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Medieval Studies Illuminated Manuscripts
by
Catherine E. Karkov

Introduction

Manuscripts are books that have been produced by hand. Illuminated manuscripts are books that have been decorated in ways that help bring to light the book’s contents. The word drives from the Latin illuminare (“to light up”), and medieval illumination should be understood as providing a gloss, or visual commentary, on the way the book was intended to be used and/or understood. For example, illuminated letters provided a guide to important passages or sections of a book. Narrative illumination could do the same, but it also often used to provide additional information or commentary on the written words of the text. Depictions of the labors of the months could show the reader what happened on the days listed in a calendar, while images of Christ, Mary, and the saints in prayer books or Books of Hours (late medieval books used for private devotion) provided a focus for the written prayers these manuscripts contained. Such images are called “miniatures,” named after the reddish pigment derived from minium that was used to frame the images of late Antiquity and early Christian manuscripts. The colors used in medieval illumination were, for the most part, mineral pigments. In the classical world manuscripts took the form of scrolls that were unwound as the reader progressed in a linear fashion from beginning to end. During late Antiquity the scroll was replaced by the codex, the form of the modern book, with its gatherings of pages bound together into a volume whose pages were turned individually. The change provided a differently shaped field for text and illumination, and it also allowed readers to make faster progress through the book. Many of the earliest books were written on papyrus, but animal skin provided a more durable surface. Most medieval manuscripts are written on either vellum or parchment. Vellum is literally the skin of a cow and parchment that of a sheep, but the two terms have come to be used interchangeably. The cleaned and prepared skins would be folded and cut to create folios, which had a front (recto) and back (verso). The scribes and artists responsible for producing the text and illumination would often divide up the work so that often one artist would be responsible for illuminated letters, another for blocking out the figures in the miniatures, a third for the addition of gold leaf, and so forth. Completed folios were folded into gatherings of a regular number of leaves and then sewn together bound and covered. Manuscripts were replaced by printed books, which were both cheaper and easier to produce, by the early 16th century.

General Overviews

There are dozens of general books on medieval manuscripts, and this section provides a selection of the more useful and some of the more recent publications on various aspects of the subject. The best place to start is Robb 1973, a clearly written introductory survey. This should be supplemented with Clemens and Graham 2007, which is a helpful introduction to the making and use of manuscripts. Calkins 1983 and Alexander 1992 are useful for understanding some of the major types of illuminated books and of the artists who produced them. Taylor and Smith 1997 is an excellent introduction to issues concerning women as patrons of medieval books and touches on the still-controversial topic of women and literacy.

  • Alexander, J. J. G. Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

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    Based on his James P. R. Lyell Lectures delivered in Oxford in 1983, Alexander provides information on manuscripts and the men and women who made them from the 4th to the 16th century. There is a wealth of information on technical processes, but the book is also noteworthy for its coverage of the social and historical contexts in which artists lived and worked.

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  • Bologna, Giulia. Illuminated Manuscripts: The Book before Gutenberg. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.

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    Short on text but beautifully illustrated, this volume includes information on forerunners of the book, scribes, artists and manuscript production, booksellers and libraries, along with a list of known illuminators. This is an English translation of Manoscritti e miniature (Milan: Anaya Editoriale, 1988).

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  • Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

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    A useful book with chapters devoted to the types of manuscript: Insular gospel books, Carolingian Bibles, Imperial Gospel Books, Ottonian evangelistaries, Mass books, Psalters, liturgical books, and Books of Hours. An appendix contains helpful lists of the contents of the manuscripts discussed.

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  • Clemens, Raymondand Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.

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    Extremely useful in providing an overall sense of how manuscripts were made and used. The book is divided into sections dealing with the making of manuscripts, the reading of manuscripts, and manuscript genres. The emphasis is on Latin manuscripts, and there is an appendix on tools for medieval Latin.

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  • de Hamel, Christopher. A History of Illuminated Manuscripts. London: Phaidon, 1994.

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    De Hamel provides a chronological survey of manuscript illumination based on important groups of readers within each period. Chapters cover books for missionaries, emperors, monks, students, aristocrats, “everybody,” priests, and collectors. The book is aimed at students and the general reader and provides a useful updating of some of the information contained in Robb 1973.

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  • Pächt, Otto. Book Illumination in the Middle Ages: An Introduction. London: Harvey Miller, 1986.

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    This is not a history of book illumination but rather a collection of chapters on selected facets of manuscript illumination: “Decoration and the Structure of the Book,” “Initials,” “Bible Illustration,” “Didactic Miniatures,” “Apocalypses,” “Psalters,” and “The Conflict of Surface and Space.” English translation of Buchmalerei des Mittelalters eine Einführung (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1984).

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  • Robb, David M. The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript. Cranbury, NJ: A. S. Barnes, 1973.

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    Arranged chronologically, chapters move from the origins of manuscript illumination to illumination in the 15th century; the book includes an appendix on liturgical books. This volume is aimed at the student, with useful and succinct explanations of processes and terminology.

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  • Taylor, Jane H., and Lesley Smith. Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence. London: The British Library, 1997.

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    A collection of papers divided into three parts covering “Images of Women,” “Images and Books by Women,” and “Images and Books for Women.”

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Journals

There are no journals devoted specifically to illuminated manuscripts, but the following do include articles on them with varying degrees of frequency. Gesta is the journal to start with, followed by Frühmittelalterliche Studien, Arte Medievale, and Medium Aevum.

Exhibition Catalogues

Most exhibitions of medieval art will include illuminated manuscripts, but the catalogues listed here are from exhibitions that consisted either wholly or primarily of manuscripts. Together they provide information on a range of different ways of (and purposes for) exhibiting medieval manuscripts. In Pächt 1948 the author’s approach is heavily iconographical, and iconography (the study of the meaning of images) as developed by Erwin Panofsky and his followers (Pächt among them) was very much a new methodology at the time of the exhibition. Binski and Panayatova 2005 is concerned exclusively with manuscripts in the collections of a single university, Brown 2006 deals with biblical manuscripts, Holcomb 2009 with a particular technique of illumination, and van der Horst, et al. 1996 with one manuscript and its legacy. Four catalogues, Bauermeister and Laffitte 1992, Tesnière and Gifford 1995, Mälzer 1990, and Hindman, et al. 2001 locate medieval manuscripts in relation to modern material. See also Maniaci and Orofino 2001 (cited under Bibles).

  • Bauermeister, Ursula and Marie-Pierre Laffitte. Des livres et des rois: La bibliothèque royale de Blois. Paris: Bibliothèque Natonale, 1992.

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    Catalogue of a double exhibition held in Blois and Paris that is as much about the development of the two libraries as it is about the books exhibited. The manuscripts are all late (15th and 16th century), but they do reveal some of the key features of the transition from the medieval to the early modern, as well as the difficulty in separating the two. Many themes run through this catalogue (e.g., patronage and the growth of personal libraries, the different types of books collected, the sources of the manuscripts), and perhaps more could have been done to bring them together in the concluding section; nevertheless, there is much to be gained from the images alone.

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  • Binski, Paul, and Stella Panayotova. The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West. London: Harvey Miller, 2005.

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    Catalogue of an exhibition at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, which displayed 215 Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts from university and college libraries. The catalogue is arranged in chronological order, with each section accompanied by an interpretive essay. The exhibition was accompanied by a volume of eponymously titled conference papers edited by Panayotova (London: Harvey Miller, 2007).

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  • Brown, Michelle P., ed. In the Beginning: Bibles before the Year 1000. Washington, DC: Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 2006.

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    The catalogue of a stunning exhibition of biblical manuscripts from across the world that demonstrated the central place of the Bible as book, image, text, and icon to both East and West in the early Middle Ages. It is not limited solely to Bible manuscripts but includes commentaries, paraphrases, and manuscripts of individual biblical books. It also includes manuscripts from the Arabic, Syrian, Armenian, and Ethiopian traditions.

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  • Hindman, Sandra, Michael Camille, Nina Rowe, and Rowan Watson. Manuscript Illumination in the Modern Age: Recovery and Reconstruction. Evanston, IL: Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, 2001.

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    A volume produced to accompany an interesting and unusual exhibition that focused on the appreciation, vandalization, and reconstruction of illuminated manuscripts in 18th- and 19th-century England and France and 19th- and 20th-century America. Technically it is not a catalogue but a series of essays based on the ninety-three works exhibited: a type of publication that has recently come to be seen as preferable to the conventional exhibition catalogue. Includes a checklist of works exhibited.

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  • Holcomb, Melanie, ed. Pen and Parchment: Drawing in the Middle Ages. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.

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    The catalogue of an exhibition held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2009, this book is given over primarily to images and descriptions of the manuscripts on display, with only one introductory essay to set the scene. Both exhibition and catalogue are symptomatic of the growing interest in drawing as an art form to be studied and appreciated in its own right alongside generally more sumptuous and valuable painted images.

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  • Mälzer, Gottfried, et al. Aus der Schatzkammer der Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg: Ausstellung anlässlich des Kolloquiums der Internationalen Bibliophilengesellschaft Würzburg, 16.–21.9.1990. Würzburg, Germany: University of Würzburg Library, 1990.

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    The catalogue of a small but interesting exhibition of eighty-nine illuminated manuscripts and books dating from the 7th to the 19th century from the collection of the University of Wurzberg library. The exhibition was to provide a glimpse of the breadth and depth of the library’s holdings, while at the same time highlighting the importance of the book itself in the history of Würzburg and its surrounding area. Includes a parallel English text.

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  • Pächt, Otto. Italian Illuminated Manuscripts from 1400 to 1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948.

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    An exhibition of just over a hundred manuscripts related to the growth of the humanist movement in Italy. The organization of the catalogue is idiosyncratic, beginning with sections on initials and script (interestingly placing the visual impact of the initial first) and borders and frontispieces before moving on to look at different types of books and books from important libraries and collections. The approach is heavily iconographical, but there is also a wealth of information on patrons, their reading habits, and their libraries.

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  • Tesnière, Marie-Hélène, and Prosser Gifford. Creating French Culture: Treasures from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

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    This is the catalogue of an exhibition held at the Library of Congress, Washington. It covers material from the late 8th century (the age of Charlemagne) to the 1990s, with only the first section of the volume devoted to the Middle Ages. The theme of the exhibition was power and the relationship between power and culture in the formation of the nation-state.

