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Medieval Studies Coins
by
Alan M. Stahl

Introduction

Medieval numismatic scholarship is characterized by a significant local focus, owing in part to the decentralized minting of most of Europe and in part to the discipline’s origins in collecting and antiquarianism. The geographical emphasis of much of the literature is not only on the national and regional level; many of the standard reference books cover the coinage of a single city or mint. This bibliography seeks to list the best starting places for an overview of each region, as well as the most up-to-date monographic studies. The focus is on Europe; for the Byzantine and medieval Islamic coinages only the most basic bibliography is offered.

General Overviews

Burnett 1991 is a useful introduction to the relationship of numismatics to history but heavily oriented to the classical world. The introductions to medieval coinage, like the literature in general, tend to be heavily regional in nature. Luschin von Ebengreuth 1926 is still useful as a handbook but more so as a reference, especially for Germanic coinages. Bompaire and Dumas 2000 and Kluge 2007, emphasize respectively French and German coinages.

Reference Works

Schrötter 1930 and Frey and Salton 1947 are useful glossaries for the names of coinage denominations and issues. Craig 1954 is indispensable for sorting out the names of issuers from the complicated Germany dynastic series. Rentzmann 1865–1866 and Neubecker and Rentzmann 1974 are useful for identifying the issuers of coins from their inscriptions and heraldic devices respectively.

Bibliographies

The only bibliography devoted specifically to medieval numismatics is Grierson 1992. Grierson 1979 and Clain-Stefanelli 1985 are the standard bibliographies for the numismatic discipline as a whole, with Grierson 1979 much more selective. The online catalogue of the American Numismatic Society’s library is a useful starting point for most searches. On the occasion of the International Numismatic Congress, held about every six years, a comprehensive overview of important contributions in the intervening period is published as the Survey of Numismatic Research (Amandry and Bateson 2009), with annotated essays and lists produced by specialists in each area. Numismatic Literature is the standard serial bibliography in the field. Coin Hoards, a series published by the Royal Numismatic Society, lists summary information on hoards of medieval as well as ancient coins.

  • Amandry, Michel and Donal Bateson, eds. A Survey of Numismatic Research, 2002–2007. International Association of Professional Numismatists Special Publication 15. Glasgow: International Association of Professional Numismatists, 2009.

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    The latest of a series of periodic surveys of recent bibliography in conjunction with the numismatic discipline’s international congresses, beginning with that of 1967. Earlier issues have the same beginning words of the title, but vary in terms of editors, publisher and place of publication. Coverage of important literature on medieval numismatics is generally arranged by modern country or area, usually in the form of an introductory essay followed by a selective bibliography.

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  • American Numismatic Society Library.

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    Of special value in that articles as well as monographs are analyzed by subject, as are the contents of important auction sales catalogues.

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    • Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. Numismatic Bibliography. Munich: Batteberg, 1985.

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      A comprehensive, well-indexed bibliography of the entire discipline running to over 18,000 entries.

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    • Coin Hoards. Vols. 1–8. London: Royal Numismatic Society, 1975–1994.

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      Published with the goal of providing a quick summary of the contents of newly discovered hoards, with a minimum of analysis, but often constitutes the only publication of such finds. Continued in The Numismatic Chronicle.

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      • Grierson, Philip. Bibliographie Numismatique. 2d ed. Brussels: Cercle d’Études Numismatiques, 1979.

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        A selective, well-annotated bibliography of numismatic methodology and specific issues.

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      • Grierson, Philip. “Numismatics.” In Medieval Studies. 2d ed. Edited by James M. Powell, 114–161. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1992.

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        A somewhat revised version of the essay and bibliography that appeared in the first (1976) edition of this handbook.

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      • Numismatic Literature.

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        Recent numbers available online. An analytical serial bibliography with abstracts supplied by specialist scholars; in recent years the amount of annotation and breadth of coverage have declined. The spring issue of alternate years carries a full listing of serials carrying numismatic information and their common abbreviation. Published semiannually since 1947 by the American Numismatic Society.

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      Numismatic Methodology

      Medieval numismatics generally grew out of the study of ancient coins (which began in the Renaissance), and its research methods and publication formats have generally followed those of Greek and Roman numismatics. There are no handbooks specifically for the methodology of medieval numismatics; Grierson 1975 is one of the few for the discipline as a whole, and Grierson 1992 includes some specifics about approaching the coinage of the Middle Ages. Bompaire and Dumas 2000 sets out to be a general introduction to the methodology of medieval coinage, but most of its examples are French.

      General Surveys

      The greatest promise for a coherent account of medieval European coinage is in the Cambridge MEC series, but long delays in publication have diminished optimism on the completion of the series in the near future (see Grierson and Blackburn 1986). Engel and Serrure 1891–1905 is a detailed if outdated overview of the coinages, while Grierson 1991 is the best illustrated introduction to it. The articles collected in Grierson 1979 and Grierson 2001 illustrate the breadth of the work of one of the preeminent medieval numismatists of the 20th century.

      Mining, Metallurgy, and Minting

      Much of the important information on how mining and minting worked in medieval Europe is found in local and mint studies. Spufford 1988 includes much information on these subjects in the course of an overview of medieval money, while Blanchard 2001–2005 is to be used with reserve. The papers in Metallurgy in Numismatics and Mayhew and Spufford 1988 provide important case studies.

      Monetary History of Medieval Europe

      This is a field closely allied with medieval numismatics with an extensive scholarly literature of high quality. Spufford 1988 is the best starting point, and as always Bloch 1954 is worth reading. Cipolla 1956 is brief but important, while Fournial 1970 is useful mainly for the French case.

