Buddhism Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta
by
Bhikkhu Anālayo
  • LAST MODIFIED: 31 March 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0217

Introduction

The Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta, found as the tenth discourse in the Majjhima-nikāya of the Theravāda Pāli canon, is a central resource for instructions on the practice of mindfulness, on which see the separate Oxford Bibliographies article Sutta (Pāli/Theravada Canon). A closely similar discourse under the title Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-sutta occurs as the twenty-second discourse in the Dīgha-nikāya of the Pāli canon, differing from the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta in providing a more extensive coverage of the last of the meditative contemplations listed in both discourses, concerned with the four noble truths. The Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta has two parallels preserved in Chinese translation in discourse collections of other schools, namely, the ninety-eighth discourse in a Madhyama-āgama collection found in the Taishō edition as entry 26, probably based on an Indic original of Sarvāstivāda provenance, and the first discourse in chapter 12 of an Ekottarika-āgama collection found in the Taishō edition as entry 125, whose school affiliation is a matter of continuing discussion among scholars, the most often voiced hypothesis being a Mahāsāṃghika affiliation. The different versions agree in presenting the practice of satipaṭṭhāna as covering four areas of contemplation: body, feeling, mental states, and dharmas. Another and historically later text that takes up only the fourth of these is the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra. The Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta has served as the basis for a revival of insight meditation in Buddhist Asia as well as influencing the clinical use of mindfulness in the West.

Translations of Pāli Versions

English translations of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-sutta and the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta can be found as part of renderings of their respective Pāli discourse collections, in the case of the Dīgha-nikāya in Rhys Davids 1910 and Walshe 1987 and in the case of the Majjhima-nikāya in Horner 1967 and Ñāṇamoli 2005. Another source of information on the practice of mindfulness is the Satipaṭṭhāna-saṃyutta, which has been translated in Bodhi 2000. The exegesis in the Pāli Abhidhamma on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta has been translated in Thiṭṭila 1969; the Pāli commentary on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta has been translated into German in Ñāṇaponika 1973 and into English in Soma 1981.

  • Bodhi, trans. “Connected Discourses on the Establishments of Mindfulness.” In The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Saṃyutta Nikāya. Vol. 2. Edited by Bhikkhu Bodhi, 1627–1667. Boston: Wisdom, 2000.

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    English translation of the Satipaṭṭhāna-saṃyutta.

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    • Horner, I. B., trans. “Discourse on the Applications of Mindfulness (Satipaṭṭhānasutta).” In The Collection of the Middle Length Sayings (Majjhima-Nikāya). Vol. 1. Edited by I. B. Horner, 70–82. London: Pali Text Society, 1967.

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      English translation of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta of the Majjhima-nikāya.

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      • Ñāṇamoli, trans. “Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness.” In The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Vol. 1. Edited by Bhikku Bodhi, 145–155. Boston: Wisdom, 2005.

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        English translation of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta of the Majjhima-nikāya.

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        • Ñāṇaponika, trans. Kommentar zur Lehrrede von den Grundlagen der Achtsamkeit (Satipaṭṭhāna), mit Subkommentar in Auswahl. Konstanz, Germany: Christiani, 1973.

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          German translation of the commentary on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta together with excerpts from the sub-commentary. Originally published in 1951.

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          • Rhys Davids, T. W., trans. “Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Suttanta: Setting-up of Mindfulness.” In Dialogues of the Buddha. Vol. 2. Translated from the Pāli of the Dīgha Nikāya. Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids, 327–346. London: Oxford University Press, 1910.

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            English translation of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-sutta of the Dīgha-nikāya, preceded by a five-page introduction to the discourse.

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            • Soma, trans. The Way of Mindfulness: The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Commentary. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1981.

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              English translation of the commentary on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta, together with excerpts from the sub-commentary. Originally published in 1941.

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              • Thiṭṭila, P. A., trans. “Analysis of the Foundation of Mindfulness.” In The Book of Analysis (Vibhaṅga): The Second Book of the Abhidhammapiṭaka. Translated from the Pāḷi of the Burmese Chaṭṭasaṅgīti Edition. Edited by P. A. Thiṭṭila, 251–270. London: Pali Text Society, 1969.

