Medieval Studies Libraries in Medieval Hungary
by
Elod Nemerkenyi
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 15 December 2010
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396584-0057

Introduction

The study of libraries in medieval Hungary is based on historical and philological surveys as well as the manuscript evidence. The surviving medieval source material provides information on the Pannonhalma monastic library, the Esztergom manuscripts, the Esztergom attributions, the Esztergom codex of Bernard of Perugia, the Esztergom Collegium Christi, the Veszprém manuscripts, the Veszprém inventory, the codex of Bishop Mesko of Veszprém, the Zagreb manuscripts, the Zagreb inventories, and the Pozsony chapter library. Parish libraries and school libraries are also covered along with the role of the peregrination, the humanist libraries, and the Corvinian Library. Circumstantial evidence on the libraries of medieval Hungary is also considered.

General Overviews

General overviews on libraries in medieval Hungary include historical and philological surveys such as Mezey 1963, Mezey 1979, Csapodi 1984, Csapodi 1985, Csapodi 1987, and Madas 1998. Other studies address the subject in a central European context, for example, Hlaváek 1983 and Potkowski 1992.

  • Csapodi, Csaba. “Ungarische Bibliotheksgeschichte: Vom Mittelalter bis zum Frieden von Szatmár (1711).” Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 59 (1984): 332–357

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    A summary of the major trends of the history of libraries in Hungary from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba. “A középkori magyarországi könyvtárak története.” In Kódexek a középkori Magyarországon: Kiállítás az Országos Széchényi Könyvtárban. Edited by András Vizkelety, 19–33. Budapest: Interpress, 1985.

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    A summary of the major trends of the history of libraries in Hungary in the Middle Ages.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba. “A középkori könyvkultúra kibontakozása Magyarországon (1000–1400).” In Magyar könyvtártörténet. Edited by Csaba Csapodi, András Tóth, and Miklós Vértesy, 9–43. Budapest: Gondolat Könyvkiadó, 1987.

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    An overview of the early institutions and collections in medieval Hungary.

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  • Hlaváek, Ivan. “Die Formung der westslawischen Schrift-, Buch- und Bibliothekskultur unter dem Einfluss der lateinischen Kirche.” Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sullAlto Medioevo 30.2 (1983): 701–737.

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    A general overview of the development of literacy, book, and library culture in central Europe. Provides the geographic background to similar developments in medieval Hungary.

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  • Madas, Edit. “Írás, könyv és könyvhasználat a középkori Magyarországon, 1000–1526.” In A könyvkultúra Magyarországon a kezdetektől 1730-ig. Edited by Edit Madas and István Monok, 9–66. Budapest: Balassi Kiadó, 1998.

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    A general introduction to the history of libraries in medieval Hungary—with bibliographic references to sources and secondary literature.

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  • Mezey, László. “A kéziratosság századai.” In A könyv és könyvtár a magyar társadalom életében az államalapítástól 1849-ig. Edited by Máté Kovács, 43–126. Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó, 1963.

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    A historical survey of book and library culture in medieval Hungary.

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  • Mezey, László. Deákság és Európa: Irodalmi műveltségünk alapvetésének vázlata. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1979.

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    A philological survey of the beginnings of Latin literary culture in Hungary—with special emphasis on the role of libraries.

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  • Potkowski, Edward. “Le livre dans la société du bas Moyen Age (XIVe–XVe s.): Lexemple de lEurope centrale.” In Produzione e commercio della carta e del libro, Secc. XIII–XVIII: Atti della “Ventitreesima Settimana di studi” 15–20 aprile 1991. Edited by Simonetta Cavaciocchi, 757–772. Florence, Italy: Le Monnier, 1992.

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    A survey of the social implications of book culture in late medieval central Europe. Summary treatment of various aspects of book culture in medieval Hungary.

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Manuscripts

The manuscript evidence of library culture in medieval Hungary can be accessed through catalogues (Bartoniek 1940, Mezey 1961, Csapodi and Csapodiné Gárdonyi 1988–1994, Csapodi and Csapodiné Gárdonyi 1995) and is addressed from the point of view of different genres (Gabriel 1937), with special emphasis on liturgical manuscripts (Strittmatter 1963, Radó 1973) and the development of major library collections (Körmendy 1991).

  • Bartoniek, Emma. Codices manu scripti Latini. Vol. 1, Codices Latini medii aevi. Budapest: Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 1940.

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    Provides a register of manuscripts preserved in the Hungarian National Library. With descriptions of content, format, provenance, as well as references to relevant scholarly literature.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba, and Klára Csapodiné Gárdonyi. Bibliotheca Hungarica: Kódexek és nyomtatott könyvek Magyarországon 1526 előtt. Vols. 1–3. Budapest: MTA Könyvtára, 1988–1994.