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  • van der Horst, Koert, William Noel, and Wilhelmina C. M. Wüstefeld, eds. The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art: Picturing the Psalms of David. London: Harvey Miller, 1996.

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    Published in conjunction with an exhibition at the Museum Catharijneconvent as well as the Stichting Holland Festival of Music, Utrecht, the focus of this volume is on the Utrecht Psalter as both illuminated book and collection of psalms that would have been sung. Five chapters by well-known experts focus on the importance of various aspects of the manuscript’s style, codicology, iconography, and influence. The essays are followed by the catalogue proper, which consists of manuscripts that all, in one way or another, reflect the importance of the Psalter to the history of manuscript illumination in western Europe.

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Library Catalogues

Most libraries now have online catalogues, although the amount of information available online varies a great deal. Codices Electronici Sangallenses(CESG), and Corsair are exemplary in the amount of information, the number and quality of the images they provide, and the ease with which they can be searched. Early Manuscripts at Oxford University offers excellent digital images of many of the early manuscripts in the collections of the Oxford colleges, but not everything is there, and the image files are so large that it can take too long to use. Printed catalogues also vary in quality, often depending on the date of publication. Budny 1997 is excellent for images, but the description of the manuscripts can be confusing. Alexander and Pächt 1966–1973 is useful in its division of the material by areas of production. Generally speaking, it is necessary to know the shelfmark (the mark locating a book in a library, usually comprising the name of the city, library, collection, and number within that collection) of a manuscript in order to find it in any of these catalogues. Although online catalogues such as those provided by Oxford and St. Gallen offer the opportunity to browse through whole manuscripts rather than select pages and to browse through excellent full-color images.

  • Alexander, Jonathan J. G., and Otto Pächt. Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966–1973.

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    Volume 1 is devoted to German, Dutch, Flemish, French, and Spanish manuscripts; Volume 2 to Italian manuscripts; Volume 3 to British manuscripts. Includes a brief history of the collection. These printed volumes should now be supplemented with the images on the Bodleian Library webpage and Early Manuscripts at Oxford University.

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  • BnF les Signets de la Bibliothèque nationale de France.

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    Provides a useful list of sites and catalogues from across the world related to the study of medieval illuminated books.

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    • Budny, Mildred. Insular, Anglo-Saxon and Early Anglo-Norman Manuscript Art at Corpus Christi College Cambridge: An Illustrated Catalogue. 2 vols. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1997.

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      A massive and beautifully illustrated catalogue of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts in the Parker Library. The information provided on individual manuscripts is uneven and sometimes overwhelmingly descriptive and hard to follow. Should be supplemented with Parker Library online, which is available in a limited free version and in a more extensive version by subscription.

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    • Codices Electronici Sangallenses (CESG)

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      A continually updated virtual library that includes not only manuscripts currently in St. Gallen but also those that once formed part of the location but are now parts of other collections. Each entry includes links to descriptions and bibliography, images of bindings and a complete digital facsimile. Available in multiple languages.

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      • Corsair.

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        The online catalogue of the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the site includes both descriptions and images of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and can be searched using a variety of search terms. As is the case with the St. Gallen catalogue above, this is part of an ongoing digitization project.

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        • Digital Scriptorium.

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          Strictly speaking this is not a library catalogue but an image database of medieval and renaissance manuscripts. It currently includes over 24,000 images from collections across the world.

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          • Homburger, Otto. Die illustrierten Handschriften der Burgerbibliothek Bern: Die Vorkarolingischen and Karolingischen Handschriften. Bern, Switzerland: Burger Bibliothek, 1962.

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            Valued for the completeness of its coverage, this catalogue is exemplary in the wealth of information it supplies for each entry and for its expansive understanding of what constitutes illustration and what constitutes text. Some information may now be outdated. And the quality of the illustrations cannot compete with many of the online catalogues; but Homburger’s approach to his material remains well ahead of its time.

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          • Medieval Manuscripts in Dutch Collections

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            A database of Western medieval manuscripts written in Latin c. 1550 in Dutch collections—both public and private. It can be difficult to search through the database if one does not know what to look for.

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            • van der Horst, Koert. Illuminated and Decorated Manuscripts in the University Library, Utrecht: an Illustrated Catalogue. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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              This catalogue includes 181 manuscripts, the vast majority of which were produced in or around Utrecht. Copiously illustrated with special emphasis given to the iconography of the pages and a remarkable number of indexes, this volume has been produced to appeal to both the casual browser and those searching for specialist information on particular manuscripts in the Utrecht collection.

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            Script, Letter, and Writing

            One of the largest areas of interest in current manuscript studies is the relationship between image and text as well as the blurring of the boundaries between the two. The historiated initial has long been a focus of scholarship, but more recently topics such as script as image and image as text have received attention. In order to understand these latter issues, some familiarity with scripts, paleography, and the mise en page (design of the page) of manuscripts is necessary. Alexander 1978 is the place to start for imagery, Bischoff 1990 for paleography, and Parkes 1993 for punctuation and the general look of the written page. Gullick 2006 and Kendrick 1999 offer very different but no less authoritative studies of scribal self, while Barber 2007 and Karkov 2007 explore the different relationships between text and image in specific manuscripts.

            • Alexander, J. J. G. The Decorated Letter. New York: Braziller, 1978.

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              Alexander provides an introduction to decorated letters and historiated initials (initials that contain a narrative image related to the text they preface) in manuscripts dating from the 4th to the 15th centuries. Forty color plates of manuscripts ranging from luxury Gospel Books to artists’ sketchbooks are accompanied by brief but informative discussions of the decoration of individual letters or pages. There is very little information, however, on how the letter or page relates to the text it accompanies, or to the pictorial program of the manuscript as a whole.

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            • Barber, Charles. “In the Presence of the Text: A Note on Writing, Speaking and Performing in the Theodore Psalter.” In Art and Text in Byzantine Culture. Edited by Liz James, 83–99. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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              The Theodore Psalter includes a variety of different compositions that present the reader with framed text or marginal illustrations and inscriptions as well as commentary, all of which creates a dynamic relationship between text and image that changes throughout the manuscript. Barber’s focus is on the ways in which writing-as-object mediates between author (scribe) and reader, giving the written word a performative function that shapes our experience of both text and image.

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            • Bischoff, Bernhard. Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Translated by Dáibhi Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press in association with the Medieval Academy of Ireland, 1990.

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              The original German edition of this book (Paläographie des römischen Altertums und des abenländischen Mittelalters) was published in 1979, with a revised and updated edition in 1986. Reviews of the English edition have pointed out some of the unfortunate typos and editorial errors it contains, so for this reason it should be used with caution. That said, it remains one of the most accessible and informative surveys of the field, with sections on writing tools and materials and the physical aspects of manuscripts and manuscript production that are invaluable to scholars and students in all fields. The core of the book is devoted to Latin script and handwriting, but there is also brief coverage of punctuation, musical notation, numerals, ciphers, and a survey of the place of the manuscript in the cultural history of the Middle Ages as a whole. German editions do not include plates.

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            • Brown, Julian. A Palaeographer’s View: Selected Writings of Julian Brown. Edited by Janet Bately, Michelle Brown, and Jane Roberts. London: Harvey Miller, 1993.

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              Brown is particularly known for his work on early medieval manuscripts, especially Insular manuscripts, and this volume brings together some of his more important publications on that subject along with previously unpublished material. The book is divided into three parts: paleography and script, insular manuscripts (including his Jarrow Lecture on the Book of Kells), and two papers on inscriptions and on faked manuscripts written as part of his duties at the British Museum.

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            • Gullick, Michael, ed. Pen in Hand: Medieval Scribal Portraits, Colophons and Tools. Walkern, UK: Red Gull, 2006.

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              The ten essays in this collection focus on the work of the scribe and illuminator and his (or her) presence in the book through portraits, signatures, or colophons. They cover such themes as workplaces for writing, the depiction of scribal tools, and actual scribal tools, as well as portraits and self-portraits, written or pictorial. The purpose of the collection is to shed light on the lives and working conditions of the makers of medieval books.

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            • Karkov, Catherine E. “Text and Image in the Red Book of Darley.” In Text, Image, Interpretation: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Literature and its Insular Context in Honour of Éamonn Ó Carraagáin. Edited by Alastair Minnis and Jane Roberts, 135–148. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2007.

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              This article looks at the complex relationship between text and image in the opening of the Canon of the Mass in an 11th-century Anglo-Saxon manuscript. A series of three illuminated pages moves the reader from a page of decorated text to a page in which words are inserted within an image of Christ in Majesty, blurring the distinction between the image to be contemplated and the words to be read; and finally the reader is moved to a historiated initial in which the letter T becomes an image of the Crucifixion, and a column of text is placed where one would usually expect to find the figure of John.

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            • Kendrick, Laura. Animating the Letter: The Figurative Embodiment of Writing from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999.

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              Unlike the other entries in this section, Kendrick’s focus is on the separation of image from writing that she argues comes about gradually over the course of the Middle Ages. The letter itself develops as an embodiment, or representation of the text’s meaning, and writing comes to embody authorial self. Includes an index of manuscripts cited.

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            • Parkes, Malcolm B. Pause and Effect: Punctuation in the West. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

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              Punctuation as an essential element of writing (and reading) is the topic here. Divided into two parts, “Pause: Symbols as Notation and Effect” and “Symbols as Signs,” it covers punctuation from its prehistory through to the beginnings of the printed page. Major points are consistently illustrated by the plates and accompanying commentary, there is a glossary of terms, and indexes of authors, works, and manuscripts cited.

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            • Rosen, Miriam. “Calligraphy: Hebrew Micrography.” In Encyclopedia of Religion. 2d ed. Vol. 3. Edited by Lindsay Jones. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005.

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              Micrography means “tiny writing,” and it is a tradition confined to Jewish manuscripts, although it does have a relationship with the carmina figurata (a type of picture poem) of Christian manuscripts, and both originated in the Mediterranean world. Micrography is also known as masorah figurata. In micrography images are formed from Hebrew texts and can take any form, from geometric patterns to figural scenes.

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            Types of Book

            Manuscripts are often studied according to type. Although there are hundreds of different types of illuminated books produced for both religious and lay audiences, the largest group of medieval illuminated manuscripts consists of biblical and devotional manuscripts. The entries that follow provide an introduction to the four most popular types of illuminated book: Apocalypse manuscripts, the Bible itself, the Gospels, the Psalter, and the Books of Hours. The latter is technically not a biblical manuscript but a book containing prayers, gospel extracts, masses, and other devotional materials. It became the most popular and hence one of the most important types of manuscript during the later Middle Ages.