      Specific Periods

      Grierson 1959 presents a noneconomic approach to monetary circulation in the early medieval period. Bisson 1979 and Suchodolski 1961 consider monetary institutions of the central Middle Ages. Grierson 1971–1972 examines the adoption of heavy, multiple silver coins in 12th- and 13th-century Europe, while Lopez 1953 looks at the beginning of gold coinages in the 13th century. Day 1978 assembles evidence for a decline in overall bullion stocks in late medieval Europe.

      • Bisson, Thomas N. Conservation of Coinage: Monetary Exploitation and its Restraint in France, Catalonia and Aragon (c. A.D. 1000–c. 1225). Oxford: Clarendon, 1979.

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        Analyzes the phenomenon of medieval taxes imposed in lieu of coinage debasement.

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      • Day, John. “The Great Bullion Famine of the Fifteenth Century.” Past and Present 79 (1978): 3–54.

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        A classic, if still controversial, account of a significant monetary phenomenon throughout Europe. Reprinted in Day’s The Medieval Market Economy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987 (pp. 1–54).

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      • Grierson, Philip. “Commerce in the Dark Ages: A Critique of the Evidence.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 9 (1959): 123–140.

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        Argues for the importance of gift-giving rather than trade as an important aspect of the exchange of coins in the early Middle Ages.

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      • Grierson, Philip. “The Origins of the Grosso and of Gold Coinage in Italy.” Numismaticky Sbornik 12 (1971–1972): 33–48.

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        Other articles in the same volume of the original publication treat related topics. Reprinted in Grierson 1979Grierson 1979 (cited under General Surveys).

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      • Lopez, Robert Sabatino. “Settecento anni fa: Il ritorno all’oro nel’occidente duecentesco.” Rivista storica italiana 65 (1953): 19–198.

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        Summarized in English as “Back to Gold, 1252.” Economic History Review, n.s., 9.2 (1956): 219–240. The classic study, based on archival sources, of the resumption of the minting of gold in Europe in the 13th century after a lapse of five centuries.

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      • Suchodolski, Stansilaw. “Renovatio monetae in Poland in the 12th century.” Polish Numismatic News (Supplement to Wiadamości Numismatyczne) 5 (1961): 55–75.

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        Considers the phenomenon of the periodic change of types and recall of old coinages throughout Europe in the central Middle Ages.

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      • Watson, Andrew M. “Back to Gold—and Silver.” Economic History Review n.s. 20 (1967): 1–34.

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        Considers the change in metallic minting in the later Middle Ages from the point of view of Islamic coinage.

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      Specific Regions

      Lane and Mueller 1985 gives an excellent general introduction to medieval money in the context of the monetary history of one of the leading medieval commercial centers. Mayhew 1983 charts the spread of an English denomination on the continent, and Miskimin 1963 and Munro 1972 look at the monetary policies of late medieval France and the Low Countries respectively.

      Primary Sources

      Many documents with specifications for medieval minting and circulation are published in the regional studies. Despite its limitations, Jesse 1968 is a useful compilation of sources from throughout medieval Europe. Fitzneale 2007 and Johnson 1956 provide translations of important English minting documents, and Travaini 2003 is an extremely useful compilation of Italian merchants’ coin lists. Kaye 1998 gives a thoughtful overview of the monetary theory of leading medieval scholastic scholars.

      Specific Eras and Issuers

      Medieval European coinage shows a certain consistency in the 5th through 7th centuries in the predominance of the gold coinage and a gradual transition to silver, so these coinages have often been studied together. The Carolingian period, 8th and 9th centuries, is the only time in which much of Europe had a unified coinage system. The coin finds related to the Viking Age, chiefly 9th through 11th century, are characterized by the mixing of issues from mints scattered from England to central Asia.

      Pre-Carolingian Coinage

      Grierson and Blackburn 1986 comprises a masterful synthesis of all of the previous literature. Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo 1961 and Grierson 1979 provide a wide range of important studies. Wroth 1911 is the only general catalogue for the Western imitations of Byzantine issues, while Tomasini 1964 gives attributions to many of these associated with southern France and Iberia.

      • Grierson, Philip. Dark Age Numismatics: Selected Studies. London: Variorum, 1979.

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        Reprints of key articles by one of the leading scholars in the field.

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      • Grierson, Philip, and Mark Blackburn. Medieval European Coinage. Vol. 1, The Early Middle Ages (5th–10th Centuries). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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        Synthesizes all the earlier literature. Based in large part on the Grierson collection, ultimately bequeathed to the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

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      • Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo. Moneta e scambi nell’alto Medioevo. Spoleto, Italy: Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo, 1961.

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        Papers from the 1960 Settimana di Studio; many are of primary importance.

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      • Tomasini, Wallace John. The Barbaric Tremissis in Spain and Southern France, Anastasius to Leovigild. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 152. New York: American Numismatic Society, 1964.

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        A survey of early medieval Western imitations of Byzantine gold tremisses with attributions to early Visigothic, Merovingian, Burgundian, and Suevi issuers, some of which have since been revised.

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      • Wroth, Warwick W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Lombards, and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1911.

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        Includes pseudo-imperial issues as well as those enumerated in the title. Many of the attributions have been superseded.

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      Visigothic Coinage

      Miles 1952 is the definitive corpus for royal Visigothic gold issues, and Crusafont i Sabater 1994 adds the neglected copper issues.

