In This Article Kraków

  • Introduction
  • General Overviews
  • Reference Works
  • Bibliographies
  • Journals
  • Guidebooks
  • Images
  • Sources
  • Archaeology and Prehistory
  • Early Medieval Period (c. 990–1257)
  • Late Medieval Period (1257–c. 1500)
  • Government
  • Society
  • Ethnic Composition
  • Economy
  • Education and Intellectual Culture
  • Typography
  • Art
  • Daily Life

Medieval Studies Kraków
by
Pawel Kras
  • LAST MODIFIED: 15 December 2010
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396584-0026

Introduction

In the early Middle Ages the rise of Kraków paralleled the growth of the military role of the Wawel stronghold. In the 9th century the Wawel Hill became a crucial stronghold of the Vistulans, a Western Slavonic tribe who formed their state organization in southern territories of present-day Poland. At the end of the 9th century the duke of the Vistulans was converted to Christianity and his state was subjugated to the Great Moravian Empire. Some historians have argued that at that time Byzantine missionaries, followers of St. Methodius, operated in the Duchy of the Vistulans spreading Christianity, and Kraków became the center of the Old Church-Slavonic liturgy. In the first half of the 10th century Kraków was annexed to the Duchy of Bohemia. Under the Bohemian rule the first stone buildings were constructed at the Wawel Hill (churches of St. Michael and St. Wenceslas and a palatium). The expansion of the early Piast state from Great Poland to the south provoked a military conflict with Bohemia. Probably, in c. 990 Mieszko I, Duke of the Polans, extended his rule to Little Poland and made Kraków his crucial stronghold and administration center in that province. In 1000 Kraków became the seat of a new bishopric, which spread over the vast territory of southern Poland. After the pagan rebellion in 1034–1038, which overthrew the administrative structure of the early Piast monarchy state, Kraków became the main residence of Polish monarchs. See also the bibliography Medieval Poland. The fragmentation of Poland, which followed the death of Duke Boleslas III the Wrymouthed in 1138, made Kraków the residence of the senior duke and the symbol of the Polish unity. The privileged position of Kraków in the disintegrated Polish state contributed to its growing political role. The favorable location of Kraków at the crossroads of international routes made it a leading center of trade and commerce in the region. In 1257 Duke Boleslas V the Chaste granted Kraków a municipal charter, giving way to the formation of the new urban settlement north from the Wawel Hill. Since the privilege of 1257, the population of Kraków started to enjoy liberties and autonomy modeled upon the city code of Magdeburg. The space of the new town of Kraków was organized around a vast quadrangle market-square and took the form of a chessboard. By the end of the 13th century the town was surrounded by the city walls. In the process of restoring a united Polish state Kraków took a leading position. In 1320 the cathedral of Kraków became the coronation place of the Polish kings and their burial place as well. In 1364 King Casimir II the Great founded the University of Kraków. Under his rule in the direct vicinity of Kraków, the new towns of Kazimierz and Kleparz were established, in 1335 and 1366, respectively. In the middle of the 14th century, the population of Kraków within the city walls, estimated at eighteen thousand, grew to approximately twenty-eight thousand by the middle of the 16th century. Late medieval Kraków was inhabited by many ethnic groups, among which the most numerous were Poles, Germans, and Jews (see the bibliography Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval Poland).

General Overviews

The medieval history of Kraków is discussed in any textbook of Kraków’s history. The first extensive study on Kraków was produced by Bąkowski 1911. It offered a thorough analysis of Kraków’s historical growth and gave stimulus to the later intensive research. Dąbrowski 1957 and Bieniarzówna 1968 are the collective works on Kraków history written by historians from the Jagiellonian University. The chapters on the medieval history give comprehensive overviews of the political, socioeconomic, and cultural growth of the town in that period. The best work on medieval Kraków produced by a single author is Wyrozumski 1992, published within the prestigous series of the History of Kraków. It is based on a well-balanced examination of available primary sources, both written and material, and the vast secondary literature. The studies on medieval Kraków were inspired by the 750th anniversary of the town’s reception of the municipal charter. Rajman 2007 and Wyrozumski 2008 are collections of conference papers that reexamine recent research on the history of Kraków, including updated overviews of the medieval period. Małecki and Czwartos 2008 is the best English textbook of Kraków’s history, produced by the leading Polish expert in the field.

  • Bąkowski, Klemens. Dzieje Krakowa. Kraków: Spółka Wydawnicza Polska, 1911.

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    History of Kraków written by the leading expert in the field. Offers a thorough treatment of Kraków’s growth from obscurity in the prehistorical period to the great splendor of the late Middle Ages.

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    • Bieniarzówna, Janina, ed. Szkice z dziejów Krakowa od czasów najdawniejszych do pierwszej wojny światowej. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1968.

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      A collection of popular studies on Kraków’s history modeled on Dąbrowski 1957; offers articles on prehistory and the settlement in the Kraków area, the early medieval history of the town (Józef Mitkowski), the late medieval town (Krystyna Pieradzka), and the foundation of the University of Kraków (Anna Strzelecka).

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      • Dąbrowski, Jan ed. Kraków: Studia nad rozwojem miasta. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957.

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        Collection of studies on the urban development of Kraków; chapters on the medieval history were written by the best Polish experts at that time (Rudolf Jamka, Józef Mitkowski, Renata Żurkowa, and Krystyna Pieradzka); maps demonstrate the growth of settlement, territorial expansion, and organization of the urban space of medieval Kraków.

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        • Małecki, Jan M., and Ignacy Czwartos. A History of Kraków for Everyone. Translated by Jessica Taylor-Kucia. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 2008.

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          Recent English book on Kraków’s history, written by the leading Polish expert in the field. Offers a popular overview of Kraków’s past from prehistory to present.

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          • Rajman, Jerzy, ed. Kraków. Studia z dziejów miasta w 750 rocznicę lokacji. Prace Monograficze. Kraków: Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, 2007.

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            A collection of studies published to celebrate the 750th anniversary of Kraków’s receiving the municipal charter; reexamines recent research on medieval Kraków: its emergence in the early Middle Ages, the process of establishing a new urban community, and economic activity of Kraków inhabitants.

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            • Wyrozumski, Jerzy. Dzieje Krakowa. Vol. 1. Do schyłku wieków średnich. Kraków: Wydawn Literackie, 1992.

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              A complete study on the medieval history of Kraków published within a multivolume series on the history of Kraków; well-structured narrative supplied with numerous maps and illustrations; includes a selected bibliography of Polish works on medieval Kraków.

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              • Wyrozumski, Jerzy, ed. Kraków: Nowe studia nad rozwojem miasta. Biblioteka Krakowska, 150. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 2008.

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                A vast collection of studies on the history of Kraków published on the 750th anniversary of the municipal charter of Kraków. A dozen articles reexamine various aspects of the medieval history of Kraków, including the role of geography in the oldest settlement of Kraków, organization of urban space, construction of the oldest buildings on the Wawel Hill, and the establishment of city institutions.

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                Reference Works

                Popular encyclopedias of Kraków include Adamczewski 1992 and Adamczewski 1997; however, the collective work of Kalisiewicz 2000 is of greater scholarly value. The important events of Kraków’s history are listed in Frančić 1998. Noga 2007 is an important edition of the old plans and maps of Kraków, which demonstrate the historical development of the town over centuries. The lists of Kraków’s city officials in Noga 2008 cover the early modern period, and they are useful for studying the late medieval families of Kraków’s burghers. The extensive introduction to the Noga 2008 discusses the emergence and evolution of city institutions from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.

                • Adamczewski Jan, Kraków od A do Z. 3d ed. Kraków: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1992.

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                  A popular encyclopedia of Kraków with articles listed in alphabetical order.

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                  • Adamczewski, Jan. Mała encyklopedia Krakowa. Kraków: Wanda, 1997.

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                    A new updated edition of his earlier encyclopedia of Kraków.

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                    • Frančić, Mirosław. Krakowa: Kalendarz dziejów: Od prawieków do wybuchu I wojny światowej. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1998.

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                      Lists historical events related to Kraków from prehistory to the outbreak of World War I.

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                      • Kalisiewicz, Dariusz, ed. Encyklopedia Krakowa. Kraków and Warsaw: PWN, 2000.

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                        Concise articles on the history and culture of Kraków, its monuments, and important historical figures; a useful source of information on the history of Kraków.

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                        • Noga, Zdzisław. Atlas historyczny miast polskich.Vol. 5.1, Małopolska: Kraków. Torun, Poland: Uniw. Mikołaja Kopernika, 2007.