            Apocalypse Manuscripts

            Illuminated Apocalypse manuscripts were especially popular in Spain from the 10th to the 13th centuries and were popular in England particularly during the 13th century. Illuminated copies of the monk Beatus of Lièbana’s 8th-century commentary on the Apocalypse form one of the most characteristic groups of all Spanish illumination. The popularity of the Apocalypse is usually connected with perceived threats to Christianity: whether it be prophecies of the end of the world in England, or the growing strength of Islam in Spain. The general reader should begin with Carey 1999, as this book places the medieval manuscripts in the larger context of interest in the Apocalypse into the late 20th century. Christe 1979 provides a good overview of the medieval tradition, while Lewis 1995 and Neuss 1931 are best for the English and Spanish traditions respectively (but on the latter see also Williams 1998, cited under Romanesque).

            • Carey, Francis, ed. The Apocalypse and the Shape of Things to Come. London: British Museum Press, 1999.

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              Published to accompany a millennial exhibition at the British Museum, the volume includes seven essays, two of which are devoted specifically to the origins of the Apocalypse and the medieval Apocalyptic tradition: Norman Cohn’s “Biblical Origins of the Apocalyptic Tradition,” and Jonathan Alexander’s “The Last Things: Representing the Unrepresentable.” High-quality illustrations throughout.

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            • Christe, Yves, ed. L’Apocalypse de Jean: Traditions exégétiques et iconographique, III–XIII siècle; Actes du Colloque de la Foundation Hardt, 29 février–3 mars 1976. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1979.

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              Of these nine papers, none focuses exclusively on illuminated Apocalypse manuscripts or the associated traditions; but taken together they provide a good survey of the influence of the Apocalypse and illustrated Apocalypse manuscripts on the art of particular eras and areas. Topics covered include the influence of Apocalyptic iconography on the art of early Christian, Carolingian Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic worlds, as well as on architectural sculpture of the Gothic period. Two papers deal with the influence of the Apocalypse on the Passion of Perpetua and the role of the Apocalypse in late Antique culture more generally.

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            • Christe, Yves. “Les cycles apocalyptiques du haut Moyen Âge.” Journal des Savants (1977): 225–245.

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              This is a review of three publications on or relating to medieval Apocalypse manuscripts: Peter K. Klein, Der Kodex und sein Bildschmuck den Trierer Apokalypse, Kommentarband (Graz, 1975), Peter K. Klein, Der ältere Beatus-Kodex Vitr. 14-1 der Biblioteca Nacional zu Madrid. Studien zur Beatus-Illustration und der spanischen Buchmalerei des 10. Jahrhunderts. 2 vols. (Hildesheim and New York, 1976), Peter Hoegger, Die Fresken in der ehemaligen Abteikirche S. Elia bei Nepi (Frauenfeld and Sttutgart, 1975). In reviewing these publications, Christe provides an overview of the reinvigoration of Apocalypse manuscript studies in the mid-1970s. A good synopsis of the issues and interests that continue to characterize the field.

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            • Emmerson, Richard K., and Bernard McGinn, eds. The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

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              This volume contains seventeen essays divided into three sections: the Apocalypse in medieval thought, medieval art, and medieval culture. The art section is not devoted exclusively to manuscripts, but there are important papers by John Williams on illustrated manuscripts of Beatus of Lièbana’s commentary on the Apocalypse, by Suzanne Lewis on English illuminated apocalypses of the 13th century, and by Michael Camille on visionary perception and apocalyptic imagery in later medieval art.

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            • James, Montague Rhodes. The Apocalypse in Art. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.

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              The publication of the British Academy Schweich lectures for 1927, this is the seminal volume on the study of Apocalypse manuscripts. James divided the manuscripts into families which are still referred to in much contemporary scholarship. Unfortunately it lacks illustrations.

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            • Lewis, Suzanne. Reading Images: Narrative Discourse and Reception in the Thirteenth-Century Illuminated Apocalypse. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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              Lewis takes a semiotic approach to the relationship between text and image in fifteen 13th-century Apocalypse manuscripts, arguing also that an analysis of both the imagery and reception of the manuscripts reveals a developing concept of the self and the place of the individual in society. She maintains that the growth in the popularity in Apocalypse manuscripts in 13th-century England was the result of a growth in private religious devotion and a shift toward silent reading.

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            • Neuss, Wilhelm. Die Apokalypse des Hl. Johannes in der altspanischen und altchristlichen Bibel-Illustration: das Problem der Beatus-Handschriften. 2 vols. Münster, Germany: Aschendorfsche Buchhandlung, 1931.

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              Neuss provides a description and critical analysis of twenty-seven illuminated manuscripts of Beatus of Lièbana’s late 8th-century commentary on the Apocalypse. He divides the surviving manuscripts up into separate families, with special consideration of the Italo-French group of manuscripts. Separate sections focus on Jerome’s commentary on Daniel and its tradition of illustration. A summary in Spanish is included.

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            • Wright, Rosemary Muir. “The Great Whore in the Illustrated Apocalypse Cycles.” Journal of Medieval History 3 (1997): 191–210.

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              This article focuses on the image of the Whore of Babylon in the illustrated cycles of 13th- and 14th-century English Apocalypse manuscripts. Wright’s interest is in the social history of the manuscripts: the way in which theological and social issues led to the development of a gendered imagery and the way that imagery was modified for and received by a growing audience of aristocratic lay women—many of whom were the patrons or recipients of these manuscripts.

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            Bibles

            Bibles were produced in both single-volume and multivolume formats throughout the Middle Ages, though single-volume Bibles did not become common until late in the period. The production of an authoritative single-volume Bible was one of the goals of the Carolingians, with the monks of Tours under Abbot Alcuin and his immediate successors being charged with the task of producing one (Kessler 1977). For general information, start with McKendrick and Doyle 2007 and Sharpe and van Kampen 1998. For a sense of the chronological development of illuminated Bibles, start with Gameson 1994 and Williams 1999 (both excellent), followed by Cahn 1982. See also Brown 2006 (cited under Exhibition Catalogues).

            • Cahn, Walter. Romanesque Bible Illumination. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.

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              A monumental survey of 150 manuscripts produced across Europe during the boom in Bible production that began shortly before the year 1100. The book combines a catalogue of the manuscripts, accompanied by four chapters that explore the background and development of the Romanesque Bible, as well as the meaning of the Romanesque. There is also information on artists, patrons, and the illumination of individual books of the Bible. Copiously illustrated.

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            • Gameson, Richard, ed. The Early Medieval Bible: Its Production, Decoration, and Use. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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              This is a collection of eleven papers dealing with various aspects of biblical manuscripts produced between the 7th and 13th centuries. Although most scholars would not consider the 13th century as part of the early Middle Ages, this particular collection does allow for some interesting insights into changes in decoration, readership, and so forth.

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            • Kessler, Herbert L. The Illustrated Bibles from Tours. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

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              Kessler focuses on one of the single most important groups of manuscripts produced in the early Middle Ages. The Bibles planned and produced under Alcuin and his successors at the monastery of Tours are key monuments not only in the standardization of the biblical text but also in the campaign to produce a useable and authoritative single volume bible. This volume began life as Kessler’s doctoral thesis, so the resulting prose can be a bit ponderous. Kessler is also concerned with establishing origins, sources, and models in a way that perhaps blinds him to the individual nature of some of his material.

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            • Levy, Bernard S. The Bible in the Middle Ages: Its Influence on Art and Literature. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York, 1992.

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              Six essays (three on literature and three on art) originally read at a 1985 conference on the Bible and its influence. The purpose of this collection is to provide both a general introduction to the topic and more focused essays for the specialist.

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            • Lowden, John. The Making of the Bibles Moralisées. 2 vols. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.

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              Volume 1: The Manuscripts; Volume 2: The Book of Ruth. Volume 1 is devoted to the seven surviving Bible moralisée manuscripts, all from the 13th through 15th centuries. Lowden offers an excellent introduction to this type of book, basically a Bible in which the illuminated images take precedence over the text, which consists of short passages from the Bible rather than the full biblical text. The Book of Ruth was selected for Volume 2 as it is included in all seven manuscripts and thus provides a focus for comparison. Both volumes are fully illustrated.

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            • Maniaci, Marilena, and Orofino, Giulia, eds. Le Bibbie Atlantiche: Il libro delle Scritture tra monumentalità e rappresentazione, (Abbazia di Montecassino, 11 luglio–11 ottobre 2000. Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 1 marzo–1 luglio 2001). Milan: Centro Tibaldi, 2001.

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              The Atlantic, or Giant Bibles, are Italian manuscripts of the 11th and 12th century, which take their name from their massive size. They are executed in a uniform script and style with decorative initials executed in a geometric style. This is a catalogue of an exhibition held in Montecassino and Florence in 2000. It includes descriptions and images of the one hundred known manuscripts.

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            • McKendrick, Scott, and Kathleen Doyle. Bible Manuscripts: 1400 Years of Scribes and Scripture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

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              McKendrick and Doyle, both curators at the British Library, survey over 140 biblical manuscripts from the library’s collection dating from the 2nd century to the 21st century. The focus is on the passing down of manuscript traditions across the millennia. Beautifully illustrated in full color, with a useful section on further reading.

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            • Sharpe, John, and Kimberly van Kampen, eds. The Bible as Book: The Manuscript Tradition. London: The British Library, 1998.

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              A collection of fifteen essays, this volume is not focused explicitly on illuminated Bibles, though they do loom large. Topics covered include the Dead Sea Scrolls, Coptic books, early Christian libraries, Books of Hours, Armenian bookmaking, and Image as exegesis in medieval Hebrew manuscripts.

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            • Williams, John, ed. Imaging the Early Medieval Bible. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.

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              A collection of papers that question traditional approaches to the study of early medieval Bibles. The book includes chapters on the illustration of early Bibles (John Lowden), Bible illustration and the Jewish tradition (Katrin Kogman-Appel), Roman Bibles and the Ashburnham Pentateuch (Dorothy Verkerk), early medieval Bibles from northwest Europe (Lawrence Nees) and Spanish Bibles (John Williams).