      Merovingian Coinage

      This field still lacks a modern comprehensive study. Belfort 1892–1895 remains the only attempt at a complete corpus, while Prou 1892 is less complete but more reliable. Lafaurie 1964 is the most important single study of hundreds by the leading 20th-century scholar in the field, who never produced a synthetic study, other than the finds catalogue of Lafaurie and Pilet-Lemière 2003. Stahl 1982 contains a detailed study of one region, while Kent et al. 1975, Stahl and Oddy 1992 and Stahl 1992 discuss the most important find of Merovingian coins, that in the Sutton Hoo ship burial.

      • Belfort, Auguste de. Description générale des monnaies mérovingiennes. 5 vols. Paris: Société Française de Numismatique, 1892–1895.

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        The only attempt at a complete corpus of Merovingian coinage. Filled with errors and inconsistencies and with often inaccurate line drawings. Reprinted with new introduction by Georges Depeyrot, Paris: Maison Florange, 1996.

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      • Blanchet, Adrien, and Adolphe Dieudonné. Manuel de numismatique française. 4 vols. Paris: Picard, 1912–1936.

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        Volume 1 covers the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.

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      • Lafaurie, Jean. “Monnaie en argent trouvée à Fleury-sur-Orne.” Annales de Normandie 14.2 (1964): 173–222.

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        Important study of the rare early Merovingian silver coinage.

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      • Lafaurie, Jean and Jacqueline Pilet-Lemière. Monnaies du haut Moyen Âge découvertes en France, Ve–VIIIe siècle. Cahiers Ernest-Babelon 8. Paris: CNRS, 2003.

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        An important collection of information on finds of early medieval coins in France.

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      • Kent, John P. C., et al. “The Coins and the Date of the Burial.” In The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. Vol. 1, Excavations, Background, the Ship, Dating, and Inventory. Edited by Rupert Bruce-Mitford, 578–678. London: British Museum, 1975.

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        The full publication of the coins in the purse in the famous Anglo-Saxon burial, all of which were Merovingian gold issues.

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      • Prou, Maurice. Les monnaies mérovingiennes. Catalogue des monnaies françaises de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1892.

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        A careful, scholarly catalogue of the largest collection of Merovingian coins.

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      • Stahl, Alan M. The Merovingian Coinage of the Region of Metz. Publications d’Histoire de l’Art et d’Archéologie 30. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1982.

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        An in-depth study of the Merovingian coinage of the region of Lorraine.

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      • Stahl, Alan M. “The Nature of the Sutton Hoo Coin Parcel.” In Voyage to the Other World: The Legacy of Sutton Hoo. Edited by Calvin Kendall and Peter Wells, 3–14. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 5. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

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        Considers the purpose of the coins in the Sutton Hoo purse.

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      • Stahl, Alan M., and W. A. Oddy. “The Date of the Sutton Hoo Coins.” Paper presented at the 24th conference on Medieval Studies held at Western Michigan University, 4–7 May 1989. In Sutton Hoo: Fifty Years After. American Early Medieval Studies 2. Edited by Robert Farrell and Carol N. de Vegvar, 129–147. Oxford, OH: Miami University Dept. of Art, 1992.

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        Examines the date of the Sutton Hoo coins.

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      Anglo-Saxon Coinage

      The earliest coins of Anglo-Saxon England (and corresponding sections of the continental coast of the North Sea) have been given attributions in Metcalf 1993–1994. Gannon 2003 is a valuable iconographic study. There is no comprehensive treatment of the later Anglo-Saxon coinage; the studies in Blackburn 1986 provide an introduction to work in the field. The distinctive coinage of 9th-century Northumbria is explored in the papers in Metalf 1987 and summarized in Pirie 2002.

      Ostrogothic and Lombard Italy

      Wroth 1911 and Hahn 1973–1981 include postimperial Italian coins in the context of Byzantine issues. Metlich 2004 is an up-to-date corpus of Ostrogothic coinage, while Arslan 1978 and Bernareggi 1989 are as close as there is to a corpus of Lombard issues.

      Carolingian Coinage

      As for the earlier period, Grierson and Blackburn 1986 serves as a thorough synthesis of earlier scholarship and major questions. Morrison and Grunthal 1967 and Depeyrot 2008 sought to be full corpora, but because of their limitations, Gariel 1883–1884 and Prou 1896 remain useful.

      Specific Periods

      Lafaurie 1974 considers the transition from Merovingian to Carolingian coinage, and Völckers 1965 details the earliest development of Carolingian issues. Haertle 1997 takes up the story for the 9th century, while Coupland 2007 produces detailed studies of individual reigns.

      Viking Age Coinage

      Enormous numbers of coins from the 9th through the 11th century, minted in European, Byzantine, and Islamic mints, have been found in the areas bordering on the North Sea, especially in Scandinavia and the Baltic coast. The compilation and study of these finds is an important, if often separate, area of medieval numismatics. The ongoing Corpus nummorum (Malmer, et al. 1975–) provides the raw material for this undertaking, and Blackburn and Metcalf 1981 and Jonsson and Malmer 1990 present some of its more important results.

      • Blackburn, Mark A., and David M. Metcalf, eds. Viking-Age Coinage in the Northern Lands: The Sixth Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History. BAR International Series 122. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1981.

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        A series of conference papers devoted to different aspects of the interpretation of Viking Age hoards.

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      • Hatz, Gert. Handel und Verkehr zwischen dem Deutschen Reich und Schweden in der späteren Wikingerzeit. Lund, Sweden: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets-akademien, 1974.

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        Uses the Swedish coin finds as the basis of a full classification and comparison of German coinages of the 10th century.

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      • Jonsson, Kenneth, and Brita Malmer, eds. Sigtuna Papers: Proceedings of the Sigtuna Symposium on Viking-Age Coinage, 1–4 June 1989. Commentationes de nummis saeculorum IX–XI in Suecia repertis, n.s. 6. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademine, 1990.

