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Buddhism Vinaya
by
Klaus Pinte

Introduction

The disciplinary codes for the training of Buddhist monks (Skt. bhikṣus) and nuns (Skt. bhikṣuṇīs), as well as the institutional regulations for the monastic community (Skt. saṃgha) are collected in the vinaya section of the Buddhist canon (Skt. tripiṭaka), next to doctrinal texts (Skt. sūtra) and philosophical treatises (Skt. śāstra). In Chinese, vinaya is translated pínàiyé (毘奈耶/毘那耶/鼻那夜), syn. (律); in Japanese, binaya (毘奈耶/毘那耶/鼻那夜), syn. ritsu (律); and in Tibetan, ’dul-ba. Following Louis Renou and Jean Filliozat, leading vinaya specialists such as Charles Prebish have categorized the vinaya corpus into canonical, paracanonical, and noncanonical literature: (A) canonical literature preserved in the vinaya-piṭaka mainly covers three divisions of texts, generally comprising: (1) sūtravibhaṅga, or the detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the prātimokṣasūtra, (2) skhandhakas, or regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community, and (3) appendices, mostly comprising summaries of the monastic rules listed in the two previous sections; (B) paracanonical vinaya literature refers to: (1) the set of precepts from the prātimokṣasūtra that is recited every fortnight during the so-called poṣadha ceremony, and (2) karmavācanā texts of correct procedures to settle communal transactions and disputes; and (C) noncanonical vinaya literature covering (1) commentaries and (2) miscellaneous texts, which include translations with unclear school affiliation and other vinaya-related texts. Although they still occupy a rather small niche within the fields of religious or even Buddhist studies, since the 18th century the Buddhist monastic codices—as crystallized in seven seemingly complete vinayas—have been the subject of increasing scholarly attention. These seven vinayas are those of the Theravādins, Mahāsāṃghikas, Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins, Mahīśāsakas, Dharmaguptakas, Sarvāstivādins, and Mūlasarvāstivādins. However, since the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda tradition may actually be considered an offshoot of the Mahāsāṃghika, the number of schools is sometimes restricted to six or even to five when following the theory on the identity of the Sarvāstivādins and Mūlasarvāstivādis (see Enomoto 2000, cited under Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya). In any case, due to its divergent structure, the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya is opposed to the other vinayas, which allegedly stem from a presectarian vinaya matrix (Skt. mātṛkā) known as the Sthavira tradition, but this is still under discussion. Although surely not comprehensive and remaining open to updates, the major fruits of past Western-language scholarship in vinaya studies are summarized in the bibliographical survey below. The entry focuses on the above-mentioned text traditions and their history, development, and interrelations. The available academic sources on the respective traditions are discussed by first listing general works related to the respective vinaya in question; then, in case of sufficient scholarly attention, subsections on more specific material are included, retaining the before-mentioned division between canonical and paracanonical literature. Regardless of the assumption that the so-called Kāśyapīya and Saṃmitīya traditions may have produced vinayas of their own, the primary material related to those schools is almost entirely lost and, except from such outstanding articles such as Hinüber 1985 (cited under General Overviews), to date there are no substantial monographs on the these two traditions. They therefore are not treated here. Given the author’s research field and unfamiliarity with the Tibetan Buddhist traditions, the primary sources covered in this bibliography are principally Sanskrit fragments and Chinese redactions preserved in the Japanese Taishō period edition of the Buddhist canon.

General Overviews

Gaining insight into the significance of vinaya in the Buddhist community requires a basic understanding of the cultural and historical background of the countries in which monastic disciplinary literature emerged, transformed, flourished, and faded. For the role of vinaya in Indian history, Renou and Filliozat 1953 undoubtedly is a classic point of departure, but one of the standard works on the rise of vinaya literature is Frauwallner 1956, which needs to be studied alongside the critique in Clarke 2004. Hinüber 1985 is one of the few works addressing school affiliation according to linguistic criteria. Holt 1987 is representative of standard encyclopedia entries on the topic. Harvey 1990 is undoubtedly one of the best introductions to Buddhism, while Harvey 1999 focuses on the assessment of ethical appropriateness. Prebish 2000 and Prebish 2003 are among the more recent publications on vinaya by one of the prominent scholars in the field.

  • Clarke, Shayne. “Vinaya-Mātṛkā—Mother of the Monastic Codes, or Just another Set of Lists? A Response to Frauwallner’s Handling of the Mahāsāṃghika Vinaya.” Indo-Iranian Journal 47.2 (2004): 77–120.

    DOI: 10.1023/B:INDO.0000044607.76272.3dSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Indispensable reading that discusses the presectarian origins of the vinaya traditions, with special focus on the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya.

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  • Frauwallner, Erich. The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature. Serie Orientale Roma 8. Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1956.

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    A classic work on early vinaya literature, especially interesting for the history of the early Buddhist councils, but rightfully criticized by Clarke 2004.

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  • Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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    Undoubtedly one of the best comprehensive introductions to Buddhism. On vinaya, see pp. 73–75 and especially pp. 217–243.

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  • Harvey, Peter. “Vinaya Principles for Assigning Degrees of Culpability.” Internet Journal of Buddhist Ethics 6 (1999): 271–291.

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    Essay on the Theravāda-vinaya’s attention for mental states in assessing the ethical appropriateness of personal actions. Available online.

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  • Holt, John C. “Vinaya.” In The Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 15. Edited by Mircea Eliade, 265–268. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

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    Provides a general introduction that is useful as a starting point, with a concise bibliography.

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  • Hinüber, Oskar von. “Die Bestimmung der Schulzugehörigkeit buddhistischer Texte nach sprachlicher Kriterien.” In Zur Schulzugehörigkeit von Werken der Hīnayāna-Literatur. Edited by Heinz Bechert, 57–75. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1985.

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    Linguistic essay with special focus on the term pācittika in different traditions.

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  • Prebish, Charles. “From Monastic Ethics to Modern Society.” In Contemporary Buddhist Ethics. Edited by Damien Keown, 37–56. London: Curzon, 2000.

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    An interesting essay discussing vinaya-related texts as the foundation of Buddhist ethics, elaborated from the author’s 1993 article “Text and Tradition in the Study of Buddhist Ethics,” Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies 9: 49–68.

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  • Prebish, Charles. “Varying the Vinaya: Creative Responses to Modernity.” In: Buddhism in the Modern World: Adaptations of an Ancient Tradition. Edited by Stephen Heine and Charles Prebish, 45–74. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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    A highly recommended, concise work on vinaya, largely focusing on the adaptation of vinaya in the light of Buddhist globalization. See p. 49 on “paracanonical” vinaya literature, and pp. 57–60 on the role of vinaya and śīla as the foundations of the Buddhist monastic community.

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  • Renou, Louis, and Jean Filliozat. L’Inde classique: manuel des études indiennes, 2 vols. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1953.

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    Standard reference work on Indian history. For the concept of “paracanonical” for the categorization of vinaya literature, see p. 351.

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Bibliographies

Except for the present entry, there are few other bibliographies that focus on vinaya studies. Edmunds 1903 is perhaps the earliest one listing Western-language secondary material. Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature) is still one of the best bibliographical reference works for primary and secondary vinaya literature, though it is largely drawn from Yuyama 1979. de Jong 1998 reviews Prebish’s work. Harvey 2000 is a very useful general bibliography for Buddhist ethics.

Vinaya-Piṭaka

The standard collection for vinaya texts preserved in Chinese is the Japanese edition of the Buddhist canon, Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935. The Japanese work of Hirakawa 1960 undoubtedly remains the best systematic review of Chinese canonical vinaya literature. Holt 1981 and the 1988 translation of Lamotte 1976 are the foremost publications in English that include overviews of the Indian vinaya-piṭaka. The best edition of the Theravāda Pāli canon is Oldenberg 1964, translated in Horner 1938–1966. Kabilsingh 1998 gives accessible English translations of the prātimokṣa, while Prebish 1975 is the best place to start for the standard division of vinaya literature.

  • Hirakawa, Akira (平川, 彰). Ritsuzō no Kenkyū (律蔵の研究). Tokyo: Sankibō-Busshorin, 1960.

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    An extensive study of the Chinese vinaya-piṭaka, with very useful indices by one of the late experts in the field. Unfortunately, this major Japanese work has not yet been translated.

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  • Holt, John Clifford. Discipline: The Canonical Buddhism of the Vinayapiṭaka. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981.

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    A major work on monastic discipline in the Pāli canon, with special attention for ritual aspects. Reprinted in 1999 in the Buddhism Tradition Series.

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  • Horner, I. B., trans. The Book of Discipline. 6 vols. London: Luzac, 1938–1966.

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    Standard English translation of the Theravāda-vinaya, with elaborate annotations and introductions to each volume. Issued for the Pāli Text Society; the first five volumes have been reprinted. Full text of Volume 2 (1957 edition) is available online.

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  • Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn, trans. The Bhikkhunī-pātimokkha of the Six Schools. Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica Series 187. Delhi: Sri Satguru, 1998.

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    Fluent English translations of the pātimokkhasutta (Skt. prātimokṣasūtra) for nuns preserved in the Chinese canon, including the Theravāda, Mahāsaṃghika, Mahiśāsaka, Sarvāstivāda, Dharmaguptaka, and Mūlasarvāstivāda versions, but lacking annotations. Available online.

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  • Lamotte, Étienne. Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. Louvain, Belgium: Institut Orientaliste, 1976.

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    Reprint of the 1958 edition. Translated into English by Sara Boin-Webb as History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Śaka Era (Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1988). On the vinaya-piṭaka, see pp. 181–197.

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  • Oldenberg, Hermann, ed. The Vinaya Piṭakaṃ: One of the Principal Buddhist Holy Scriptures in the Pāli Language. 5 vols. London: Luzac, 1964.