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    Provides a register of codices and printed books with descriptions of content, format, provenance, and current location. Special emphasis is given to lost volumes whose existence in medieval Hungary can be reconstructed through circumstantial evidence.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba, and Klára Csapodiné Gárdonyi. Ariadne: A középkori magyarországi irodalom kéziratainak lelőhelykatalógusa. Budapest: MTA Könyvtára, 1995.

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    Provides a register of manuscripts containing various genres of literary production composed in medieval Hungary. With descriptions of content, format, provenance, and current location.

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  • Gabriel, Astrik L. “A középkori kéziratok identifikációja és lokalizációja: Liturgikus és egyetemi kódexek.” Magyar Könyvszemle 61.4 (1937): 298–312.

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    Provides an insider’s view on the identification and localization of different genres of medieval manuscripts.

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  • Körmendy, Kinga. “Az esztergomi Főszékesegyházi Könyvtár, a ferences rendház és a Babits Mihály Városi Könyvtár állományának történeti áttekintése.” Magyar Könyvszemle 107.1–2 (1991): 20–40.

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    A survey of the development of major library collections in Esztergom.

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  • Mezey, László. Codices Latini medii aevi bibliothecae universitatis Budapestinensis. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1961.

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    Provides a register of manuscripts preserved in the library of the University of Budapest. With descriptions of content, format, provenance, as well as references to relevant scholarly literature.

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  • Radó, Polikárp. Libri liturgici manuscripti bibliothecarum Hungariae et limitropharum regionum. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1973.

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    Provides a register of liturgical manuscripts preserved in the libraries of Hungary and neighboring countries. A standard reference tool in the field of liturgical studies.

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  • Strittmatter, Anselm. “Liturgical Manuscripts Preserved in Hungarian Libraries.” Traditio 19 (1963): 487–507.

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    Provides a snapshot of the liturgical manuscripts of Hungary. With descriptions of content, format, provenance, and current location, as well as references to relevant scholarly literature.

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The Pannonhalma Monastic Library

One of the first book lists of medieval Hungary survives in the general inventory of the goods of the Benedictine monastery of Pannonhalma (mons sancti Martini). The charter containing the inventory was issued by King Saint Ladislas between 1083 and 1095. Hungarian scholarship has dealt extensively with the formation of the first fully documented collection of the Pannonhalma monastic library. Attempts at reconstructing the library include Csapodi 1957 and Csapodi 1969. On the other hand, Csapodi 1979, Csapodi 1984, Mezey 1984, and Veszprémy 1997 discuss the cultural implications of this late-11th-century book list that survives in the royal charter (Érszegi 1985, Veszprémy 1996).

  • Csapodi, Csaba. “A legrégibb magyar könyvtár belső rendje (Pannonhalma a XI. században).” Magyar Könyvszemle 73.1 (1957): 14–24.

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    A meticulous philological attempt at reconstructing the arrangement of the Pannonhalma collection.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba. “Die Aufstellung der Klosterbibliothek Pannonhalma (St. Martinsberg, Ungarn) im 11. Jahrhundert.” Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 44 (1969): 308–312.

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    An overview of the formation of the Pannonhalma collection.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba. “Le catalogue de Pannonhalma, reflet de la vie intellectuelle des Bénédictins du XIe siècle en Hongrie.” In Miscellanea codicologica. Vol. 1. Edited by Pierre Cockshaw, Monique-Cécile Garand, and Pierre Jodogne, 165–173. Ghent, Belgium: E. Story-Scientia, 1979.

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    A study on the cultural implications of the items in the Pannonhalma book list.

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  • Csapodi, Csaba. “A középkori könyvtári katalógusok eszmetörténeti tükröződése.” In Eszmetörténeti tanulmányok a magyar középkorról. Edited by György Székely, 55–69. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1984.

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    Complements Csapodi 1979 in exploring the cultural implications of the items in the Pannonhalma book list.

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  • Érszegi, Géza. “A pannonhalmi bencés apátság javainak összeírása, 1093.” In Kódexek a középkori Magyarországon: Kiállítás az Országos Széchényi Könyvtárban. Edited by András Vizkelety, 84. Budapest: Interpress, 1985.

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    A short diplomatic description of the charter containing the Pannonhalma book list.

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  • Mezey, László. “A teológia (patrisztika) és a skolasztika jelentkezése az Árpád-kori Magyarországon.” In Eszmetörténeti tanulmányok a magyar középkorról. Edited by György Székely, 213–225. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1984.

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    A study on the theological implications of some of the items in the Pannonhalma book list.