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                          A historical atlas of Kraków; includes dozens of old plans and maps showing the development of the town in the Middle Ages and modern period.

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                          • Noga, Zdzisław. Urzędnicy miejscy Krakowa, 1500–1794. Spisy urzędników miejskich z obszaru dawnej Rzeczypospolitej, Śląska i Pomorza Zachodniego. Vol. 3.1, Małopolska. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, 2008.

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                            Crucial lists of Kraków’s municipal officials from 1500 to 1794; includes an introduction to the origins and evolution of city institutions and offices of medieval and early modern Kraków.

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                            Bibliographies

                            There is no current bibliography of publications on Kraków; however, such bibliographies were published for the years 1945–1976 in Bieńkowska and Vogel 1971, Bieńkowska and Vogel 1973–1980, Bieńkowska and Vogel 1982, and Bieńkowska and Vogel 1985. The most significant studies on medieval Kraków are recorded in general bibliographies of Polish history (see the bibliography Medieval Poland). In addition, selected bibliographies related to the medieval history of Kraków are included under General Overviews and Reference Works.

                            • Bieńkowska, Teresa, and Zdzisław Vogel. Książki o Krakowie. Wybór publikacji z lat 1945–1969. Kraków: Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna w Krakowie, 1971.

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                              Selected bibliography of books on Kraków published in the years 1945–1969.

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                              • Bieńkowska, Teresa, and Zdzisław Vogel. Bibliografia Krakowa 1970, 1971–1973, 1974. (Bibliography of Kraków 1970, 1971–1973, 1974.) Kraków: Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna w Krakowie, 1973–1980.

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                                A bibliography of publications on Kraków for the years 1970–1974.

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                                • Bieńkowska, Teresa, and Zdzisław Vogel. Bibliografia Krakowa i województwa miejskiego krakowskiego za rok 1975. Kraków: Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna w Krakowie, 1982.

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                                  A bibliography of publications on Kraków for the year 1975.

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                                  • Bieńkowska, Teresa, and Zdzisław Vogel. Bibliografia Krakowa i województwa miejskiego krakowskiego za rok 1976. Kraków: Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna w Krakowie, 1985.

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                                    A bibliography of publications on Kraków for the year 1976.

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                                    Journals

                                    A number of crucial articles on the history of medieval Kraków are published in Rocznik Krakowski, published since 1898 by the Society of Friends of Kraków’s History and Mounuments. In addition, Analecta Cracoviensia offers a collection of studies on the religious history of Kraków.

                                    • Analecta Cracoviensia. 1969–.

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                                      Published by the Papal Theological Academy of Kraków (since 2008 Papal University of John Paul II); includes articles on the church history and religious life of Kraków and the diocese of Kraków.

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                                      • Rocznik Krakowski. 1898–.

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                                        A principal periodical on the history and culture of Kraków published by Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa (Society of Friends of Kraków’s History and Monuments of Kraków); indispensable for any research on the history and art history of Kraków from the Middle Ages to the present day.

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                                        Guidebooks

                                        Many guidebooks to Kraków have been written, and their number increases every year. Apart from the Polish guidebooks, among which Rożek 1993 and Rożek 1997 represent the highest scholarly standards, there are many popular English publications such as Rożek 1991, Rożek 2004, and Adamczewski 1997. Separate guidebooks cover the history of the Jews in medieval and modern Kraków, which including the two recent English publications Duda 2003 and Legutko-Ołownia 2005. Duda and Jodlowiec-Dziedzic 2007 is the most recent Polish guidebook to Kazimierz.

                                        • Adamczewski, Jan. Cracow, 1000–2000: Guidebook. Translated by Marel Jakubik. Kraków: Wanda, 1997.

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                                          A popular guidebook (or rather an album) of Kraków with a number of illustrations and their historical descriptions.

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                                          • Duda, Eugeniusz, and Jacek Balcewicz. Jewish Cracow: A Guide to the Historical Buildings and Places of Remembrance. Translated by Kaja Kozłowska and Mark Griffiths. Kraków: “vis-à-vis/Etiuda,” 2003.

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                                            An English guidebook to the judaica of Kraków; includes a detailed description of historical monuments associated with the Jewish settlement in Kraków.

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                                            • Duda, Eugeniusz, and Anna Jodlowiec-Dziedzic. W cieniu bożnic i kościołów: Krakowski Kazimierz. Kraków: Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa, 2007.

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                                              A popular book on the history of Kazimierz, once a neighboring town of medieval Kraków; includes the description of historical monuments of Kazimierz.

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                                              • Legutko-Ołownia, Agnieszka. Kraków’s Kazimierz: Town of Partings and Returns. Kraków: Bezdroża, 2005.

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                                                A recent guidebook to the Jewish monuments of Kazimierz. Also available in Polish.

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                                                • Rożek, Michał. Spectral Cracow: Guide to Mysterious Places in the Royal City of Cracow. Translated by Tomasz Bieroń. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1991.

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                                                  An English guidebook to the most significant historical monuments of Kraków.

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                                                  • Rożek, Michał. Przewodnik po zabytkach i kulturze Krakowa. Warsaw: PWN, 1993.

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                                                    The most extensive and detailed guidebook to the monuments of Kraków, written by one of the leading experts on Kraków history. Reprinted in 2000.

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                                                    • Rożek, Michał. Cracow: A City of Kings. Translated by Birgit Helen Beire. Warsaw: GeoCenter, 2004.

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                                                      An English guidebook to medieval and early modern Kraków with extensive treatment of the Wawel residence of Polish kings.

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                                                      • Rożek, Michał. Kraków: Przewodnik historyczny. A to Polska właśnie. Wroclaw, Poland: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, 1997.

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                                                        A guidebook on the history of Kraków in Polish; offers a popular overview of Kraków’s history as well as descriptions of historical monuments in medieval Kraków.

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                                                        Images

                                                        The old images of Kraków have been collected and published separately for the town of Kraków and for Wawel castle, respectively, in Banach 1983 and Banach 1977.

                                                        • Banach, Jerzy. Dawne widoki Krakowa. 2d ed. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1983.

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                                                          Collection of the old views of Kraków supplied with historical commentaries.

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                                                          • Banach Jerzy. Ikonografia Wawelu. 2 vols. Źródła do Dziejów Wawelu 9.Kraków: Min. Kultury i Sztuki, Zarząd Muzeów i Ochrony Zabytków, 1977.

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                                                            Collection of the illustrations of the Wawel residence in Kraków.

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                                                            Sources

                                                            There are a number of source editions related to the medieval history of Kraków. The classic editions of documents and privileges granted to medieval Kraków are Piekosiński 1879, Piekosiński and Krzyżanowski 1909, and Estreicher 1936. The most important privileges for the medieval Kraków community were published in Kłodziński 1947 and more recently in Wyrozumska 1994 and Wyrozumska 2007. The register recording the persons who were granted the citizenship of Kraków was published in Kaczmarczyk 1913. Selected sources on the activities of Kraków’s artisans were collected and published in Ptaśnik 1917.

                                                            • Estreicher, Stanisław, ed. Najstarszy zbiór przywilejów i wilkierzy miasta Krakowa. Komisja Historyczna 82. Kraków: Polska Akademia Umiejętności, 1936.

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                                                              A classic edition of the privileges and decrees of the city council of Kraków.

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                                                              • Kaczmarczyk, Kazimierz, ed. Księgi przyjęć do prawa miejskiego w Krakowie 1392–1506 = Libri iuris civilis Cracoviensis 1392–1506. Wydawnictwa Archiwum aktów dawnych miasta Krakowa 5. Kraków: Archiwum Akt Dawnych Krakowa, 1913.

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                                                                An edition of the register of the persons who were granted citizenship in Kraków in the years 1392–1506.

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                                                                • Kłodziński Andrzej, ed. Przywileje lokacyjne Krakowa i Poznania. Bibliografia Źródeł Historycznych 6. Poznan, Poland: Księgarnia Akad., 1947.

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                                                                  An edition of municipal charters granted to medieval Kraków and Poznan.

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                                                                  • Piekosiński, Franciszek, ed. Kodeks dyplomatyczny miasta Krakowa, 1257–1506 =Codex diplomaticus civitas Cracoviensis, 1257–1506. 2 vols. Monumenta Poloniae Historia res gestas Poloniae illustrantia 5, 7. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1879.

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                                                                    The principal edition of documents related to the history of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                    • Piekosiński, Franciszek, and Stanisław Krzyżanowski, eds. Prawa, przywileje i statuta miasta Krakowa, 1507–1586. 2 vols. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1909.

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                                                                      A classic edition of the early modern privileges and statutes of Kraków.