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                English translation of the exegesis on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta in the Vibhaṅga, the second book in the Pāli Abhidhamma collection.

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                • Walshe, Maurice, trans. “Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness.” In Thus Have I Heard: The Long Discourses of the Buddha. Edited by M. Walshe, 335–350. London: Wisdom, 1987.

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                  English translation of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-sutta of the Dīgha-nikāya.

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                  Translations of Chinese Parallels

                  Several translations have been made of the two Chinese Āgama parallels to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta. The Madhyama-āgama parallel has been translated into English in Saddhāloka 1983, Nhat Hanh 1990, Minh Chau 1991, Kuan 2008, and Anālayo 2013; the Ekottarika-āgama parallel has been translated into French in Huyen-vi 1989 and into English in Nhat Hanh 1990, Pāsādika 1998, and Anālayo 2013.

                  • Anālayo, trans. “‘The Discourse on Satipaṭṭhāna’ and ‘Twelfth Chapter [Entitled] on the One-Going Path [Discourse] One.’” In Perspectives on Satipaṭṭhāna. Edited by Anālayo, 269–295. Cambridge, UK: Windhorse, 2013.

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                    English translations of the Madhyama-āgama and the Ekottarika-āgama parallels to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                    • Huyen-vi, trans. “Ekottarāgama IX.” Buddhist Studies Review 6.1 (1989): 39–45.

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                      French translation of the Ekottarika-āgama parallel to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta as part of a serialized translation of the Ekottarika-āgama.

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                      • Kuan, Tse-Fu, trans. “An Annotated Translation of the Sarvāstivāda Version of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.” In Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources. Edited by T. F. Kuan, 145–154. London: Routledge, 2008.

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                        English translation of the Madhyama-āgama parallel to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta as part of a detailed study.

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                        • Minh Chau, trans. “Cattāro Satipaṭṭhāna or the 4 Applications of Mindfulness.” In The Chinese Madhyama Āgama and the Pāli Majjhima Nikāya. Edited by Minh Chau, 87–95. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991.

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                          Excerpt translations from the Madhyama-āgama parallel to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta as part of a comparative study between the Madhyama-āgama and the Majjhima-nikāya. Originally published in 1964.

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                          • Nhat Hanh. “‘The Sutra on the Four Grounds of Mindfulness’ and ‘The One Way in Sutra.’” In Transformation and Healing: The Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness. Translated by A. Laity, 151–177. Berkeley, CA: Parallax, 1990.

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                            Translations of the Madhyama-āgama and the Ekottarika-āgama parallels to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta into Vietnamese by Trich Nhat Hanh as part of a study of their significance; translated into English by one of the author’s British disciples.

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                            • Pāsādika, Bhikkhu, trans. “The Smṛtyupasthānasūtra of the Ekottarāgama (EĀ), Translated from the Chinese Version.” In Facets of Indian Culture, Gustav Roth Felicitation Volume, Published on the Occasion of His 82nd Birthday. Edited by C. P. Sinha, 494–502. Patna: Bihar Puravid Parishad, 1998.

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                              Annotated English translation of the Ekottarika-āgama parallel to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                              • Saddhāloka, Bhikkhu, trans. “The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness.” Buddhist Friendship (1983): 9–22.

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                                English translation of the Madhyama-āgama parallel to the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                                Studies of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta

                                Studies of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta can be found in Ñāṇaponika 1992 and Anālayo 2003, as well as the examination of satipaṭṭhāna as part of a study of the bodhipakkhiyā dhammas in Gethin 1992. An examination in German can be found in Debes 1994. Gunaratana 1981 pursues the practical application of the discourse. Gyatso 1993 collects a series of contributions relevant to the topic. The controversy regarding the need to have reached a certain basis in concentration for the instructions in the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta to lead to awakening can be studied on the basis of Kheminda and Ñāṇuttara 1990.

                                • Anālayo, Satipaṭṭhāna. The Direct Path to Realization. Birmingham, UK: Windhorse, 2003.