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            Books of Hours

            Books of Hours were the most popular and sought after type of manuscript among the aristocracy and the rising middle class from c. 1300 onward. By no means were all of them luxury manuscripts, as patrons got only the contents and quality of illustrations they could afford; nevertheless, it is the grand luxury volumes that have attracted the most attention in print. Books of Hours contained prayers devoted to the Virgin Mary (along with other sets of prayers to the Cross or the Holy Spirit, for example), calendars, masses for the dead, penitential psalms, and other texts important to the patron or recipient of the book. The prayers were meant to be recited at the seven canonical hours of the day. Harthan 1977, Wieck 1997, and Wieck 1988 are designed for the general reader and thus provide good introductions to the field. They should be supplemented with Delaissé 1974. See also Meiss 1967–1974 (cited under Late Gothic).

            • Delaissé, L. M. J. “The Importance of Books of Hours for the History of the Medieval Book.” In Gatherings in Honor of Dorothy E. Miner. Edited by Ursula E. McCracken, Lilian M. C. Randall, and Richard H. Randall Jr., 203–225. Baltimore: The Walters Art Gallery, 1974.

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              This should be the starting point for any serious study of Books of Hours, as the author provides a scholarly yet easy to follow explanation of the various factors that not only made these manuscripts popular but that also led to a significant influence on other types of books. It was in this article that Delaissé coined the phrase “medieval best seller,” which has been used to describe Books of Hours ever since (see Wieck 1997).

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            • Gunhouse, Glenn. A Hypertext Book of Hours.

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              A useful site offering an introduction to the topic and links to basic contents (e.g., calendar) and a more detailed list of contents (e.g., the calendar broken down into months, with parallel texts in Latin and English). Images are not included, but links to sites where images can be found are provided.

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              • Harthan, Jonathan. Books of Hours and Their Owners. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

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                This is an extremely useful and clearly written volume aimed at the lay reader. Provides a general introduction to the content, function, and audience of this very personal type of book. Harthan begins by explaining exactly what a Book of Hours is, how it developed, and what it meant both to individual owners and as a general sign of status within society. He then provides short but informative commentaries on thirty-four books ranging from 1300 to the mid-15th century, each illustrated with at least one color plate. There is also a short chapter on printed books.

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              • Husband, Timothy B. The Art of Illumination: The Limbourg Brothers and the Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.

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                Written to accompany an eponymous exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum, both exhibition and catalogue are equally about the artists and the patron as well as the art of Belles Heures—one of the most lavish Books of Hours ever produced. While not a complete facsimile, Husband does a good job of conveying a sense of the book as a whole. Information about the exhibition and manuscript is available online.

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              • Leroquais, Victor. Les Livres d’heures manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale. 3 vols. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 1927.

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                The catalogue of one of the largest and most important collection of Books of Hours, the heart of this study consists of four chapters devoted to individual elements of the books: chapter 1 is on contents and codicology, chapter 2 covers origins, chapter 3 is an analysis of the primary texts included in the books, and chapter 4 is about decoration. Updated by Supplément aux livres d’heures manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale (acquisitions récentes et donations Smith-Lesouf) (Macon, France: Protat frères, 1943).

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              • Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Life and Art. New York: Braziller, 1988.

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                First published to accompany an exhibition of the same name at the Walters Art Gallery, this book is structured around four essays that deal with the contents of Books of Hours (Wieck), the social meaning of Books of Hours (Lawrence Poos) the role of the Book of Hours in late medieval devotion (Virginia Reinburg), and an analysis of the texts that make up a Book of Hours (John Plummer). Less than a third of the illustrations are in color, but they are all of good quality.

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              • Wieck, Roger S. Painted Prayers: The Book of Hours in Medieval and Renaissance Art. New York: Braziller, 1997.

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                Published in association with the 1997–1998 exhibition “Medieval bestseller: the Book of Hours” held at the Morgan Library, this book is organized as a guide to the contents of a luxury Book of Hours. Individual chapters are devoted to the Calendar, Gospel lessons, Hours of the Cross and Holy Spirit, through to the Suffrages and the Office of the Dead, each with high-quality illustrations. There are useful indexes of manuscripts and printed books, artists, publishers and printers, manuscripts cited and early owners.

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              Gospel Books

              More Gospel Books survive than any other type of medieval manuscript, a fact that is indicative of their overwhelming importance throughout the Middle Ages. That said, more Gospel Books survive from the Insular and Anglo-Saxon world than from any other period, indicative above all of the inventiveness and quality of Insular and Anglo-Saxon book arts, especially as applied to illuminating scripture. Many gospel manuscripts became relics of their sainted owners or indeed in their own right. McGurk 1961 lays the foundations for the study of early medieval Gospel Books and is the place to start both chronologically and for the information it provides on the classification and development of the books. O’Reilly 1998 is essential for an understanding of early evangelist portraits on their often complex meanings, but it is not intended for the general reader.

              • Favreau, Robert. “Épigraphie et miniatures: Les vers de Sedulous et les évangélistes.” Journal des Savants (1993): 63–87.

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                Verses from Sedulius’s Carmen paschale are often included evangelist portraits, the main type of decoration in Gospel Books, from the 6th century onward. Favreau’s paper not only examines the meanings evolving from this combination of text and image but also their influence on art in other media.

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              • Fischer, Bonifatius. Die lateinischen Evangelien bis zum 10. Jahrhundert. 4 vols. Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 1988–1991.

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                Covers over 460 manuscripts to provide one of the most comprehensive studies of existing Latin gospel manuscripts. These volumes map the development of the text of the Gospel and its variant, dividing the material into twenty-six classes of manuscript origin. Although this publication does not deal with illumination, it is useful for understanding variations in the Gospel text and how they developed. Volume 1, Varianten zu Matthäus; Volume 2, Varianten zu Markus; Volume 3, Varianten zu Lukas; Volume 4, Varianten zu Johannes.

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              • Hamburger, Jeffrey. St. John the Divine: the Deified Evangelist in Medieval Art and Theology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

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                The subject of this book is not Gospel Books per se, but the profound influence the Gospel of John and images of the evangelist had on art, theology, and popular religious practices. By tradition, John was understood as the evangelist who was closest to both Christ and God, and he was an eyewitness to all that he wrote about. (He was also understood to be the author of Revelation.) He was thus both the most mystical and most theologically informed of the Gospel authors. Hamburger’s focus is on images and their centrality to theological exegesis, mystical experience, and textual understanding in the high Middle Ages.

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              • Henderson, George. From Durrow to Kells: The Insular Gospel Books, 650–800. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

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                Henderson focuses on seven key manuscripts: the Book of Durrow, Durham Gospels, Corpus Gospels, Echternach Gospels, Lindisfarne Gospels, Lichfield Gospels, and the Book of Kells. The purpose of the book is to set these manuscripts within their larger cultural, religious, and political contexts as a way of establishing why Gospel books became such a feature of Insular art. Perhaps too much influence is given to the still enigmatic Pictish influence on manuscript production (no actual Pictish manuscripts survive), but otherwise this book provides a solid analysis of the subject. The illustrations are largely black and white.

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              • McGurk, Patrick. Latin Gospel Books from AD 400 to AD 800. Paris: Editions Erasmé, 1961.

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                McGurk’s interest is in the textual and manuscript traditions of early Gospel Books rather than on illustration, but he does provide valuable information on ways in which decorative elements such as initial letters are used to guide the reader through books and chapters. There is a detailed analysis of the codicology of the manuscripts catalogued and the ways in which different types of Gospel manuscripts differed from each other. The Irish pocket gospels (on which McGurk is an expert), for example, were tiny personal books with little decoration and few if any accessory texts, while the great display codices such as Lindisfarne or Kells were heavily illuminated and could include a variety of texts. Six appendices provide information on individual features of the books catalogued.

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              • O’Reilly, Jennifer. “Patristic and Insular Traditions of the Evangelists: Exegesis and Iconography.” In Le Isole Britanniche e Roma in Età Romanobarbarica. Edited by Anna Maria Luiselli Fadda and Éamonn Ó Carragáin. Rome: Herder, 1998.

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                This is an excellent analysis of the interrelationship of exegesis and imagery in Insular and Anglo-Saxon evangelist portraits. O’Reilly provides a close reading of images of the evangelists alongside explication of the range of symbols and meanings they could convey, as well as the sources of that symbolism. It is not for the general reader, as it does assume a certain amount of knowledge of the patristic and exegetical sources, as well as medieval iconographic conventions, on the part of the reader.

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              Jewish Manuscripts

              There is a rich tradition of illuminated Hebrew manuscripts from across Europe and the Middle East. They were produced by scribes and artists from a variety of religious backgrounds, and their style tends to vary regionally and chronologically, showing a profound Islamic influence in areas such as Egypt or Spain, and a close connection with Christian manuscripts in areas such as France and Germany. For a general introduction to Hebrew manuscripts start with Gutmann 1978 and Beit-Arié 1993. One thing that can be noted as characteristic of Hebrew manuscript illumination is the greater importance of the scribe and scribal art (Halperin 2008) over the artist and representational miniatures, although that is merely a general observation (see Kogman-Appel 2000, Kogman-Appel 2004). The most common types of books to be illuminated are Bibles, Haggadah (collections of biblical and homiletic texts and songs) and Mahzorim (books of prayers and poetry for special Sabbaths and religious holidays). The most important collections of illuminated Jewish manuscripts are in the British Library, London; Bodleian Library, Oxford; and Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. So a search of their catalogues and databases is also worthwhile.

              • Beit-Arié, Malachi. The Makings of the Medieval Hebrew Book: Studies in Palaeography and Codicology. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1993.

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                A collection of eleven of the author’s papers published between 1977 and 1991. Excellent introduction to the subject.

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              • Epstein, Marc Michael. Dreams of Subversion in Medieval Jewish Art and Literature. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

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                This book explores the Jewish response to proclamations of Christian dominance everywhere apparent in the art of the Middle Ages, and Jewish responses to that art. A large part of the book is devoted to subversion via appropriation, but the author is careful not to reduce the manuscripts and images discussed to a single reading.

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              • Gutmann, Joseph. Hebrew Manuscript Painting. New York: Braziller, 1978.

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                A short introduction to illuminated Hebrew manuscripts. The core of the book consists of full color images of pages from twenty-five manuscripts accompanied by a basic description and analysis.

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              • Halperin, Dahlia-Ruth. “Illuminating in Micrography—Between Script and Brush: The Catalan Micrography Mahzor MS Heb 8vo 6527 in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.” PhD diss., Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 2008.

