Islamic Studies Sayyid Ahmad Khan
by
Sheila McDonough
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0069

Introduction

Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–1898) responded to the collapse of the Mogul Empire in India, following the failed rebellion of 1857, by diverse efforts to revitalize and to reform Muslim intellectual and social life. He made a powerful impact on his community by his insistence that the Indian Muslims must become as well educated as the British. As a descendant of minor aristocrats in the Mogul court and as a historian of Indian Islam, he understood that knowledge and power were linked. The controversies about him are in the areas of religious thought and politics. With respect to religion, he tried to encourage rethinking of Islamic theology and jurisprudence. In political matters, he favored supporting the British and was critical of the Congress Party. He was one of the foremost Muslim modernist thinkers of the 19th century.

Reference Resources

Consult the website South Asian Literature, Colonial Period, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan for English translations of his work. The website Major Voices: Sayyid Ahmad Khan offers a bibliography for Sayyid Ahmad Khan.

Biographies

The first biography was written by George Farquhar Irving Graham (Graham 1974), an Englishman who was a personal friend and supporter of the Muslim reformer. Another contemporary, the Muslim poet Altaf Husain Hali (Hali 1994), wrote a biography that is considered a classic of Urdu literature. In the modern period, Hafeez Malik (Malik 1981) has looked at Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s life as a precursor of the movement for Pakistan. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (Nizami 2002) has studied the Muslim activist as a significant reformer of Muslim thought and culture in the context of India. Mahatma Gandhi’s grandson, Rajmohan Gandhi (Gandhi 1986), has written about Sayyid Ahmad as one of the major leaders in the revival of Muslim intellectual and social life.

  • Gandhi, Rajmohan. “Sayyid Ahmed Khan 1817–1898.” In Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter. By Rajmohan Gandhi, 19–46. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.

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    Mahatma Gandhi’s grandson reflects on the life of Sayyid Ahmad Khan.

    Gandhi, Rajmohan. “Sayyid Ahmed Khan 1817–1898.” In Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter. By Rajmohan Gandhi, 19–46. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.

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    • Graham, George Farquhar Irving. The Life and Work of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, 1974.

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      Graham wrote to explain to his fellow Englishmen that constructive friendship with Indian Muslims was possible. At that time, many English people were fearful of Muslims. First published in 1885.

      Graham, George Farquhar Irving. The Life and Work of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, 1974.

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      • Hali, Altaf Husain. Ḥayāt-i Jāved. Translated by K. H. Qadiri and David J. Matthews. New Delhi: Rupa, 1994.

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        This classic version of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s life was written by a distinguished Urdu poet and contemporary of the Muslim reformer. He described Sayyid Ahmad Khan as an exemplar of Muslim virtues.

        Hali, Altaf Husain. Ḥayāt-i Jāved. Translated by K. H. Qadiri and David J. Matthews. New Delhi: Rupa, 1994.

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        • Malik, Hafeez. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernization in India and Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

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          A political scientist looks at the issues and conflicts that Sayyid Ahmad Khan had to deal with.

          Malik, Hafeez. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernization in India and Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

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          • Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad. Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 2002.

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            One of the leading historians of Muslim India describes the impact of the reformer on his community.

            Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad. Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 2002.

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            Early Years

            Sayyid Ahmad Khan was raised in a cultured family in Delhi. He was educated at home by tutors, several of them from the Naqshbandi Sufi order to which his family members belonged. At twenty-two he began to work as an assistant civil judge for the East India Company. In his thirties he published a study of the historical monuments of Delhi and of the lives of Sufi leaders. Lawrence 1979 discusses the mystical and rational elements in Sayyid Ahmad’s early writings.

            • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Sīrat-i Farīdiyah. Agra: Madbaʿ Mufid-i ʿAm, 1896.

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              Biography of Muslim religious leaders in Delhi.

              Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Sīrat-i Farīdiyah. Agra: Madbaʿ Mufid-i ʿAm, 1896.