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    Pāli text romanized, with introduction and notes in English. Reprint of the Williams and Norgate edition of 1879–1883 for the Pāli Text Society. Still the best edition available, including a lengthy introduction with critical comments on the problem of the rituality of the pātimokkha, but also harboring now outdated opinions on the Buddhist councils.

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  • Prebish, Charles. “The Vinaya Piṭaka.” In: Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. Edited by Charles Prebish, 49–53. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1975.

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    A short (but for beginners very useful) overview of vinaya literature, following the threefold classification of “canonical,” “paracanonical,” and “noncanonical” texts.

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  • Takakusu, Junjirō (高楠, 順次郎), Watanabe Kaigyoku (渡部, 海旭), and Ono Genmyō (小野, 亦妙), eds. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. 100 vols. Tokyo: Daizō shuppan kabushiki kaisha, 1924–1935.

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    The Taishō canon (abbreviated as “T.”) is the most widely used modern edition of the Buddhist canon, comprising 3,360 different works. On vinaya, see especially Volumes 22–24.

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Vinaya Dissemination

The acculturation of vinaya has drawn academic attention as part of a more general interest in the spread of Buddhism from its homeland in India throughout Asia and beyond. One of the best works covering aspects of disciplinary codes in various countries is Wei-hsun Fu and Wawrytko 1994. For the general adaptation of Buddhism in China, Zürcher 2007 is a classic place to start, but Yifa 2002, Bodiford 2005, and Heirman 2007 are the most recent publications addressing the spread of vinaya per se. As for monastic discipline in Japan, Groner 1984, Hankó 2003, and Benn, et al. 2009 are the best among the few publications on the topic.

  • Benn, James A., Lori Meeks, and James Robson, eds. Buddhist Monasticism in East Asia: Places of Practice. London: Routledge, 2009.

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    A major work on the functions of Buddhist monasteries in medieval China and Japan, with reference to Chinese vinaya commentaries (chapter 1, pp. 18–42), as well as entries on the largely ignored topics of precept-conferral and consecration ceremonies in Japan (chapters 7 and 8, pp. 148–177 and 178–207, respectively).

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  • Bodiford, William M., ed. Going Forth: Visions of Buddhist Vinaya; Essays Presented in Honor of Professor Stanley Weinstein. Studies in East Asian Buddhism 18. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005.

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    Standard work on the ceremonial issues resulting from the tension between vinaya doctrine and practice, encorporating seminal essays on monastic discipline.Especially interesting for the cases of China and Japan (see entries on pp. 16ff. and 185ff., respectively).

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  • Groner, Paul. Saichō: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School. Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series 7. Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California at Berkeley, 1984.

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    One of the few Western language books addressing Buddhist precepts in Japan. On vinaya, see pp. 190–191.

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  • Hankó, László. Der Ursprung der japanischen Vinaya-Schule Risshū, und die Entwicklung ihrer Lehre und Praxis. Göttingen, Germany: Cuvillier, 2003.

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    One of the few Western-language works on the adoption and adaptation of vinaya in Japan.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “Vinaya: from India to China.” In: The Spread of Buddhism. Edited by Ann Heirman and Stephan Bumbacher, 167–202. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004158306.i-474.44Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The most recent take on the spread of the vinaya, including a section on Sri Lanka (pp. 181–185).

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  • Wei-hsun Fu, Charles, and Sandra A. Wawrytko, eds. Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World: An International Symposium. Contributions to the Study of Religion 38. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1994.

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    One of the best works covering aspects of disciplinary codes in various countries, with contributions by the most renowned specialists in the field. Regardless of the lack of a clearly defined encompassing approach, the first part (“Historical Context”: pp. 53–140) remains highly recommended for gaining insights into the diversity of the subject.

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  • Yifa. The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Kuroda Institute Classics in East Asian Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2002.

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    A major reference work for vinaya in China. On the evolution of monastic regulations in China, see pp. 3–52.

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  • Zürcher, Erik. The Buddhist Conquest of China: the Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. 2 vols. 3d ed. Serie Sinica Leidensia. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2007.

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    Standard reference work for Chinese Buddhism, first published in 1959. On vinaya, see especially pp. 55–56, 144–148, 196–197, 229–230, and 283–284.

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Theravāda-Vinaya

The Theravāda tradition, or “Doctrine of the Elders,” emerged from of a series of schisms beginning in the 4th century BCE in India and is believed to be the oldest surviving Buddhist school. Since it became especially dominant in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, including Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos, it has been popularly referred to as Southern Buddhism. Theravāda schools claim to adhere most accurately to the original practices and doctrines taught by the historical Buddha, and these are generally understood to be rigorous monastic traditions. The best reference work on Theravāda vinaya literature is Hinüber 1996. The primary text is edited by Oldenberg and fully translated by Horner (see Horner 1938–1966, cited under Vinaya-piṭaka). Important publications on the Theravāda-vinaya also include terminological and grammatical studies on the Pāli language, such as Hinüber 1968. (Oskar von Hinüber is one of the most prominent experts in the field.)

Theravāda Canonical Literature

The canonical vinaya literature of the Theravāda tradition comprises three sections. The first is the suttavibhaṅga, containing detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the pātimokkhasuttas for monks (Pāli: bhikku) and nuns (Pāli: bhikkuṇī). Standard reference works include Oldenberg 1964 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka). For the suttavibhaṅga, see Oldenberg’s Volumes 3 and 4 (i.e., bhikkhuvibhaṅga in the entire Volume 3, as well as Volume 4, pp. 1–207, and the bhikkuṇīvibhaṅga in Volume 4, pp. 211–235). The primary text edition in Indian devanāgari script is in Kashyap 1956–1961. While Hüsken 1997 is one of the most recent studies on rules for nuns, Horner 1938–1966 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka) offers the most outstanding (and as yet only) full translation of the suttavibhaṅga. For the bhikkhuvibhaṅga, see Volumes 1 and 2 (in their entirety) and Volume 3, pp. 1–155; and for the bhikkuṇīvibhaṅga, see Volume 3, pp. 156–426. The second section is the khandhaka, which generally comprises regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community, in two volumes: the Mahāvagga, containing rules for fortnightly assemblies (Pāli uposatha) and monastic ordination, and the Cullavagga, containing accounts of the Buddhist councils and the establishment of the nun’s community, as well as rules for dealing with communal offenses. Following the pioneering work of Bendall 1883, three scholars offered the first encompassing translations. However, although translations are in Rhys Davids and Oldenberg 1881–1885, Horner 1938–1966 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), especially Volumes 4 and 5, remains the standard reference work. For major text editions of the khandhaka texts, see Oldenberg 1964 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volumes 1 and 2. Another edition is Kashyap 1956–1961 (Volumes 1 and 2). Japanese scholars also made serious contributions, including Hirakawa 1954. De 1955 is a must for anyone interested in the evolution of ordination procedures related to the Mahāvagga, while Prebish 1994 contains a very useful overview of khandhaka literature. The third canonical section is the parivāra, which is mostly regarded as an appendix containing summaries of the monastic rules listed in the before-mentioned khandhaka and vibhaṅga. Major text editions are Oldenberg 1964, especially Volume 5, and Kashyap 1956–1961, especially Volume 5. Standard English translations can be found in Horner 1938–1966 (see especially the thus far unique translation in Volume 6). German translations are in Stache-Rosen 1984.

  • Bendall, Cecil. “Notes and Queries on Passages in the Mahāvagga.” Journal of the Pāli Text Society (1883): 75–85.

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    This article on the Mahāvagga part of the khandhaka is the only notable secondary work on the Theravāda vinaya before 1900.

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  • De, Gokuldas. Democracy in Early Buddhist Saṃgha. Calcutta, India: Calcutta University Press, 1955.

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    Focuses on the historical evolution in ordination procedures, including a translation of selections from the Mahāvagga khandhaka.

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  • Hirakawa, Akira (平川, 章). “Ritsuzō kendobu no seiritsu ni tsuite” (律蔵犍度部の成立について). Indogaku Bukkyōgaku Kenkyū (印度学仏教学研究) 4.2–2 (1954): 33–42.

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    (On the formation of the khandhaka of the Vinayapiṭaka.) Exemplary of the post-1950s contribution Japanese scholars of Indian Buddhism made to vinaya studies.

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  • Hüsken, Ute. Die Vorschriften für die buddhistische Nonnengemeinde im Vinaya-piṭaka der Theravādin. Monographien zur Indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie 11. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1997.

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    A major work on the special rules for nuns, with detailed annotated translations and analysis based upon the commentarial literature of the Pāli Samantapāsādikā. See also works listed under Theravāda Commentaries.

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  • Kashyap, Jagdish, ed. The Pāli Tipiṭaka in Devanāgarī Script = Nālandā Devanāgarī Pāli Series. 46 vols. 1956–1961.

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    The standard reference edition of the Pāli canon. For the bhikkhuvibhaṅga, see Volume 3, as well as Volume 4, pp. 3–281; for the bhikkuṇīvibhaṅga, see Volume 4, pp. 283–490.

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  • Prebish, Charles S. A Survey of Vinaya Literature. Taipei, Taiwan: Jin Luen, 1994.

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    Undoubtedly the leading publication in its kind, covering both primary and secondary sources printed since the beginning of the 19th century. On the categories of vinaya literature, see pp. 1–41. For paracanonical vinaya literature, see p. 1ff. Pages 51–52 contain information on the arrangement of the khandhakas according to their titles, correspondence to the vastus, as well as references to the text edition in Oldenberg 1964 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka).

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  • Rhys Davids, W. Thomas, and Hermann Oldenberg. Vinaya Texts. Sacred Books of the East Series 13, 17, 20. Oxford: Clarendon, 1881–1885.

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    Early scholarship, lacking in-depth annotations. For the khandhaka translations, see Volume 13, pp. 73–355; on the Mahāvagga, see Volume 17, pp. 1–325; on the Cullavagga, see Volume 17, pp. 329–439, as well as Volume 20, pp. 1–414. Reprinted in 1965 (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass).

