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Buddhism Āryadeva
by
Karen C. Lang

Introduction

Āryadeva (3rd century), a disciple of Nāgārjuna, is a central figure in the development of early Indian Madhyamaka philosophy. Āryadeva’s Hundred Verses Treatise (Bai lun) was one of the three basic texts of the Chinese Madhyamaka school founded by the central Asian monk Kumārajīva (b. 344–d. 413), which accordingly was called the Sanlun (Jpn. Sanron), or “three-treatise” school. According to the biography that Kumārajīva translated into Chinese, Āryadeva was born into a South Indian Brahmin family, became Nāgārjuna’s disciple, was renowned for his skill in debate, and was murdered by a student of a defeated teacher. Candrakīrti (b. c. 570–d. 650), in his commentary on Āryadeva’s major work, the Four Hundred Verses (Catuḥśataka), reports that Āryadeva was born on the island of Sinhala (Sri Lanka) as a king’s son, renounced his royal status, became a monk, and traveled to South India, where he studied with Nāgārjuna. Some scholars suggest that Āryadeva is the elder deva mentioned in the Mahāvaṃsa and Dīpavaṃsa chronicles of early Sri Lankan religious history. Āryadeva did not write commentaries on Nāgārjuna’s works but, rather, wrote autonomous treatises that defended Madhyamaka beliefs against its Buddhist and non-Buddhist critics. He devotes the first eight chapters to explaining ethical behavior and such practices as generosity, which form the basis for the bodhisattva’s accumulation of merit (puṇya). The latter eight chapters refute wrong views about the independent existence of external phenomena and the self, defending the Madhyamaka philosophy of emptiness and the dependently arisen nature of all things. The Catuḥśataka presents the path to the attainment of buddhahood as structured around these two requisites of merit and knowledge (jñāna). As an introduction to the practices of a bodhisattva, the Catuḥśataka prepares the ground for Śāntideva’s later (c. 8th-century) and more extensive treatment in Introduction to the Practices of a Bodhisattva (Bodhicaryāvatāra). Apart from some fragments of the Catuḥśataka, none of the works the Chinese and Tibetan canons attributed to Āryadeva survive in Sanskrit.

General Overviews

The encyclopedia articles Arnold 2005 and Hayes 2010 and the chapter “Mādhyamika” in Williams 2009 provide concise and philosophically interesting treatments of Madhyamaka ideas that help define Āryadeva’s place in the intellectual history of the Madhyamaka school. Ruegg 1981 provides a valuable discussion of Āryadeva’s works. Āryadeva’s Hundred Verses Treatise (Bai lun) and Nāgārjuna’s Middle Way Treatise (Zhong lun) and the Twelve Gate Treatise (Shi er men lun) form the three basic texts of the Chinese Madhyamaka (Sanlun) school. Robinson 1967 explores how Kumārajīva and the Chinese scholars who studied Āryadeva’s works with him interpreted Indian Madhyamaka texts. Berzin 2007 covers the main points of Āryadeva’s Four Hundred Verses, and Potter 2002 contains summaries of the Four Hundred Verses, the Hundred Verses Treatise, and the Hundred Syllables (Akṣaraśataka).

  • Arnold, Dan. “Madhyamaka Buddhism.” In The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by James Fieser and Bradley Dowden. 2005.

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    A philosophically sophisticated treatment that explains how Madhyamaka arguments about the two truths, dependently originated existents, and emptiness work. It offers the best concise explanation of the historical development and epistemological concerns of Prāsaṅgika (consequentalist) and Svātantrika (autonomous) interpretations of Madhyamaka. Includes a brief discussion of Madhyamaka in East Asia and Tibet.

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  • Berzin, Alexander. “Summary of Aryadeva’s Four Hundred Verses.” In Berzin Archives. 2007.

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    Berzin begins with a brief account of Āryadeva’s life, based on Tibetan sources, and discusses the key points in each of the Four Hundred Verses’ sixteen chapters. This is a good introduction for the nonspecialist, although the summaries of the last eight chapters assume some familiarity with Buddhist technical vocabulary.

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  • Hayes, Richard. “Madhyamaka.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. 2010.

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    A thorough overview of Indian Madhyamaka intellectual history that examines how major thinkers from Buddhapālita (b. 470–d. 540) to Śāntarakśita (b. 725–d. 788) interpret the works of Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva. Includes a short bibliography of relevant articles.