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              • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Āsār al-Ṣanādīd. Delhi: Central Book Depot, Urdu Bazar, 1965.

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                A historical study of the religious background and the Muslim monuments of Mogul Delhi. First published 1874.

                Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Āsār al-Ṣanādīd. Delhi: Central Book Depot, Urdu Bazar, 1965.

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                • Lawrence, Bruce B. “Mystical and Rational Elements in the early Religious Writings of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.” In The Rose and the Rock: Mystical and Rational Elements in the Intellectual History of South Asian Islam. Edited by Bruce B. Lawrence, 61–103. Durham, NC: Duke University Center for International Studies, 1979.

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                  An insightful analysis of the context and themes of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s early writings.

                  Lawrence, Bruce B. “Mystical and Rational Elements in the early Religious Writings of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.” In The Rose and the Rock: Mystical and Rational Elements in the Intellectual History of South Asian Islam. Edited by Bruce B. Lawrence, 61–103. Durham, NC: Duke University Center for International Studies, 1979.

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                  • Shackle, Christopher, trans. “English Translation of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s Sīrat-i Farīdiyah.” Islamic Culture 46, no. 4 (October 1972): 307–336.

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                    Biography of Muslim religious leaders in Delhi.

                    Shackle, Christopher, trans. “English Translation of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s Sīrat-i Farīdiyah.” Islamic Culture 46, no. 4 (October 1972): 307–336.

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                    Post-Rebellion

                    The rebellion against the British in 1857 had a harrowing effect on Sayyid Ahmad Khan. He perceived the mutual ignorance of the British and the Muslims as dangerous. He wrote two books explaining that the inept administrative practices of the British had helped cause the rebellion (Ahmad Khan 1983 and Ahmad Khan 2000). In order to encourage greater respect between Muslims and Christians, he wrote a commentary on the Bible, in which he used the results of contemporary biblical scholarship (Ahmad Khan 1862). An Englishman, William Wilson Hunter, had written a book claiming that the Indian Muslims would always be disloyal to the British (Hunter 1999). Sayyid Ahmad Khan knew this attitude was dangerous, and he therefore wrote a book refuting Hunter’s ideas (Ahmad Khan 2009).

                    • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. The Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible. Ghazipur, India: Ahmad Khan, 1862.

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                      First modern Muslim commentary on the Bible. English translation of Tabyin al-kalam.

                      Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. The Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible. Ghazipur, India: Ahmad Khan, 1862.

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                      • Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s History of the Bijnor Rebellion. Translated by Hafeez Malik and Morris Dembo. Columbus, MO: South Asia Books, 1983.

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                        Sayyid Ahmad Khan gives his eyewitness account of the ineffectiveness of the rebels. English translation of Sarkashi-yi zi laʿ Bijnor. First published in 1972.

                        Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s History of the Bijnor Rebellion. Translated by Hafeez Malik and Morris Dembo. Columbus, MO: South Asia Books, 1983.

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                        • Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid. The Causes of the Indian Revolt. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                          The original work, Asbab-i baghavat-i Hind, was first published in 1858, while the English translation was first published in Varanasi (Benares), India, by the Medical Hall Press in 1873. Ahmad Khan aimed to explain to the English that their errors had helped cause the revolt. His friends were afraid that he would get into trouble if he did this, but he wrote the book in spite of their fears.

                          Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid. The Causes of the Indian Revolt. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                          • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Review on Dr. Hunter’s Indian Musalmāns. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2009.

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                            The Muslim reformer’s comments on the Englishman’s analysis of the causes of the Indian revolt. First published in 1871.

                            Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Review on Dr. Hunter’s Indian Musalmāns. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2009.

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                            • Hunter, William Wilson. The Indian Musalmāns: Are They Bound in Conscience to Rebel against the Queen? Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel, 1999.

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                              This was the document expressing doubts about the trustworthiness of the Indian Muslims that stimulated Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s vigorous response. First published in 1871.

                              Hunter, William Wilson. The Indian Musalmāns: Are They Bound in Conscience to Rebel against the Queen? Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel, 1999.

