) that many African Americans began their journey to Islam. Sherman Jackson (Jackson 2005) and Robert Dannin (Dannin 2002) are among the African American Muslim authors who have written some of the best work about this. In the 21st century the number of members of the NOI is very small, and the majority of African American Muslims are Sunni.

                                                                    • Dannin, Robert. Black Pilgrimage to Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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                                                                      This is a moving account of the journeys to Islam by African Americans. The chapter on Muslims in prison is a must-read for anyone interested in Islam behind bars.

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                                                                      • DeLong-Bas, Natana. Notable Muslims: Muslim Builders of World Civilization and Culture. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008.

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                                                                        A biography of one hundred notable Muslim men and women, including several African American Muslims.

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                                                                        • Grewal, Zareena, dir. By the Dawn’s Early Light: Chris Jackson’s Journey to Islam. New York: Cinema Guild, 2004.

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                                                                          This film is on the controversy surrounding the National Basketball Association player who refused to stand for the national anthem for one game because of his “Muslim conscience.”

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                                                                          • Jackson, Sherman A. Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking toward the Third Resurrection. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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                                                                            One of the most respected Muslim scholars of Islam in America writes about African American Islam.

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                                                                            Women in North American Islam

                                                                            Many North Americans have distorted images of Muslim women. In the Victorian era, English colonists criticized Muslims for being too sensual. In this modern age of sexual liberation, the veiled Muslim woman represents a repressed or oppressed sexuality. Both images are full of prejudice and misunderstanding regarding the roles of women in Islam and in Muslim society.

                                                                            Veiling, Family, and Gender

                                                                            Alvi, et al. 2003 is an excellent edited collection of essays on the topic of veiling. There are also numerous studies that deal with issues of family and gender among North American Muslim women.

                                                                            • Alvi, Sajida S., Homa Hoodfar, and Sheila McDonough, eds. The Muslim Veil in North America: Issues and Debates. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2003.

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                                                                              An excellent scholarly resource on veiling (and not veiling) by North American Muslim women. There are also chapters on veiling in the Qur’an and veiling in the hadith.

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                                                                              • Aswad, Barbara C., and Barbara Bilg, eds. Family and Gender Among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                As the title implies, the book examines issues of family and gender among Middle Eastern Muslim immigrants to America.

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                                                                                • Haddad, Yvonne Y., Jane I. Smith, and Kathleen M. Moore. Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                  A scholarly book on American Muslim women.

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                                                                                  • Roald, Anne-Sofie. Women in Islam: The Western Experience. New York: Routledge, 2001.

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                                                                                    A good scholarly account of Muslim women in the West.

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                                                                                    • Sarroub, Loukia K. All American Yemeni Girls: Being Muslim in a Public School. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

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                                                                                      As the title suggests, an examination of Yemeni girls in the public school system.

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                                                                                      • Schmidt, Garbi. “Being Seen by Many Eyes: Muslim Immigrant Women in the United States.” In Women and Religion in the West: Challenging Secularization. Edited by Kristin Aune, Sonya Sharma, and Giselle Vincett, 207–220. London: Ashgate, 2008.

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                                                                                        An excellent analysis of immigrant Muslim women.

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                                                                                        • Webb, Gisela, ed. Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                          An important work that details the lives of ten different American Muslim women.

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                                                                                          North American Muslim Women

                                                                                          American Muslim women have made important contributions to the development of Islam in North America. Ingrid Mattson, for example, is a scholar who is president of the Islamic Society of North America. There are a number of books by and about North American Muslim women, including Karim 2008, Wadud 2006, Anway 1995, Rouse 2004, and Khan 2002. A documentary on the place of women in the North American mosque is Me and the Mosque, directed by Zarqa Nawaz (Nawaz 2005). Nawaz is also the creator of the hit Canadian television sitcom Little Mosque on the Prairie.