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        Includes four additional papers not read at the symposium.

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      • Malmer, Brita, Nils Ludvig Rasmusson, and Peter Berghaus, eds. Corpus nummorum saeculorum IX–XI qui in Suecia reperti sunt. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1975–.

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        The systematic publication of Swedish finds of Viking Age coins, organized by modern geographical divisions; the island of Gotland represents the richest concentration.

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      • Metcalf, David Michael. “Viking-Age Numismatics.” Numismatic Chronicle 155 (1995): 413–441.

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        A series of President’s Addresses to the Royal Numismatic Society that review the state of the question. See also The Numismatic Chronicle 156 (1996): 399–428; 157 (1997): 297–335; 158 (1998): 345–371; 1559 (1999): 395–430.

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      Individual Regions

      The period after 1000 CE has not been the subject of much synthetic discussion, and most of the useful literature concentrates on a particular medieval region or modern state. In many cases the 19th-century catalogues and studies have not been superseded. The various regions are arranged below in an approximate geographical sequence working from north to south and west to east.

      Scandinavia

      Much of the research has concentrated on the finds of foreign coins in Viking-age contexts rather than on local issues of the later Middle Ages. Malmer 1966 details the earliest medieval Scandinavian issues. Lagerqvist 1969 catalogues the later Swedish issues, Skaare 1966 those of Norway, and Bendixen 1967 Danish issues. Klackenberg 1992 provides a methodologically interesting study of the circulation of Swedish coinage on the basis of church floor finds.

      The British Isles

      There is a well-established tradition of scholarship on medieval British numismatics, but many questions remain, especially relating to the Anglo-Saxon and Norman periods. Brook 1950 and Sutherland 1973 provide solid overviews of English coinage in the medieval as well as later periods. The ongoing Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles project provides the publication of a large number of coins for study. The entries in Challis 1992 provide a history of the mints in medieval England. The volumes published of the Catalogue of the English Coins in the British Museum (Keary and Grueber 1887–1893) present the most detailed studies on the periods they cover. North 1991 is a handy reference to all issues of medieval English coins.

      Specific Periods

      Specific discussions of the earliest Anglo-Saxon issues are considered above, with other early medieval coinages. In the absence of a comprehensive overview of later Anglo-Saxon and Norman coinages, the essays in Blackburn 1986 and Cook and Williams 2006 provide good introductions to current scholarship. Brand 1994 considers the short-cross penny coinages, and Mayhew 1977 the subsequent Edwardian sterling issues.

      Specific Mints

      Several studies trace the coinage of specific secondary mints over time: Mossop 1970 for Lincoln, Allen 2003 for Durham, and Eaglen 2006 for Bury St. Edmonds.

      Outside of England

      Graham-Campbell 1995, Dolley 1966 and Dolley 1972 discuss the coinages produced in Britain under Viking domination. Stewart 1967 covers the Scottish coinage of all periods.

      The Low Countries

      The medieval coinage of the Low Countries remained localized in issues, many of which followed the patterns of the coinages of English, French, or German minters. Much of the literature is locally oriented or out of date. Van der Chijs 1851–1866 is the only attempt at a comprehensive corpus; Enno van Gelder 2002 provides a brief overview. Delmonte 1967–1985 covers the coinages in fine silver and Delmonte 1964 those in gold. Mayhew 1979 includes papers that touch on current research.

      Specific Issuers

      Most studies deal with the coinage of a specific noble family or dynasty. Grolle 2000 covers the medieval coinage of the counts of Holland; Chalon 1848 that of the counts of Hainaut; de Witte 1894–1899 that of the counts of Louvain; and Gaillard 1856 that of the counts of Flanders. Ghyssens 1971 focuses on the important penny coinage of 12th and 13th century Flanders. Bernays and Vanérus 1910 and Weiller 1977 describe the coinages of Luxemburg. Dengis 2006–2007 catalogues the medieval coins of Liège, and Richebé 1963 describes those of Artois.

      France

      Minting was decentralized in France in the immediate post-Carolingian period, and it was only in the course of the later Middle Ages that royal coinage came to dominate over seigneurial issues. There has been relatively little serious numismatic scholarship on medieval French coinages since the 19th century. Bompaire and Dumas 2000 is organized as a methodological and bibliographic handbook. Blanchet and Dieuconné 1912–1936 is an overview of all French coinage, royal and seigneurial. Dumas 1971 suggests a large minting and circulation of coinage in France in immediate post-Carolingian period. Frère 1973 surveys the denier coinage that characterized France of the central Middle Ages. Mayhew 1997 includes studies on the gros tournois coinages of the 13th and 14th centuries.

      • Blanchet, Adrien, and Adolphe Dieudonné. Manuel de numismatique française. 4 vols. Paris: Picard, 1912–1936.

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        Volume 2 covers royal coinage, Volume 3 tokens, and Volume 4 seigneurial issues. Still useful, especially for the issues in Volume 4.

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      • Bompaire, Marc, and Françoise Dumas. Numismatique médiévale: monnaies et documents d’origine française. L’atelier du médiéviste. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2000.

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        A general introduction to the bibliography and methodology of medieval numismatics, centered on the coinages of France.

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      • Dumas, Françoise. Le trésor de Fécamp et le monnayage en Francie occidentale pendant la seconde moitié du X siècle. Paris: Comité des travaux historique et scientifiques, 1971.

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        The careful study of a hoard from Normandy revealed a hitherto unsuspected extent of coinage in 10th-century France.

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      • Duplessy, Jean. Les trésors monétaires médiévaux et modernes découverts en France. Vol. 1, 751–1223. Trésors Monétaires Suppléments. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1985–1995.

