The proliferation and variety of new media over the past half-century has posed new opportunities and challenges for Buddhist communities. Religious studies more generally, as well as the allied fields of sociology and anthropology, have covered the area of religion and new media fairly well, but Buddhist studies has only just begun to contribute to this field of inquiry. The following bibliography reflects this dearth of scholarship while providing primary sources for future research. “New media” here refers to the Internet, social networking, and mobile communication technologies, as well as more traditional broadcast and print media and film. It is therefore related to issues of consumerism, modernity, and social justice. The bulk of the sources in the first two sections, General Overviews and Journals, are intended to give the researcher a firm grounding in the area of media studies, broadly defined. Selected areas of research provide useful articles on some dominant themes, such as representations of Buddhism in media and new locations of culture, such as mobile technology and the Internet. Primary sources, divided into print and broadcast media and online media, list some longstanding and relevant examples of Buddhist practice in new media.
There is no single, book-length work dedicated to Buddhism in new media. Moreover, scholars in Buddhist studies—and religious studies more generally—have been slow to take the topic of popular culture as a serious area of inquiry until only very recently, with Forbes and Mahan 2005 being an excellent overview of contemporary religion in American popular culture. Works such as Horsfield, et al. 2004 offer the researcher an overview of many themes and issues relevant to studying Buddhism in new media, whereas Beaudoin 1998 and Silverblatt 2008 are useful works for the classroom. Graham 1999 and Zaleski 1997 provide useful, if somewhat dated, theoretical contexts for studying religion on the Internet. Carrette and King 2005 offers a thorough critique of the exploitation of religion by the capitalist marketplace.
Beaudoin, Tom. Virtual Faith: The Irreverent Spiritual Quest of Generation X. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.
A well-cited and perennially popular work about “Generation X” Americans as the producers of contemporary popular culture. The work is useful in charting the terrain, if limited in its critical analysis and focus, which is on largely middle- to upper-class mainstream American culture.
Carrette, Jeremy, and Richard King. Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. London: Routledge, 2005.
An excellent overview of the ways in which corporate and commercial interests have co-opted religion and spirituality, with a focus on North America and the United Kingdom. While Carrette and King have their own biases, their analysis (in chapter3) of the commodification of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism is invaluable.
Forbes, Bruce David, and Jeffrey H. Mahan, eds. Religion and Popular Culture in America. Rev. ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.
With both a comprehensive view and easy-to-read style, the work covers the gamut of popular culture in the United States, from The Da Vinci Code to baseball. Chapter 3 deals specifically with Buddhism. (See also Iwamura 2001, cited under Buddhism in Other New Media [Film, Mobile Communication, Popular Culture].)
Graham, Gordon. The Internet: A Philosophical Inquiry. London: Routledge, 1999.
Because the Internet is a fast-moving target, most studies become outdated almost as soon as they are published. Graham’s philosophic approach to the subject, however, has lasting import, as he deals with technophilia, Marxism, democracy, and the nature of reality—issues that persist despite new technology.
Horsfield, Peter G., Mary E. Hess, and Adán M. Medrano. Belief in Media: Cultural Perspectives on Media and Christianity. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.
While this work focuses on Christianity and new media, the essays as a whole provide a useful model of how to connect new media technologies to cultural and religious change. Chapter 1 provides a particularly useful toehold in this area of research and has the most relevance for Buddhist studies.
Silverblatt, Art. Media Literacy: Keys to Interpreting Media Messages. 3d ed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008.
Silverblatt’s work is a useful classroom tool for teaching about and interpreting media, from film and television to traditional print and new interactive media. Additionally, it may be useful in charting the terrain and familiarizing students with the language of media studies.
Zaleski, Jeff P. The Soul of Cyberspace: How New Technology Is Changing Our Spiritual Lives. San Francisco: HarperEdge, 1997.
As with Graham’s work, Zaleski’s study of the Internet may appear a bit dated, as it predates the current locus of online community or social networking in places such as Facebook or Twitter. Nevertheless, his chapter on Buddhism raises important questions about communicating religion that remain relevant.
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- Abhijñā/Ṛddhi (Extraordinary Knowledge and Powers)
- Abortion, Buddhism and
- Ajanta Caves
- Ambedkar Buddhism
- Ancient Indian Society
- Archaeology of Early Buddhism
- Art and Architecture In China, Buddhist
- Art and Architecture in India, Buddhist
- Art and Architecture in Japan, Buddhist
- Art and Architecture in Nepal, Buddhist
- Art and Architecture in Tibet, Buddhist
- Art and Architecture on the "Silk Road," Buddhist
- Asceticism, Buddhism and
- Awakening of Faith
- Beats, Buddhism and the
- Bhāviveka / Bhāvaviveka
- Bodh Gaya
- Body, Buddhism and the
- Buddha, Three Bodies of the (Trikāya)
- Buddhism and Ethics
- Buddhism and Law
- Buddhism and Marxism
- Buddhism and Modern Literature
- Buddhist Art and Architecture in Sri Lanka and Southeast A...