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                                                                      • Ptaśnik, Jan, ed. Cracovia artificum 1300–1500. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1917.

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                                                                        A selected edition of late medieval city registers related to the activity of Kraków’s artisans.

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                                                                        • Wyrozumska Bożena, ed. Dwa wielkie przywileje średniowiecznego Krakowa. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1994.

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                                                                          A new critical edition of the privileges of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                          • Wyrozumska, Bożena, ed. Przywileje ustanawiające gminy miejskie wielkiego Krakowa (XIII–XVIII wiek). Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 2007.

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                                                                            A recent edition of the most important privileges establishing the municipal community of Kraków in the 13th–18th centuries.

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                                                                            Archaeology and Prehistory

                                                                            Due to the short and fragmentary written sources, any study on the history of the early medieval settlement of Kraków is based on the archeological excavations. The classic studies on the rise of early medieval Kraków, based upon acheological findings, are presented by Rudolf Jamka (Jamka 1957 and Jamka 1963) and Andrzej Żaki (Żaki 1963, Żaki 1965, and Żaki 1994). Buko 2005 provides a number of important studies on the early history of Kraków’s settlement.

                                                                            • Buko, Andrzej. Archeologia Polski wczesnośredniowiecznej. Odkrycia, hipotezy, interpretacje. Warsaw: Trio, 2005.

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                                                                              A recent compendium on the early medieval archeology of Poland; reexamines older concepts of the early medieval settlement in Kraków.

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                                                                              • Jamka, Rudolf. “Pradzieje Krakowa.” In Kraków: Studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by Jan Dąbrowski, 65–83. Biblioteka Krakowska 111. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957.

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                                                                                A concise study on the prehistory of Kraków published in the classic collection of essays on Kraków’s history; presents a thorough archeological analysis of various cultures in the territory of present-day Kraków and its surroundings.

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                                                                                • Jamka, Rudolf. Kraków w pradziejach. Biblioteka Archeologiczna 16. Wroclaw and Kraków: Ossolineum, 1963.

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                                                                                  A thorough archeological survey of the prehistory of Kraków and coherent analysis of the oldest traces of human settlement in the area of present-day Kraków.

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                                                                                  • Żaki, Andrzej. “Archäologische Forschungen über das Frühmittelalterliche Krakau.” Arbeits- und Forschungsberichte zur sächsischen Bodendenkmalpflege 11–12 (1963): 581–600.

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                                                                                    A concise presentation of the archeological excavations carried out on the Wawel Hill in the 1950s and early 1960s.

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                                                                                    • Żaki, Andrzej. Początki Krakowa. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1965.

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                                                                                      A study on the rise of Kraków in the early Middle Ages based on the archeological excavations on the Wawel Hill and the surrounding area.

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                                                                                      • Żaki, Andrzej. “Kraków Wiślański, czeski i wczesnopiastowski.” In Chrystianizacja Polski południowej. Edited by Jan M. Małecki, 41–72. Kraków: Secesja, 1994.

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                                                                                        A reexamination of the growth of early medieval Kraków in light of recent archeological and historical research.

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                                                                                        Early Medieval Period (c. 990–1257)

                                                                                        The medieval history of Kraków is usually divided into two major periods. The first one, sometimes called the early medieval period, covers the history of the town from its integration into the early Piast state c. 990 to the formation of the new urban community in 1257. The municipal charter issued to Kraków by Duke Bolesław V the Chaste is commonly regarded as the turning point in the history of Kraków. Since 1257, the autonomous town of Kraków started to grow, developing its city institutions and becoming an important center of international trade and commerce. Bąkowski 1935 is the first complete survey of the early medieval history of Kraków, which inspired later research. Mitkowski 1968 discusses natural and historical factors that provided favorable conditions for the intensive settlement in the area of early medieval Kraków. Żurkowa 1957 remains a classic overview of the history of Kraków until 1257. A good English overview of the rise of early medieval Kraków as well as its role in the Polish state administration and economy is offered by Carter 1983. Recent reexamination of research on early medieval Kraków is offered by Gadomski 2005 and Bober 2008.

                                                                                        • Bąkowski, Klemens. Kraków przed lokacją z roku 1257. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1935.

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                                                                                          Classic history of Kraków until 1257, written by the leading expert on the period. Offers the first complete analysis of Kraków’s emergence and growth in the early Middle Ages. A catalyst for further research.

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                                                                                          • Bober, Monika. Architektura przedromańska i romańska Krakowa: Badania i interpretacje. Rzeszow, Poland: Fundacja Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego, 2008.

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                                                                                            A recent overview of research on the pre-Romanesque and Romanesque architecture of Kraków; summarizes a long-lasting debate on the origins and dating of the oldest monuments of Kraków from an art historian’s point of view.

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                                                                                            • Carter, Francis W. “Cracow’s Early Development.” Slavonic and East European Review 61.2 (1983): 197–225.

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                                                                                              A concise English study of Kraków and its political and economic growth up to the 13th century.

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                                                                                              • Gadomski, Jerzy, Adam Małkiewicz, Teresa Rodzińska-Chorąży, and Andrzej Włodarek, eds. Lapides viventes: Zaginiony Kraków wieków średnich. Księga dedykowana Profesor Klementynie Żurowskiej. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, 2005.

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                                                                                                A collection of studies presented to Professor Klementyna Żurowska; includes articles on the early medieval history of Kraków, mostly based upon the recent archeological and historical research.

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                                                                                                • Hawrot, Jerzy. “Kraków wczesnośredniowieczny.” Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki 4 (1959): 125–169.

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                                                                                                  An analysis of the factors that stimulated the growth of early medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                  • Mitkowski Józef. “Kraków przed lokacją.” In Szkice z dziejów Krakowa od czasów najdawniejszych do pierwszej wojny światowej. Edited by Janina Bieniarzówna, 7–23. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1968.

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                                                                                                    A comprehensive analysis of the territorial growth of Kraków before the town was granted a municipal charter in 1257.

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                                                                                                    • Żurkowa, Renata. “Kraków wczesnośredniowieczny (wiek X do pierwszej połowy XIII).” In Kraków: Studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by Jan Dąbrowski, 85–116. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957.

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                                                                                                      An overview of the history of early medieval Kraków from the 10th to the mid-13th century; presents the historical development of settlement at the Wawel Hill and the surrounding area. Analyzes the role of Kraków in the history of the Polish state.

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                                                                                                      Late Medieval Period (1257–c. 1500)

                                                                                                      The process of forming the autonomous community of late medieval Kraków and reorganizing its urban space has been widely recognized as a crucial historical problem. A classic analysis of the city charter of 1257 and its consequences for the later town’s development is offered by Mitkowski 1957. A new thorough study on the growth of the settlement in Kraków and the process of establishing the autonomous town has been recently examined by Rajman 2004. Lichończak-Nurek 2007 is the latest collection of studies discussing various aspects of granting the Magdeburg city law to Kraków. Pieradzka 1957 provides a concise study on the social and economic growth of the urban complex of Kraków in the late Middle Ages. A comparative approach to the late medieval and early modern history of Kraków, Prague, and Vienna is presented in Dmitrieva and Lambrecht 2000.

                                                                                                      • Dmitrieva, Marina, and Karen Lambrecht, eds. Krakau, Prag und Wien: Funktionen von Metropolen im Frühmodernen Staat. Forschungen zur Geschichte und Kultur des Östlichen Mitteleuropa 10. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner, 2000.

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                                                                                                        A collection of comparative studies on the early modern cities of Kraków, Prague, and Vienna; includes articles on late medieval Kraków and its role in the Polish kingdom.

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                                                                                                        • Lichończak-Nurek, Grażyna, ed. Kraków europejskie miasto prawa magdeburskiego 1257–1791. Kraków: Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa, 2007.

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                                                                                                          A collection of studies commemorating the 750th anniversary of the presentation to Kraków of the municipal charter; includes articles that reexamine the process of establishing the autonomous community of Kraków and analyze the consequences of the 1257 charter for the later development of the town.

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                                                                                                          • Mitkowski, Józef. “Kraków lokacyjny.” In Kraków: Studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by Jan Dąbrowski, 117–139. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957.

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                                                                                                            A concise article on the establishment of the autonomous town of Kraków in 1257; for a long time it has remained the most authoritative historical study on the municipal charter of 1257.

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                                                                                                            • Pieradzka, Krystyna. “Rozkwit średniowiecznego Krakowa w XIV i XV wieku.” In Kraków: Studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by Jan Dąbrowski, 141–187. Biblioteka Krakowska 11. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957.