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        Extremely useful summary of hoards of medieval French coins. Volume 2: 1223–1385.

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      • Frère, Hubert. Le denier: du X au XIII siècle. Institut supérieure d’archéologie de d’histoire de l’art. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1973.

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        Concentrates on the region of Lorraine.

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      • Mayhew, Nicholas J., ed. The Gros Tournois: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 31. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1997.

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        Conference papers on the important royal denomination and its widespread imitations.

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      Royal French Coinage

      The coinage of the Capetian kings established a dominance over French issues only in the course of the 13th century. Its development, including the dramatic debasements and reforms of the later Middle Ages, has been the subject of little scholarly study in recent years. Dieudonné 1923–1932, Lafaurie 1951, and Duplessy 1988 all contain general summaries of successive issues with little analysis. Dumas and Barrandon 1982 examine the silver content of various coinages in the period when Philip Augustus was seeking to expand royal coinage. Fournial 1970 gives much useful information on the later currency manipulations, but in many cases it is still necessary to go to the ordonnances published by Saulcy 1879–1892 for the details of standards.

      • Dieudonné, Adolphe. Catalogue des monnaies françaises de la Bibliothèque Nationale. 2 vols. Les monnaise capétiennes. Paris: Leroux, 1923–1932.

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        Based on the definitive holdings of the Bibliothèque Nationale but of limited use due to its flawed organization and execution.

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      • Dumas, Françoise, and Jean-Noël Barrandon. Le titre et le poids de fin des monnaies sous le règne de Phillipe Auguste. Cahiers Ernest-Babelon 1. Paris: Calbonne, 1982.

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        Scientific analysis of deniers of the 12th century in the context of documented monetary relationships.

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      • Duplessy, Jean. Les monnaies française royales de Hughes Capet à Louis XVI (987–1793). Vol. 1, Hugues Capet à Louis XII. Paris: Platt, 1988.

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        A summary catalogue with little analysis or explanation.

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      • Fournial, Etienne. Histoire monétaire de l’occident médiéval. Paris: FAC, 1970.

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        Concerned mainly with the monetary development of medieval France; especially useful for its detailed treatment of monetary debasements and reforms in the 14th and 15th centuries.

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      • Lafaurie, Jean. Les monnaies des rois de France. Vol. 1, De Hugues Capet à Louis XII. Paris: Bourgey, 1951.

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        A summary catalogue with little analysis or explanation.

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      • Saulcy, Louis F. J. C. de. Recueil de documents rélatifs à l’histoire des monnaies frappées par les rois de France depuis Philippe II jusqu’à François I. Collection de documents inédits sur l’histoire de France Series 3. Mâcon, France: Imprimerie national, 1879–1892.

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        Contains many of the ordonnances that established the standards for successive issues of royal coins.

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      Seigneurial French Coinage

      The coinages of various seigneurial issuers dominated French circulation in the central Middle Ages and remained important through the end of the era. The corpus Poey d’Avant 1858–1862 and its supplement Caron 1882 remain fundamental. The monographs Dumas 1988, Coativy 2006, and Elias 1984 provide in-depth studies of specific regions.

      Germany

      Owing to the very localized nature of political power after the 11th century, medieval German coinage is very complex, and much of the research has been devoted to specific periods as well as places. Because of the complexity of issues, there have been a few comprehensive studies of medieval Germanic coinages; Suhle 1968 is the most useful. Dannenberg 1876–1905 is the standard catalogue of the coinage of the late 9th through early 12th century; Kluge 1991 and Kluge 1993 provide important new findings on the issues. Kamp 2006 discusses the political aspects of Hohenstaufen coinage, while Klein 1977 and Nau 1977 provide a mint-by-mint survey of it.

      • Dannenberg, Hermann. Die deutschen münzen der sächsischen und fränkischen kaiserzeit. 4 vols. Berlin: Weidmann, 1876–1905.

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        The only comprehensive catalogue for all German states, covers issues from the 10th to the 12th centuries. Many of the attributions have been superseded.

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      • Hatz, Gert. Handel und Verkehr zwischen dem Deutschen Reich und Schweden in der späteren Wikingerzeit. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets-akademien. Stockholm: Kungl, 1974.

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        Uses the Swedish coin finds as the basis of a full classification and comparison of German coinages of the 10th century.

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      • Kamp, Norbert. Moneta regis: Königlische Münzstätten und königliche Münzpolitik in der Stauferzeit. Monumenta Germaniae Historica Schriften 55. Hannover, Germany: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2006.

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        Uses documents, coins, and finds to study the spread of royal minting in Germany in the 12th and 13th century. The posthumous publication of a work completed in 1957.

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      • Klein, Ulrich. “Münzstätten der Stauferzeit (etwa 1140–1270) in Deutschland und Italien.” Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau 56 (1977): 171–278.

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        A survey of mints whose coinage acknowledged the authority of Hohenstaufen kings and emperors.

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      • Kluge, Bernd. Deutsche Münzgeschichte von der späten Karolingerzeit bis zum Ende der Salier, c. 900–1125. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Forschungsinstitut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Monographien 29. Sigmaringen, Germany: Thorbecke, 1991.

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        Catalog of an exhibition, “Die Salier und ihr Reich,” held in Speyer, Germany, in 1991; provides a valuable summary of monetary developments in the period.

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      • Kluge, Bernd, ed. Fernhandel und Geldwirtschaft: Beiträge zum deutschen Münzwesen in sächsischer und salischer Zeit; Ergebnisse des Dannenberg-Kolloquiums. Proceedings of the conference held in conjunction with the exhibition “Die Salier und ihr Reich.” Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Forschungsinstitut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Monographien 31. Sigmaringen, Germany: Thorbecke, 1993.