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                A prayer book made c. 1280, this manuscript is important both for its luxurious micrographic illumination (images made from miniscule writing), which includes full-page hunting scenes, but also for its contents, which include hymns composed by Jewish poets working in Spain.

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              • Kogman-Appel, Katrin. “Coping with Christian Pictorial Sources: What Did Jewish Miniaturists not Paint?” Speculum 75 (2000): 816–858.

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                This paper explores the ways in which Jewish illuminators dealt with the Christological elements of iconographic images and cycles borrowed from Christian art. It argues that Jewish artists familiarized themselves with Christian polemical writings as a way of establishing which themes and details to avoid.

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              • Kogman-Appel, Katrin. Jewish Art between Islam and Christianity: The Formal Language of Sephardic Bible Decoration. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2004.

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                Sephardic bibles are decorated in an aniconic style (i.e., one that avoids representational imagery) heavily indebted to Islamic art. This book covers Castilian and Catalan workshops of the 13th through 15th centuries, the major artists, and the environment of convivencia (the acculturation of Jewish, Islamic and Christian communities) and its decline in which the Bibles were produced.

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              • Mellinkoff, Ruth. Antisemitic Hate Signs in Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem: Center for Jewish Art, 1999.

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                A problematic book, but one that represents a significant school of thought with regard to Jewish-Christian interactions in the production of imagery. Mellinkoff argues that Ashkenahzi manuscripts displaying figures with distorted “grotesque” faces were the product of anti-Semitic Christian artists. Reviews of the book were quick to pick up on the anachronism of the term “anti-Semitic” as well as the improbability of the images being a plot against Jewish readers and patrons. It is more likely that the distortions are due to religious restrictions on imagery.

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              • Shalev-Eyni, Sarit. Jews among Christians: A Hebrew School of Illumination of the Lake Constance Region. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols and David Brown, 2007.

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                A close study of a group of Ashkenahzi manuscripts produced in the early 14th century and the interactions between the Jewish and Christian artists and communities that they reveal. A much more nuanced and sophisticated reading of the visual and material record than that provided by Mellinkoff 1999.

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              Psalters

              A Psalter consists of the Old Testament Book of Psalms excerpted as a standalone book, sometimes including other material. It was the most popular of all books during the Middle Ages. It was often profusely illustrated and, as with the Book of Hours, the number of miniatures and quality of decoration could depend on the wealth and status of the user. There were different traditions of Psalter decoration, the marginal Psalters of Byzantium (see Corrigan 1992, cited under Early Christian and Byzantine), the narrative Psalter (a Psalter in which each Psalm is accompanied by a miniature; see van der Horst, et al. 1996, cited under Exhibition Catalogues), monastic Psalters in which illustrations were placed at the major functional divisions of the book, and Psalters with typological illustrations (cycles of images that illuminated the symbolic parallels between the lives of David and Christ, for which see Openshaw 1992). Of the books listed below, Büttner 2004 and Cassidy and Wright 2001 provide the most complete coverage. Both are written for a scholarly readership but contain introductions that are accessible to the general reader, with Cassidy and Muir being the place to start. Eggenberger 1987 and Camille 1998 are included as examples of very different sorts of studies of individual manuscripts, the one a little-known early medieval manuscript made for a monastic community and the other a lavish and famous Gothic Psalter made for a wealthy lay patron.

              • Büttner, Franz Olaf, ed. The Illuminated Psalter Studies in the Content, Purpose and Placement of its Images. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2004.

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                A monumental collection of twenty-eight essays from a 1999 colloquium in Bamberg that cover the use, purpose, and decoration of the Psalter across the whole of the Middle Ages, along with case studies of individual manuscripts. Many of the papers are in French or German, and the volume is well illustrated.

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              • Camille, Michael. Mirror in Parchment: The Luttrell Psalter and the Making of Medieval England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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                Made for Sir Geoffrey Luttrell in the early 14th century, the Luttrell Psalter is one of the most frequently reproduced of all English manuscripts. Camille’s study locates the book both within the social and geographical context of its production and within the history of its reproduction and the processes through which it became a national icon.

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              • Cassidy, Brendan, and Rosemary Muir Wright, eds. Studies in the Illustration of the Psalter. Stamford, CT: Shaun Tyas, 2001.

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                A short but nonetheless informative collection of studies of individual Psalter manuscripts (including the Utrecht Psalter, the Corbie Psalter, the Winchester Psalter and the St. Albans Psalter) and their iconography and use.

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              • Cutler, Anthony. The Aristocratic Psalters in Byzantium. Paris: Picard, 1984.

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                The Aristocratic Psalters (see Tikkanen 1975) of Byzantium are characterized by their lavish illustration, which often includes full-page miniatures. Cutler catalogues fifty-eight manuscripts produced during the 10th through 14th centuries. Has over four hundred illustrations, unfortunately all in black and white. There is no manuscript index, but the catalogue entries are in alphabetical order by location, and locating individual manuscripts is not difficult.

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              • Dufrenne, Suzy. L’illustration des Psautiers Grecs du Moyen Âge. 2 vols. Paris: Klincksieck, 1966–1970.

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                This is a multivolume project that provides a corpus of scholarly studies of individual Byzantine Psalters. Only two volumes were published: Volume 1, Suzy Dufrenne, Pantocrator 61, Paris grec 20, British Museum 40731; Volume 2, Sirarpie der Neressian, Londres, Add. 19.352. (1970).

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              • Eggenberger, Christoph. Psalterium aureum sancti Galli: mittelalterliche Psalterillustration im Kloster St Gallen. Sigmaringen, Germany: Jan Thorbecke, 1987.

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                The “Golden Psalter” in the collection of the monastery of St. Gall is one of the less well-known and hence less studied Psalter manuscripts. This book provides a summary guide to book’s contents, but its main focus is on the circumstances of its production at St. Gall in the late 9th or early 10th century. The volume is heavily illustrated, and all seventeen of the Psalter’s narrative illuminations are reproduced in full color.

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              • Openshaw, Kathleen M. “The Symbolic Illustration of the Psalter: An Insular Tradition.” Arte Medievale, 2d ser., 6 (1992): 41–60.

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                This article analyzes the origins and development of the symbolic and typological tradition of Psalter illustration in which images are used to bring out the symbolic parallels between the lives of King David and Christ and also used to mark the major functional divisions of the Psalter. Eventually, beginning in Anglo-Saxon England, a cycle of Old and New Testament miniatures would come to preface the Psalter text.

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              • Tikkanen, Johan Jakob. Die Psalterillustration im Mittelalter I. Soest, Germany: Davaco, 1975.

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                First published in Helsinki in 1895. Not as accessible as the other entries in this section but important for the study of Byzantine Psalters: as it was Tikkanen who first divided the corpus into monastic Psalters and aristocratic Psalters. The definitions of the two groups have been refined over the years, but the terminology is still in use (see Cutler 1984).

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              Secular Books

              This topic covers a wide range of book types, and it is impossible to include everything here. It is also often difficult to distinguish a secular book from a religious one. Bestiaries, chronicles, and medical manuscripts, for example, were frequently given a Christian gloss that made them as much about religious belief as they were about the physical world, human history, or the human body. We can say, however, that these were not manuscripts used as part of religious services or private devotion. Many secular manuscripts are ultimately derived from classical traditions (see Baxter 1998, Collins 2000, Wright 1993), while others, though influenced by the classical world, are medieval creations (Brieger, et al. 1969, Busby 2002, Desmond and Sheingorn 2003, Fleming 1969). Desmond and Sheingorn 2003 is especially useful for those interested in questions of gender and the production and reception of books. For Europe’s approach to the non-European “Other” see the manuscripts catalogued in Deluz 2000. There is an enormous body of literature on medieval travel books and medieval maps that have not been included in this entry; but these can be accessed through the bibliographies of the publications included here. Further information can also be found through searching online library catalogues and image databases (also see Exhibition Catalogues).

              • Baxter, Ron. Bestiaries and Their Users in the Middle Ages. Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1998.

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                The bestiary is a book of animals that began as a pseudoscientific book and was transformed through the addition of a Christian moral gloss before becoming a form of romance in the later Middle Ages. Beginning with M. R. James’s work in the 1920s, bestiaries have been divided into families. Baxter provides a critical review of the divisions, accepting some and rejecting others. His interest throughout is in the narrative quality of text and image and the social and historical contexts surrounding their production and use.

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              • Brieger, Peter, Millard Meiss, and Charles S. Singleton. Illuminated Manuscripts of the Divine Comedy. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969.

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                This is not a catalogue but rather an in-depth study of fifty illuminated Chaucer manuscripts produced before the middle of the 15th century. The text is most concerned with the relationship between the images and the text. Also explored are the possible reasons for the vastly different quality of the manuscripts. Volume 1 contains the text and Volume 2 the plates.

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              • Busby, Keith. Codex and Context: Reading Old French Verse Narrative in Manuscript. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002.

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                Busby presents an eloquent argument for the need to understand poetry in its manuscript context. The discussion is firmly grounded in the manuscripts themselves and presents a detailed case for the interrelatedness of script, initials, punctuation, and miniatures in the interpretation of poetic texts such as the Roman de toute chevalrie and Perceval. The social context of manuscript production and reception is also covered.

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              • Collins, Minta. Medieval Herbals: The Illustrative Traditions. London: The British Library, 2000.

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                A beautifully illustrated survey of surviving manuscripts from the 7th to the 15th century, based on the author’s doctoral thesis. The traditions of the title refer to manuscripts descending from the writings of Dioscorides and Apuleius Platonicus respectively.

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              • Deluz, Christiane. Jean de Mandeville: Le Livre des Merveilles du Monde. Paris: CNRS, 2000.

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                The Merveilles du Monde (the travels of Jean de Mandeville) was extremely popular in both France and England from the mid 14th century on. This volume provides a scholarly edition of a version of the Merveilles, which the author believes was produced by an Englishman traveling through Flanders in 1356. The book contains a detailed description of twenty-three manuscripts and their relationship to each other, as well as a full bibliography.

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              • Desmond, Marilyn R., and Pamela Sheingorn. Myth, Montage and Visuality in Late Medieval Manuscript Culture: Christine de Pizan’s Epistre Othea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003.