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                              Call for New Thinking

                              Sayyid Ahmad Khan advocated a transformation of Muslim religious ideas from a medieval to a modern way of thinking. J. M. S. Baljon was the first Western scholar to write an analysis of the Muslim reformer’s religious ideas (Baljon 1970). The Muslim scholar Bashir Ahmad Dar subsequently published a detailed discussion of the themes of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s original thinking (Dar 1957). Siddiqui 1976 looks at the social aspects of the reformer’s thought. Ahmad 1967 provides a thematic analysis of the writings of a number of Muslim modernist reformers. Troll 1978 studies Sayyid Ahmad Khan as a new type of Muslim theologian. Jones 1990 looks at the wider framework of the socioreligious reform movement in British India. Mohammad Shan edited a collection of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s writings and speeches (Shan 1972).

                              • Ahmad, Aziz. “Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement.” In Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857–1964. By Aziz Ahmad, 31–56. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

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                                A useful study of the interrelationship of the ideas of several South Asian Muslim reformers.

                                Ahmad, Aziz. “Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement.” In Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857–1964. By Aziz Ahmad, 31–56. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

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                                • Baljon, J. M. S. The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Littlehampton, UK: Apex, 1970.

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                                  This was the first serious study by a Western author of the Muslim reformer’s new ways of thinking about Muslim life and thought. The book contains an excellent bibliography.

                                  Baljon, J. M. S. The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Littlehampton, UK: Apex, 1970.

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                                  • Dar, Bashir Ahmad. Religious Thought of Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Lahore, Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1957.

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                                    A discussion of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s religious ideas from the perspective of a sympathetic Muslim scholar.

                                    Dar, Bashir Ahmad. Religious Thought of Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Lahore, Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1957.

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                                    • Jones, Kenneth W. Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India. New Cambridge History of India III, I.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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                                      A discussion of the reform movements among Muslims in Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s time.

                                      Jones, Kenneth W. Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India. New Cambridge History of India III, I.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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                                      • Shan, Mohammed, ed. Writings and Speeches of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Bombay, India: Nachiketa, 1972.

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                                        A useful collection of the significant writings and speeches of the Muslim reformer.

                                        Shan, Mohammed, ed. Writings and Speeches of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Bombay, India: Nachiketa, 1972.

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                                        • Siddiqui, M. Muslehuddin. Social Thought of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Hyderabad, India: Darul Maʿarif, 1976.

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                                          An insightful analysis of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s attempts to transform the cultural practices of his community.

                                          Siddiqui, M. Muslehuddin. Social Thought of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Hyderabad, India: Darul Maʿarif, 1976.

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                                          • Troll, Christian W. Sayyid Ahmad Khan: A Reinterpretation of Muslim Theology. New Delhi: Vikas, 1978.

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                                            A study of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s efforts to rethink theological questions such as the relation of reason to revelation.

                                            Troll, Christian W. Sayyid Ahmad Khan: A Reinterpretation of Muslim Theology. New Delhi: Vikas, 1978.

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                                            Controversial Reforms

                                            Sayyid Ahmad Khan initiated a number of movements to reform the Indian Muslim community. In 1864 he established a scientific society for the purpose of translating books on Western sciences into Urdu. He founded schools and promoted educational committees. He traveled to England in 1869. On his return to India, he was instrumental in establishing a modern university for Muslims in India. The Anglo-Muhammad Oriental College at Aligarh opened in 1875. Using the modern methods he had learned in England, Sayyid Ahmad Khan wrote a commentary on the Qur’an (Ahmad Khan 1891) and a series of essays on the life of Muhammad (Ahmad Khan 1968). He also published a journal, Tahzib ul-Akhlaq, which aimed to stimulate thinking about the reform of ethics and customs (Ahmad Khan 1938). He was knighted in 1888. The speeches and letters of Sayyid Ahmad Khan are available in Urdu. His son has written a history of the Muslim college at Aligarh. Lelyveld 2003 explores the impact of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s work on the Muslim students who went to Aligarh. Many of the traditional religious leaders opposed Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s reforms. A new institution was set up at Deoband in North India to provide traditional modes of religious training for a new generation of leaders. In the Arab world, the Muslim reformer Jamal al din Afghani objected to Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s support for the British. He accused Sayyid Ahmad Khan of being a materialist.