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        Proceedings of the conference held in conjunction with the exhibition “Die Salier und ihr Reich.”

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      • Nau, Elisabeth. “Münzen der Stauferzeit.” In Die Zeit der Staufer: Geschichte, Kunst, Kultur; Katalog der Ausstellung (Stuttgart, Altes Schloss und Kunstgebäude, 26. März–5. Juni 1977). Vol. 1. Edited by Reiner Haussherr, 108–188. Stuttgart: Württembergisches Landesmuseum, 1977.

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        A comprehensive survey of various mints of the 12th and 13th century, with current attributions and bibliography.

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      • Suhle, Arthur. Deutsche Münz- und Geldgeschichte von den Anfängen bis zum 15. Jahrhundert. 3d ed. Munich: Battenberg, 1968.

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        A useful general introduction.

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      Regional Studies

      Though the coinage of medieval German lands was very localized, certain coin issues achieved a dominance that resulted in regional minting and circulation patterns. Albrecht 1959 surveys the coinage of the Rhineland in the central Middle Ages. Metcalf 1961 summarizes the complex coinage situation in southern Germany in the 13th century, whose most important denomination, the Friesacher, is the subject of Alram, et al. 2002, Baumgartner 1949 and Härtel 1966. Probszt-Ohstorff 1994 provides an overview of Austrian coinages, and Rizzolli 1991–2006 describes those of the Tyrol.

      • Albrecht, Günther. Das Münzwesen im niederlothringischen und friesischen Raum vom 10. bis zum beginnenden 12. Jahrhunderts. Numismatische Studien 6. Hamburg, Germany: Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, 1959.

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        Coin circulation in the Rhineland region in the central Middle Ages.

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      • Alram, Michael, Reinhard Härtel, Manfred Schreiner, and Ingeborg Baumgartner, et al., eds. Die Frühzeit des Friesacher Pfennigs (etwa 1125/30–etwa 1166). Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse, Denkschriften 300, Veröffentlichungen der Numismatischen Kommission 36. Vienna: Numismatische Kommission, 2002.

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        Studies on the earliest period of the important coinage.

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      • Baumgartner, Egon. “Die Blütezeit der Friesacher Pfennige: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des innerösterreichischen Münzwesens im 13. Jahrhundert.” Numismatische Zeitschrift 73 (1949).

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        Fundamental study of a coinage important in Italy and the Balkans as well as in the southern Germanic lands. See also Numismatische Zeitschrift 75–106; 78 (1959): 14–57; 79 (1961): 28–63.

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      • Härtel, Reinhard, ed. Die Friesacher Münze im Alpen-Adria-Raum: Akten der Friesacher Sommerakademie Friesach (Kärnten), 14. bis 18. September 1992. Grazer grundwissenschaftliche Forschungen 2. Schriftenreihe der Akademie Friesach 1. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1996.

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        Papers from a conference on the circulation of the Friesacher coinage and its imitations.

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      • Metcalf, David Michael. The Coinage of South Germany in the Thirteenth Century. London: Spink, 1961.

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        A brief but accessible introduction to these complex and important coinages.

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      • Probszt-Ohstorff, Günther. Österreichische Münz- und Geldgeschichte: von den Anfängen bis 1918. Vienna: Böhlau, 1994.

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        General survey of the development of coinage in Austria and its general region.

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      • Rizzolli, Helmut. Münzgeschichte des alttirolischen Raumes im Mittelalter und Corpus Nummorum Tirolensium Mediaevalium. Bozen, Italy: Verlaganstalt Athesia, 1991–2006.

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        Two volumes of a catalogue of medieval Tyrolean issues. Volume 1: Die Münzstätten Brixen/Innsbruck, Trient, Lienz und Meran vor 1363. Volume 2: Die Meraner Münzstätten unter den Habsburgern bis 1477 und die görzische Prägestätte Lienz/Toblach.

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      Issuers and Mints of Central Germany

      Regional and local studies lie at the heart of much German medieval numismatics. Dannenberg 1997 and Dannenberg 2000 study the issues of Brandenberg and its neighbors in the 13th and 14th centuries. Thormann 1982 catalogues the late medieval issues of the dukes of Saxony. Mehl 1995 studies the episcopal mint of Hildesheim, and Mehl 2006 the major monastic one of the nuns of Quedlinburg.

      Issuers and Mints of Southern and Western Germany

      Hahn 1976 studies the coinage of the Bavarian dukes in Regensburg that dominated the 9th through 12th century, and Emmerig 1993 and Emmerig 2007 carries the study of their coinage through the end of the Middle Ages. Ilisch 1994 details the minting of the bishops of Munster. Noss and Hävernick 1913–1935 presents a corpus of the medieval coins of Cologne, and Noss 1916 and Weiller 1988 do the same for Trier.

      Northern Slavic Lands

      The coinage in these regions was mainly royal, so not as complex as areas to the west and south. Cach 1970–1974 gives an overview of Czech issues, while Castelin 1973 focuses on the important Groschen issues of Prague. Gumowski 1960 and Kiernowski 1964 survey the coinage of Poland. Russia had a brief period of coinage issues in the western tradition in the 10th and 11th centuries, surveyed by Sotnikova and Spasskij 1982 and after the end of Islamic minting by the Golden Hoard, produced ingotlike coins in the 14th and 15th centuries, as discussed in Chernetsov 1983.

      Hungary

      The issues of the kings of Hungary were especially important following the discovery and minting of gold there in the later Middle Ages. Rethy 1958 and Huszár 1979 provide overviews of these issues, and Pohl 1974 gives a detailed study of the gold coins.