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                Basing their work in equal measure in contemporary critical theory and the materiality of medieval manuscripts, the authors examine the intersection of desire, violence, and gender in the work of Christine de Pizan. The manuscripts, they argue, provide a performance of visual and textual culture. The book opens with a provocative account of the ways in which our understanding of medieval illuminated manuscripts has been shaped by 20th-century scholarship’s “cinematic structuring” of knowledge.

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              • Fleming, John V. The Roman de la Rose: A Study in Allegory and Iconography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969.

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                An excellent analysis of the relationship between text and miniature, as well as the iconography of themes and images in Roman manuscripts. One of Fleming’s goals is to provide a “medieval reading” of the poem. One can argue that such a reading is impossible across such a temporal and cultural divide, but he does provide a convincing argument for the ways in which image and text complement each other.

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              • Jones, Peter Murray. Medieval Medical Miniatures. London: The British Library, 1984.

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                Based on manuscripts in the collection of the British Library and the Wellcome Institute in London, Jones focuses on the reasons for and contexts of production for the manuscripts, and he provides a balanced account of the content of the texts and images and of the material quality of the books as objects.

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              • Wright, David H. The Vatican Vergil: A Masterpiece of Late Antique Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

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                The Vatican Vergil is one of the most beautifully illustrated manuscripts to survive from the late Antique/early Christian world. Produced in Rome at the beginning of the 5th century, the manuscript bears witness to the last great flowering of the classical style. Miniatures from the manuscripts are reproduced in full color, with text and translation on the facing page.

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              Early Christian and Byzantine

              Publications on illuminated manuscripts, as with all studies of medieval art, frequently deal with manuscripts that are characteristic, if not unique, to specific times or places. Early Christian and Byzantine art encompasses western Europe, particularly the area of the Mediterranean between the 4th and 8th centuries, and the art of the Byzantine Empire, centered on Constantinople through to its fall to the Ottomans in 1453. Weitzmann 1970 is a good introduction to issues surrounding the development of manuscripts in the early Christian world, and Weitzmann 1977 is the best place to begin for those unfamiliar with early Christian and Byzantine art. Brubaker 1999, Corrigan 1992, and Lowden 1992 are excellent accounts of typically Byzantine types of manuscripts, while Mathews and Sanjian 1991 is an accessible study of regional illumination within the Byzantine Empire.

              • Brubaker, Leslie. Vision and Meaning in Ninth-Century Byzantium: Image as Ekphrasis in the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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                Although this book focuses on a single manuscript of Gregory’s homilies made for the emperor Basil I toward the end of the 9th century (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS gr. 510), its implications for the understanding of text and image in Byzantine manuscripts are far reaching. In addition to reconstructing the contexts surrounding the production and reception of this manuscript, Brubaker explores the ways in which its miniatures provide a commentary on the accompanying text and also work visually to construct meanings that are independent of that text.

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              • Corrigan, Kathleen. Visual Polemics in the Ninth-Century Byzantine Psalters: Iconophile Imagery in Three Ninth-Century Psalters. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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                Corrigan’s study revolves around a group of Psalters made shortly after the end of iconoclasm and its ban on images. Also referred to as the “marginal” Psalters because of the distribution of both images and commentary in the margins surrounding the text, these manuscripts are known for their anti-iconoclastic rhetoric. This volume focuses on the highly erudite webs of meaning constructed between image and text and among the images themselves, offering both information on how they construct a certain way of reading and how they convey orthodox religious messages that reach beyond the controversy over iconoclasm.

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              • Lowden, John. The Octateuchs: A Study in Byzantine Manuscript Illustration. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.

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                There are five surviving Octateuch manuscripts, and the primary purpose of this book is to provide an account of their production. Lowden’s primary interest in codicology and the making of the manuscripts, while he does discuss the illustrations in his manuscripts and details of their iconography, the relationship between image and text and viewer reception are lacking. The book is excellent, however, for giving a sense of how these manuscripts were put together and used as physical objects.

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              • Mathews, Thomas F., and Avedis K. Sanjian. Armenian Gospel Iconography: The Tradition of the Glajor Gospel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

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                The Glajor Gospel is a 14th-century manuscript in the collection of UCLA. Organized so that the contents move from the general into the book in its smallest details, chapters in this book cover the historical setting, archaeology of the manuscript, the general development of Armenian painting, visual exegesis, the iconography of the life of Christ, the canon tables and the evangelist portraits image by image. The approach is exegetical, exploring how the miniatures comment on or elucidate the text, through a close analysis of their iconography. Appendices provide transcriptions and translations of colophons, Gospel prefaces, and medieval interpretations of canon tables, as well as a list of manuscripts produced at Glajor.

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              • Spatharakis, Ioannis. Corpus of Illuminated Greek Manuscripts to the Year 1453 (Byzantina neerlandica). 2 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1981.

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                Volume 1 contains text and Volume 2 illustrations, and together they catalogue 295 manuscripts from the 6th century to the year 1453. This is not a catalogue of all illuminated Greek manuscripts to the mid-15th century but only of those that provide some sort of evidence for a firm date—be it colophon, dedication, or portrait; and some of these dates are more controversial than the author allows. Entries include information on provenance, style, iconography, and codicology.

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              • Weitzmann, Kurt. Illustrations in Roll and Codex: A Study in the Origins and Method of Text Illustration. Rev. ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970.

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                Originally published in 1947. A pioneering study of the relationship between miniatures and text that also presents valuable information on the historiography of manuscript studies. Weitzmann explores the differences between the layout of text and image in classical and late Antique rolls and early codices, noting that the relationship between text and image was only gradually modified to take advantage of the new codex form and the way it changed the physical act of reading. The book has been criticized for the rigidity of its classifications (as related to recensions of images, for example) and terminology, as well as for the fact that sufficient attention is not paid to ways in which images and text work differently; however, it is still essential reading for an understanding of the space of the book.

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              • Weitzmann, Kurt. Late Antique and Early Christian Book Illumination. New York: Braziller, 1977.

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                One of a series of books focused on the major manuscripts of particular cultures or eras, this volume follows the standard format of a general introduction to characteristic styles and books of the period with a descriptive catalogue of individual pages from the more important books, with all plates reproduced in full color.

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              • Weitzmann, Kurt, and George Galavaris. The Monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century. Vol. 1, The Illuminated Manuscripts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

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                Catalogue of one of the world’s oldest, greatest, and most cosmopolitan collections of Byzantine illuminated manuscripts. The reproductions are excellent and the catalogue entries provide detailed information on and descriptions of each manuscript, with a sustained emphasis on the art historical (style, iconography, cycle of illustrations). Also includes information on the history of the collection.

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              Merovingian and Carolingian

              Manuscripts of the Merovingian and Carolingian periods (roughly 5th through 9th century) are generally seen as effecting the transition from the late Antique codex to the early medieval book, even though the style and content of late antique books influenced them heavily—especially the Carolingians. Much general scholarship, as opposed to studies of individual manuscripts, remains in German or French. The best place to start for the general reader is Mütherich and Gaehde 1976. For those able to read French, Lafitte, et al. 2007 contains some of the most accessible and up-to-date information on Carolingian manuscripts, and its illustrations are certainly well worth browsing through even for those unable to read the text. Zimmerman 1916–1918 and Koehler 1930–1999 are the standard reference works.

              • Bierbrauer, Katharina. Die Ornamentik frühkarolingischer Handschriften aus Bayern. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Neue Folge 84. Munich: C. H. Beck for the Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1979.

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                This volume represents the publication of the author’s doctoral dissertation completed under Florentine Mütherich and exhibits many of the flaws of such a publication. It is, for example, very conservative in its treatment of the secondary scholarship and of the attributions and dating of the manuscripts by earlier scholars. It does, however, provide a well-illustrated catalogue of sixty manuscripts and focuses almost exclusively on their decoration.

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              • Bierbrauer, Katharina. Die vorkarolingischen und karolingischen Handscriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek. Katalog der illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München, Bd. 1. 2 vol. Wiesbaden, Germany: Reichert, 1990.

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                A standard format reference book containing basic information on the origin and provenance of the manuscripts in the library collection. Volume 1 contains the catalogue and Volume 2 contains the plates, most of them in black and white.

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              • Koehler, Wilhelm. Die karolingischen Miniaturen. 6 vols. Berlin: B. Cassierer, 1930–1999.

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                A monumental corpus of Carolingian illuminated manuscripts, this is the place to start for basic information on both individual manuscripts and schools of illumination. The volumes are divided by school: Die Schule von Tours, 3 vols. (1930–1933); Die Hofschule Karls des Grossen, 2 vols. (1958); Die Gruppe des Wiener Krönungs-Evangeliars. Metzer Handschriften, 2 vols. (1960); Die Hofschule Kaiser Lothars: Einzelhandschriften aus Lotharingien, 2 vols. (1971); Die Hofschule Karls des Kahlen, 2 vols. (1982); with Florentine Mütherich, Die karolingischen Miniaturen 6. Die Schule von Reims. Von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 9. Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. (1994); and Die Schule von Reims. Zweiter Teil, Von der Mitte bis zum Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts, 3 vols. (1999).

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              • Lafitte, Marie-Pierre, and Charlotte Denoël, with Marianne Besseyre, eds. Trésors carolingiens: livres manuscrits de Charlemagne à Charles le Chauve. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 2007.

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                A series of introductory essays provides the historical and cultural context for the sixty-three manuscripts exhibited, almost all from the Bibliothèque nationale. Includes some lesser-known manuscripts and less frequently illustrated pages of better-known manuscripts alongside classics such as the Drogo Sacramentary. See also the Bibliothèque nationale’s website: Trésors Carolingiens.

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              • Mütherich, Florentine. Studies in Carolingian Manuscript Illumination. London: Pindar, 2004.

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                Reprint of a selection of twenty-three papers on individual manuscripts as well as schools of manuscript production. Largely in German but includes three papers published in English.

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              • Mütherich, Florentine, and Joachim E. Gaehde. Carolingian Painting. New York: Braziller, 1976.

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                This is basically a picture book containing brief descriptions of fifty-four pages (most reproduced in full color) from thirty-five of the most famous Carolingian manuscripts. Summary catalogue entries provide information on provenance, and there are suggestions for further reading. The book remains a convenient English language resource.

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              • Zimmermann, Ernst Heinrich. Vorkarolingische Miniaturen. 5 vols. Berlin: Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft, 1916–1918.