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                                                                                                              A thorough study on the society and economy of late medieval Kraków; reconstructs the transformations of the urban space and the functions of Kraków’s suburbs as well.

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                                                                                                              • Rajman, Jerzy. Kraków: Zespół osadniczy, proces lokacji, mieszczanie do roku 1333. Prace monograficzne. Kraków: Akademia Pedagogiczna w Krakowie, 2004.

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                                                                                                                On the establishment of the autonomous town of Kraków; traces back the historical process by which Kraków was granted the city charter in 1257 and became the leading town in medieval Poland.

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                                                                                                                Urban Space

                                                                                                                The organization and transformation of the urban space of medieval Kraków has been discussed in numerous works produced by archeologists, historians, art historians, and architects. Jamroz 1967 reconstructs the settlement of early medieval Kraków and the formation of the new town after 1257. An extensive study on the urban space of medieval Kraków, based on the earlier research, is offered by Borowiejska-Birkenmajerowa 1975. The fortifications once surrounding medieval Kraków are thoroughly examined by Tobiasz 1973. Recent research on the northern fragments of the medieval city walls is presented in Niewalda, et al. 2001. Tyszka 2001 offers a study on the geographic vision of Kraków’s inhabitants, demonstrating how they conceived the urban space of their town.

                                                                                                                • Borowiejska-Birkenmajerowa, Maria. Kształt średniowiecznego Krakowa. Cracoviana Series 1. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1975.

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                                                                                                                  A classic study on the development of medieval town of Kraków; traces origins of the urban organization of medieval town, analyzes the reasons for its location and growth.

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                                                                                                                  • Jamroz, Józef. S. “Układ przestrzenny miasta Krakowa przed i po lokacji 1257 roku.” Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej 12 (1967): 17–49.

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                                                                                                                    An article on the configuration of urban space of medieval Kraków with a particular focus on the transformations after 1257.

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                                                                                                                    • Kozaczewski, Tadeusz. “O Krakowie lokacyjnym inaczej.” In Wielkość i program budowy miasta średniowiecznego. By Tadeusz Kozczewski, 65–80. Wroclaw, Poland: Politechnika Wrocławska, 1972.

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                                                                                                                      An important reexamination of historical concepts of the urban development of Kraków after 1257.

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                                                                                                                      • Niewalda, Waldemar, Halina Rojkowska, and Emil Zaitz. Średniowieczne fortyfikacje Krakowa—Odcinek północny w świetle ostatnich badań. Krakowska Teka Konserwatorska 1. Kraków: Urząd Miasta Krakowa/Zebra. 2001.

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                                                                                                                        Reexamintion of northern parts of the medieval fortifications of Kraków. A thorough study on the territorial development of Kraków, its suburbs, and surrounding villages until the town was granted a municipal charter in 1257.

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                                                                                                                        • Tobiasz, Mieczysław. Fortyfikacje dawnego Krakowa. Cracoviana, Series 1. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1973.

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                                                                                                                          On the fortifications of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                          • Tyszka, Przemysław. Obraz przestrzeni miejskiej Krakowa XIV–XV wieku w świadomości jego mieszkańców. Lublin, Poland: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, 2001.

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                                                                                                                            A study on the image of the urban space of late medieval Kraków as it was perceived by its inhabitants; an intriguing analysis of the way Kraków’s clergy and burgers conceived of their town, its space, and its organization.

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                                                                                                                            Wawel Hill

                                                                                                                            The history of the Wawel Hill, the residence of Polish dukes and kings as well as the seat of Kraków’s bishop, has always been the central problem of historical and archeological research on medieval Kraków. The intensive archeological explorations of the Wawel Hill, which had started in 1920s and were continued after World War II, made it possible to reconstruct the early medieval history of the settlement in that area. A detailed description of the medieval monuments on the Wawel Hill is offered by Szablowski 1965. The intensive archeological research on the Wawel residence, presented in a number of studies, has been summarized and reexamined by Pianowski 1984, Pianowski 1991 and Pianowski 1994. Żaki 1976 is an exemplary article that popularized the archeological findings on the Wawel Hill in the international scholarship. Firlet and Pianowski 2008 is the most recent reexamination of the early medieval history of the Wawel Hill (see also Bober 2008, cited under Early Medieval Period [c. 990–1257], on the pre-Romanesque and Romanesque architecture of Kraków). Rożek 1977 is a case study on the graves of Polish kings in the Kraków’s cathedral on the Wawel Hill.

                                                                                                                            • Firlet, Janusz, and Zbigniew Pianowski. “Wawel do roku 1300.” In Kraków: Nowe studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by Jerzy Wyrozumski, 48–66. Biblioteka Krakawska 150. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 2008.

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                                                                                                                              Reexamination of recent archeological research on the organization and functions of Wawel Hill in Kraków.

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                                                                                                                              • Pianowski, Zbigniew. Z dziejów średniowiecznego Wawelu. Cracoviana, Series 1. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                A complete archeological and historical reconstruction of the the medieval history of the Wawel Hill.

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                                                                                                                                • Pianowski, Zbigniew. Wawel obronny: Zarys przemian fortyfikacji grodu i zamku krakowskiego w. IX–XIX. Biblioteka Wawelska 8. Kraków: Państwowe Zbiory Sztuki na Wawelu, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                  A thorough analysis of the fortification system of the Wawel castle from the 9th to the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                  • Pianowski, Zygmunt. “Najstarsze kościoły na Wawelu.” In Chrystianizacja Polski południowej. Edited by Jan M. Małecki, 99–120. Kraków: Secesja. 1994.

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                                                                                                                                    A recent reexamination of the history and architecture of the early medieval churches constructed on the Wawel Hill.

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                                                                                                                                    • Pianowski, Zygmunt. Sedes regni principales: Wawel i inne rezydencje piastowskie do połowy XIII wieku na tle porównawczym. Kraków: Politechnika Krakowska, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                      A comparative study on the Wawel castle and other key residences of the Polish monarchs from the 10th to the mid-13th century.

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                                                                                                                                      • Rożek, Michał. Groby królewskie w Krakowie. Cracoviana, Series 1. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                        A study on the royal graves in Kraków’s cathedral.

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                                                                                                                                        • Szablowski, Jerzy ed. Wawel. 2 vols. Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce 4; Miasto Kraków 1. Kraków: Państwowe Zbiory Sztuki na Wawelu, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                          Catalogue of the historical monuments located on the Wawel Hill, published by the Polish Academy of Sciences and the State Collections of Art on the Wawel Hill. Offers detailed information on the particular buildings, their history, architecture, and internal decoration.

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                                                                                                                                          • Żaki, Andrzej. “Der Wawel im frühen Mittelalter: Topographie der Hauptburg Polens.” Arbeits- und Forschungsberichte zur sächsischen Bodendenkmalpflege, 20–21 (1976): 649–655.

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                                                                                                                                            A concise presentation of archeological research on the Wawel Hill.

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                                                                                                                                            Suburbs

                                                                                                                                            Medieval Kraków constituted a settlement complex, which in the late 14th century was composed of three autonomous towns (Kraków, Kazimierz, and Kleparz), a dozen suburbs and surrounding villages, as well as the Wawel Hill—the residence of Polish monarchs and the seat of Kraków’s bishop. The medieval history of Kraków’s suburbs, including Kazimierz and Kleparz, is usually discussed in studies on the urban space of Kraków. Nevertheless, some separate publications are devoted to the history of all Kraków’s suburbs, including the classic book of Konieczna, et al. 1938 or the recent article of Laberschek 2008. The history of particular suburbs of Kraków are also available, for example Dzikówna 1932 and Kwaśniewicz 1968 on Kleparz; Świszczowski 1981 on Kazimierz, or Sieradzka 1931 on Garbary. The history of Kraków’s gardens is examined in Stępniewska 1977.

                                                                                                                                            • Dzikówna, Janina. Kleparz do 1528 roku. Biblioteka Krakowska 74.Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1932.

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                                                                                                                                              A classic study of medieval Kleparz, in the suburbs of Kraków, which in 1366 was granted the municipal charter.

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                                                                                                                                              • Konieczna, Wanda, Maria Mastalerzówna, and Helena Świechowska, and Jadwiga Wojnasówna. Studia nad przedmieściami Krakowa. Biblioteka Krakowa 94; Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1938.