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  • Potter, Karl, ed. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. Vol. 8, Buddhist Philosophy from 100 to 350 A.D. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.

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    This reference work (pp. 197–228) includes synopses and analysis of Āryadeva’s major works.

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  • Robinson, Richard H. Early Mādhyamika in India and China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

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    This work is an excellent introduction to the Chinese understanding of Madhyamaka. Robinson explores how Kumārajīva translated the complex concepts of Nāgārjuna’s and Āryadeva’s treatises into Chinese. The chapters on Kumārajīva’s students Hui-yuan, Seng-rui, and Seng-zhao situate the study of Madhyamaka in 4th- and 5th-century Chinese scholarly circles.

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  • Ruegg, David Seyfort. The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Harrasowitz, 1981.

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    This is an extensive and authoritative source on the history and texts of Indian Madhyamaka, with copious footnotes and bibliographical information. Ruegg discusses the philosophical framework of Āryadeva’s work and the issues surrounding the attribution of particular texts to Āryadeva and the Vajrayāna author of the same name. See pp. 50–56 and 105–106.

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  • Williams, Paul. Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. 2d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    Chapters 2 and 3 of Williams’s book, “The Perfection of Wisdom” and “Mādhyamika,” provide useful background on the development of Madhyamaka thought. Williams credits Āryadeva along with Nāgārjuna as founding the Madhyamaka school and briefly discusses the importance of the Bai lun in the formation of Madhyamaka in China.

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Translations

Apart from fragments of the Catuḥśataka (Four Hundred Verses), none of the works that the Chinese and Tibetan canons attribute to Āryadeva survive in Sanskrit. The Chinese and Tibetan Buddhists include translations of different works that are attributed to Āryadeva. The Chinese canon includes the latter half of the Catuḥśataka, the Bai lun (Hundred Verses Treatise), the Akṣaraśataka (Hundred Letters), and the Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun (On the Nirvana of the Heretics). The Tibetan Canon includes the Catuḥśataka, the Hastavālaprakaraṇa (Hair in the Hand Treatise) and Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti (Hair in the Hand Treatise Commentary), and the Skhalitapramathanayuktihetusiddhi (Demonstration of Logical Reasons That Refute Errors).

Catuḥśataka (Four Hundred Verses)

The Catuḥśataka consists of sixteen chapters of twenty-five verses each. The first eight chapters of the work describe meritorious practices that gradually prepare the aspiring bodhisattva to receive knowledge about the empty nature of persons and phenomena. The last eight chapters refute belief in permanent phenomena (atoms, the soul, time) and criticize various theories about sense perception and causality of other Buddhists, Jains, and the Sāṃkhya and Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika schools of classical Indian philosophy. The final chapter considers the logical problems raised by the critics of emptiness. Āryadeva argues against the position that the negation of one thesis implies a commitment to the establishment of the opposite thesis, and concludes that no refutation can succeed against an opponent who refuses to hold any thesis. There are several reliable translations of the Catuḥśataka in modern languages: a French translation in Vaidya 2009, an English version in Lang 1986, a German translation of Lang 1986 in Keller 2007, and a Hindi translation in Jain 2007. Tucci 1925 translates the verses of the Chinese translation of the Catuḥśataka into Italian.

  • Jain, Bhagchandra. Catuḥśatakam. 2d ed. Varanasi, India: Kalā Evam Dharma, 2007.

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    This is an improved edition of an earlier 1971 publication, with a new English preface, an updated introduction in Hindi, a revised edition of the Sanskrit text, and a translation of the Catuḥśataka’s verses into Hindi.

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  • Keller, Guido. Catuhshataka: 400 Verse über den Weg zur Erleuchtung. Frankfurt am Main: Angkor Verlag, 2007.

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    German translation of the Catuḥśataka, based on Lang 1986.

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  • Lang, Karen. Āryadeva’s Catuḥśataka: On the Bodhisattva’s Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1986.

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    A reliable translation along with a discussion of Āryadeva’s life and works that includes a comparison of the Catuḥśataka’s and Bai lun’s (Hundred Verses Treatise) treatment of similar topics, such as the self, sense perception, and emptiness.

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  • Shāstrī, Haraprasād. “Notes on the Newly-Found Manuscript of Chatuḥśatika of Āryadeva.” Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, n.s., 8 (1911): 431–436.