      The Iberian Peninsula

      Heiss 1865–1869 remains the only comprehensive catalogue of medieval Spanish coinage. Gil Farres 1959 provides a general historical overview of Spanish coinage from ancient to modern times. The articles in Gomes Marques 1984 show some of the current research on the field. Roma Valdés 2000 is a detailed examination of the coinage of Castile and Leon. Crusafont i Sabater 1982 and Crusafont i Sabater 1986 study the Catalan coinages, as does Balaguer 1999. The medieval coinage of Portugal is the subject of Gomes Marques 1996 and Ferraro Vaz 1960.

      Italy

      Much of the coinage of medieval Italy was communal in nature, and most of the literature focuses on the issues of specific cities. The Corpus Nummorum Italicorum is an enormously valuable corpus of virtually all known Italian issues but frustratingly lacking in scholarly apparatus. Cipolla 1975 is a brief but valuable survey of Italian coinage. Grierson 1971–1972 and Lopez 1953 detail the developments in the late 12th and 13th century that brought Italian coinage into the forefront of European issues.

      • Cipolla, Carlo M. Le avventure della lira. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino, 1975.

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        A quick overview by an important economic historian of the development of European coinage, especially in Italy.

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      • Corpus Nummorum Italicorum. 20 vols. Rome, 1910–1943.

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        A massive publication, undertaken with the support of King Victor Emmanuel III, intended to record and attribute every coinage issue of postclassical Italy. It is amazingly complete (except for Sicily, whose volume has not been published) but gives virtually no information on the basis for attributions or bibliography.

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      • Grierson, Philip. “The Origins of the Grosso and of Gold Coinage in Italy.” Numismaticky Sbornik 12 (1971–1972): 33–48.

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        Other articles in the same volume as the original publication treat related topics. Reprinted in Grierson 1979 (cited under General Surveys).

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      • Lopez, Roberto S. “Settecento anni fa: Il ritorno all’oro nel’occidente duecentesco.” Rivista storica italiana 65 (1953): 19–198.

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        Summarized in English as “Back to Gold, 1252.” Economic History Review, n.s., 9.2 (1956): 219–240. The classic study, based on archival sources, of the resumption of the minting of gold in Europe in the 13th century after a lapse of five centuries.

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      • Travaini, Lucia, ed. Moneta locale, moneta straniera: Italia ed Europa, XI–XV secolo. The Second Cambridge Numismatic Symposium. Milan: Società Numismatica Italiana, 1999.

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        Papers of a conference investigating the relationship of Italian coinages with those of other medieval regions.

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      Larger Italian Regions

      Though the coinage of medieval was centered on the issues of individual cities, some areas developed regional minting and circulation patterns. Saccocci 2004 studies the coinage of the northern Adriatic region through the central and later Middle Ages. Matzke 1993 traces the development of Tuscan coinage in its period of emergence as an important economic center. Southern Italy was more unified in terms of minting than other areas; Grierson and Travaini 1998 gives an excellent overview of its developments, and Travaini 1995 details the coinage of the Normans in the area.

      • Grierson, Philip and Lucia Travaini. Medieval European Coinage. Vol. 14, Italy—Part 3: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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        Based on the Grierson Collection, bequeathed to the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, this volume is the first published for a region of Italy. Volume 12 will cover northern Italy, including Genoa, Milan, and Venice; and Volume 13 will include central Italy, including the mints of Tuscany and Rome and the Patrimonio.

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      • Matzke, Michael. “Vom Ottolinus zum Grossus; Münzprägung in der Toskana vom. 10. bis zum 13. Jahrhundert.” Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau/Revue Suisse de Numismatique 72 (1993): 135–99.

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        A detailed examination of the development of the grosso coinage in Tuscany.

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      • Saccocci, Andrea. Contributi di storia monetaria delle regioni adriatiche settentrionali (secoli X–XV). Numismatica Patavina 3. Padua, Italy: Esedra, 2004.

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        Wide-ranging exploration of coin circulation in the northern Adriatic region based on finds and documents.

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      • Spahr, Rodolfo. Le monete siciliane. Graz, Austria: Association Internationale des Numismates Professionnels, 1976.

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        With its inclusion of Byzantine and Islamic issues, not totally superseded by Grierson and Travaini 1998. Volume 1: Dai Bizantini a Carlo I d’Angio (582–1282). Volume 2: Dagli Aragonesi ai Borboni (1282–1836).

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      • Travaini, Lucia. La monetazione nell’Italia normanna. Nuovi Studi Storici 28. Rome: Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, 1995.

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        A detailed, well-documented study of the Norman coinages of southern Italy and Sicily.

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      Northern Italy

      Lunardi 1975 and Pesce and Felloni 1975 leave some important questions of the chronology of Genoese coinage unanswered. Crippa 1986 covers the second half of the important medieval coinage of Milan but leaves the first half unstudied. Papadopoli 1893 remains the standard catalogue of Venetian coinage, and Stahl 2000 provides a detailed study of the working of the mint.

      Central Italy

      Bernocchi 1974–1978 is the only detailed, scholarly study of a Tuscan or other central Italian mint. Cipolla 1982 provides a valuable historical dimension to the story. Malaguzzi-Valeri 1901 is typical of the detailed antiquarian studies of Italian mints that are in need of revision. The coinage of medieval Rome was a product of communal and papal issues; Muntoni 1972–1973 provides a good catalogue of issues, and Martinori 1930 publishes important documents.