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                                                                                                                                                A general study on the suburbs of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                • Kwaśniewicz Janina. “Kleparz do 1795 roku.” In Z dziejów Kleparza: W 600 rocznicę nadania praw miejskich przez króla Kazimierza Wielkiego. By Stefan Witek, et al. Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                  On Kleparz, in the suburbs of Kraków, which in 1366 became an autonomous town.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Laberschek, Jacek. “Rozwój przestrzenny krakowskiego zespołu osadniczego extra muros XIII–XVIII wieku.” In Kraków: Nowe studia nad rozwojem miasta. Edited by J. Wyrozumski, 297–354. Biblioteka Krakowska 150; Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                    Reexamination of research of the history of Kraków’s suburbs in the Middle Ages and early modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Sieradzka, Krystyna. Garbary. Przedmieścia Krakowa (1363–1587). Biblioteka Krakowska 71; Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1931.

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                                                                                                                                                      A classic study on the Garbary suburbs of Kraków from 1363 to 1587.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Stępniewska, Barbara. Ogrody Krakowa. Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                        On Kraków’s gardens.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Świszczowski, Stefan. Miasto Kazimierz pod Krakowem. Cracoviana 1. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                          A complete survey of the history of Kazimierz, the neighboring town of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                          Government

                                                                                                                                                          The classic studies Patkaniowski 1934 and Grodecki 1963 on the medieval town council of Kraków, its emergence, organization, and functions, remain the starting point of research. Wyrozumska 1995 is a recent extensive work on the city chancery of Kraków in the Middle Ages, which offers the best overview of the organization of that insitution and its record keeping. The role and functioning of the voyt of Kraków, who represented the feudal landlord (duke or king) in the city government, has been examined in Niwiński 1938. Recent studies on the medieval government of Kraków have been published by Bukowski and Noga 2007 and, in a popular form, by Noga 2006. The seats of Kraków’s city institutions have been recently studied in the collective work Siedziby miasta Krakowa 2007. Zaremska 1995 offers an interesting study on the system of punishment in late medieval and early modern Kraków, focusing on the places of executions.

                                                                                                                                                          • Bukowski, Waldemar, and Zdzisław Noga. “Ustrój miasta Krakowa w XIII–XVIII wieku.” In Kraków europejskie miasto prawa magdeburskiego 1257–1791: Katalog wystawy. Edited by G. Lichończak-Nurek, 49–68. Kraków: Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                            Exhibition catalogue on the government of Kraków from the 13th to the 18th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Grodecki, Roman. “Początki rady miejskiej w Krakowie.” Roczniki Dziejów Społeczno–Gospodarczych 25 (1963): 47–71.

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                                                                                                                                                              A concise article on the origins of the town council and the system of power in medieval Kraków after 1257.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Niwiński, Mieczysław. Wójtostwo krakowskie w wiekach średnich. Biblioteka Krakowska 95. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1938.

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                                                                                                                                                                A comprehensive work on the voyt of Kraków and his role in the city government in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Noga, Zdzisław. “Cracow: The Space of Power.” In Cracow: The Heritage of Centuries. Edited by M. Jan Małecki, 46–73. Kraków: Muzeum Historii Krakowa, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                  On the legal and administration system of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Patkaniowski, Michał. Krakowska rada miejska w średnich wiekach. Biblioteka Krakowska 82. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1934.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A classic study on the town council in medieval Kraków, its organization and the role in the government of the town.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Beiersdorf, Zbigniew, et al. Siedziby władz miasta Krakowa: Wydanie jubileuszowe z okazji 750-lecia lokacji miasta Krakowa. Krakowska Teka Konserwatorska 6. Kraków: Urząd Miasta Krakowa, Wydział Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Collected volume on the seats of Kraków municipal’s institutions from the Middle Ages to the present day.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Wyrozumska, Bożena. “Kancelaria miasta Krakowa w średniowieczu.” PhD diss., Jagiellonian University, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                        A complete study on the city chancery of medieval Kraków, based on vast analysis of town registers; offers the best presentation of the origins and structure of the city institutions of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Zaremska, Hanna. “Lieux d’exécution à Cracovie aux XIVe–XVIe sièles.” In Lieux du pouvoir au Moyen Age et à l’époque moderne. Edited Michał Tymowski, 185–196. Warsaw: University of Warsaw Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A case study on the places and rituals of execution in Kraków from the 14th to the 16th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Society

                                                                                                                                                                          The demographical, professional, and ethnic structure of Kraków’s medieval society is discussed in any general overview of Kraków’s history. Wyrozumski 2008 (cited under General Overviews) has devoted extensive chapters to that problem. The classic work on the history of Kraków’s burghers in the Middle Ages comes from Ptaśnik 1910 and Ptaśnik 1913. They offer detailed studies on the political and economic careers of the burgers’ families in medieval Kraków, based on a careful analysis of the municipal registers. A collection of case studies published in Chmiel 1939–1947 expand upon and complement the publications by Ptaśnik. Bukowski 1995 is just one of the recent case studies on the burghers’ families of Kraków, which frames research on the upper-class social groups of late medieval Kraków. The extensive study on the power elite in 16th-century Kraków by Noga 2003 provides an important dimension for the research on the late medieval society of Kraków as well. Noga 2007 is a concise overview of the recent research on the late medieval and early modern political elite of Kraków.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Bukowski, Waldemar. “Salomonowie herbu Łabędź. Ze studiów nad patrycjatem krakowskim wieków średnich.” In Cracovia, Polonia, Europa. Studia z dziejów średniowiecza ofiarowane Jerzemu Wyrozumskiemu w sześćdziesiątą piątą rocznicę urodzin i czterdziestolecie pracy naukowej. Edited by Waldemar Bukowski, Krzysztof Ożóg, Franciszek Sikora, and Stanisław Szczur, 113–145. Historia Iagellonica. Kraków: Instytut Historii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i Secesja, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A case study on the burghers of late medieval Kraków, focused on the career of the Solomon clan.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Chmiel, Adam. Szkice krakowskie. Biblioteka Krakowska 100. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1939–1947.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Case studies on Kraków’s society produced by the leading Polish expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Noga, Zdzisław. Krakowska rada miejska w XVI wieku. Studium o elicie władzy. Prace Monograficzne 355. Kraków: Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej im. KEN, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Thorough study on the town council and the power elite in 16th-century Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Noga, Zdzisław. “O elicie politycznej miasta Krakowa w XV–XVIII wieku.” In Kraków europejskie miasto prawa magdeburskiego 1257–1791. Edited by Grażyna Lichończak-Nurek, 91–98. Kraków: Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa, Kraków 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A short overview of the formation and functioning of the political elite of Kraków from the 15th to the 18th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ptaśnik, Jan. Z dziejów kupiectwa krakowskiego. Rocznik Krakowski 14. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1910.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A comprehensive analysis of the history of Kraków’s merchants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ptaśnik, Jan. Studya nad patrycyatem krakowskim wieków średnich. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1913.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of classic studies on the elite group of Kraków’s society in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Ethnic Composition

                                                                                                                                                                                      Medieval Kraków was a multiethnic town inhabited by Poles, Germans, Jews, Italians, Hungarians, and other ethnic groups. Before the town was granted a municipal charter in 1257, Kraków had attracted various ethnic groups, mostly Germans and Jews, who contributed to its multicultural growth and economic prosperity. The autonomous town of Kraków was established first by German colonists, who for a long time played a leading role in the city institutions. Jews who first settled within the city walls of Kraków moved to the neighboring town of Kazimierz in the late 15th century. Every major ethnic group of medieval Kraków has received scholarly attention. Müller 1906 offers a classic overview of the history of Jews in 14th-century Kraków, whereas Zaremska 2001 reexamines the Jewish settlement in late medieval Kraków. An extensive study of the history of the Jews in Kazimierz is presented in Bałaban 1931–1936. Belzyt 1997 offers a comparative study of the German settlement in Kraków. Ptaśnik 1911 remains an important study on the Italians in late medieval Kraków. The coexistence of various ethnic groups in medieval Kraków was analyzed in Mitkowski 1978 and recently in Noga 2004. See also the bibliography Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval Poland.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bałaban, Majer. Dzieje Żydów w Krakowie i na Kazimierzu (1304–1868). 2 vols. Kraków: “Nadzieja,” 1931–1936.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Classic and most extensive history of the Jews in Kraków and Kazimierz; work of encyclopedic knowledge based on primary sources. Reprinted in 1991 (Lublin, Poland: M. Gacka).