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  • Stache-Rosen, Valentina, trans. Upāliparipṛcchāsūtra: ein Text zur buddhistischen Ordensdisziplin. Abhandlungen der Akademie für Wissenschaften in Göttingen 140. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1984.

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    Gives a side-by-side presentation of the Pāli-parivāra and the Chinese version of the Upāliparipṛcchāsūtra, translated by Guṇavarman (b. 367–d. 431) as Yuboli wenfujing (優波離問佛經); see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 24: (T. 1466) pp. 903a15–910b5.

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Theravāda Paracanonical Literature

Given the extensive amount of publications related to the paracanonical literature of the Theravādins, in accordance to the division outlined in the Introduction, the sources are discussed under the two subheadings of pātimokkha and kammavācās. The pātimokkha is a set of precepts from the sutta (Skt. sūtra) that is recited every fortnight during the so-called uposatta ceremony, which evolves around purification and the restoration of vows, while the kammavācās contain ceremonial formulae or procedures for settling transactions and disputes within the Buddhist community.

Theravāda-pātimokkha

Beal and Gogerly 1862 is one the pioneering studies and translations of the subject, together with Minayeff 1869 and Dickson 1876. Until the outstanding publication of Pruitt 2001, however, Rhys Davids and Oldenberg 1881–1885 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; Volume 13, pp. 1–69) remained the standard translation of the Pāli pātimokkha, alongside Thera 1966. Seidenstücker 1924 includes a partial German translation, while a basic translation of the entire nun’s text is in Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 16–66). Hinüber 1999 is the leading study on the development of the pātimokkha. An abbreviated English version is Hinüber 1998.

  • Beal, Samuel, and Daniel John Gogerly. “Comparative Arrangement of Two Translations of the Buddhist Ritual for the Priesthood, Known as the Prātimokṣa, or Pātimokkhan.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society o.s. 9 (1862): 407–480.

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    Beal’s translation is largely based on the Dharmaguptaka tradition, while Gogerly is pioneering on the Pāli pātimokkha (already published in Ceylon Friend as early as 1839). Although the latter was based on personal observations in Ceylon, it lacks in-depth annotations.

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  • Dickson, J. F. “The Pātimokkha, being the Buddhist Office of the Confession of Priests. The Pāli Text, with a Translation and Notes.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society n.s., 8 (1876): 62–130.

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    The first English translation, and for long the best text edition, on which later scholars based their own translations—see, for example, Rhys Davids and Oldenberg 1881–1885 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature).

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  • Hinüber, Oskar von. “Structure and Origin of the Pātimokkhasutta of the Theravadins.” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 51.3 (1998): 257–265.

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    Abbreviated English version of Hinüber 1999.

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  • Hinüber, Oskar von. Das Pātimokkhasutta der Theravadin, Seine Gestalt und seine Entstehungsgeschichte. Studien zur Literatur des Theravada-Buddhismus II, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner, 1999.

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    The leading study on the topic. A must for everyone interested in the development of the pātimokkha. An abbreviated English version is available in Hinüber 1998.

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  • Minayeff, Ivan Pavlovitch. Prātimokṣa Sūtra. St. Petersburg, Russia: Imperatorskaja Akademija Nauk (Imperial Academy of Sciences), 1869.

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    The first full edition of the Pāli pātimokkhasutta, including a Russian translation.

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  • Pruitt, William. ed., and Kenneth Roy Norman, trans. The Patimokkha. Sacred Books of the Buddhists 39. Oxford: Pāli Text Society, 2001.

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    English translation of the Pātimokkhasutta, richly annotated and with an extensive introduction.

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  • Seidenstücker, Karl Bernhard. Vinaya-Piṭaka in Auswahl Übersetzt. Neubiberg, Germany: Schoss Verlag, 1924.

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    Includes German translations of selections from the Mahāvagga and Cullavagga khandhakas, as well as the pātimokkha.

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  • Thera, Ñāṇamoli. The Pātimokkha: 227 Fundamental Rules of a Bhikkhu. Bangkok: Social Science Association of Thailand, 1966.

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    Another edition of the pātimokkhasutta, still used today. Conveniently arranged in columns, alongside an English translation.

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Theravāda-kammavācā

The study and translation of Theravāda texts containing ceremonial formulae or procedures for settling transactions and disputes within the Buddhist community (e.g., kammavācā) date back to the first decades of the 19th century, with the selected English translations of Clough 1834 and the Latin translations of Spiegel 1841, followed by Dickson 1875, a major text edition of the ordination procedures, the transcriptions of Frankfurter 1999, the partial translations of Baynes 1892 and Dās 1894, as well as the 1906–1907 edition of Clauson 1978. These seemingly outdated publications are still referred to today. Among the few more recent studies, Hinüber 1987 deserves special mentioning for its meticulous analysis of the importance of language.

  • Baynes, Herbert. “A Collection of Kammavācās.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society n.s. 24 (1892): 53–75.

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    Pāli version and translation of Theravādin procedures.

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  • Clauson, G. L. M. “A New Kammavācā.” Journal of the Pāli Text Society 6 (1978): 1–8.

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    Reprint of the 1906–1907 text edition, which Clauson published while still in college, introducing a new form of ceremonial formulae.

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  • Clough, B. The Ritual of the Buddhist Priesthood, Translated from the Original Pali Work Entitled Karma-vakya. Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental Writers 2. London: Richard Bentley, 1834.

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    Includes the first English translations of six Theravāda kammavācās.

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  • Dās, Śarat Chandra. “A Note on the Buddhist Golden Book exhibited by the President, the Honourable Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.I.E.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 63.1 (1894): 20–34.

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    Partial translation of the author’s Pāli text edition of the kammavācā used during the ordination ceremony (upasaṃpadā), with explanatory notes.

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  • Dickson, J. F. “The Upasampadā-Kammavācā, Being the Buddhist Manual of the Form and Manner of Ordering Priests and Deacons: The Pāli Text, with a Translation and Notes.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society n.s. 7 (1875): 1–16.

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    The first full English translation, and probably the best text edition, on which later scholars based their own translations. Described from personal observation in Sri Lanka.

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  • Frankfurter, Oscar. Handbook of Pāli, Being an Elementary Grammar, Chrestomathy, and Glossary. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1999.

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    Still a standard reference work for Pāli studies, with a concise bibliography. Reprint of the 1883 London edition. For the author’s “Collection of Kammavācās” in roman transcription, see pp. 142–151.

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  • Hinüber, Oskar von. “Das buddhistische Recht und die Phonetik des Pāli: Ein Abschnitt aus der Samantapāsādikā über die Vermeidung von Aussprachefehlern in Kammavācās.” Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 13–14 (1987): 101–127.

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    Interesting for its analysis of the importance of correct pronunciation for the validity of ordination procedures.

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  • Spiegel, Friedrich von. Kammavākya: Liber de officiis sacerdotum buddhicorum. Bonn: H.B. Koenig, 1841.

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    Devanāgarī text edition alongside an annotated Latin translation of the Theravāda full ordination procedures (upasaṃpadā-kammavācā). Reissued in English translation in Venice in 1875.

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Theravāda Commentaries

The noncanonical literature associated with the Theravādins basically comprises commentaries (Pāli: aṭṭhakathās) and subcommentaries (Pāli: ṭīkās), which are commentaries, elaborations, and discussions on previous vinaya commentaries. The most important commentary on the Pāli vinaya is the Samantapāsādikā. This text has been the subject of multiple studies, going back to the pioneering work of Japanese scholars, including Takakusu 1896, alongside Takakusu and Nagai 1924–1947. Although to date there are no full translations of the Pāli text, a partial English translation is in Jayawickrama 1962. There is a Chinese edition of this commentary in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 24 (T. 1462), pp. 673b02–800c12. A full English translation of the Chinese text is found in Bapat and Hirakawa 1970. Heirman 2004 is a recent inquiry on the school affiliation of the Samantapāsādikā. A concise introduction is also in Kieffer-Pülz 1992. Aside from the Samantapāsādikā, other commentaries have been written on the vinaya of the Theravādins, but these have not been studied in length. Specialists interested in other commentaries are referred to Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially p. 54, with notes on pp. 117–118). One of the few works on the Theravāda-vinaya-ṭīkās is Bollée 1969. For further references for advanced use, such as subcommentaries on Buddhagoṣa’s work, consult Prebish 1994, as well as Hinüber’s work (see Theravāda-vinaya, pp. 103–111.)

  • Bapat, P. V., and Hirakawa Akira (平川, 章). Shan-Chien-P’i-P’o-Sha: A Chinese Version by Saṇghabhadra of Samantapāsādikā, Commentary on Pāli Vinaya; Translated into English for the First Time. Pune, India: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1970.

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    The first full translation of the alleged Chinese version of Buddhagoṣa’s vinaya commentary, catalogued in the Chinese tripiṭaka as T. 1462.

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  • Bollée, W. B. “Die Stellung der Vinaya-Ṭīkās in der Pāli-Literatur.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Supplementa I, 17 (1969): 824–835.

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    Early essays on the function of subcommentaries. Online version accessible from Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “The Chinese Samantapāsādikā and its School Affiliation.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 154.2 (2004): 371–396.

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    A seminal article questioning the Dharmaguptaka affiliation in the Chinese translation, arguing for an acceptance of an Abhayagirivihārin influence. Available online.

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  • Jayawickrama, N. A. The Inception to Discipline and the Vinaya Nidāna. Sacred Books of the Buddhists 21. London: Luzac, 1962.

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    Pāli Text Society translation of the introduction to Buddhaghoṣa’s Samantapāsādikā.

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  • Kieffer-Pülz, Petra. Die Sīmā: Vorschriften zur Regelung der buddhistischen Gemeindegrenze in älteren buddhistischen Texten. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1992.

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    A meticulous study on the outline of monastic complex boundaries (Skt. sīmā), based on the traditions of the Mūlasarvāstivādins and Theravādins, including an introduction to the Samantapāsādikā on pp. 163–185.