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                Volume 1 contains text, and the remaining four volumes have the illustrations. Some aspects of this publication are now dated, especially when it comes to questions of date and provenance. And although it does not include all manuscripts now known to exist (or have existed), it is still the most comprehensive treatment of pre-Carolingian manuscript illumination.

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              Insular and Anglo-Saxon

              Manuscripts illuminated in the British Isles and Ireland between the 6th century and c. 1100. The place to start is with the catalogues Alexander 1978 and Temple 1976. Full color images and digital facsimiles of many of the manuscripts catalogued are available online, but it is necessary to know the library collection, shelfmark, and often the folio number in order to find them. Brown 2007 offers a good overview of the period and stunning color photographs but unfortunately contains numerous factual errors. Henry and Marsh-Micheli 1984 is the best place to start for Irish material. It is now somewhat dated but will provide the background for issues still current in scholarship, such as the date and provenance of some key manuscripts. It should be supplemented with Henderson 1987 (cited under Gospel Books).

              • Alexander, J. J. G. Insular Manuscripts: 6th to the 9th Century. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 1. London: Harvey Miller, 1978.

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                Essential catalogue for images and basic information on early Anglo-Saxon manuscripts such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, Book of Cerne, Codex Amiatinus, and Stockholm Codex Aureus, to name but the most well known. As with Temple 1976, much information is dated, but it is still essential for early bibliography and comparative images.

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              • Brown, Michelle P. Manuscripts from the Anglo-Saxon Age. London: The British Library, 2007.

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                Beautifully illustrated with numerous color photographs, this book provides a basic survey of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts from the earliest days through to the immediate post–Norman Conquest period. Unfortunately there are many factual errors in both the text and the captions, so it must be used with caution.

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              • Deshman, Robert. “Benedictus Monarcha et Monachus: Early Medieval Ruler Theology and the Anglo-Saxon Reform.” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 22 (1988): 204–240.

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                Examines the parallel development of the images of the king and queen and those of Christ and Mary in the art of the 10th and 11th centuries in the context of a form of sacred rulership developed by the leaders of the 10th-century monastic reform. Along with Temple 1976, this provides a useful Anglo-Saxon parallel to the Ottonian manuscripts discussed in Keller 1985 (cited under Ottonian and Salian).

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              • Henry, Françoise, and Geneviève Marsh-Micheli. Studies in Early Christian and Medieval Irish Art. Vol. 2, Manuscript Illumination. London: Pindar, 1984.

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                A collection of reprinted articles published by Françoise Henry, one of the seminal scholars of Irish art, over the course of her lifetime. Some are in collaboration with Marsh-Micheli. Manuscripts covered range from the 7th to the 16th centuries, and the articles reprinted include information on individual manuscripts, Irish manuscripts in Continental collections, and facsimiles.

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              • Masai, Francios. Essai sur les origines de la miniature dite irlandaise. Brussels: Editions Erasme, 1947.

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                Before Masai wrote, the creation of an Insular style of manuscript illumination was credited to Ireland, and Masai was the first to call that into question in a serious way. This article suggests an origin for the style in Northumbria, specifically at the monastery of Warmouth-Jarrow. Many of its conclusions are now out of date, but an interesting landmark in the debate over the origins and provenance of manuscripts such as the Book of Durrow or the Lindisfarne Gospels.

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              • Nordenfalk, Carl. Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Painting. London: Chatto and Windus, 1977.

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                Focuses on single pages from seventeen of the key manuscripts of Insular and Anglo-Saxon art. Much of the text is now out of date, but the book is still useful for getting an overall visual sense of style.

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              • Temple, Elżbieta. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900–1066. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 2. London: Harvey Miller, 1976.

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                The ideal source for a quick and relatively complete overview of Anglo-Saxon illuminated manuscripts, from the death of Alfred to the Norman Conquest. Extensively illustrated, though mostly in black and white. Some information, especially the bibliographies, is now dated, but it is still an essential starting point.

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              Ottonian and Salian

              Germany was under the rule of the Ottonian and Salian dynasties from the mid-10th century through to c. 1125. Ottonian/Salian style is, for the most part, both narrative and expressive. Their manuscript art is dominated by luxury manuscripts filled with gold and jewel-like colors and also with imperial imagery and references. Mayr-Harting 1999 is without doubt the place to start. Keller 1985 and Hoffman 1986 are excellent for an understanding of imperial imagery, and Von Euw and Sporbeck 1991 is a must for those interested in the patronage and influence of royal women.

              • Hoffmann, Hartmut. Buchkunst und Königtum im ottonischen und frühsalischen Reich. 2 vols. Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann, 1986.

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                Volume 1 contains chapters on regional schools and major scriptoria, artists, scribes, and patrons, and imperial imagery, a major subject in both Ottonain and Salian art. Volume 2 contains the plates. Informative but replaced in large part by Mayr-Harting 1999.

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              • Keller, Hagen. “Herrscherbild und Herrschaftslegitimation: Zur Deutung der ottonischen Denkmäler.” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 19 (1985): 290–311.

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                Royal portraits are an important part of all aspects of Ottonian art. Keller’s focus is on iconography and his consideration of royal women is minimal.

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              • Mayr-Harting, Henry. Ottonian Book Illumination: an Historical Study. London: Harvey Miller, 1999.

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                Originally published in two volumes in 1991 and reissued as a single volume. This is the book that should begin any study of Ottonian/Salian manuscript illumination. The book is divided into two parts, with Part 1 devoted to themes and narratives and Part 2 to individual scriptoria. Both have a wealth of illustrations.

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              • Palazzo, Eric. Les sacramentaires de Fulda: étude sur l’iconographie et la liturgie a l’époque ottonienne. Münster, Germany: Aschendorff, 1994.

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                Fulda was home to a very important Ottonian scriptoria, and numerous manuscripts have been attributed to it over the years. Palazzo provides an in-depth study of the iconography and contents of the twenty-three sacramentaries assigned to the house, reassigning all but five of them to other centers.

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              • Von Euw, Anton, and Gudrun Sporbeck, eds. Vor dem Jahr 1000. Abendländische Buchkunst zur Zeit der Kaiserin Theophanu. Cologne: Schnütgen-Museum, 1991.

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                Catalogue of an exhibition of manuscripts associated with the patronage of Empress Theophanu and held to mark the millennium of her death. The volume includes both a catalogue of works and a collection of scholarly essays; it is also one of a series of monumental exhibitions devoted to the art associated with the Ottonian court and church.

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              Romanesque

              The Romanesque is an ill-defined era but generally considered to be the art of the 11th and 12th centuries in western Europe. It was a period that saw an enormous increase in the production of books of all types, an increase in literacy, and an increase in narrative illustration. Romanesque style has been characterized as the first truly international style of art, although there are definite regional styles. For an overall sense of the period and the regional styles, good entry points are Cahn 1996, Kaufmann 1975, and Mentre and Rich 1996. Williams 1998 and Hahn 2001 are excellent studies of specific types of manuscript. Although it is focused on a single manuscript, Rudolph 1997 provides an equally excellent study of Cistercian illumination and the historiated initial as a major art form. See also Cahn 1982 (cited under Bibles).

              • Cahn, Walter. Romanesque Manuscripts of the Twelfth Century. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in France 1. London: Harvey Miller, 1996.

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                The first, and to date the only volume published in this series, itself based on the Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles. Volume 1 contains the introductory texts and illustrations and Volume 2 the catalogue. The contents are organized according to region and chronologically within those regional divisions. Each entry provides information on the date, contents, codicology, history, bibliography, and iconographic program of the 152 manuscripts surveyed.

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              • Gameson, Richard. The Manuscripts of Early Norman England (c. 1066–1130). Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1999.

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                This is a reference book that offers a preliminary inventory of known manuscripts accompanied by brief descriptions, as well as a list of manuscripts known to have existed from entries in booklists. An informative introduction provides a survey of the intellectual and cultural context for both the production and collection of books. Inadequately illustrated.

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              • Garrison, Edward B. Studies in the History of Medieval Italian Painting. 4 vols. London: Pindar, 1993.

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                Originally published between 1953 and 1962, these volumes cover 12th-century initial styles, 12th-century central Italian manuscripts, and Umbro-Roman painting. Also contains numerous articles on individual manuscripts (especially Bibles) and frescoes.

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              • Hahn, Cynthia. Pictured on the Heart: Narrative Effect in Pictorial Lives of Saints from the Tenth through the Twelfth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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                The Romanesque period saw the rise in saints’ lives illuminated with detailed pictorial cycles. This book examines the reasons for the popularity of illustrated lives of martyrs, virgins, confessors, lay and royal saints, alongside the development of pictorial narrative. The most up-to-date and erudite source on the subject.

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              • Kaufmann, C. M. Romanesque Manuscripts, 1066–1100. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 3. London: Harvey Miller, 1975.

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                The primary source for basic information on English manuscript illumination of the period. The illustrations are almost all in black and white, but the catalogue entries contain detailed information on provenance, codicology, contents, and illustrative programs of each manuscript. Each entry also contains crucial bibliography, although that element of the books is clearly now in need of updating. A general introduction provides information on manuscript production, style, and iconography.

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              • Mentre, Mireille, and Pierre Rich. The Illuminated Manuscripts of Medieval Spain. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996.

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                Despite its general title, this book is concerned with manuscripts of the 10th through 12th centuries. The authors’ interest is twofold: in the Mozarabic art that flourished as a result of the combined influences of Islamic, Christian, and Jewish cultures during this period in Spanish history, as well as in the iconography of the manuscripts produced. Lavishly illustrated.

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              • Rudolph, Conrad. Violence and Daily Life: Reading, Art and Polemics in the Citeaux “Moralia in Job.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

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                The Citeaux manuscript of Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job was produced c. 1111 and is decorated with historiated initials of great originality. Rudolph explores the meaning of the decoration not only in terms of its iconography but also in terms of the religious and political concerns of both the Cistercian monastery and society at large at the time of its production.

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              • Schapiro, Meyer. “From Mozarabic to Romanesque in Silos.” In Romanesque Art: Selected Papers. By Meyer Schapiro, 28–101. New York: Braziller, 1977.

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                First published in the Art Bulletin 21 (1939), 312–374, this paper explores the different relationships between the pre-Romanesque Mozarabic style—a northern Spanish style heavily used for Christian works of art but heavily influenced by Islamic art—and the Romanesque style that became popular after c. 1100. As Schapiro notes, the two styles could be placed in opposition or in a hierarchical arrangement, suggesting that there was not a simple linear development.