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Belzyt, Leszek. “Die Deutschen um 1500 in den Metropolen Prag, Ofen und Krakau, Versuch eines Vergleiches.” Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 46.1 (1997): 45–62.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A comparative study of the role of Germans in late medieval Kraków and Prague.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mitkowski, Józef. “Nationality Problems and Patterns in Medieval Polish Towns: The Example of Cracow.” Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Prace Historyczne 39 (1978): 31–42.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A concise reexamination of the ethnic composition of medieval Kraków; offers a model of studying the ethnic pluralism of medieval Polish towns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Müller, Eugeniusz. Żydzi w Krakowie w drugiej połowie XIV wieku. Biblioteka Krakowska 35. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1906.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              On the Jews in Kraków in the second half of the 14th century; estimates the cultural growth of the Jewish community and its position in Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Noga, Zdzisław. “Polen, Juden und Deutsche in Krakau zur Zeit der Ersten Rzeczpospolita.” In Deutsche-Juden– Polen: Geschichte einer wechselvollen Beziehung im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Hubert Schneider. Edited by Andrea Löw, Kerstin Robusch, and Stephanie Walter, 19–33. Wissenschaftliche Reihe des Fritz Bauer Instituts 9. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Campus, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                An overview of the coexistence of Poles, Jews, and Germans in medieval and early modern Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ptaśnik, Jan. “Włoski Kraków za Kazimierza Wielkiego i Władysława Jagiełły.” Rocznik Krakowski 13 (1911): 49–110.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  A study on the presence of Italians in Kraków under the reign of Casimir the Great (r. 1333–1370) and Władysław II Jagiełło (r. 1386–1434) and their role in the socioeconomic life of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Zaremska, Hanna. “Le roi, la cité et les Juifs à Cracovie au XVe siècle.” In Anthropologie de la ville médiévale: Textes réunis et présentés par Michał Tymowski. Edited by Michał Tymowski, 49–62. Warsaw: Institut d’Histoire, Academie Polonaise des Sciences, and DiG, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study on the relations between Polish kings, Kraków’s burgers, and the Jews in 15th-century Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Zaremska, Hanna. “Jewish Street (Platea Judeorum) in Cracow: The 14th–the First Half of the 15th C.” Acta Poloniae Historica 83 (2001): 26–57.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reexamination of the Jewish settlement in late medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In contrast to the early modern period, a new study on the medieval economy of Kraków is still lacking. A good English overview of the economic growth of Kraków is offered by Carter 1994. Kutrzeba 1900, Kutrzeba 1902, and Kutrzeba and Ptaśnnik 1910 remain the most extensive works on the finances and trade of medieval Kraków. Among numerous studies on the trade unions of medieval Kraków, Bąkowski 2010 is a classic work and still a good starting point for research, whereas Kiryk 2007 provides a useful overview of the organization of trade unions. Wyrozumski 1989 is just one of this author’s many studies on textile industry in medieval Kraków. Various artisans’ groups of medieval Kraków have been examined. The Pietrusiński 2000 study on Kraków’s goldsmiths is an important recent contribution to that research area.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bąkowski, Klemens. Dawne cechy krakowskie. Biblioteka Krakowska 22. Berlin: Nabu, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of trade unions of medieval Kraków: origins, organization, and sociopolitical functions. Originally published in 1903 (Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Carter, Francis W. Trade and Development in Poland: An Economic Geography of Cracow, from Its Origins to 1795. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          An extensive English overview of the economic history of Kraków; offers a thorough analysis of the growth of Kraków and its role in the Polish and international economy in the Middle Ages and early modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kiryk, Feliks. “Porządek cechowy w lokacyjnym Krakowie.” In Kraków. Studia z dziejów miasta. Edited by Jerzy Rajman, 76–86. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Overview of the research on trade unions of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kutrzeba, Stanisław. Finanse Krakowa w wiekach średnich. Rocznik Krakowski 3. Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              On the finances of medieval Kraków. Originally published in 1899.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kutrzeba, Stanisław. Handel Krakowa w wiekach średnich na tle stosunków handlowych Polski. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1902.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most extensive study on the local and international trade of Kraków in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kutrzeba, Stanisław, and Ptaśnik, Jan. “Dzieje handlu i kupiectwa krakowskiego.” Rocznik Krakowski 14 (1910): 1–183.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The first extensive work on the history of Kraków’s trade and merchants in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pietrusiński, Jerzy, with Boguslaw Dybaś and Janusz Tandecki. Złotnicy krakowscy XIV–XVI wieku i ich cech. 2 vols. Warsaw: Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On goldsmiths of Kraków from the 14th to the 16th century, exploring their production and trade unions. Original written in German.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wyrozumski, Jerzy. “Kraków średniowieczny jako ośrodek produkcji i handlu tekstylnego.” In Z przeszłości Krakowa: Praca zbiorowa. Edited by Jan M. Małecki, 25–49. Warsaw: PWN, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A concise and pathbreaking article on the beginnings and development of the textile industry and trade in medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Church Structure and Religious Life

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The studies on the church structure and religious life of medieval Kraków are well advanced. In 1000, Kraków became the seat of one of the oldest Catholic dioceses in Poland and since then has played a prominent role in the medieval history of Polish Christianity. A number of works have discussed the establishment and growth of Kraków diocese in the Middle Ages, as well as the activity of Kraków bishops and the functioning of the Kraków cathedral chapter (see Diocese). The religious space of medieval Kraków has become another fruitful area of historical research. Apart from general studies on the organization and functions of sacral topography of medieval Kraków, dozens of works have been devoted to particular Kraków churches, shrines, and hospitals produced by historians and art historians (see Churches). Kraków is the only Polish town where in the Middle Ages so many religious orders, both male and female, established their convents (see Monasteries). The significant political and religious position of Kraków as well as the relative abundance of sources has made it a focus of studies on urban piety in medieval Poland (Urban Piety).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Diocese

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The classic work on the beginnings of the diocese of Kraków and its cathedral chapter comes from Abraham 1900. For subsequent generations of Polish historians, Abraham’s findings and interpretations have been a starting point of research. Kumor 1998–2002 is an extensive four-volume study on the history of Kraków’s diocese from 1000 to 1795. A popular reexamination of the history of the Kraków diocese is offered by the collection of studies Kościół krakowski. A recent and complete biographical dictionary of the Catholic bishops of Kraków is offered by Prokop 2004. Kowalski 1996 is a comprehensive study on the 14th-century canons of Kraków’s cathedral chapter, whereas Kowalski 2000 analyzes the endowments of Kraków’s cathedral chapter in the Middle Ages.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Abraham, Władysław. “Początek biskupstwa i kapituły katedralnej w Krakowie.” In Rocznik Krakowski. Vol. 4. Edited by Stanisław Krzyżanowski, 177–200. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the beginnings of the bishopric of Kraków and the Kraków cathedral chapter; still an important point of reference.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kościół krakowski w tysiącleciu. Kraków: Znak, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collection of studies on the history of Kraków diocese presented for the millennium of its foundation; includes papers by Stanisław Szczur, Jerzy Wyrozumski, and Krzysztof Ożóg on the church organization, clergy, and religious life of the diocese of Kraków in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kowalski, Marek Daniel. Prałaci i kanonicy krakowskiej kapituły katedralnej od pontyfikatu biskupa Nankera do śmierci biskupa Zawiszy z Kurozwęk (1320–1382). Biblioteka Krakowska 135. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the canons of Kraków’s cathedral chapter from 1320 to 1382.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kowalski, Marek Daniel. Uposażenie krakowskiej kapituły katedralnej w średniowieczu Kraków: Societas Vistulana, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On the endowments of the Kraków cathedral chapter in the Middle Ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kumor, Bolesław. Dzieje archidiecezji krakowskiej do roku 1795. 4 vols. Kraków: Wydawnictwo św. Stanisława, 1998–2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A multivolume study on the history of the diocese of Kraków in the Middle Ages and the early modern period; presents a vast range of problems devoted to the foundation and growth of the Kraków diocese, its territorial and structural organization, institutions (parishes, monasteries, hospitals), hospitals, and clergy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Poczet biskupów krakowskich. Kraków: Wydawnictwo św. Stanisława, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A biographical dictionary of Kraków bishops.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Churches