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  • Maskell, Dorothy, ed. Kaṇkhāvitaraṇī nāma Mātikātthakathā; Buddhaghoṣa’s Commentary on the Pātimokkha. London: Luzac, 1956.

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    The Pāli Text Society edition of Buddhaghoṣa’s pātimokkha commentary.

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  • Takakusu, Junjirō (高楠, 順次郎). “Pāli Elements in Chinese Buddhism. A Translation of Buddhagoṣa’s Samantapāsādikā, a Commentary on the Vinaya, found in the Chinese Tripiṭaka.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society n.s. 28 (1896): 415–439.

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    Partial translation of what is believed to be the Chinese version of the Pāli Samantapāsādikā.

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  • Takakusu, Junjirō (高楠, 順次郎), and Nagai Makoto (永井, 誠一), eds. Samantapāsādikā. 7 vols. London: Luzac, 1924–1947.

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    The Pāli Text Society edition of Buddhaghoṣa’s commentary on the entire Theravāda-vinaya.

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Mahāsāṃghika-Vinaya

The Mahāsāṃghika (lit. “Greater Community”) was one of the early Buddhist schools in India, but its lineage has now become extinct. The origins of the Mahāsāṃghikas are still uncertain and form the subject of scholarly debate, which is especially intrigued by the fact that the school’s vinaya appears to be structurally divergent from the composition of the vinaya recensions of the other traditions, therefore possibly incorporating an older presectarian redaction. Based on a manuscript found at Pāṭaliputra, the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya was translated into Chinese by Buddhabhadra and Faxian as Mohesengqi-lü (摩訶僧祇律); for this, see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1425) pp. 227a2–549a3. A partial French translation is in Chavannes 1962. Prebish and Nattier 1977, Prebish 1996, and Clarke 2004 (cited under General Overviews) are a must for anyone interested in the role of vinaya for the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism, while Sasaki 1994 is indispensable material for gaining insight into the structure of the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya. (Note that there are no notable sources on karmavācanās, appendices, or miscellanies related to the Mahāsāṃghika tradition.)

Mahāsāṃghika Canonical Literature

First among the canonical vinaya literature associated with the Mahāsāṃghikas are the detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the Mahāsāṃghika-prātimokṣasūtra (see Mahāsāṃghika Paracanonical Literature), found in the Mahāsāṃghika-sūtravibhaṅga. The text for monks is the bhikṣuvibhaṅga, the Chinese version of which is preserved in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1425) pp. 227a1–412b16. The Chinese edition of the text for nuns (bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga) is on pp. 514a18–548 and has been fully translated in Hirakawa 1982. The regulations for the organization of the Mahāsāṃghika community are found in the Chinese redaction of the Mahāsāṃghika-skandhaka, which is in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1425) pp. 412b7–514a18. The text contains accounts on the first Buddhist councils at Rājagṛha (c. 368 BCE) and Vaiśālī (c. 268 BCE). Partial French translations are in Hofinger 1946, but these must be read alongside Demiéville 1951. On the arrangement of the Mahāsāṃghika-skandhaka material, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially pp. 59–60 and 119, n. 25).

Mahāsāṃghika Paracanonical Literature

In contrast to the Theravāda-vinaya, the paracanonical literature of the Mahāsāṃghikas only comprises the prātimokṣa, a set of precepts in the form of a sutra that is recited fortnightly during the so-called poṣadha purification ceremony, during which the members of the ordained community restore their vows. The full prātimokṣasūtras for Mahāsāṃghika monks and nuns have survived only in the Chinese translations by Buddhabhadra and Faxian: Mohesengqilü-dabiqiu-jieben (摩訶僧祇律大比丘戒本—completed c. 412) and Mohesengqi-biqiuni-jieben (摩訶僧祇比丘尼戒本—finished c. 415), respectively, both included in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1426) pp. 549a06–556a19 and (T. 1427) pp. 556a24–566c08. Except for the basic translation of the nun’s text in Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 17–114), there is as yet no scholarly translation or text study available in any Western language. Prebish 1975 appears to be the only notable source on the remaining Sanskrit fragments of the Mahāsāṃghika-prātimokṣasūtra.

  • Prebish, Charles S. Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Prātimokṣa Sūtras of the Mahāsāṃghikas and Mūlasarvāstivādins. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.

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    One of the only studies on the Sanskrit fragments of the Mahāsāṃghika-prātimokṣa, including partial translations and a concordance table, on pp. 41–139 and 140–150, respectively.

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Mahāsāṃghika Commentaries

Of the two important commentaries on the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya, the Śāriputraparipṛcchāsūtra is only preserved in an anonymous Chinese translation (c. 317–420). It is a crucial source for the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism, especially with regard to the schism between the Mahāsāṃghikas and the Sthaviras. The primary text, Shelifowenjing (舍利佛問經), is in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka) Volume 22: (T. 1465] pp. 899c6–903a10). The other commentary is the Sanskrit Sphuṭārthā Śrīghācārasaṃgrahaṭīkā and is in Saṇghasena 1968. To date there are no notable Western-language translations of these texts. Shimoda 1990 is a study of the Sanskrit commentary, while Prebish and Nattier 1977 contains useful information on the Śāriputraparipṛcchāsūtra.

  • Prebish, Charles S., and Janice J. Nattier. “Mahāsāṃghika Origins: The Beginnings of Buddhist Sectarianism.” History of Religions 16.3 (1977): 237–272.

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    On the Śāriputraparipṛcchāsūtra, see pp. 249–250, 260–261, and 266–270.

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  • Saṇghasena. Sphuṭārthā Śrīghācārasaṃgrahaṭīkā. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 11. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1968.

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    First edition of a Sanskrit commentary on the Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya.

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  • Shimoda, Masahiro (下田, 正弘). “The Sphuṭārthā Śrīghācārasaṃgrahaṭīkā and the Chinese Mahāsāṇghika Vinaya.” Indogaku Bukkyōgaku Kenkyū (印度学佛教学研究) 39.1 (1990): 11–14.

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    The only notable secondary article on Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya commentarial literature.

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Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravāda-Vinaya

The name of the Lokottaravāda, or “Supermundane School,” generally regarded as an offshoot of the Mahāsāṃghikas, is derived from the doctrine that a Buddha is endowed with supermundane (Skt. lokottara) nature. Little literature remains of this school, but next to the Theravādin bhikṣuṇī-vinaya (see Theravāda-vinaya) it is the only tradition that has handed down a complete code of discipline for Buddhist nuns in an Indian language, in this case a Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit (i.e., a language in a transitional stage from Prākrit to Sanskrit). Thus, except from the Mahāvastu, a miscellaneous text (see Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Miscellanies), basically only the before-mentioned bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga, as well as the bhikṣuṇīprakīrṇaka and bhikṣuprakīrṇaka (see Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Canonical Literature) are extant, and to date no karmavācanās, appendices, or commentaries of this tradition have been discovered. The most prominent scholarship on this tradition is by Gustav Roth, whose is translated into French in Nolot 1991. Roth is also the foremost expert on language and terminology in this vinaya—see, for example, Roth 1966 and Roth 1968. The rules for nuns are also discussed in de Jong 1974.

  • de Jong, Jan W. “Notes on the Bhikṣuṇī-Vinaya of the Mahāsāṃghikas.” In Buddhist Studies in Honour of I. B. Horner. Edited by L. Cousins, Arnold Kunst, and Kenneth R. Norman, 63–70. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, and Boston: D. Reidel, 1974.

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    A short essay on the rules for nuns in the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda tradition.

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  • Roth, Gustav. “Bhikṣuṇīvinaya and Bhikṣu-Prakīrṇaka and Notes on the Language.” Journal of the Bihar Research Society 52.1–4 (1966): 29–51.

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    Pioneering work on the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda-vinaya.

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  • Roth, Gustav. “Terminologisches aus dem Vinaya der Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādin.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 118 (1968): 334–348.

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    Pioneering work on the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda-vinaya.

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Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Canonical Literature

Canonical literature associated with the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins first of all comprises the sūtravibhaṅga for Buddhist nuns (Skt. bhikṣuṇīs), containing detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the prātimokṣasūtra (see Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Paracanonical Literature). The text has been carefully edited in Roth 1970. The only notable text study and translation is Nolot 1991. Subsequently, there is the prakīrṇaka, or the collection of miscellaneous procedures of the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins, which are equivalent to the skandhaka regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community in the other traditions. In addition to the standard edition of Roth 1970, appreciable literature on this subject includes the short comments in Lévi 1932 and the text editions in Jinananda 1969, as well as Singh and Minowa 1988.

  • Jinananda, B. Abhisamācārikā (Bhikṣuprakīrṇaka). Tibetan Sanskrit Works 9. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1969.

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    First edition of the prakīrṇaka for monks.

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  • Lévi, Sylvain. “Note sur des manuscrits provenant de Bamiyan (Afghanistan) et de Gilgit (Cachemire).” Journal Asiatique 220 (1932): 1–45.

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    Includes some information on the skandhaka-related literature associated with the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins, especially pages 4–8.

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  • Nolot, Edith. Règles de discipline des nonnes bouddhistes: Le Bhikṣuṇīvinaya de l’ecole Mahasamghika-lokottaravadin: Traduction annotée, commentaire, collation du manuscrit. Institut de Civilisation Indienne 60. Paris: Diffusion de Boccard, 1991.

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    A translation and study of the bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga edition of Roth 1970. Includes meticulous annotations, with indices of Sanskrit, Pāli, Prākrit, and Chinese terms.

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  • Prasad, Maulichand. A Comparative Study of the Abhisamācārikā: Abhisamācārikā-Dharma-Vinaya of the Ārya Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins and the Pāli Vinaya of the Theravādins. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 26. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1984.

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    Detailed analysis of the skandhaka-related material in the monastic code of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins.