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    Shāstrī describes the manuscript and the editing process and translates a few passages, including some of the short stories from Candrakīrti’s commentary.

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  • Tillemans, Tom J. F. Materials for the Study of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti. 2 vols. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, 1990.

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    A two-volume work of annotated scholarly translations and editions of commentaries by Dharmapāla (chapters 4 and 5) and Candrakīrti (chapters 12 and 13) on the Catuḥśataka. Chapters 4 and 12 refute the heretical views of Jains and Brahmins, and chapters 5 and 13 refute various Indian philosophical theories about sense perception.

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  • Tucci, Guiseppe. “Studi Mahāyānici: La versione cinese del Catuḥśataka di Āryadeva confrontata col testo sanscrito e la traduzione tibetana.” Rivista degli Studi Orientali 10 (1925): 521–567.

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    Xuanzang in 650 CE translated only the last eight chapters of the Catuḥśataka into Chinese. Tucci translates them into Italian. Tucci’s detailed annotation has valuable comparisons of the Chinese, Sanskrit, and Tibetan verses and translations of some of Dharmapāla’s commentary.

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  • Vaidya, P. L. Études sur Āryadeva et son Catuḥśataka. Charleston, SC: Biblio Bazaar, 2009.

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    Originally published in 1923, this work contains an edition of chapters 8 to 16 and a translation of the verses into French. Vaidya’s introduction traces the development of Madhyamaka from Nāgārjuna to Śāntideva and briefly discusses Āryadeva’s life and works.

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Commentaries on the Catuḥśataka

Two Indian commentaries on Āryadeva’s Catuḥśataka survive. The commentary of Dharmapāla (b. c. 530–d. 561) on the second half of the text is written from the perspective of the Yogācāra school. The Madhyamaka scholar Candrakīrti (b. c. 570–d. 650) criticizes Dharmapāla for commenting on only half of the work and for his mistaken interpretations. Tillemans 1990 translates chapters 4 and 5 of Dharmapāla’s commentary, and Keenan 1997 translates chapter 10. Lang 2003 translates chapters 1 through 4 of Candrakīrti’s commentary; Tillemans translates chapters 12 and 13. Several Tibetan commentaries on Āryadeva’s Catuḥśataka exist, but only rGyab tshab’s commentary has been translated into English, in Sonam 2008.

  • Keenan, John P. Dharmapāla’s Yogācāra Critique of Bhavāviveka’s Mādhyamika Explanation of Emptiness. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1997.

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    Keenan’s introduction explains the doctrinal history behind the dispute in chapter 10 between Dharmapāla and Bhavāviveka (b. c. 490–d. 570), over the nature of conventional truth, the validity of language, and the realization of emptiness. The well-annotated translation and Keenan’s added headings are helpful in tracking the complex arguments.

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  • Lang, Karen C. Four Illusions: Candrakīrti’s Advice to Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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    An annotated English translation of the first four chapters of Candrakīrti’s commentary, along with an introduction about Āryadeva and Candrakīrti and the Indian religious context that influenced their works. The chapters explain how to eradicate four errors: the attribution of permanence to impermanent things, pleasure to painful things, purity to impure things, and a substantial self to insubstantial things. Available via Oxford Scholarship Online.

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  • Sonam, Ruth. Āryadeva’s Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way. 2d ed. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 2008.

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    This book contains an introduction that discusses the lives and works of Āryadeva and rGyal tsab (b. 1364–d. 1432), a readable and annotated translation of rGyal tsab’s commentary, and an appendix of his detailed topical outlines. Geshe Sonam Rinchen’s modern commentary on the main themes of each chapter is especially helpful for nonspecialists. First published as Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas: Gyel-tsap on Āryadeva’s Four Hundred (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1994).

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  • Tillemans, Tom J. F. Materials for the Study of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti. 2 vols. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, 1990.

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    Tillemans’s introduction briefly discusses the lives and works of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla, and Candrakīrti before focusing attention on the commentaries of Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti, which reflect the Yogācāra and Madhyamaka schools’ differing views on issues such as scriptural authority and the epistemic status of direct perception.