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  • Veszprémy, László. “A pannonhalmi bencés apátság egyházi kincseit, könyveit, javait és népeit összeíró oklevél.” In Mons sacer 996–1996: Pannonhalma 1000 éve. Vol. 1. Edited by Imre Takács, 118–120. Pannonhalma, Hungary: Pannonhalmi Főapátság, 1996.

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    A detailed diplomatic description of the charter containing the Pannonhalma book list.

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  • Veszprémy, László. “La biblioteca nell’inventario della fine del secolo undicesimo (1093–1095).” In Mille anni di storia dell’arciabbazia di Pannonhalma. Edited by József Pál and Ádám Somorjai, 83–99. Rome: Accademia d’Ungheria in Roma, 1997.

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    A study of the items in the Pannonhalma book list in the context of monastic culture.

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Esztergom Manuscripts

The Esztergom archbishopric, dedicated to Saint Adalbert, always played a seminal role in the library history of medieval Hungary. One of the sources of local book culture is the canonica visitatio of 1397 (Kollányi 1901). Works establishing the Esztergom provenance of various manuscripts include Ocskovszky 1856, Csontosi 1882, Zalán 1926, and Szendrei 1989. Lehmann 1961 provides codicological surveys of some Esztergom manuscripts; Körmendy 1979 reviews the early modern history of the collection. Vizkelety 1993 is a catalogue of the codex fragments of Esztergom.

  • Csontosi, János. “Az esztergomi főegyházi könyvtár kéziratai.” Magyar Könyvszemle 7.3 (1882): 306–335.

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    Like Ocskovszky 1856, provides a list of manuscripts attributed to the medieval library of Esztergom.

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  • Kollányi, Ferencz. “Visitatio Capituli E.M. Strigoniensis anno 1397, 1–2.” Történelmi Tár 2.1–2 (1901): 71–106, 239–272.

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    Edition and commentary of a particular type of primary source to reconstruct the collection of the medieval library of Esztergom: the record of the canonica visitatio of its cathedral in 1397. Apart from various practical and spiritual matters, an ecclesiastical delegation examined and recorded the necessary equipment of the library as well.

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  • Körmendy, Kinga. A Knauz-hagyaték kódextöredékei és az esztergomi egyház középkori könyvtárának sorsa. Budapest: MTA Könyvtára, 1979.

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    A review of the early modern history of the collection: during the Ottoman occupation of Esztergom (1543–1683), the cathedral library had to relocate to the city of Nagyszombat. It was not until 1820 that the entire library could move back to its original location in Esztergom. In the meantime, many of its manuscripts were dispersed in the region. On the other hand, the library was frequently endowed by the new acquisitions of bibliophile archbishops.

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  • Lehmann, Paul. “Handschriften und Handschriftenbruchstücke des 8.–15. Jahrhunderts in Esztergom.” In Erforschung des Mittelalters: Ausgewählte Abhandlungen und Aufsätze. Vol. 4. By Paul Lehmann, 83–89. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1961.

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    A study of some of the so-called colligate, that is, codices that consist of different texts and even different types of parchments bound together, or simple codices that contain multiple texts.

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  • Ocskovszky, Ferencz. “Az esztergomi főegyház könyvtára, 2.” Religio 1.4 (1856): 27–29.

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    A list of manuscripts attributed to the medieval library of Esztergom.

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  • Szendrei, Janka. “Esztergomi Breviarium Notatum Prágában.” In Tanulmányok a középkori magyarországi könyvkultúráról. Edited by László Szelestei Nagy, 137–154. Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, 1989.

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    Establishes the Esztergom provenance of a Prague manuscript.

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  • Vizkelety, András, ed. Mittelalterliche lateinische Handschriftenfragmente in Esztergom. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1993.

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    The catalogue of the codex fragments of Esztergom.

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  • Zalán, Menyhért. “Árpád-kori magyar vonatkozású kéziratok az osztrák kolostorok kézirattáraiban.” Pannonhalmi Szemle 1.1 (1926): 46–62.

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    An attempt to locate manuscripts of Esztergom provenance in the libraries of Austria.

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Esztergom Attributions

Manuscripts of considerable importance have often been attributed to the Esztergom cathedral library. Although some of these attributions raise questions, they apply a wide range of philological methods that are essential in reconstructing medieval library collections, on which see Mészáros 1961, Mezey 1962, Csóka 1973, Mezey 1979, and Csóka 1982.

  • Csóka, J. Lajos. “Ein unbekannter Brief des Abtes Rupert von Deutz.” Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Benediktiner-Ordens und Seiner Zweige 84.3–4 (1973): 383–393.

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    Edition and commentary of a theological treatise by Rupert of Deutz, contained in a codex of the present-day Esztergom cathedral library.

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  • Csóka, J. Lajos. “Az esztergomi főszékesegyházi könyvtár MS. III. 184. kódexe.” Századok 115.5 (1982): 969–985.