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the late Middle Ages Kraków, Kazimierz, and Kleparz, together with the suburbs, belonged to the single decanate of Kraków. There were a total of twelve parish churches in the entire urban complex of medieval Kraków, among which the dominant position was occupied by the Notre Dame parish. The organization and transformations of the sacred/ecclesiastical space of medieval Kraków are discussed in Witkowska 2002 and Niewiński 2004. Among numerous studies on Kraków churches are the classic works of Wojciechowski 1900 on Kraków’s cathedral and Friedberg 1929 on the foundation of the Notre Dame church. The history and architecture of the Notre Dame church in Kraków is discussed in the Kuczman and Daranowska-Łukaszewska 1996 collection of studies and receives a popular treatment in Rożek and Markowski 1981. The recent archeological exploration and renovation of medieval Kraków’s churches has triggered new studies on their foundation and original architecture. A good example of such works is Radawańska 1993 on the church of St. Salvator in the suburbs of Kraków.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Friedberg, Marian. “Założenie i początkowe dzieje kościoła N. P. Marii w Krakowie (XIII–XV w).” Rocznik Krakowski 22 (1929): 1–31.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On the foundation of the parish of Notre Dame in Kraków and its history from the 13th to the 15th centuries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kuczman, Kazimierz, and Joanna Daranowska-Łukaszewska, eds. Katedra krakowska w średniowieczu: Materiały sesji Oddziału Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki, Kraków, kwiecień 1994. Kraków: Oddział Krakowski Stowarzyszenia Historyków Sztuki, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of studies on Kraków’s cathedral in the Middle Ages, focused mostly on its architecture and interior decoration. Papers from conference held in April 1994 of the Kraków Branch of the Association of Art Historians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Niewiński, Andrzej. Przestrzeń kościelna w topografii średniowiecznego Krakowa. Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego 274. Lublin, Poland: Naukowe KUL, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A thorough examination of the ecclesiastical structure in medieval Kraków; presents the process of founding various church institutions within the urban space of Kraków and its suburbs; analyzes the range and role of ecclesiastical space in medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Radwańska, Teresa. “Krakowski kościół Najśw: Salwatora po badaniach archeologicznych w latach osiemdziesiątych.” Materiały Archeologiczne 27.1 (1993): 5–69.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the architecture of the church of St. Salvator in Zwierzyniec in light of the archeological research from 1980s. Sheds new light on the foundation and functions of that church, which for a long time was associated with one of the oldest Benedictine monasteries in Poland.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rożek, Michał, and Stanislow Markowski. Królewska katedra na Wawelu. Warsaw: Interpress, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A guidebook to the history and architecture of the royal cathedral of Kraków. Translations into English, German, and other languages have been published.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Witkowska, Aleksandra. “Przestrzeń sakralna późnośredniowiecznego Krakowa.” In Ecclesia et civitas: Życie religijne w średniowiecznym mieście. Edited by Halina Manikowska and Hanna Zaremska, 37–48. Colloquia mediaevalia Varsoviensia 2. Warsaw: Instytut Historii PAN, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Concise analysis of the sacral topography of late medieval Kraków; describes the growth of the parish churches, monasteries, chapels, and hospitals in 14th- and 15th-century Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wojciechowski, Tadeusz. Kościół katedralny w Krakowie. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1900.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                On the Catholic cathedral of Kraków, its foundation, functions, role in the religious life of the Polish church, as well as its architecture and decoration; still a starting point for research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monasteries

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The urban complex of Kraków formed one of the biggest centers of monasticism in medieval Poland. In the second half of the 15th century, within the urban space of Kraków, there were fifteen religious houses. The two neighboring monasteries of the Benedictines in Tyniec and of the Cistercians in Mogiła should be taken into account also, because they played a significant role in the religious life of Kraków’s population. The best overview of the monastic space of medieval Kraków is offered by Ożóg 2000. The history of almost all monasteries of medieval Kraków has been studied. Some works, like Kozłowska-Budkowa 1926 on the Dominicans, Skibiński 1977 on the Franciscans, Kolak 1982 on the Augustinians, or Rajman 1993 on the Premonstratensian nuns remain classic studies in the particular research area. Among recent studies based on archeological excavations are Pasiciel 2002 and Szyma 2004. Ożóg et al. 2008 is a collection of studies on Kraków’s mendicant monasteries (Dominican, Franciscan, Augustinian, Carmelites, and Bernardines).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kolak, Wacław. Klasztor augustianów przy kościele św. Katarzyny do połowy XVI wieku. Fundacja, rozwój uposażenia i rola kulturalna. Facultas Historia Studia 1. Kraków: Polskie Towarzystwo Teologiczne, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  On the foundation, endowment, and cultural role of the Augustinian monastery in Kazimierz, a neighboring town of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kozłowska-Budkowa, Zofia. “Założenie klasztoru OO. Dominikanów w Krakowie.” Rocznik Krakowski 20 (1926): 1–19.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A classic work on the foundation of the Dominican monastery in Kraków and its early history.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ożóg, Krzysztof. “Klasztorna geografia średniowiecznego Krakowa.” In Klasztor w mieście średniowiecznym i nowożytnym: Materiały z międzynarodowej konferencji naukowej zorganizowanej w Turawie w dniach 6-8V 1999 r. przez Instytut Historii Uniwersytetu Opolskiego i Instytut Historyczny Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Edited by Marek Derwich and Anna Pobóg-Lenartowicz, 217–234. Wroclaw, Poland: LARHCOR and Instytut Historyczny Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A reexamination of the foundation and growth of monasteries in medieval Kraków; offers a good overview of recent studies on particular monasteries and their foundations and role in the religious life of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ożóg, Krzysztof, Tomasz Gałuszka, and Anna Zajchowska, eds. Mendykanci w średniowiecznym Krakowie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Esprit S.C., 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collection of studies on the Mendicants in medieval Kraków: their churches, monasteries, forms of devotion, and role in the religious and social life of a medieval town.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pasiciel, Stanisław. “Kościół franciszkański w Krakowie w XIII wieku.” Rocznik Krakowski 58 (2002): 5–52.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reexamination of the foundation and 13th-century history of the Franciscan church in Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rajman, Jerzy. Klasztor norbertanek na Zwierzyńcu w. wiekach średnich. Kraków: Secesja, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On the foundation and development of the Premonstratensian nunnery in Zwierzyniec, suburbs of Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Skibiński, Szczęsny. Pierwotny kościół Franciszkanów w Krakowie. Poznan, Poland: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thorough study on the early Franciscan church in Kraków, founded in the mid-13th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Szyma, Marcin. Kościół i klasztor dominikanów w Krakowie: Architektura zespołu klasztornego do lat dwudziestych XIV wieku. Ars Vetus et Nova 15. Kraków: Universitas, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A complex study on the architecture of the Dominican church and monastery in Kraków in the 13th and early 14th century, based upon careful examination of written sources and archeological excavation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hospitals

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The only extensive study on the medieval hospitals in Kraków remains Wachholtz 1921–1924. Tomkowicz 1929 and Antosiewicz 1978 offer case studies on the two medieval hospitals of St. Hedwig and St. Spirit. Piekarczyk 1950 analyzes the organization of social care for the poor and disabled populations in medieval Kraków.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Antosiewicz, Klara. “Opieka nad chorymi i biednymi w krakowskim szpitalu Świętego Ducha (1220–1741).” Roczniki Humanistyczne 26.2 (1978): 35–79.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  On the foundation and functioning of the hospital in the Kraków monastery of the Holy Spirit in the Middle Ages and early modern period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Piekarczyk, Stanisław. “Początki miejskiej opieki społecznej w średniowiecznym Krakowie.” Rocznik Krakowski 32.4 (1950): 99–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On the beginning of the social care in medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tomkowicz, Stanisław. “Klasztor szpitalny św. Jadwigi.” Rocznik Krakowski 22 (1929): 59–79.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Basic study on the foundation and functioning of the hospital of St. Hedwig in Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wachholtz, Leon. Szpitale krakowskie 1220–1920. 2 vols. Biblioteka Krakowska 59–60. Kraków: Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii i Zabytków Krakowa, 1921–1924.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the history of the hospitals in Kraków; the first volume presents the medieval history of various Kraków hospitals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Urban Piety