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  • Roth, Gustav. Bhikṣuṇī-vinaya, including Bhikṣuṇī-prakīrṇaka and a Summary of the Bhikṣu-prakīrṇaka of the Ārya-Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādin. Tibetan Sanskrit Works 12. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1970.

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    Standard edition of the Lokottaravāda-bhikṣuṇī-sūtravibhaṇga and the -prakīrṇaka, with rich grammatical annotation.

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  • Singh, S., and K. Minowa. “A Critical Edition and Translation of the Abhisamācārikā Nāma Bhikṣu-Prakīrṇakaḥ.” Buddhist Studies: The Journal of the Department of Buddhist Studies, University of Delhi 12 (1988): 81–146.

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    A new edition of Jinananda 1969, but the translation is unsatisfactory.

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Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Paracanonical Literature

The paracanonical literature of the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins basically only includes the prātimokṣasūtra for monks, which is a set of precepts taking the form of a sutra to be recited every fortnight during the poṣadha purification ceremony. The text is edited in Pachow and Mishra 1952–1953, with an introduction in Pachow and Mishra 1952, but the most reliable edition is Nathmal 1976. A partial translation is in Pachow 1953. Roth 1979 is one of the few reliable text studies.

  • Nathmal, Tatia, ed. Prātimokṣasūtram of the Lokottaravādi-Mahāsāṃghika School. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 16. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1976.

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    The most reliable edition of the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda-bhikṣuprātimokṣasūtra.

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  • Pachow, W. “Translation of the Introduction Section of the Text.” Journal of the Gaṇgānāth Jhā Research Institute 11–12.1–4 (1953): 243–248.

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    Partial translation of the Sanskrit Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda-bhikṣuprātimokṣasūtra.

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  • Pachow, W., and Mishra Ramakanta, eds. “The Prātimokṣa Sūtra of the Mahāsāṃghikas.” Journal of the Gaṇgānāth Jhā Research Institute 9.2–4 (1952): 239–260.

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    Introduction to the Pachow and Mishra 1952–1953 text edition.

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  • Pachow, W., and Mishra Ramakanta, eds. “The Prātimokṣa Sūtra of the Mahāsāṃghikas.” Journal of the Gaṇgānāth Jhā Research Institute 10.1–4 (1952–1953): Appendix, 1–48.

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    First edition of the Sanskrit text of the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda-bhikṣuprātimokṣasūtra. Reissued in 1956 by the same institute in book format, titled The Prātimokṣa-Sūtra of the Mahāsāṃghikas, Critically Edited for the First Time from Palm-Leaf Manuscripts Found in Tibet.

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  • Roth, Gustav. “Notes on the Introduction of the Bhikṣu-Prātimokṣa-Sūtra of the Ārya-Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādin.” Studies in Pāli and Buddhism: A Memorial Volume in Honor of Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap. Edited by A. K. Narain, 317–326. Delhi: B.R. Publishing, 1979.

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    Representative publication by the leading scholar in Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādin studies.

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Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravāda Miscellany

The Mahāvastu is a noncanonical hagiographical story (Skt. avadāna) claiming to be a vinaya text belonging to the Mahāsāṃghika-lokottaravādins. It has been edited several times (e.g., Senart 1882–1897, Basak 1963–1968, and Bagchi 1970). The only available English translation is Jones 1949–1956, which is still used today.

Mahīśāsaka-Vinaya

The Mahīśāsaka school is reported to have emerged from a debate centered on rules for food consumption during the first Buddhist Council (c. 368 BCE). The vinaya texts attributed to the Mahīśāsakas are available in the Chinese translation by Buddhajīva, et al., which was based on a Sri Lankan manuscript and completed circa 423–424, the Mishasaibu-hexi-wufenlü (彌沙塞部和醯五分律). For the primary text, see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka, Volume 22: (T. 1421) pp. 1a02–194b28. Chavannes 1962 is a partial French translation. Given the limited amount of secondary sources on the vinaya of this tradition, the literature cited here is not categorized under further subheadings. First among the canonical literature associated with the Mahīśāsakas is the sūtravibhaṅga, containing detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the prātimokṣasūtra. It is only available in the Chinese translation; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1421) pp. 1a1–77b20 for the monks’ text (Skt. bhikṣuvibhaṅga) and pp. 77c6–101a5 for the bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga, or the explanations on the rules for Buddhist nuns. To date both remain untranslated. A second form of canonical literature comprises the Mahīśāsaka-skandhaka or the collection of regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community, which include recitations on the Buddhist councils of Rājargṛha (c. 368 BCE) and Vaiśālī (c. 268 BCE). The primary text is preserved in Chinese, and can also be found in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1421) pp. 101a21–194b21. Only partial French translations are available: Jaworski 1927 and Jaworski 1931, as well as Przyluski 1926–1928 and Bareau 1962, but there are also sections in Hofinger 1946 (cited under Mahāsāṃghika Canonical Literature; especially pp. 22–124). On the arrangement of the Mahīśāsaka-skandhaka material, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially pp. 68–70 and 120, n. 34). To the paracanonical vinaya literature of the Mahīśāsakas belong the prātimokṣasūtras for monks and nuns, which generally include a fixed set of precepts to be recited every fortnight as part of the purification ceremony (Skt. poṣadha), during which the ordained members of the Buddhist community restore their vows. To date, there are no fully annotated Western translations of these texts available, but the bhikṣuprātimokṣa is available in the Chinese translation Mishasai-wufen-jieben (彌沙塞五分戒本) by Buddhajīva (completed c. 423–424), while the bhikṣuṇīprātimokṣa was translated by Minghui (明徽) as Wufen-biqiuni-jieben (五分比丘尼戒本, finished in 522). These primary texts are in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1422) pp. 194c1–200b6 and (T. 1423) pp. 206b6–214a13, respectively. For a basic translation of the nun’s text, see Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 115–169). Another part of the paracanonical literature constitutes the karmavācanā texts of correct procedures to settle communal transactions and disputes, but of the Mahīśāsakas only bhikṣu-karmavācanā has survived, in the Chinese translation by Aitong (愛同), which he calls Mishasai-jiemoben (彌沙塞羯磨本, completed c. 705–706); readers should consult Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1424) pp. 214a12–226a28. There also appear to be no Western-language translations or text studies of works in this category. (Note also that no appendices and no noncanonical vinaya literature of this school have as yet been attested.)

Dharmaguptaka-Vinaya

Of all the monastic traditions that are accounted to have produced vinayas, the Dharmaguptakas appear to have been most successful in East Asia. At least since the beginning of the 8th century onward, the Dharmaguptaka-vinaya was enforced as the only valid disciplinary code in China, and it is today one of the core references in debates on the legitimacy of ordinations of Buddhist nuns alongside the Theravāda-vinaya (e.g., The 1st International Congress on Buddhist Women’s Role in the Sangha: Bhikshuni Vinaya and Ordination Lineages, held at the University of Hamburg in 2007, where both the academic and ecclesiastic community debated the legitimacy of women’s ordinations. For more information, see the congress website). The Dharmaguptaka-vinaya is preserved in its Chinese translation by Buddhyaśas and Zhu Fonian (竺佛念), titled Sifenlü (四分律) and completed around 410 in Chang’an. The primary text is in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1428) pp. 567a04–1014b20. Partial French translations are in Wieger 1910 and Chavannes 1962. Nagai 1931, a work on monastic discipline, is mainly based on material from the Dharmaguptaka-vinaya, which to date remains the most important tradition in China. Heirman 1997, Heirman 2002, and Heirman 2008 are representative of the expertise on the rules for nuns in this tradition. (Note that to date no “noncanonical” vinaya literature of the Dharmaguptakas has been identified.)

  • Chavannes, Édouard, trans. Cinq cents contes et apologues: Extraits de Tripiṭaka chinois. Vol. 2. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1962.

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    Includes partial French translations of selections from the Dharmaguptaka-vinaya, especially pp. 352–354. First published 1910–1934.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “Some Remarks on the Rise of the Bhikṣuṇīsaṃgha and on the Ordination Ceremony for Bhikṣuṇīs according to the Dharmaguptakavinaya.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 20.2 (1997): 33–85.

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    Seminal article on the beginnings of the nun’s community, based on Dharmaguptaka texts.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “Can We Trace the Early Dharmaguptakas?” T’oung Pao 88.4–5 (2002): 396–429.

    DOI: 10.1163/156853202100368415Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A major contribution to the discussion on the early sectarian schisms, focusing on the Dharmaguptaka tradition.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “Becoming a Nun in the Dharmaguptaka Tradition.” Buddhist Studies Review 25.2 (2008): 174–193.

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    Discusses the formal issues involved in the two stages (novice and probationer) that precede the full ordination of Buddhist religious women, as they are given in the early textual background of the Dharmaguptaka tradition, including the age of the candidates, the precepts to be followed, the ordination procedure, and the role played by the full members of the community, nuns and monks alike.

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  • Wieger, Léon. Bouddhisme chinois: Extraits du Tripitaka, des commentaires, tracts, etc. Sienhsien, China: Imprimerie de la Mission Catholique, 1910.

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    Reprinted in Paris in 2 volumes by Cathasia (1951). Includes translations of extracts from the Dharmaguptaka-vinaya (Volume. 1: pp. 334–471). Available online in the series Classiques des sciences sociales (Chicoutimi, QC: Bibliothèque Paul-Émile Boulet de l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi) nos. 2361–2362.