      The Balkans

      There have been recent major advances in sorting out the issues and chronologies in this region. Rengjeo 1959 provides a brief catalogue of major issues, while Metcalf 1979 gives extended historical analyses of some of the major coinages. Ivaniševic 2001 gives new attributions and discussion of circulation of the important Serbian silver coinages. Both Dochev 2003 and Avdev 2005 seek to provide chronologies for the late medieval Bulgarian issues.

      Crusader States and the Latin Orient

      Included here are studies of Frankish Greece as well as the Latin Levant. Schlumberger 1878–1882 remains a standard catalogue, though Metcalf 1995 is much more up to date. Metcalf 1979 is important for its historical context and study of circulation. Lunardi 1980 and Stahl 1985 deal with colonial coinages issued by Genoa and Venice respectively.

      • Bedoukian, Paul Z. Coinage of Cilician Armenia. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 147. New York: American Numismatic Society, 1962.

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        A detailed catalogue, with some attributions in need of revision.

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      • Lunardi, Giuseppe. Le monete delle colonie genovesi. Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria n.s. 20. Genoa, Italy: Società ligure di storia patria, 1980.

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        Chiefly the Genoese colonies in the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean and in the Black Sea.

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      • Metcalf, David Michael. Coinage in South-Eastern Europe, 820–1396. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 11. London: Royal Numismatic Society, 1979.

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        A scholarly historical overview of Balkan medieval coinage and its circulation.

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      • Metcalf, David Michael. Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 2d ed. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 28. London: Royal Numismatic Society: Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, 1995.

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        A thorough review of Crusader coinage based on the Oxford University collection.

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      • Metcalf, David Michael, and Andreas G. Pitsillides. Corpus of Lusignan Coinage. Texts and Studies on the History of Cyprus, 29, 21, 35. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Center, 1996–2000.

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        A detailed study of the medieval coinage of Cyprus, grouped by denomination and chronology. Volume 1: The White Bezants and Deniers of Cyprus, 1192–1285. Volume 2: The Silver Coinage of Cyprus, 1284–1382. Volume 3: The Gros, Sixains and Cartzias of Cyprus, 1382–1489.

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      • Schlumberger, Gustav. Numismatique de l’Orient Latin. Paris: Leroux, 1878–1882.

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        The classic work, still quite useful.

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      • Stahl, Alan M. The Venetian Tornesello: A Medieval Colonial Coinage. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 163. New York: American Numismatic Society, 1985.

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        A study of an overvalued, low denomination coinage issued by Venice for its Aegean colonies.

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      Byzantine Coinage

      The Dumbarton Oaks catalogs of Bellinger and Grierson 1966–1999 and Hendy 1969 are now the standard and, except for the first volume, carry excellent commentary on the coinages. Hahn 1973–1981 seeks to be a complete corpus but has only been completed up to the year 720. Morrisson and Callu 1970 and Wroth 1908 and Wroth 1911 provide information on the contents two of the main collections. Hendy 1969 and Hendy 1985 represent detailed explorations of aspects of the monetary history of Byzantium.

      • Bellinger, Alfred R., and Philip Grierson, eds. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection. 5 vols. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1966–1999.

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        The most comprehensive collection of Byzantine coinage, in an exemplary catalogue, especially for the later volumes in which many topics relating to Byzantine monetary history are explored.

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      • Hahn, Wolfgang. Moneta Imperii Byzantini. 3 vols. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1973–1981.

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        An attempt at a corpus of all known issues of Byzantine coinage. Completed only up to the year 720.

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      • Hendy, Michael F. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081–1261. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1969.

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        A re-examination of the coinage of the period from the currency reforms of Alexius I through the end of the Latin Empire. Set the basis for the modern attributions of most issues.

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      • Hendy, Michael F. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c. 300–1450. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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        Quite wide ranging, with much discussion of geographical aspects of coin production and circulation.

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      • Morrisson, Cécile. Catalogue des monnaies byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale. 2 vols. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1970.

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        A catalogue of one of the major collections by one of the leading Byzantine numismatists of the age.

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      • Morrisson, Cécile, and Jean-Pierre Callu. L’Or monnayé. Vol 1, Purification et altérations de Rome à Byzance. Cahiers Ernest-Babelon. Paris: CNRS, 1985.

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        Important scientific studies of the metallic content of Byzantine gold and electrum issues.

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      • Wroth, Warwick W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. 2 vols. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1908.

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        For many decades the standard reference, as well as a full catalogue of one of the major collections.

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      • Wroth, Warwick W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Lombards, and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1911.

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        The British Museum holdings of various series considered auxiliary to the coinage of the Byzantine Empire. Many of the attributions have been superseded.

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      Medieval Islamic Coinage

      The emphasis in what follows is on those coinages which were most relevant to medieval Europe. Mayer 1954 remains a useful bibliography, and Plant 1980 is helpful for those with a limited knowledge of Arabic. Lane-Poole 1875–1890 and Lavoix 1887–1896 are outdated but still useful catalogues of major public collections. Mitchiner 1977 is a useful overview for the nonspecialist.

      Specific Periods and Dynasties

      Walker 1956 provides an overview of the earliest Islamic issues, and Grierson 1960 provides a detailed study of the major reform of the late 17th century that set the pattern for subsequent Islamic coinage. Watson 1967 considers metallic flows from the Islamic viewpoint. Miles 1970 catalogues the Islamic issues of 9th- and 10th-century Crete, and Grabar 1957 those of Egypt of the 9th century. Balog 1980 details the Ayyubid coinage of 12th- and 13th-century Syria and Egypt, and Balog 1964 the later coinage of Egypt. Hazard 1952 deals with the late medieval Islamic coinages of northern Africa.

      LAST MODIFIED: 12/15/2010

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396584-0022

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