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                                  Detailed study of the discourse and its implications, based on examining other relevant discourses, traditional exegesis, and modern practice

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                                  • Debes, Paul. “Die 4 Pfeiler der Selbstbeobachtung: Satipatthāna.” Wissen und Wandel 40 (1994): 66–127, 130–190, 194–253, 258–304.

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                                    Detailed study in German of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                                    • Gethin, Rupert. The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiyā Dhammā. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill, 1992.

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                                      Examination of the four satipaṭṭhānas as part of a detailed study of the bodhipakkhiyā dhammas, different mental sets that according to early Buddhist meditation theory are required for reaching awakening. See especially “The Establishing of Mindfulness,” pp. 29–68.

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                                      • Gunaratana, Henepola. The Satipatthāna Sutta and Its Application to Modern Life. Kandy, Sri Lanka: BPS, 1981.

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                                        Practice-related study that attempts to bring out the everyday relevance of the discourse.

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                                        • Gyatso, Janet, ed. In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Delhi: Sri Satiguru, 1993.

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                                          Collection of articles by various scholars discussing aspects of mindfulness in different Buddhist texts and traditions. Originally published in 1992.

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                                          • Kheminda and Ñāṇuttara. Satipatthana Vipassanā Meditation: Criticism and Replies. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Selangor Buddhist Vipassanā Meditation Society, 1990.

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                                            Exchange between two eminent Theravāda monks debating if absorption attainment is required to be able to reach awakening through satipaṭṭhāna practice. Originally published in 1979.

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                                            • Ñāṇaponika. The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. Kandy, Sri Lanka: BPS, 1992.

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                                              The classic study of satipaṭṭhāna meditation. Originally published in 1962.

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                                              Practice Instructions Based on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta

                                              The Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta has been a central source of inspiration for practical instructions on mindfulness meditation. A detailed presentation of the satipaṭṭhāna approach in the meditation tradition following the Mahāsi Sayādaw can be found in Silananda 1990; for the method taught by S. N. Goenka, a central source of information is Goenka 1999. A survey of different approaches to satipaṭṭhāna meditation can be found in Kornfield 1988, and a detailed study of the practical implications of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta in Goldstein 2013. Descriptions of the stages of insight leading to awakening can be found in Mahāsi Sayādaw 1994 and in Ñāṇārāma 1993. Classics on the significance and potential of mindfulness meditation are Ñāṇaponika 1986 and Gunaratana 1992.

                                              • Goenka, S. N. Discourses on Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta. Igatpuri, India: VRI, 1999.

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                                                Transcribed talks given by S. N. Goenka during a meditation course specially aimed at implementing the instructions in the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                                                • Goldstein, Joseph. Mindfulness: A Practical Guide to Awakening. Boulder, CO: Sounds True, 2013.

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                                                  Transcribed talks on the practical implications of the different exercises described in the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.

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                                                  • Gunaratana, Henepola. Mindfulness in Plain English. Boston: Wisdom, 1992.

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                                                    Easily readable and clear presentation of a practical approach to mindfulness meditation. Originally published in 1991.

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                                                    • Kornfield, Jack. Living Buddhist Masters. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988.

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                                                      Survey of different meditation masters and their respective teachings. Originally published in 1977.

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                                                      • Mahāsi Sayādaw. The Progress of Insight: A Treatise on Buddhist Satipaṭṭhāna Meditation. Translated by Ñāṇaponika. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994.

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                                                        Description of progress through the insight knowledges, the stages of insight that according to Theravāda meditation theory lead up to the experience of stream-entry, based on the Mahāsi method. Originally published in 1965.

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                                                        • Ñāṇaponika. The Power of Mindfulness. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986.

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                                                          The classic on the practice and implications of mindfulness meditation. Originally published in 1968.

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                                                          • Ñāṇārāma, Mātara. The Seven Stages of Purification and the Insight Knowledges. Kandy. Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993.

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                                                            Detailed description of progress through the insight knowledges, the stages of insight that according to Theravāda meditation theory lead up to the experience of stream-entry. Originally published in 1983.

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                                                            • Silananda, U. The Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Boston: Wisdom, 1990.