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              • Williams, John. The Illustrated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the Apocalypse. 5 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1998.

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                A five-volume catalogue of the Spanish manuscripts of Beatus of Lièbana’s commentary on the Apocalypse. Manuscripts included date from the 9th through the 13th centuries and are thus not limited to the Romanesque, although Romanesque manuscripts make up the bulk of the books included. There are also contextual essays and useful reference tables and indexes.

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              Gothic

              Gothic art is, broadly speaking, the art of Europe from around the mid-12th century through the 14th century. It is a period dominated by France (especially Paris) although it is also a period that sees many European countries developing emphatic national variations on the style. Marks and Morgan 1981 and Avril 1978 are the best places to start for an overall sense of Gothic style. Morgan 1982–1988 and Sandler 1986 provide full coverage of English Gothic illumination, while Randall 1966 offers the best collection of images of Gothic marginalia. Hedeman 1991 and Strickland 2003 are especially intriguing if read together: the former deals with the relationship between images and one of the most glorious of all Gothic courts, while the latter deals with the ways images construct the outcasts of the period.

              • Avril, François. Manuscript Painting at the Court of France: The Fourteenth Century. New York: Braziller, 1978.

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                Part of a series, this volume provides description and analysis of forty pages from eight manuscripts, all reproduced in full color. A brief introduction gives basic information on the major artists, manuscripts, and styles of the 14th century.

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              • Camille, Michael. Image on the Edge: the Margins of Medieval Art. New York: Reaktion, 2003.

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                Excellent general introduction to the fertile field of marginalia in medieval manuscripts. Camille covers architectural and sculptural margins as well, but the focus is on manuscripts, especially Gothic manuscripts.

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              • Hedeman, Anne D. The Royal Image: Illustrations of the Grandes Chroniques de France 1274–1422. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

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                Although the subject matter of this book overlaps the Gothic and late Gothic periods, it is included here because it was begun in the reign of Saint Louis (Louis IX), the king whose court gave name to the so-called Court style of illumination. Hedeman is particularly interested in the politics of these vernacular manuscripts (over twenty are included in her study) in relation to the politics of the king’s court and to the history of the Latin chronicle tradition. She offers a close reading of the images throughout.

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              • Marks, Richard, and Nigel Morgan. The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting: 1200–1500. New York: Braziller, 1981.

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                Description and analysis of selected pages from twenty-five manuscripts, all reproduced in full color. The introduction gives a good overview of the development of Gothic style in England over the three-hundred-year period covered, as well as basic information on artists and regional styles.

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              • Morgan, Nigel J. Early Gothic Manuscripts. 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1982–1988.

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                Together these two volumes form Volume 4 of the Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles series. Each volume begins with its own introduction that provides general background on historical and cultural context. There is a useful glossary of key terms, as well as tables and indexes of iconographic subjects, plus indexes of types of book and places of origin. Each volume also has its own particular highlights: Matthew Paris and Psalters in Volumes 1 and Apocalypse manuscripts and early Books of Hours in Volume 2.

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              • Randall, Lilian M. Images in the Margins of Gothic Manuscripts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

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                Long before margins and marginalization became popular subjects among art historians, Randall produced this fascinating catalogue of images. Unfortunately the plates are all in black and white, and there is no discussion of their manuscript context. But there is an index of subjects, and the grouping of images according to subject rather than manuscript allows for some interesting visual comparisons.

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              • Sandler, Lucy Freeman. Gothic Manuscripts, 1285–1385. 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1986.

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                Together these two volumes form Volume 5 of the Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles series. One volume contains the catalogue and the other the introductory material and plates. This enables the reader to view the images and read the catalogue descriptions simultaneously. This volume also includes more color plates than other volumes in the same series, which is an indication perhaps of both the increased lavishness of (and increased scholarly interest in) manuscripts of this period. Includes 148 manuscripts.

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              • Stahl, Harvey. Picturing Kingship: History and Painting in the Psalter of Saint Louis. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.

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                The Saint Louis Psalter is one of the most important, lavish, and influential of 13th-century French manuscripts. Individual chapters cover the manuscript and its history, the artists and their images, reading the iconographic program, Psalters and the Old Testament, the royal program, and the king and his book. Also includes useful appendices on the component parts of the book.

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              • Strickland, Debra Higgs. Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

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                Although not limited to either manuscripts or the Gothic period, the majority of the images and texts that form the basis for this book come from Gothic or late Gothic manuscripts. This book explores the way in which both Western medieval art and text construct Saracens and Jews as both Other and monster. Given its aesthetic quality, as well as the general lack of literacy throughout the Middle Ages, images could reach both a wider audience and be more persuasive than the written word—making them a particularly dangerous means of conveying messages of hate.

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              Late Gothic

              Late Gothic art extends from the latter part of the 14th century into the 16th century. It is dominated by the International Style of manuscript illumination with its mannered and elegant figures, rich colors, and luxurious patterns. At the same time, this is the period that saw a sustained interest in such things as naturalism and perspective. All these seemingly contradictory stylistic features can be seen in the art of the greatest painters of the period, the Limbourg brothers (Meiss 1967–1974 and Roelofs and Dückers 2005). The late Gothic is above all the period of transition from the Middle Ages to the early modern (see Scott 2007 and Broekhuijsen 2009) and from the medieval manuscript to the printed book.

              • Broekhuijsen, Klara H. The Masters of the Dark Eyes: Late Medieval Manuscript Art in Holland. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009.

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                A study of a group of 15th–16th century Dutch artists who became known as the “Masters of the Dark Eyes” due to a characteristic use of heavy shadow around the eyes of their figures. This volume represents the first serious attempt to catalogue and classify the work of this somewhat disparate group, as well as the first to assess the impact they had on European painting of the time. The Masters of the Dark Eyes were known especially for luxury manuscripts, especially Books of Hours, and for their use of lavish borders; so it is unfortunate that only a little over one-third of the illustrations are in color.

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              • Croenen, Godfried, and Peter Ainsworth, eds. Patrons, Authors and Workshops: Books and Book Production in Paris around 1400. Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 2006.

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                An interdisciplinary set of thirteen papers covering libraries and commercial book production, patrons, and individual texts and authors. Individual papers cover the topography of book production in Paris, Pierre le Portier and the making of antiphoners, Nicolas Flamel, dedication to the Volto Santo in Lucca and its influence on Parisian manuscripts, the workshop of Jean Trepperel, the library of Jean Lebègue, Sallust manuscripts illuminated under his direction, the making of Philippe le Hardi’s Bible moralisée, the patronage of Simon de Lille, Jean Froissart’s Prison amoureuse, the Chronicles of Froissart, the Livre de Mandeville, and the making of British Library, Harley 4431 for Isabeau of Bavaria.

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              • Desmond, Marilynn, and Pamela Sheingorn. Myth, Montage, and Visuality in Late Medieval Manuscript Culture: Christine de Pizan’s Epistre Othea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003.

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                Christine de Pizan was one of the most important writers of late medieval France. Borrowing from notions of spectatorship developed for contemporary film and feminist theory, Desmond and Sheingorn explore the ways in which the visual discourse of two early-15th-century illuminated copies of Christine’s Epistre Othea position the reader/viewer, especially in terms of gender.

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              • Meiss, Millard. French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry. 3 vols. London: Phaidon, 1967–1974.

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                Together these three volumes represent one of the most comprehensive studies of a discrete period in the history of medieval art, in this case the fifty years or so from c. 1360 to c. 1420 (Jean de Berry died in 1416). The Duc de Berry was one of the greatest and wealthiest of medieval patrons, with some of the finest artists of the time in his employ, most notably the three Limbourg brothers. Together these volumes map the development of painting, of patronage, and of book production in France at the end of the Middle Ages. Individual volume titles are as follows: Volume 1: The Late Fourteenth Century and the Patronage of the Duke; Volume 2: The Boucicaut Master; and Volume 3: The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries.

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              • Roelofs, Pieter, and Rob Dückers, eds. De gebroeders van Limburg: Nijmeegse meesters aan het Franse hof, 1400–1416. Amsterdam: Ludion, 2005.

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                This is the catalogue of the exhibition held in the Museum Het Valkhof in Nijmegen in 2005 to celebrate native sons Paul, Herman, and Johan Limbourg. Four of their manuscripts were included in the exhibition: the Belles Heures, the Petites Heures, a Moralized Bible produced for Philip the Bold, and a Valerius Maximus manuscript, along with other related works. The Très Riches Heures (the most famous of all their manuscripts) was not part of the exhibition. The catalogue includes interpretive essays and excellent illustrations.

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              • Scott, Kathleen L. Later Gothic Manuscripts, 1390–1490. 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1996.

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                Together these two volumes form Volume 6 of the Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles series. They catalogue 140 separate manuscripts, with each entry providing information on size, provenance, date, contents, diagrams, and pictorial cycles, bibliography, and exhibition history. As is the case with all the later volumes produced in this series, Volume 1 contains the introductory texts and illustrations and Volume 2 the catalogue text. Includes a glossary, tables of pictorial cycles, and indexes of types of book, datable manuscripts, book design and production, places of origin, patrons, manuscripts, and iconography.

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              • Scott, Kathleen L. Tradition and Innovation in Later Medieval English Manuscripts. London: The British Library, 2007.

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                Based on the 2004 Lyell lectures at Oxford University the focus of this book is on five lesser-known manuscripts of the 15th and 16th centuries. Although the subject matter is relatively obscure for those who are not specialists in the field, the book is clearly written and logically organized. Information on text and scribe(s), decorative program and artist(s), and the context of production and dissemination is provided for each manuscript. There is also a wealth of good quality color plates.

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              • van der Horst, Kurt, and Johann-Christian Klamt, eds. Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10–13 December 1989). Doornspijk, The Netherlands: Davaco, 1991.

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                The congress was held in conjunction with the publication of the catalogue of illuminated manuscripts in the University Library, Utrecht (van der Horst 1990, cited under Library Catalogues). The two benefit from being consulted together as some of the questions and issues raised there are taken up and analyzed in the essays here—most notably the place of Dutch illumination in relation to contemporary illumination and related art elsewhere in Europe. There are also essays on methods and tools of production, on individual iconographic themes, and on art-historical methodology.

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              LAST MODIFIED: 12/15/2010

              DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396584-0047

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