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Dharmaguptaka Canonical Literature

The canonical literature of the Dharmaguptakas first of all comprises the sūtravibhaṅga, or the detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures enforced on Buddhist monks (Skt. bhikṣus) and nuns (Skt. bhikṣuṇīs) listed in the prātimokṣasūtra. The Chinese Dharmaguptaka-sūtravibhaṅga texts are preserved in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1428) pp. 567b7–713c29 for the bhikṣuvibhaṅga and pp. 714a1–778b13 for the bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga. For a fully annoted translation and rich introduction to this vinaya section, see Heirman 2002. Pradhan 1945 is one of the first studies on subject. The second category of canonical literature constitutes the skhandhakas, or regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community. The skandhaka material of the Dharmaguptaka-vinaya tradition is preserved in Buddhayaśas and Zhu Fonian’s Chinese translation, found in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1428) pp. 779a1–971c3, including recitations of the councils of Rājagṛha (c. 368 BCE) and Vaiśālī (c. 268 BCE) on pp. 966a12–968c17 and 968c18–971c2, respectively. Partial French translations of this text are found in Hofinger 1946 (cited under Mahāsāṃghika Canonical Literature; especially pp. 23–105), as well as Bareau 1962. For the arrangement of the material, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially pp. 73–74 and 120, n. 40). On its role in the emergence of Buddhist sectarianism, see Beal 1882. Considered canonical are also the appendices to the Dharmagupta-vinaya, which mainly summarize the monastic rules listed in the skandhaka and vibhaṅga. There are two appendices of relevance, namely Samyuktavarga and Vinayaikottara. Both are included in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1428) pp. 971c20–990b7 and pp. 990b8–1014b20, respectively, but thus far they remain understudied and untranslated.

  • Bareau, André. “La légende de la jeunesse du Buddha dans les Vinayapiṭaka anciens.” Oriens Extremus 9 (1962): 6–33.

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    Contains a French translation of fragments from the Dharmaguptaka-skandhaka found in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1428) pp. 779a5–780b7.

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  • Beal, Samuel. “The Buddhist Councils Held at Rājagṛha and Veśālī, Translated from the Chinese.” Paper presented at the Fifth International Congress of Orientalists, September 1881. In Verhandlungen des fünften internationalen Orientalisten-Congresses gehalten zu Berlin im September 1881, Theil II, Hälfte 2, IV: Ostasiatische Section. 13–46. Berlin: A. Asher, 1882.

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    Reprinted in 2006 in an Elibron Classics Replica edition. Probably the first publication regarding the Dharmaguptaka material on the Buddhist councils.

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  • Heirman, Ann. The Discipline in Four Parts: Rules for Nuns according to the Dharmaguptakavinaya. 3 vols. Buddhist Tradition Series 48. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.

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    Part one is a voluminous introduction on the Dharmagupta tradition, the career of a nun, the precepts and offenses, as well as the major ceremonies. Part two is a richly annotated translation of the Dharmaputaka-bikṣuṇīvibhaṅga, and the third part harbors indices, glossaries, and concordance tables, next to an elaborate bibliography (pp. 1117–1144) and the Chinese text.

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  • Pradhan, P. “The First Pārājikā of the Dharmaguptaka-Vinaya and the Pali Sutta-Vibhanga.” Visva-Bharati Annals 1 (1945): 1–34.

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    Not well known, but still a pioneering study on the Dharmaguptaka-sūtravibhaṅga.

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Dharmaguptaka Paracanonical Literature

Paracanonical literature includes karmavācanā texts of correct procedures to settle communal transactions and disputes, as well as the prātimokṣa, the set of precepts recited every fortnight during the poṣadha ceremony, to which purification and the restoration of vows are central. Between 634 and 707 the Dharmaguptaka-prātimokṣasūtra for monks (Skt. bhikṣu) and nuns (Skt. bhikṣuṇī) were translated into Chinese by Huaisu (comp.) and Buddhayaśas (trans.) as Sifenlü-biqiu-jieben (四分律比丘戒本) for the monk’s text and Sifen-seng-jieben (四分僧戒本) for the bhikṣuṇī-prātimokṣa; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1429) pp. 1015a11–1023a11 and (T. 1431) pp. 1031a1–1041a18, respectively. Another Chinese edition of the Dharmaguptaka-bhikṣu-prātimokṣa was translated c. 403–413 and is also attributed to Buddhayaśas; see Sifen-seng-jieben (四分僧戒本), found in in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1430) pp. 1023a14–1030c10. Partial English translations are in Beal and Gogerly 1862 and Beal 1871. For a partial French translation, see Wieger 1910, especially pp. 212–259 on the prātimokṣa for monks, and pp. 260–291 for nuns. For a Japanese translation, see Satō 2008. The most recent English translations of the bhikṣuṇī-prātimokṣa are in Tsomo 1996 and Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 222–276). The Dharmaguptaka-karmavācanā texts are also only preserved in Chinese translations. There are two editions of bhikṣu-karmavācanās. The first is Tanwude lübu-za-jiemo (曇無德律部雜羯磨), attributed to Saṇghavarman, the second, Jiemo (羯磨), was allegedly compiled by Dharmasatya (c. 254). The bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā was allegedly translated by Guṇavarman as Sifenlü-biqiuni-jiemofa (四分律比丘尼羯磨法); see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1432) pp. 1041a7–1051b24, (T. 1433) pp. 1051b7–1065b10, and (T. 1434) pp. 1065b15–1070c17, respectively. Partial French translations of the bhikṣu-karmavācanā are in Wieger 1910 (especially Volume 1: pp. 150–153, 180–183, and 194–211).

  • Beal, Samuel. A Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese. London: Trübner, 1871.

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    Beal’s second translation of the Dharmaguptaka-bhikṣuprātimokṣa; see especially pp. 206–239.

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  • Beal, Samuel, and Daniel John Gogerly. “Comparative Arrangement of Two Translations of the Buddhist Ritual for the Priesthood, known as the Prātimokṣa, or Pātimokhan.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society o.s. 19 (1862): 407–480.

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    Beal’s section contains the first translation of the Dharmaguptaka-bhikṣu-prātimokṣa-sūtra, while Gogerly’s pioneering work on the pātimokkha (already published in the third volume of Ceylon Friend as early as 1839), based on personal observations in Ceylon, fails to mention any textual source.

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  • Satō, Tatsugen, (佐藤, 達玄), trans. Shibunritsu biku kaihon/Shibun bikuni kaihon (四分律比丘戒本/四分比丘尼戒本). Shin kokuyaku Daizōkyō (新国訳大蔵経) 13, Ritsubu (律部) 7. Tokyo: Daizō Shuppan, 2008.

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    The most recent Japanese annotated translation of the Dharmaguptaka-prātimokṣasūtras, both for monks and nuns.

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  • Tsomo, Karma Lekshe (a.k.a. Zenn, Patricia Jean). Sisters in Solitude: Two Traditions of Buddhist Monastic Ethics for Women; A Comparative Analysis of the Chinese Dharmagupta and the Tibetan Mūlasarvāstivāda Bhikṣuṇī Prātimokṣa Sūtras. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

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    A major work presenting translations of the nun’s texts of both schools, along with a comparative analysis of their contents. The work is clearly feminist in scope and lacks philological annotations. For the translation of the Chinese version of the Dharmaguptaka bhikṣuṇīprātimokṣa, see pp. 25–74.

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Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya

Also known as the “Ten Recitations Vinaya” (Daśādhyāyavinaya), the Sarvāstivāda-vinaya was entirely translated into Chinese around 404 by Kumārajīva, Puṇyatrāta, and Dharmaruci as Shisonglü (十誦律), with a postscript added by Vimalākṣa c. 409. See Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 23: (T. 1435) pp. 1a1–470b20. There are also some Sanskrit fragments extant; see Waldschmidt 1926, Rosen 1959, Chung 2004, and Heirman 2000. Partial translations are included in Chavannes 1962 and Heirman 2001. Since there are a considerable amount of scholarly resources on this tradition, the canonical and paracanonical literature are discussed in the subheadings Sarvāstivāda Canonical Literature, Sarvāstivāda Paracanonical Literature, and Sarvāstivāda-karmavācanās. There are, however, also two commentaries that must be taken into account with regard to the noncanonical texts associated with the Sarvāstivādins: the first is Saṅghavarman’s Sapoduobu pini modele jia (薩波多部毘尼摩得勒伽), the Chinese edition of a Vinayamātṛkā that was completed in 435; the second is Sapoduo pini piposha (薩波多毘尼毘波沙), an anonymous translation of a Vinayavibhāṣā that was finished between 350 and 431; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 23: (T. 1441) pp. 564c6–626b12 and (T. 1440) pp. 503c14–564c19, respectively. Unfortunately, these have not yet been translated or studied in any Western language, and they will therefore not be discussed separately. (To date, there are no miscellanea known in this tradition.)

  • Banerjee, Anukul Chandra. Sarvāstivāda Literature. Calcutta, India: Calcutta Oriental, 1957.

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    Banerjee was one of the first scholars to argue for the contribution of the split of the Buddhist community into different schools (nikāyas) based on issues related to the vinaya, rather than according to doctrinal disputes. See especially pp. 30ff.

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  • Chavannes, Édouard, trans. Cinq cents contes et apologues: Extraits de Tripiṭaka chinois. Vol. 2. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1962.

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    Includes several French translations of selections from the Sarvāstivāda-vinaya, especially pp. 231–269. First published 1910–1934.

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  • Chung, Jin-il. Das Upasaṃpadāvastu: Vorschriften für die buddhistische Mönchsordination im Vinaya der Sarvāstivāda-Tradition, Sanskrit-Version und chinesische Version. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden im Auftrage der Akademie der Wissenschaften von Klaus Röhrborn, Beiheft 11. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2004.

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    A new partial edition of the Sanskrit and Chinese text editions.

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  • Chung, Jin-il, Claus Vogel, and Klaus Wille. Sanskrit-Texte aus dem buddhistischen Kanon: Neuentdeckungen und Neueditionen IV. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2002.

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    Gives an overview of all available fragments of the Turfan-Funden and publishes part of them.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “On Some Fragments of the Bhikṣuṇīprātimokṣa of the Sarvāstivādins.” Buddhist Studies Review 1 (2000): 3–16.

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    An essay on the place of the Sanskrit fragments in the vinaya, based on their Chinese translations.

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  • Heirman, Ann. “The Sarvāstivāda Pārājikā Precepts for Nuns.” Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli 59 (2001): 144–167.