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                                                              Study of the practical implications of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta from the viewpoint of the insight meditation as taught by the Mahāsi Sayādaw.

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                                                              Comparative Studies Based on the Chinese Parallels

                                                              Comparative study of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta in the light of its parallels starts with the article Schmithausen 1976 and a reply in Bronkhorst 1985, as well as a study of some relevant Chinese sources in Hurvitz 1978. Minh Chau 1991 provides comparative observations based on the Chinese parallels. In-depth monograph studies can be found in Kuan 2008 and Anālayo 2013, with additional information in Anālayo 2011.

                                                              • Anālayo. “MN 10 Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta.” In A Comparative Study of the Majjhima-nikāya. Edited by Anālayo, 73–97. Taipei: Dharma Drum, 2011.

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                                                                Study of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta and its parallels as part of a comparative study of the entire Majjhima-nikāya in the light of all known parallels.

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                                                                • Anālayo. Perspectives on Satipaṭṭhāna. Cambridge, UK: Windhorse, 2013.

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                                                                  Detailed study of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta and its two Chinese Āgama parallels from the viewpoint of their practical implications.

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                                                                  • Bronkhorst, Johannes. “Dharma and Abhidharma.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 48 (1985): 305–320.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0041977X00033371Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Comparative observations on the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta and its parallels as part of a study of the evolution of Abhidharma thought.

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                                                                    • Hurvitz, Leon. “Fa-Sheng’s Observations on the Four Stations of Mindfulness.” In Mahāyāna Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice. Edited by M. Kiyota, 207–248. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1978.

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                                                                      Study and translation of material on the four satipaṭṭhānas preserved in Chinese.

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                                                                      • Kuan, Tse-Fu. Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources. London: Routledge, 2008.

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                                                                        Comparative study of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta and the Kāyagatāsati-sutta in the light of their parallels.

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                                                                        • Minh Chau. The Chinese Madhyama Āgama and the Pāli Majjhima Nikāya. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991.

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                                                                          Study of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta and its Madhyama-āgama parallel as part of a comparative study of the Madhyama-āgama and the Majjhima-nikāya. Originally published in 1964. See especially “Cattāro satipaṭṭhāna or the 4 applications of mindfulness,” pp. 87–95.

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                                                                          • Schmithausen, Lambert. “Die Vier Konzentrationen der Aufmerksamkeit: Zur geschichtlichen Entwicklung einer spirituellen Praxis des Buddhismus.” Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 60 (1976): 241–266.

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                                                                            Groundbreaking study in German of the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta in the light of its parallels.

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                                                                            Studies of the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra

                                                                            The Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra, a text perhaps composed in the 2nd to 4th century CE and extant in Sanskrit fragments as well as in translations into Chinese in the Taishō edition as entry 721 and in Tibetan in the Derge edition as entry 287, has been studied in Lin and Demiéville 1949 as well as in Stuart 2015. As a text that reflects Buddhism of the middle period, the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra testifies to the ongoing concern with satipaṭṭhāna in the Buddhist traditions from ancient to modern times.

                                                                            • Lin, Li-kouang, and P. Demiéville. L’aide mémoire de la Vrai Loi (Saddharma-Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra). Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1949.

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                                                                              Study in French of the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra.

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                                                                              • Stuart, Daniel Malinowski. A Less Traveled Path: Saddharmasmṛtyupsthānasūtra Chapter 2, Critically Edited with a Study on its Structure and Significance for the Development of Budhist Meditation. Beijing and Vienna: China Tibetology, 2015.

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                                                                                Study in English of the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra, especially of its second chapter.

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                                                                                Studies of the Insight Meditation Revival in Asia

                                                                                Since the early 19th century the Practice of Insight Meditation has gone through a period of revival in Theravāda countries in Asia, in part inspired by the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta. A general survey of Theravāda Meditation is offered in King 1992, and a study of the development of insight meditation in Cousins 1996. The revival of insight meditation in Sri Lanka has been studied in Carrithers 1983 and Bond 1988. For the case of Burma, information can be gathered from Braun 2013 and the case study in Houtman 2002; a case study from Thailand can be found in Cook 2010.