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Bai lun (Hundred Verses Treatise)

The Bai lun (Śatakaśāstra according to Tucci’s reconstruction of the Sanskrit title) exists only in Chinese translation with a commentary on it by Vasu, possibly the Yogācāra master Vasubandhu (c. 4th century). According to Seng-zhao’s preface, translated in Robinson 1967 (cited in General Overviews), the work had twenty chapters, but only the latter ten chapters were translated into Chinese. Tucci 1983 notes that the Bai lun’s ten chapters and the final eight chapters of the Catuḥśataka concern similar refutations of various Buddhist and non-Buddhist views on topics such as the self, sense perception, and causality, but the arrangements of the material and the arguments advanced against opponents’ views differ. La Vallée-Poussin 1931–1932 translates passages from Bai lun and the Catuḥśataka to determine Āryadeva’s views on nirvana.

  • La Vallée-Poussin, Louis de. “Le Nirvāṇa d‘après Āryadeva.” Mélanges Chinois et Bouddhiques 1 (1931–1932): 127–136.

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    La Vallée-Poussin translates (into French) passages from Bai lun and the Catuḥśataka on nirvana that were previously translated in Tucci 1983.

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  • Tucci, Giuseppe. Pre-Dinnāga Buddhist Texts on Logic from Chinese Sources. Gaekwad’s Oriental Series 49. Baroda, India: Oriental Institute, 1983.

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    Originally published in 1929, this anthology of texts includes Tucci’s annotated translation of the Śatakaśāstra. His notes provide useful information on the identity of Āryadeva’s adversaries.

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Other Works

There are English translations of several short texts attributed to Āryadeva. Gokhale 1930 translated the Akṣaraśataka (Hundred Letters); Thomas and Ui 1918 and Tola and Dragonetti 2002 translated Hastavālaprakaraṇa (Hair in the Hand Treatise) and Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti (Hair in the Hand Treatise Commentary). Clark and Jamspal 1979 translated the Skhalitapramathanahetusiddhi (Demonstration of Logical Reasons That Refute Errors), and Tucci 1926 translated the Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun (On the Nirvana of the Heretics).

Akṣaraśataka (Hundred Letters)

Gokhale 1930 translates the Akṣaraśataka, which the Chinese canon and the Dunhuang Tibetan translation of Chos grub attribute to Āryadeva. The Tibetan translation of the Akṣaraśataka attributes both the root text and its commentary to Nāgārjuna. The attribution to Nāgārjuna should be rejected because the Akṣaraśataka’s subject matter and the way it is treated bear a strong resemblance to Āryadeva’s work.

  • Gokhale, Vasudev. Akṣara-Çatakam, the Hundred Letters: A Madhyamaka Text by Āryadeva after Chinese and Tibetan Materials. Heidelberg, Germany: Institut für Buddhismus Kunde, 1930.

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    Gokhale’s study and translation of the Akṣaraśataka is based on Bodhiruci’s 6th-century Chinese translation (Bai zi lun). He suggests that the longer Tibetan translation might have been based on an expanded Sanskrit original. The Akṣaraśataka is primarily concerned with refuting non-Buddhist schools, in particular, Sāṃkhya and Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika positions on causality and the existence of a soul.

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Hastavālaprakaraṇa (Hair in the Hand Treatise) and Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti (Hair in the Hand Treatise Commentary)

The Tibetan and Chinese canons differ also on the authorship of the Hastavālaprakaraṇa and its commentary, Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti; the Tibetan canon and Dunhuang manuscripts give Āryadeva as its author, while the Chinese canon attributes it to Dignāga. The first translation of this text appeared in Thomas and Ui 1918, based on the authors’ comparison of the Tibetan and Chinese translations. Tola and Dragonetti 2002 notes that both the Tibetan and Chinese translations of the title include words for “hand” or “palm of the hand” and render the title as “Treatise named ‘The Hair in the Hand,’” in the sense that the subject treated is rendered as clearly as a hair seen in the palm of a hand. The Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti uses the familiar example of a coiled rope that a fearful man erroneously perceives as a snake to make the point that all phenomena are similarly dependent on various causes and conditions and ultimately unreal. Its discussion of illusions and its refutation of phenomena based on the rejection of partless atoms are consistent with Āryadeva’s treatment of the same topics in the Catuḥśataka. Tola and Dragonetti 1985 provides a Spanish translation of the Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti.

  • Thomas, F. W., and H. Ui. “The Hand Treatise, a Work of Āryadeva.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1.2 (1918): 267–310.