                                                                                          • Anway, Carol L. Daughters of Another Path: Experiences of American Women Choosing Islam. Lee’s Summit, MO: Yawna, 1995.

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                                                                                            Accounts of American women who have converted to Islam.

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                                                                                            • Karim, Jamillah. American Muslim Women: Negotiating Race, Class, and Gender within the Ummah. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                              excellent study of Muslim women in America. Particularly important for examining the intersections of race and class along with gender.

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                                                                                              • Khan, Shahnaz. Aversion and Desire: Negotiating Muslim Female Identity in the Diaspora. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                Scholarly examination of South Asian Muslim women.

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                                                                                                • Nawaz, Zarqa, dir. Me and the Mosque. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 2005.

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                                                                                                  In this documentary film, Zarqa Nawaz examines the issue of the spaces available to women in mosques across North America. Highly recommended for use in classes about women and Islam in North America.

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                                                                                                  • Nomani, Asra. Standing Alone in Mecca: An American Woman’s Struggle for the Soul of Islam. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2005.

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                                                                                                    A personal account by an important Muslim woman activist.

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                                                                                                    • Ramji, Rubina. “Being Muslim and Being Canadian: How Second Generation Muslim Women Create Religious Identities in Two Worlds.” In Women and Religion in the West: Challenging Secularization. Edited by Kristin Aune, Sonya Sharma, and Giselle Vincett, 195–206. London: Ashgate, 2008.

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                                                                                                      An excellent chapter on second-generation Muslim women.

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                                                                                                      • Rouse, Carolyn Moxley. Engaged Surrender: African American Women and Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                        A powerful scholarly and personal account of African American Muslim women.

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                                                                                                        • Wadud, Amina. Inside the Gender Jihad: Women’s Reform in Islam. Oxford: Oneworld, 2006.

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                                                                                                          A powerful account by one of the most important Muslim women scholar/activists in North America.

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                                                                                                          Mosques

                                                                                                          The first North American mosques sprang up in 1915 (Maine), 1919 (Connecticut), 1928 (New York), 1937 (North Dakota), and 1938 (Edmonton, Alberta). There is a small but growing body of literature on mosques in North America. See Bagby, et al. 2001 and Kahera 2002 for overviews of mosques in North America. Dodds and Grazda 2002 focuses only on New York.

                                                                                                          • Bagby, Ihsan Abdul-Wajid, Paul M. Perl, and Bryan T. Froehle. The Mosque in America: A National Portrait. Washington, DC: Council on American-Islamic Relations, 2001.

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                                                                                                            An excellent account of the makeup of American mosques. Available online.

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                                                                                                            • Dodds, Jerrilynn, and Edward Grazda. New York Masjid/Mosques of New York. New York: PowerHouse, 2002.

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                                                                                                              An illustrated book of the varieties of mosques in New York City.

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                                                                                                              • Kahera, Akel Ismail. Deconstructing the American Mosque: Space, Gender, and Aesthetics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                The best scholarly book available on American mosques.

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                                                                                                                Contemporary North American Muslim Voices

                                                                                                                There is a growing body of literature written by North American Muslims describing their own experiences of Islam. These range from nonscholarly accounts of personal experiences (Hasan 2000) to edited collections on what it means to be a North American Muslim (Barboza 1994 and Wolfe 2002).

                                                                                                                • Barboza, Steven, ed. American Jihad: Islam After Malcolm X. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

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                                                                                                                  One of the best early accounts of American Muslims post–Malcolm X. The book consists of short vignettes of a cross section of American Muslims.

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                                                                                                                  • Hasan, Asma Gull. American Muslims: The New Generation. New York: Continuum International, 2000.

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                                                                                                                    A non-scholarly book written by a young Muslim American woman.

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                                                                                                                    • Hermansen, Marcia. “Hybrid Identity Formations in Muslim America: The Case of American Sufi Movements.” Muslim World, 90 nos. 1–2 (Spring 2000): 158–197.