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    Looks at the rules for nuns in the Sarvāstivāda tradition, with partial translations.

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  • Rosen, Valentina, ed. and trans. Der Vinayavibhaṅga zum Bhikṣu Prātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādins: Sanskritfragmente nebst einer Analyse der chinesischen Übersetzung. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 2. Berlin: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung, 1959.

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    To date the only translation comparing the Sanskrit fragments with the Chinese edition.

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  • Waldschmidt, Ernst, ed. and trans. Bruchstücke des Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādins. Vol. 3, Kleinere Sanskrittexte. Leipzig, Germany: Deutsche Morgenländischen Gesellschaft in Kommission bei F.A. Brockhaus, 1926.

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    A translation of the Sanskrit fragments of the Sarvāstivāda-vinaya.

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Sarvāstivāda Canonical Literature

Canonical vinaya literature associated with Sarvāstivādins comprises the sūtravibhaṅga, or detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the prātimokṣasūtra, as well as the skandhaka (var. -vastu), material or regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community, and the appendices, which generally summarize the monastic rules listed in the two previous sections. Major Sanskrit fragments of the sūtravibhaṅga are included in Filliozat and Kuno 1938, Rosen 1959, and de Jong 1988, but the full text is preserved in Chinese translation; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 23: (T. 1435) pp. 1a1–147b16 for the monks’ text (Skt. bhikṣuvibhaṅga) and pp. 302c15–346a4 for the nuns’ text (Skt. bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga). To date there is no full Western-language translation available, but a partial German translation is included in Rosen 1959. The skandhaka literature of the Sarvāstivādin affiliation is partially preserved in Sanskrit; see Finot 1911, Waldschmidt 1963, and de Jong 1988. The full text, however, is preserved in the Chinese translation by Kumārajīva, et al.; see again Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 23: (T. 1435) pp. 148a1–302c8. Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature) offers a useful overview of the arrangement of the Sarvāstivāda-skandhaka material (on pp. 80–82 and 122, n. 51), but thus far the skandhakas of the Sarvāstivādins remain untranslated in any Western language. To the canonical Sarvāstivāda-vinaya literature also belong four appendices, which are preserved in Chinese translation by Kumārajīva, et al.—see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Vol. 23: (T. 1435) pp. 346–470, including the Ekottaradharma (pp. 346–378), Upāliparipṛcchāsūtra (pp. 379–409, which presumably is a Mahāyāna treatise), Bhikṣu-adhyāya (pp. 410–445), and Kuśalādhyāya and Postface to the Vinaya (pp. 445–470). To date, only one of them, namely the Bhikṣu-adhyāya, appears to have been partially translated—see Przyluski 1926–1928 (cited under Mahīśāsaka-vinaya; pp. 223–235) and Hofinger 1946 (cited under Mahāsāṃghika Canonical Literature; especially pp. 23–125).

  • de Jong, Jan W. “Three Sanskrit Fragments of the Vinaya of the Sarvāstivādins.” Indo-Iranian Journal 31.1 (1988): 11–16.

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    A summary of three Sanskrit fragments of the Sarvāstivāda-skandhaka and bhikṣuṇīvibhaṅga, based on their Chinese translation.

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  • Filliozat, Jean, and Kuno Hōryū (久野,芳隆), eds. “Fragments du Vinaya des Sarvāstivādin.” Journal Asiatique 230 (1938): 21–64.

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    Sanskrit fragment of the Sarvāstivāda-sūtravibhaṅga.

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  • Finot, Louis. “Fragments du Vinaya Sanskrit.” Journal Asiatique 10.18 (1911): 619–625.

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    One of the first editions of Sanskrit fragments of Sarvāstivāda-skandhaka.

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  • Rosen, Valentina. Der Vinayavibhaṅga zum Bhikṣu Prātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādin. Sanskrtitexte aus den Turfanfunden 2. Berlin: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung, 1959.

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    An edition of the fragmented Sanskrit Sarvāstivāda-sūtravibhaṅga text, including a German translation based on the Chinese translation.

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  • Waldschmidt, Ernst. “Reste von Devadatta-Episoden aus dem Vinaya der Sarvāstivādins.” Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 113 (1963): 552–558.

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    Edition of fragmented Sarvāstivāda-skandhaka material in Sanskrit, with summarized translation and partial Chinese counterparts in footnotes. Available online.

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Sarvāstivāda Paracanonical Literature

The paracanonical vinaya literature of the Sarvāstivādins includes: (1) the prātimokṣasūtras, the set of precepts that monks (Skt. bhikṣus) and nuns (Skt. bhikṣuṇis) are to recite every fortnight during a purification ceremony, called poṣadha, which is centered on the restoration of vows; and (2) the karmavācanā texts of correct procedures to settle communal transactions and disputes. Because the scholarly literature on these issues is quite elaborate, the relevant sources will be discussed under separate subheadings.

Sarvāstivāda-prātimokṣa

The full prātimokṣasūtra of the Sarvāstivādins is preserved in Chinese translation only: Kumārajīva’s Shisong biqiu boluotimucha jieben (十誦比丘波羅提木叉戒本) for the monk’s text (completed c. 404) and Faying’s Shisong biqiuni boluotimucha jieben (十誦比丘尼波羅提木叉戒本, compiled between 465 and 471) for the nuns’ text; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 23: (T. 1436) 470b5–479a6 and (T. 1437) pp. 479a19–488b21, respectively. However, some other fragments also remain, such as the Tokharian editions of Lévi 1912 and Lévi 1913, as well as the Sanskrit folios of La Vallée Poussin 1913, Finot 1913, Waldschmidt 1926, Schmidt 1989, and the edition in Simson 2000. A partial French translation is in Finot 1913. For a basic translation of the nun’s text, see Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 170–221). Pachow 2000 is the most prominent among the recent studies on prātimokṣa.

Sarvāstivāda-karmavācanās

The full karmavācanās of the Sarvāstivāda-vinaya are preserved in their Chinese translations; the first is the anonymous Dashamen boyi jiemofa (大沙門百一羯磨法), the second is Sengqu’s (僧璩) Shisong jiemo biqiu yaoyong (十誦羯磨比丘要用), which was translated in 463; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 23: (T. 1438) pp. 489a1–495c26 and (T. 1439) pp. 496a1–503c11, respectively. Sanskrit fragments also remain; see Bendall 1903, La Vallée Poussin 1913, Ridding and La Vallée Poussin 1920, and Härtel 1956, the latter of which also provides partial German translations.

  • Bendall, Cecil, ed. “Fragment of a Buddhist Ordination-Ritual in Sanskrit.” In Album Kern: Opstellen Geschreven Ter Eere van Dr. H. Kern. 373–376. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1903.

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    The first publication of a Sanskrit Sarvāstivāda-karmavācanā text.

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  • Härtel, Herbert. Karmavācanā: Formulare für den Gebrauch im buddhistischen Gemeindeleben aus ostturkestanischen Handschriften. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 3. Berlin: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung, 1956.

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    Collection of several karmavācanās, with German translations and explanatory notes, to date remaining the only book-length study on the topic.

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  • La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. “Nouveaux Fragments de la Collection Stein.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (October 1913): 843–855.

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    Sanskrit fragment of a Sarvāstivāda-karmavācanā text.

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  • Ridding, C. M., and Louis de La Vallée Poussin, eds. “A Fragment of the Sanskrit Vinaya: Bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 1.3 (1920): 123–143.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0041977X00087176Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sanskrit fragment of a Sarvāstivāda-karmavācanā text.

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Mūlasarvāstivāda-Vinaya

This tradition has perhaps the most voluminous vinaya collection. Its Sanskrit texts are still fragmentary and there is an incomplete Chinese translation, based on Nālandā manuscripts. Its most full form is probably preserved in Tibetan (see Clarke 2002). For the arrangement of the Tibetan vinaya (Tib. ’dul-ba) in thirteen volumes, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially pp. 85–86). For an analysis of its structure, see Panglung 1981. Clarke 2006 is one of the few publications dealing with vinaya in Japan, especially focusing on Mūlasarvāstivāda influence. On the hypothesis on the identity of the Mūlasarvāstivādins and Sarvāstivādins, see Enomoto 2000. Although there are some commentaries on this vinaya preserved in Chinese, with Viśeṣamitra’s Genben sapotuobu lüshe (根本薩婆多部律攝) and Yijing’s Genben shuoyiqieyoubunituona mudejia (根本説一切有部尼陀那目得迦, completed c. 702–703) being respective commentaries on the Mūlasarvāstivāda-prātimokṣa and the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavibhaṅga—and Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1458) pp. 525a01–617a26 and (T. 1452) pp. 415a02–455c02—nearly all existing commentaries are written in Tibetan. For the Tibetan commentaries, see Prebish 1994 (pp. 100–112, but see p. 106 on the two important other Chinese commentaries on the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavibhaṅga.) Because the secondary literature on this “noncanonical” literature is quite limited, these sources will not be discussed any further.

  • Clarke, Shayne. “The Mūlasarvāstivādin Vinaya: A Brief Reconnaissance Report.” In Shoki bukkyō kara abidaruma e: Sakurabe Hajime hakushi kiju-kinen ronshū (初期仏教からアブダルマへ: 櫻部建博士喜寿記念論集). pp. 45–63. Kyoto, Japan: Heirakuji Shoten, 2002.

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    (Early Buddhism and Abhidharma thought: in honor of Doctor Hajime Sakurabe on his seventy-seventh birthday). One of the most recent articles discussing the (in)completeness of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya.

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  • Clarke, Shayne. “Miscellaneous Musings on Mūlasarvāstivāda Monks. The Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya Revival in Tokugawa Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 33.1 (2006): 1–49.

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    One of the few publications in English discussing the role of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya in Japan. Available online.