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    This article contains the first English translation of the Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti, based on a comparison of the Dunhuang manuscripts and the Tibetan canonical versions, as well as annotated editions of the Tibetan text and Chinese translations of Paramārtha and Yijing and a retranslation into Sanskrit.

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  • Tola, Fernando, and Carmen Dragonetti. “La Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti de Āryadeva.” Boletín de la Asociación Española de Orientalistas (1985): 137–155.

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    A Spanish translation of the Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti.

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  • Tola, Fernando, and Carmen Dragonetti. On Voidness: A Study on Buddhist Nihilism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.

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    This anthology of short texts by Āryadeva and Nāgārjuna includes a readable annotated English translation of the Hastavālaprakararanavṛtti and a brief introduction to the Tibetan and Chinese translations of the text and the controversy over its authorship (pp. 1–17).

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Skhalitapramathanayuktihetusiddhi (Demonstration of Logical Reasons That Refute Errors)

The Skhalitapramathanayuktihetusiddhi, translated in Clarke and Jamspal 1979, refutes the major non-Buddhist philosophical schools and focuses specifically on errors of perceiving the nonexistent as existent, the impermanent as permanent, the painful as pleasant, the impure as pure, and what is not a self (or soul) as a self.

  • Clark, Robert W., and Lozang Jamspal. “The Dialectic Which Refutes Errors Establishing Logical Reasons.” Tibet Journal 4.2 (1979): 29–50.

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    This article contains a brief biography of Āryadeva, based on Tibetan religious histories, an accessible translation, and an appendix listing sixty-two types of wrong views. The English title suggests that it might be a logical work, but the Skhalitapramathanahetusiddhi’s focus is on deceptive views that prevent the pursuit of liberation.

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Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun (On the Nirvana of the Heretics)

Tucci 1926 maintains that Āryadeva was familiar with the Laṅkāvatarasūtra and the views of rival Buddhist and non-Buddhist systems and wrote the Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun to refute the erroneous views on nirvana referred to in this sutra.

  • Tucci, Giuseppe. “Un traité d’ Āryadeva sur le Nirvāṇa des hérétiques.” T‘oung Pao (1926): 16–31.

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    The text discusses the Laṅkāvatārasūtra’s reference to twenty erroneous views of nirvana held by Hinayana Buddhists and non-Buddhists, for example, Sāṃkhya, Vaiśeṣika, and Jain proponents. Tucci’s introduction and annotated translation do an admirable job of clarifying a text whose explanations of the various erroneous views he admits are not always satisfactory.

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Studies

There are far fewer studies of Āryadeva’s work than that of his more famous teacher, Nāgārjuna. Both the traditional biographies of Āryadeva and his extant writings indicate his skill in debate and his knowledge of the philosophical positions of his non-Buddhist opponents from Jain, Sāmkhya, Nyāya, and Vaiśeṣika schools. Gard 1954 considers the authenticity of one of these works, the Bai lun. Honda 1974 and Lang 1988 focus, respectively, on Āryadeva’s references in the Bai lun and the Catuḥśataka to Sāṃkhya and Nyāya beliefs. McGarrity 2009–2010 examines two verses from the eighth chapter of the Catuḥśataka that describe the gradual nature of the Madhyamaka critique of Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophical positions.

  • Gard, Richard. “On the Authenticity of the Pai-lun and the Shih-erh-men-lun.” Indogaku Bukkyō Kenkyū 2.2 (1954): 747–751.

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    Gard concludes that the Bai lun was likely a summary in one hundred verses of the Catuḥśataka, of which only the first fifty were translated by Kumārajīva into Chinese.

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  • Honda, M. “Ārya Deva’s Critique against Sāṃkhya.” Indogaku Bukkyō Kenkyū 23.1 (1974): 486–491.

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    Honda examines the sources of Āryadeva’s knowledge of Sāmkhya and his arguments against Sāmkhya views on causality.

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  • Lang, Karen C. “Āryadeva’s Citation of Nyāya Texts.” Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Sudasiens 32 (1988): 131–140.

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    Lang investigates Āryadeva’s refutations of the Nyāya school’s conception of the self in the tenth chapter of the Catuḥśataka and in the Śataka, compares them with passages from the Nyāya sutras, and suggests that Vasu was responsible for the four Śataka citations of the Nyāya sutras.

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  • McGarrity, Andrew. “Āryadeva’s Gradual Stages: Their Transmission from India to Tibet.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 32.1–2 (2009–2010): 151–212.