- Buddhist Hermeneutics
- Buddhist Ordination
- Buddhist Theories of Causality (karma, pratītyasamutpāda, ...
- Buddhist Thought and Western Philosophy
- Buddhist Thought, Embryology in
- Buddhist-Christian Dialogue
- Cambodian Buddhism
- Canon, History of the Buddhist
- Caste, Buddhism and
- Central Asia, Buddhism in
- China, Esoteric Buddhism in, (Zhenyan and Mijiao)
- Chinese Buddhist Publishing and Print Culture, 1900-1950
- Colonialism and Postcolonialism
- Compassion (karuṇā)
- Cosmology, Astronomy and Astrology
- Culture, Material
- Dalai Lama
- Demons and the Demonic in Buddhism
- Dignāga and Dharmakīrti, The Philosophical Works and Influ...
- Drigung Kagyu (’Bri gung bKa’ brgyud)
- Dzogchen (rDzogs chen)
- Early Buddhist Philosophy (Abhidharma/Abhidhamma)
- Early Modern European Encounters with Buddhism
- East Asian Buddhist Art, Portraiture in
- Ellora Caves
- Emptiness (Śūnyatā)
- Environment, Buddhism and the
- Ethics of Violence, Buddhist
- Family, Buddhism and the
- Feminist Approaches to the Study of Buddhism
- Four Noble Truths
- Funeral Practices
- Gandhāra, Buddhism in
- Gelugpa (dGe lugs pa)
- Gender, Buddhism and
- Hakuin Ekaku
- History of Buddhisms in China
- Image Consecrations
- India, Buddhism in
- India, Mahāmudrā in
- Internationalism, Buddhism and
- Intersections Between Buddhism and Hinduism in Thailand
- Iranian World, Buddhism in the
- Islam, Buddhism and
- Japan, Buddhism in
- Korea, Buddhism in
- Laos, Buddhism in
- Linji and the Linjilu
- Literature, Chan
- Literature, Tantric
- Local Religion, Buddhism as
- Lotus Sūtra
- Mahayana, Early
- Mahāvairocana Sūtra/Tantra
- Malaysia, Buddhism in
- Mantras and Dhāraṇīs
- Merit Transfer
- Miracles, Buddhist
- Modernism, Buddhist
- Monasticism in East Asia
- Mongolia, Buddhism in
- Mongolia, Buddhist Art and Architecture in
- Music, and Buddhism
- Myanmar, Buddhism in
- New Medias, Buddhism in
- New Religions in Japan (Shinshūkyō), Buddhism and
- Śāntideva (Bodhicaryāvatāra)
- Nuns, Lives, and Rules
- Oral and Literate Traditions
- Pagan (Bagan)
- Perfection of Wisdom
- Perfections (Six and Ten)
- Philosophy, Chinese Buddhist
- Philosophy, Classical Indian Buddhist
- Philosophy, Classical Japanese Buddhist
- Philosophy, Tibetan Buddhist
- Pilgrimage in India
- Pilgrimage in Japan
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- Psychology and Psychotherapy, Buddhism in
- Pure Land Buddhism
- Pure Land Sūtras
- Religious Tourism, Buddhism and
- Saṃsāra and Rebirth
- Self, Non-Self, and Personal Identity
- Shinto, Buddhism and
- Soka Gakkai
- South and Southeast Asia, Devatās, Nats, And Phii In
- Southeast Asia, Buddhism in
- Sri Lanka, Monasticism in
- Sōtō Zen (Japan)
- Stūpa Pagoda Caitya
- Suffering (Dukkha)
- Sutta (Pāli/Theravada Canon)
- Texts, Dunhuang
- Thai Buddhism
- Thích Nhất Hạnh
- Three Turnings of the Wheel of Doctrine (Dharma-Cakra)
- Tibet, Buddhism in
- Tibet, Mahāmudrā in
- Tibetan Book of the Dead
- Tri Songdetsen
- Uighur Buddhism
- Verse Literature, Tibetan Buddhist
- Vidyādhara (weikza/weizzā)
- Vietnam, Buddhism in
- Vision and Visualization
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- Warrior Monk Traditions
- West (North America and Europe), Buddhism in the
- Wheel of Life (Bhava-Cakra)
- Women in Buddhism
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- Zen, Premodern Japanese