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  • Enomoto, Fumio (榎本, 文雄). “‘Mūlasarvāstivādin’ and ‘Sarvāstivādin.’” In Vividharatnakaraṇḍaka: Festgabe für Adelheid Mette. Edited by Christine Chojnacki, Jens-Uwe Hartmann, and Volker M. Tschannerl, 239–250. Indica et Tibetica 37. Swisttal-Odendorf, Germany: Indica et Tibetica, 2000.

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    A seminal essay reintroducing Enomoto’s theory that these two traditions were actually one and the same school. Previously published in Indogaku Bukkyōgaku Kenkyū (Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies) 47.1 (1998): 111–118.

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  • Panglung, Jampa Losang. Die Erzāhlstoffe des Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya: analysiert auf Grund der tibetischen Übersetzung. Studia Philologica Buddhica Monograph Series 3. Tokyo: Reiyukai Library, 1981.

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    A study, with German translations, of the Tibetan Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya, including a very useful introduction on its structure and comparative tables (pp. 205ff).

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Mūlasarvāstivāda Canonical Literature

The vinaya literature of the Mūlasrvāstivādins that is first of all centered on the vinayavibhaṅga is considered canonical literature. It contains detailed analyses of offenses and respective punitive measures listed in the prātimokṣasūtra (see Mūlasarvāstivāda Paracanonical Literature). No Sanskrit texts have been preserved of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya-vibhaṅga, but the texts exist in Chinese and Tibetan. The Mūlasarvāstivādavinaya-bikṣuvibhaṅga was translated as Genben shuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye (根本説一切有部毘奈耶) by Yijing (義淨) in 703, while his edition of the bikṣuṇīvibhaṅga, Genben shuoyiqieyoubu biqiuni pinaiye (根本説一切有部苾芻尼毘奈耶) was finished in 710. Both are in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 23: (T. 1442) pp. 627a01–905a07 and (T. 1443) pp. 907a01–1020b10, respectively. For the Tibetan texts, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; pp. 96–97). Neither of them has been translated entirely, but a partial German translation is in Panglung 1981: on the vinaya-vibhaṅga, pp. 127–160, and for the bhikṣuṇī-vinaya-vibhaṅga, especially pp. 162–167. Second among the canonical literature is the Mūlasarvāstivādin vinayavastu (Tib. ’Dul-ba gzhi), which comprises skandhaka-related material on regulations for the organization of the Buddhist community. The Sanskrit text is partially preserved in Bagchi 1967. To date there is no complete translation of the vinayavastu section of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya available in any Western language, but there are partial translations in Hofinger 1954, Chang 1957, Vogel 1970, and Chung 1998. The fullest account is in Panglung 1981, especially pp. 3–125. A summary is in Banerjee 1957. For the titles comprising the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavastu in the Chinese canon (i.e., T. 1444–1451, and 1457), see Prebish 1994, pp. 90–91, and p. 123, n. 64; for references to the editions occurring in the Tibetan canon, readers should consult pp. 91–92, and 123–124, n. 65, and a comparative table of the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese versions on pp. 93–95, and 124, n. 66. Another part of the canonical Mūlasrvāstivāda-vinaya literature forms the vinayakṣudrakavastu (also vinaya-kṣudraka). This category encompasses addenda to the vibhaṅga and also in part to the vinayavastu. No Sanskrit texts have been preserved of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya-kṣudrakavastu, but the texts exist in Yijing’s Chinese translation, Genben shuoyiqieyoubu pinaiye zashi (根本説一切有部毘奈耶雜事, completed c. 710)—see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 22: (T. 1451) pp. 207a01–414b19—and in Tibetan. For the Tibetan texts, see Prebish 1994, pp. 97–98. Neither of them has been translated entirely, but a partial German translation is in Panglung 1981, especially pp. 168–203. The fourth and last canonical category is the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya-uttaragrantha, which is an appendix of rules that partially rephrases those from the vibhaṅga. This category remains in Tibetan only. Given the limited scholarly literature on the first, third, and last section, only the scholarship on the second part of the vastu is discussed here.

  • Bagchi, S. Mūlasarvāstivādavinayavastu. Buddhist Sanskrit Text Series 16. Darbhanga, India: Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, 1967.

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    Another edition of the Sanskrit text.

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  • Banerjee, Anukul Chandra. Sarvāstivāda Literature. Calcutta, India: Calcutta Oriental, 1957.

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    Banerjee was one of the first scholars to argue for the hypothesis that the split of the Buddhist community (saṃgha) in different schools (nikāyas) was not due to doctrinal disputes, but instead based on the use of divergent vinayas. See especially pp. 30ff. For a summary of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavastu, see pp. 101–246.

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  • Chang, Kun. A Comparative Study of the Kaṭhinavastu. Indo-Iranian Monographs 1. The Hague: Mouton, 1957.

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    Includes an introduction, the translation, and the transcribed Tibetan text.

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  • Chung, Jin-il. Die Pravāraṇā in den kanonischen Vinaya-Texten der Mūlasarvāstivādin und der Sarvāstivādin. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Beiheft 7. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1998.

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    One of the most recent studies of this textual category, including German translations of the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese texts of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-pravāraṇāvastu (pp. 227–260 and 281–306).

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  • Hofinger, Marcel. Le Congrès du Lac Anavatapta (vies de saints bouddhiques): Extrait du Vinaya des Mūlasarvāstivādin Bhaiṣajyavastu. Bibliothèque du Muséon 34. Louvain, Belgium: Publications Universitaires Institut Orientaliste, 1954.

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    One of the first partial translations of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavastu.

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  • Vogel, Claus, ed. and trans. The Teachings of the Six Heretics, according to the Pravrajyāvastu of the Tibetan Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, with an Appendix Containing an English Translation of the Pertinent Sections in the Chinese Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya. Wiesbaden, Germany: Deutsche Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1970.

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    Includes partial English translations of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinayavastu.

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Mūlasarvāstivāda Paracanonical Literature

The set of precepts from the prātimokṣasūtra that is recited every fortnight during the purification (Skt. poṣadha) ceremony is considered the first among the paracanonical vinaya literature. Sanskrit fragments of the Mūlasarvāstivādin prātimokṣasūtra are edited in Banerjee 1953, Banerjee 1977, and Chandra 1960. In the beginning of the 8th century, the texts for monks and nuns were translated into Chinese c. 710 by Yijing as Genben shuoyiqieyoubu jiejing (根本說一切有部戒經) and Genben shuoyiqieyoubu biqiuni jiejing (根本說一切有部苾芻尼戒經), respectively; see Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka), Volume 22: (T. 1454) pp. 500b17–508a14 and (T. 1455) pp. 508a19–517b23 (though they also exist in Tibetan). English translations are in Vidyabusana 1915 and Prebish 1975 (cited under Mahāsāṃghika Paracanonical Literature; especially pp. 47–113). More recent translations of the nun’s text are in Tsomo 1996 (cited under Dharmaguptaka Paracanonical Literature; pp. 75–97), and Kabilsingh 1998 (cited under Vinaya-piṭaka; pp. 277–326). Also belonging to the paracanonical literature are the Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā texts of correct procedures to settle communal transactions and disputes. Aside from Hinüber 1970, no other notable Western translations are available to date. Other Sanskrit fragments are edited in Bendall 1903, Banerjee 1949, and Jinananda 1961. However, the full text is available in the Chinese version by Yijing (completed c. 703)—see Genben shuoyiqieyoubu boyi jiemo (根本說一切有部白一羯磨) in Takakusu, et al. 1924–1935, Volume 24: (T. 1453) pp. 455a7–500b13. For references to several editions of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā in the Tibetan canon, see Prebish 1994 (cited under Theravāda Canonical Literature; especially pp. 89 and 123, n. 63.

  • Banerjee, Anukul Chandra, ed. “Bhikṣukarmavākya.” Indian Historical Quarterly 25.1 (1949): 19–30.

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    Text edition of a Sanskrit fragment of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā.

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  • Banerjee, Anukul Chandra. “Prātimokṣa Sūtram (Mūlasarvāstivāda).” Indian Historical Quarterly 29 (1953): 162–174, 226–275, 363–377.

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    Edition of fragmentary Gilgit Sanskrit manuscripts of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-prātimokṣa-sūtra. Republished in book format by Calcutta Oriental Press in 1954.

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  • Banerjee, Anukul Chandra. Two Buddhist Vinaya Texts in Sanskrit: prātimokṣa-sūtra and bhikṣukarmavākya. Calcutta, India: World Press, 1977.

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    An edition of two devanāgarī Sanskrit fragments of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-prātimokṣa and- karmavācanās, already published in the 1950s in Indian Historical Quarterly.

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  • Bendall, Cecil, ed. “Fragment of a Buddhist Ordination-Ritual in Sanskrit.” In Album Kern: Opstellen Geschreven Ter Eere van Dr. H. Kern. 373–376. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1903.

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    One of the first text editions of a Sanskrit fragment of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā.

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  • Chandra, Lokesh. “Unpublished Gilgit Fragment of the Prātimokṣa-sūtra.” Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens IV (1960): 1–13.

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    This work fills in many of the gaps in Banerjee’s editions.

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  • Hinüber, Oskar von. “Eine Karmavācanā-Sammlung aus Gilgit.” Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 119 (1970): 102–132.

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    Includes an edition and translation of Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā texts in Sanskrit.

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  • Jinananda, B., ed. Upasaṃpadājñaptiḥ. Tibetan Sanskrit Works 6. Patna, India: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, 1961.

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    Contains editions of a partial Sanskrit text affliated to the Mūlasarvāstivāda-karmavācanā.

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  • Vidyabhusana, Satis Chandra. “Sor-sor-thar-pa; or a Code of Buddhist Monastic Laws: Being the Tibetan Version of the Prātimokṣa of the Mūlasarvāstivāda School.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal n.s. 9.3–4 (1915): 29–139.

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    Includes an English translation of the Tibetan Mūlasarvāstivāda-prātimokṣa-sūtra.

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LAST MODIFIED: 09/13/2010

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0174

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