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    Much of McGarrity’s article examines the discrepancy between the Sanskrit text of Catuḥśataka 8:15, “rejection of all,” and the Tibetan translation, “rejection of all views,” and its implications for later Indian and Tibetan understandings of Prāsaṇgika Mādhyamika as having no thesis.

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Editions

Roughly a third of the Catuḥśataka survives in Sanskrit; a single fragmentary palm leaf manuscript of the text with the root verses embedded in Candrakīrti’s commentary is held in the Asiatic Society of Bengal’s manuscript collection. This is the basis for Shāstrī 1914, Bhattacarya 1926, and Bhattacarya 1931 (cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]), as well as the 1971 edition of Jain 2007 (also cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]), which is available from the Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon. Patshab Nyima grags (b. 1055–d. c. 1145) translated the Catuḥśataka into Tibetan. In the 18th century, numerous editions of the Tibetan canon were produced based on Narthang’s monastery’s old manuscripts, the Ganden monastery’s Golden Manuscript, and the blockprint editions located in Narthang, Peking, Derge, and Cone. Modern published editions include the Cone, published in microfiche by the Institute for the Advanced Studies of World Religions (Stony Brook, New York, 1974); the Derge, published by the Faculty of Letters, Tokyo University, (Tokyo 1981); and the Peking, published by the Tibetan Tripitaka Research Institute (Tokyo and Kyoto, 1955–1961). Online editions are available from the Asian Classics Input Project and the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (both cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]. The 1924–1934 Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō edition is the standard reference for the Chinese canon; citations from this edition are indicated by the abbreviation Taishō (or T.) followed by the document number. The Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (cited under Bai lun [Hundred Verses Treatise]), has made this resource available online.

Catuḥśataka (Four Hundred Verses)

Shāstrī 1914 contains an edition of the fragmentary Sanskrit manuscript of the Catuḥśataka and Candrakīrti’s commentary. Vaidya 2009 (cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]) uses the Peking and Narthang editions of the Tibetan translation, Bhattacarya 1928 and Bhattacarya 1931 use the Narthang edition, and Lang 1986 (cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]) uses the Cone, Derge, Narthang, and Peking editions. Digital versions of the Tibetan text are available from the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center and the Asian Classics Input Project. The Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon offers the Sanskrit text of the earlier 1971 edition of Jain 2007 (see Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]).

Bai lun (Hundred Verses Treatise)

The Bai lun (Taishō 1969) exists only in Chinese translation, which is available in digitized form from the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association.

Other Works

The Asian Classics Input Project and the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (both cited under Bai zi lun and Yig brgya pa [Hundred Letters]), as well as the Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon and Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (the latter cited under Bai lun [Hundred Verses Treatise]), provide online editions of several short texts attributed to Āryadeva (see Other Works).

Bai zi lun and Yig brgya pa (Hundred Letters)

The Chinese translation of Bai zi lun (Taishō 1572) is available from Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (cited under Bai Lun [Hundred Verses Treatise]). This Chinese translation and Dunhuang Tibetan translation of Chos grub give Āryadeva as the text’s author. The Tibetan translation credits Nāgārjuna with writing the root text and its commentary; the Asian Classics Input Project and the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center offer digitized versions of various Tibetan canonical editions both of the text and its commentary.

Hastavālaprakaraṇa and Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti (Hair in the Hand Treatise and Commentary)

The Tibetan canon contains two translations of the verse text: Hastavālaprakaraṇa, and its prose commentary, Hastavālaprakaraṇavṛtti, with different Tibetan titles: Cha shas kyi yan lag rab tu byed pa and Rab tu byed pa lag pa’i tshad kyi tshig leu’r byas pa. Both translations are available in digitized form from the Asian Classics Input Project and the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center. Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association also offers two translations of the verses, along with commentary available in digitized form. The Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon provides the Sanskrit text of the 1971 edition of Jain 2007 (cited under Catuḥśataka [Four Hundred Verses]).

’Khrul pa bzlog pa’i’ rigs pa gtan tshigs grub pa (Demonstration of Logical Reasons That Refute Errors)

This text, which exists only in Tibetan translation, is available both from the Asian Classics Input Project and the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center.

Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun (On The Nirvana of the Heretics)

The Wai dao xiao cheng nie pan lun (Taishō 1640) is available in digitized form from the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association.

LAST MODIFIED: 04/24/2012

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0065

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