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The first modern study on the organization and forms of religious life in medieval Kraków was Zaremska 1977 on Kraków’s medieval confraternities. An important contribution to that area of research is Witkowska 1984, which explores pilgrimage centers in 15th-century Kraków. Rajman 2002 offers an extensive study on the patricinia in medieval Kraków, which reveals the popularity of some religious cults. The cult of the 15th-century Kraków saints is discussed in Panus and Prokop 1998. The network of medieval Kraków’s shrines and their role in the religious life of Kraków’s population has been recently reexamined by Rożek 2007 and Witkowska 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Panus, Kazimierz, and Krzysztof Rafał Prokop, eds. Felix saeculum Cracoviae: Krakowscy święci XV wieku. Materiały sesji naukowej Kraków, 24 kwietnia 1997 roku. Kraków: Unum, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of studies on the cult of saints in 15th-century Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rajman, Jerzy. Średniowieczne patrocinia krakowskie. Kraków: Papieska Akademia Teologiczna, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On patrocinia in medieval Kraków; presents dedications of Kraków churches, chapels, and altars, treating them as a means of analyzing popularity of religious cults among Kraków inhabitants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rożek, Michał. Altera Roma–Święte miejsca Krakowa. Kraków: WAM, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Presents the history of Kraków’s sanctuaries and shrines.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Witkowska, Aleksandra. Kulty pątnicze piętnastowiecznego Krakowa: Z badań nad miejską kulturą religijną. Lublin, Poland: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A complex work on late medieval Kraków as an important pilgrimage center; reconstructs the topography of Kraków shrines and examines their role in the urban space of the biggest Polish town.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Witkowska, Aleksandra. “Ośrodki kultowe w geografii sakralnej średniowiecznego miasta.” In Animarum kultura. Studia nad kulturą religijną na ziemiach polskich w średniowieczu. Vol. 1. Edited by Halina Manikowska and Wojciech Brojer, 133–147. Colloquia Mediaevalia Varsoviensia 4. Warsaw: Instytut Historii PAN, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Overview of the geography of the sacred places in medieval Kraków; reexamines the topography of shrines in medieval Kraków, their origins, and their role in the urban piety.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Zaremska, Hanna. Bractwa w średniowiecznym Krakowie. Studium form społecznych i życia religijnego. Wroclaw, Poland: Ossolineum, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A basic study on the religious confraternities in medieval Kraków; reexamines the number and character of Kraków confraternities and analyzes their organization and socioreligious functions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Education and Intellectual Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 1364 King Casimir the Great founded the first Polish university in Kraków. After a crisis that followed his death, the university was refounded by Hedwig of Anjou and Władysław II Jagiełło and soon became a leading European center of learning. In the 15th century, it busily participated in the conciliarist movement, went into polemic against the Czech Hussitesm, and was involved in the policy of the Polish kings. Among the many works on the medieval history of Kraków’s university, Barycz 1958 and Lepszy 1964 are considered classic. An English collection of studies by Wyrozumski 1992 discusses the role of the University of Kraków in European culture. Dziedzic 2008 is a popular English work on the history of the Jagiellonian University, presenting its foundation and activity in the Middle Ages. Ozóg 1987 is a thorough study of the main intellectual centers of 14th-century Kraków apart from the university, whereas Ożóg 1995 and Ożóg 2004 present the contribution of Kraków’s scholars to the policy of Polish kings. Markowski 1996 examines the medieval history of the faculty of theology, presenting Kraków’s theologians and their literary production.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Barycz, Henryk. Alma Mater Jagiellonica: Studia i szkice z przeszłości Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the foundation and functioning of the University of Kraków in the Middle Ages and the early modern period; a fascinating, learned work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dziedzic, Stanisław. Alma Mater Jagiellonica. Kraków: Fundacja dla Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A concise history in English of the University of Kraków from its foundation in 1364 to the present day.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lepszy, Kazimierz, ed. Dzieje Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w latach 1364–1764. 2 vols. Its Wydawnictwa Jubileuszowe 21. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, 1964.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of studies on the history of Kraków’s university; examines the emergence and development of the first Polish university in chronological order.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Markowski, Mieczysław. Dzieje Wydziału Teologicznego Uniwersytetu Krakowskiego w latach 1397–1525. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Papieskiej Akademii Teologicznej, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A history of the Kraków faculty of theology. Analyzes the foundation of the faculty in 1397 and describes leading theological trends at the University of Kraków, their representatives, and major works. Includes an extensive biographical catalogue of medieval Kraków professors and their works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ożóg, Krzysztof. Kultura umysłowa w Krakowie w XIV wieku. Prace Komisji Historycznej 49. Wroclaw, Poland: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On the intellectual culture in 14th-century Kraków, discussing its cultural centers: the royal court, cathedral chapter, monasteries, and book production.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ożóg, Krzysztof. Intelektualiści w służbie Królestwa Polskiego w latach 1306–1382. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A thorough historical analysis of the place of intellectuals in 14th-century Poland and their service to the last two Piast kings and Louis of Anjou; demonstrates how political concepts and ideas developed at intellectual centers were later implemented in the domestic and international policy of Polish kings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ożóg, Krzysztof. Uczeni w monarchii Jadwigi Andegaweńskiej i Władysława Jagiełły (1384–1434). Kraków: Polska Akademia Umiejętności, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  On the role of Kraków scholars during the reign of Jadwiga of Anjou and Władysław Jagiełło (1384–1484), analyzing theological, philosophical, and political concepts at the University of Kraków. Resulted from session organized by the Jagiellonian University at a conference sponsored by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and focused on cultural heritage. Convened in Kraków from 28 May to 6 July 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wyrozumski, Jerzy, ed. The Jagiellonian University in the Evolution of the European Culture. Kraków: Secesja, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    On the history of Kraków University—its emergence and growth in the medieval period as well as its role in European culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Typography

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the late 15th century Kraków became the seat of the first Polish typographies. In 1473 the first book was printed there. The celebration of the 500th anniversary of that event inspired new studies on Kraków’s typographies, including Szelińska 1974 and Pirożyński 1975. Kawecka-Gryczowa, et al. 1983, on the typographers in medieval Poland, complements these studies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kawecka-Gryczowa, Alodia, Krystyna Korotajowa, and Wojciech Krajewski, eds. Drukarze dawnej Polski od XV do XVIII wieku. Vol. 1. Książka w Dawnej Kulturze Polskiej 10. Wroclaw, Poland: Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the typographers who operated in Poland from the 15th to the 18th century—their careers and contribution to the old print production.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pirożyński Jan. Drukarstwo krakowskie XV–XVI wieku. Nauka dla Wszystkich 240. Warsaw: Państw. Wydawn. Naukowe, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the establishment of the oldest typographies in 15th- and 16th-century Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Szelińska, Wacława. Drukarstwo krakowskie 1474-1974. Kraków: Komitet Obchodów 500-lecia Drukarstwa Polskiego, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the growth of typographies in Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A detailed description of the medieval monuments of Kraków is offered in the fourth volume of the Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce (Catalogue of art monuments in Poland; Szablowski, et al. 1965–1987). Separate parts of Volume 4 cover the Wawel Hill (Part 1, 1965), churches and monasteries of central Kraków (Part 2, 1971–1978), and the districts of Kazimierz and Stradom (Part 3, 1987). Classic studies of Kraków’s art include Dobrowolski 1978, Dąbrowski 1965, and Bieniarzówna 1968. Małecki 2007 is a recent popular publication on Kraków’s heritage replete with numerous high-quality illustrations, available in Polish, English, German, and Italian.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bieniarzówna, Janina, ed. Kraków stary i nowy: Dzieje kultury. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Studies of the culture of Kraków throughout the ages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dąbrowski, Jan, ed. Kraków, jego dzieje i sztuka. Warsaw: Arkady, 1965.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Essays on the history and art of Kraków; includes commentaries on particular historical monuments of medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dobrowolski, Tadeusz. Sztuka Krakowa. Kraków: Wydawnictwpo Literackie, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Classic study of Kraków’s art; analyzes traditions and inspirations that had an impact on Kraków’s architecture and material culture. First published in 1950.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Szablowski, Jerzy, Adam Bochnak, Jan Samek, and Izabela Rejduch-Samek, eds. Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Vol. 4, Miasto Kraków. Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Sztuki, Dział Inwentaryzacji Zabytków, 1965–1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed catalogue of historical monuments of Kraków in three parts, edited by the Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences; presents history of particular buildings and their architecture and interior decoration. Part 1: Wawel, edited by Jerzy Szablowski (1965); Part 2: Kościoły i klasztory śródmieścia (in two sections: text and illustrations, 1971), edited by Adam Bochnak and Jan Samek; Part 3: Kazimierz i Stradom: Kościoły i klasztory (1987), edited by Izabela Rejduch-Samek and Jan Samek.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Małecki, Jan M., ed. Cracow: The Heritage of Centuries. Kraków: Historical Museum of the City of Cracow, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Studies on the history and culture of Kraków; analyzes the political, cultural, and spiritual space of Kraków; numerous illustrations. Published also in Polish, German, and Italian.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Daily Life

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The everyday life of medieval Kraków is examined in Jelcz 1966. A recent contribution to that study is Hudyka 1998, which reconstructs the festivities in medieval Kraków, their organization, rituals, and social functions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hudyka, Ewa. “Jak bawiono się w średniowiecznym Krakowie.” Rocznik Krakowski 64 (1998): 7–34.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On the festivities and plays in medieval Kraków.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Jelicz, Antonina. Życie codzienne w średniowiecznym Krakowie (wiek XIII–XV). Warsaw, Poland: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On the everyday life of Kraków’s population in the late Middle Ages, including the organization of medieval towns, social structure, professions, living conditions, and customs of Kraków inhabitants.

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