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                                                                                                                      An excellent account of Sufi groups in the United States.

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                                                                                                                      • Hussain, Amir. “Reflections on Exile.” Amerasia Journal 30, no. 3 (2005), 17–23.

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                                                                                                                        A first-person account of crossing the U.S. border as a Muslim post-9/11.

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                                                                                                                        • Knight, Michael Muhammad. The Five-Percenters: Islam, Hip-Hop, and the Gods of New York. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008.

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                                                                                                                          A detailed account of the Five-Percenters and their role in contemporary urban street life and music. The Five-Percenters were formed as an offshoot of the Nation of Islam and are very influential in urban hip-hop music.

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                                                                                                                          • Knight, Michael Muhammad. The Taqwacores. Rev. ed. Berkeley: Soft Skull Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                            A novel about punk Muslim life in North America.

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                                                                                                                            • Moezzi, Melody. War on Error: Real Stories of American Muslims. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                              A nonscholarly collection of accounts of Muslim lives post-9/11.

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                                                                                                                              • Safi, Omid, ed. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oxford: Oneworld, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                A collection by various Muslim scholars on issues of justice, gender, and pluralism.

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                                                                                                                                • Wolfe, Michael, ed. Taking Back Islam: American Muslims Reclaim Their Faith. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                  A nonscholarly account of American Muslims post-9/11.

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                                                                                                                                  North American Islam

                                                                                                                                  There are a number of works on North American Islam in addition to those basic books in the General Overviews section. The best general introduction is Haddad and Smith2002, while Bukhari, et al. 2004 is particularly good for the participation of American Muslims in civil society.

                                                                                                                                  • Barrett, Paul M. American Islam: The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                    A nonscholarly account of American Islam.

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                                                                                                                                    • Bukhari, Zahid H., Sulayman S. Nyang, Mumtaz Ahmad, and John L. Esposito, eds. Muslims’ Place in the American Public Square: Hope, Fears, and Aspirations. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                      A scholarly analysis of the participation of American Muslims in civil society.

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                                                                                                                                      • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Jane I. Smith. Mission to America: Five Islamic Sectarian Movements in North America. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                        An introduction to five sectarian Muslim communities in North America: the Druze, United Submitters International, Ansar Allah, Moorish Science Temple, and the Ahmadiyya.

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                                                                                                                                        • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Jane I. Smith, eds. Muslim Minorities in the West: Visible and Invisible. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                          By herself and with others, Yvonne Haddad has continued to do important work on American Muslims.

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                                                                                                                                          • Lawrence, Bruce B. New Faiths, Old Fears: Muslims and Other Asian Immigrants in American Religious Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                            An excellent scholarly analysis of immigrant Muslims.

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                                                                                                                                            • Moore, Kathleen M. Al-Mughtaribun: American Law and the Transformation of Muslim Life in the United States. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                              A wonderful introduction to law and American Islam.

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                                                                                                                                              • Poston, Larry. Islamic Daʿwah in the West: Muslim Missionary Activity and the Dynamics of Conversion to Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                An account of conversion activities by American Muslims.

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                                                                                                                                                • Schmidt, Garbi. Islam in Urban America: Sunni Muslims in Chicago. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                  A scholarly book on Muslims in Chicago.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Walbridge, Linda S. Without Forgetting the Imam: Lebanese Shiʿism in an American Community. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                    An important book on Shiʿa Muslims in the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                    American Muslim Intellectuals

                                                                                                                                                    A number of American Muslim intellectuals have emerged over the past few decades. See Chittick 2007 for the work of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Ghamari-Tabrizi 2004 for Ismaʿil al-Faruqi, and Waugh and Denny 1998 for Fazlur Rahman. Consult Denny 1994 for an overview.

                                                                                                                                                    • Chittick, William C., ed. The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                      An edited collection of the writings of a major North American Muslim scholar.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Denny, Frederick Mathewson. “Islamic Theology in the New World: Some Issues and Prospects.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62, no. 4 (Winter 1994): 1069–1084.