                                                                                • Bond, G. D. The Buddhist Revival in Sri Lanka: Religious Tradition, Reinterpretation and Response. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

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                                                                                  Study of the emergence of lay meditation as part of a revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka

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                                                                                  • Braun, Erik. The Birth of Insight, Meditation, Modern Buddhism and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226000947.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Study of the revival of insight meditation in Burma (Myanmar), with a focus on the activities of Ledi Sayādaw.

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                                                                                    • Carrithers, Michael. The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka: An Anthropological and Historical Study. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983.

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                                                                                      Study of the forest monk tradition in Sri Lanka and its emphasis on meditation practice.

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                                                                                      • Cook, Joanna. Meditation in Modern Buddhism: Renunciation and Change in Thai Monastic Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511760785Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Participant study of a meditation monastery accommodating a substantial number of nuns.

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                                                                                        • Cousins, Lance S. “The Origins of Insight Meditation.” Buddhist Forum 4 (1996): 35–57.

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                                                                                          Survey of insight meditation and its origins.

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                                                                                          • Houtman Gustaaf. “The Biography of the Modern Buddhist Meditation Master U Ba Khin: Life before the Cradle and past the Grave.” In Sacred Biographies in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Edited by J. Schober, 310–344. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.

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                                                                                            Case study of Burmese lay meditation teacher. Originally published in 1997.

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                                                                                            • King, Winston L. Theravāda Meditation: The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992.

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                                                                                              General study of Theravāda Meditation. Originally published in 1980.

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                                                                                              Studies of Mindfulness in the West

                                                                                              Different aspects of mindfulness have been studied in Williams and Kabat-Zinn 2011, in a special issue of Contemporary Buddhism; the spread of mindfulness to various areas of life in the modern-day United States has been examined in Wilson 2014. The influential Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction has been developed by Kabat-Zinn, et al. 1985, with more details in Kabat-Zinn 1991. An operational definition of mindfulness in clinical usage can be found in Bishop, et al. 2004; the neural perspective on mindfulness has been presented in Hölzel, et al. 2011; Farb, et al. 2007; and Vago and Silbersweig 2012.

                                                                                              • Bishop, Scott R., M. Lau, S. Shapiro, et al. “Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 11.3 (2004): 230–241.

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                                                                                                Influential study that offers a basic definition of mindfulness for clinical usage.

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                                                                                                • Farb, N. A. S., Z. V. Segal, H. Mayberg, et al. “Attending to the Present: Mindfulness Meditation Reveals Distinct Neural Modes of Self-Reference.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2.4 (2007): 313–322.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsm030Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Study of neurological effects of mindfulness meditation.

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                                                                                                  • Hölzel, B. K., S. W. Lazar, T. Gard, Z. Schuman-Olivier, D. R. Vago, and U. Ott. “How Does Mindfulness Meditation Work? Proposing Mechanisms of Action from a Conceptual and Neural Perspective.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 6.6 (2011): 537–559.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1745691611419671Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Study of working mechanics of mindfulness practice.

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                                                                                                    • Kabat-Zinn, Jon, L. Lipworth, and R. Burney. “The Clinical Use of Mindfulness Meditation for the Self-Regulation of Chronic Pain.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8.2 (1985): 163–190.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/BF00845519Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Groundbreaking study on the development of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction.

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                                                                                                      • Kabat-Zinn, Jon. Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Delta, 1991.

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                                                                                                        Monograph on Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction.

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                                                                                                        • Vago, D. R., and D. A. Silbersweig. “Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, and Self-Transcendence (S-Art): A Framework for Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.296 (2012): 1–30.

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                                                                                                          On the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness.

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                                                                                                          • Williams, J. M. G., and J. Kabat-Zinn, eds. Special Issue: Mindfulness: Diverse Perspectives on Its Meaning, Origins, and Multiple Applications at the Intersection of Science and Dharma. Contemporary Buddhism 12.1 (2011).

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                                                                                                            Special issue, with contributions by leading scholars from different fields on various aspects of mindfulness.

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                                                                                                            • Wilson, Jeff. Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199827817.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Groundbreaking study of the spread of mindfulness to various fields and applications in the United States.

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