                                            • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Tafsīr al-Qur’ān. 6 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Gulzar Muhammadi, 1891.

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                                              The Muslim reformer’s commentary on the first 17 suras of the Qur’an. Most of his controversial ideas are found in this source.

                                              Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Tafsīr al-Qur’ān. 6 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Gulzar Muhammadi, 1891.

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                                              • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. TaḤrīr fī UṢūl al-Tafsīr. Lahore, Pakistan: Nawal Kishor Steam Press, 1913.

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                                                An unpublished English translation by M. D. Rahbar is in the library of the Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University.

                                                Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. TaḤrīr fī UṢūl al-Tafsīr. Lahore, Pakistan: Nawal Kishor Steam Press, 1913.

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                                                • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Tahzīb ul-Akhlāq 1870–1876. 4 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Malik Fazluddin, 1938.

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                                                  The journal that tried to encourage Muslims to modernize their social habits.

                                                  Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. Tahzīb ul-Akhlāq 1870–1876. 4 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Malik Fazluddin, 1938.

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                                                  • Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. A Series of Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Thereto. Lahore, Pakistan: Premier Book House, 1968.

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                                                    This was an effort to refute the negative stereotypes of the Prophet Muhammad being written by Westerners. Originally published in 1870.

                                                    Ahmad Khan, Sayyid. A Series of Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Thereto. Lahore, Pakistan: Premier Book House, 1968.

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                                                    • Husain, Yusuf, ed. Selected Documents from the Aligarh Archives. Bombay, India: Asia Publishing House, 1967.

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                                                      A good collection of significant articles on history of Sayyid Ahmad Khan.

                                                      Husain, Yusuf, ed. Selected Documents from the Aligarh Archives. Bombay, India: Asia Publishing House, 1967.

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                                                      • Khuvishgi, Muhammad Abdullah Khan, ed. Maqālāt-i Sar Sayyid (Articles of Sir Sayyid). Aligarh, India: National Printers, 1952.

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                                                        A collection of writings on educational and moral subjects.

                                                        Khuvishgi, Muhammad Abdullah Khan, ed. Maqālāt-i Sar Sayyid (Articles of Sir Sayyid). Aligarh, India: National Printers, 1952.

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                                                        • Lelyveld, David. Aligarh’s First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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                                                          A significant study of the impact of Sayyid Ahmad Khan on the life and thought among the students and the teachers of the new college.

                                                          Lelyveld, David. Aligarh’s First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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                                                          • Mahmood, Syed. A History of English Education in India. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2007.

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                                                            A book written by Sayyid Ahmad’s son, a man who became a significant Muslim reformer. First published in 1895.

                                                            Mahmood, Syed. A History of English Education in India. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2007.

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                                                            • Panipati, Maulana Muhammad Ismaʿil, ed. Maktūbāt-i Sar Sayyid (Letters of Sir Sayyid). 2 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Majlis-i Taraqqi-yi Adab, 1959.

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                                                              A collection of Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s letters.

                                                              Panipati, Maulana Muhammad Ismaʿil, ed. Maktūbāt-i Sar Sayyid (Letters of Sir Sayyid). 2 vols. Lahore, Pakistan: Majlis-i Taraqqi-yi Adab, 1959.

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                                                              Sir Syed Academy, India

                                                              The Sir Syed Academy in Aligarh, India, is a museum containing the archives relating to the various projects and associations established by Sayyid Ahmad Khan. The website has pictures of the museum and photographs of Sayyid Ahmad Khan and his family members. The museum also contains his personal effects as well as collections of writings by and about him. The archives include the records of the societies, projects, and associations established by Sayyid Ahmad Khan. The website contains the list of publications by the members of the academy.

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