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                                                                                                                                                        An excellent article on the development of Islamic theology in the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz. “Loving America and Longing for Home: Ismaʿil al-Faruqi and the Emergence of Muslim Diaspora in the United States.” International Migration 42, no. 2 (June 2004): 2–26.

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                                                                                                                                                          An important article on one of the most important American Muslim thinkers.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Waugh, Earle H., and Frederick M. Denny, eds. The Shaping of an American Islamic Discourse: A Memorial to Fazlur Rahman. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                            A scholarly book on one of the important Muslim thinkers in the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                            Canada

                                                                                                                                                            There is a growing body of literature on Islam in Canada and the particular issues that are relevant to Canadian Muslims as distinct from U.S. Muslims. Hussain 2004 gives a good basic overview of some of the issues relating to Canadian Muslims, while McDonough and Hoodfar 2005 provides an excellent introduction to Muslims in Canada.

                                                                                                                                                            • Berns McGown, Rima. Muslims in the Diaspora: The Somali Communities of London and Toronto. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                              An excellent scholarly analysis of Somali Muslims in Canada and the United Kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Hughes, Aaron W. “Mapping Constructions of Islamic Space in North America: A Frame-work for Further Inquiry.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 33, nos. 3–4 (2004): 339–357.

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                                                                                                                                                                A scholarly article on Muslim space in North America.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hussain, Amir. “Misunderstandings and Hurt: How Canadians Joined World-Wide Muslim Reactions to Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 70, no. 1 (March 2002): 1–32.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1093/jaar/70.1.1E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  An analysis of reactions to The Satanic Verses with an emphasis on how Canadian Muslims reacted to the book.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Hussain, Amir. “Muslims in Canada: Opportunities and Challenges.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 3, no. 3–4 (2004): 359–379.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A scholarly article on Muslims in Canada.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • McDonough, Sheila, and Homa Hoodfar. “Muslim Groups in Canada: From Ethnic Groups to Religious Community.” In Religion and Ethnicity in Canada. Edited by Paul Bramadat and David Seljak, 133–153. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A good chapter on Muslims in Canada.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Metcalf, Barbara Daly, ed. Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                        One of the most important collections about Muslim life in the West, with a particular discussion of Canadian Islam.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Nimer, Mohamed. The North American Muslim Resource Guide: Muslim Community Life in the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A nonscholarly guide to Muslims in Canada and the United States.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Muslims and the Media

                                                                                                                                                                          There have been a number of recent books on North American Muslims and the media. A good resource post-9/11 is Karim 2003. Shaheen 2009, Ramji 2003 and Ramji 2005 are excellent works on the images of Muslims in films.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Karim, Karim H. Islamic Peril: Media and Global Violence. Montreal: Black Rose, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The standard scholarly book on Muslims and the media.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • McAlister, Melani. Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East, 1945–2000. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                              How the media accounts of Islam intersect with American interests in the Middle East.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Qureshi, Emran, and Michael A. Sells, eds. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                A wonderful collection of essays on how Muslims are being constructed as the new American enemy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Ramji, Rubina. “Representations of Islam in American News and Film: Becoming the ‘Other.’“ In Mediating Religion: Conversations in Media, Religion, and Culture. Edited by Jolyon P. Mitchell and Sophia Marriage, 65–72. London: T & T Clark, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Another important work on the ways in which Muslims are portrayed in the North American media.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ramji, Rubina. “From Navy Seals to The Siege: Getting to Know the Muslim Terrorist, Hollywood Style.” Journal of Religion and Film 9, no. 2 (October 2005).

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of how Muslims are portrayed in American films. The article is available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Said, Edward W. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. Rev. ed. New York: Vintage, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      One of the important early books on this topic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Shaheen, Jack G. Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People. 2d ed. New York: Olive Branch, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        The classic study of Hollywood portrayals of Arabs and Muslims.

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