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    Suggests that the treatise by Rupert of Deutz, contained in a codex of the present-day Esztergom cathedral library, was copied c. 1160 and c. 1170 in a Premonstratensian monastery in Bavaria.

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  • Mészáros, István. “Magyarországi iskoláskönyv a XII. század első feléből.” Magyar Könyvszemle 77.3 (1961): 371–398.

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    Argues that a present-day Esztergom manuscript is an example of the textbooks of the Esztergom cathedral school in the early 12th century.

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  • Mezey, László. “A budapesti Egyetemi Könyvtár VIII. századi Beda-töredéke.” Magyar Könyvszemle 78.1 (1962): 18–24.

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    Argues that the Vita Cuthberti metrica, called rhythmica in this particular fragment, written by the Venerable Bede, once belonged to a codex copied in a Southern German scriptorium from a Southern English exemplar; the codex was carried to the Hungarian metropolitan cathedral, Esztergom, by missionary monks in the 11th century. After the Ottoman attack in the 16th century, the codex was perhaps rescued from Esztergom by the fleeing canons. The next trace leads to the library of the Jesuits in Pozsony, where the leaves of the codex were cut into pieces and used as raw material for the binding of early printed books.

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  • Mezey, László. “Un fragment de codex de la première époque carolingienne (Ticonius in Apocalypsin?).” In Miscellanea codicologica. Vol. 1. Edited by Pierre Cockshaw, Monique-Cécile Garand, and Pierre Jodogne, 41–50. Ghent, Belgium: E. Story-Scientia, 1979.

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    A codex fragment, identified as part of Ticonius’s Commentaria in Apocalypsim, followed a peculiar way of provenance. This exegetic work was copied in early Carolingian minuscule, probably in northern Italy before 800. Although decisive proofs are missing, the author argues that the original codex was an early piece in the 11th-century Esztergom cathedral library, thus one of the oldest books in medieval Hungary.

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The Esztergom Codex of Bernard of Perugia

The Esztergom codex of Bernard of Perugia (later archbishop of Spalato, close friend of King Béla III of Hungary and instructor of his son, Prince Emeric) provides a significant case study in the scholarship on the Esztergom cathedral library: from the point of view of codicology, as in Varjú 1902 and Csapodi 1998, and art history, as in Wehli 1975, Hoffmann and Wehli 1992, Wehli 1994, Wehli 1995, and Wehli 1997.

The Esztergom Collegium Christi

The Collegium Christi, a peculiar institution of education in late medieval Esztergom (see Monumenta Vaticana 1889), had a significant library collection that can be read about in Körmendy 1983, Mészáros 1984, Mészáros 1986, Körmendy 1986, and Körmendy 1997. The collection was partly supplied through the connection of its students to Vienna, which is outlined in Uiblein 1963 and Csapodi 1979.

Veszprém Manuscripts

The Veszprém bishopric, dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel, also played an important role in the library history of medieval Hungary. In addition to interpretations of the sources related to its institutions of education (Gutheil 1961), direct manuscript evidence of its cathedral library invited critical investigations, eminently by an expert on medieval Veszprém, László Solymosi (Solymosi 1986a, Solymosi 1986b, Solymosi 1989). Historians of medieval liturgy and music also touched upon issues relevant to the Veszprém cathedral library (Rajeczky 1988). The 1515 Constitutiones synodales of Veszprém dealt with library matters as well (Solymosi 1997).

  • Gutheil, Jenő. “Veszprém árpádkori jogi főiskolája: Az első magyar egyetem.” Vigilia 26.8 (1961): 459–468.

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    The interpretation of a bold parallel between the cathedral school of Veszprém and the University of Paris (charter of King Ladislas IV of Hungary in 1276: liberalium arcium studia . . . prout Parisiis in Francia) raised a hot debate in the scholarly literature: Did a university of Veszprém exist in the Middle Ages or not? Based on surviving manuscript evidence, the author argues that the cathedral school of Veszprém developed into a university. Gutheil interprets this development as that of a forerunner to the 14th-century royal founding of universities in Hungary.

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  • Rajeczky, Benjámin, ed. Magyarország zenetörténete. Vol. 1, Középkor. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988.

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    Liturgical codices constituted the bulk of the holdings of Veszprém as well: around half of the books of the cathedral library contained various liturgical texts and chants.

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  • Solymosi, László. “A veszprémi székesegyház leltára könyvjegyzékkel.” In Kódexek a középkori Magyarországon. Edited by András Vizkelety, 125. Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtárban, 1986a.

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    The medieval book culture of Veszprém is also attested by a primary source containing a complete book list: an inventory of the treasures of the cathedral chapter of Veszprém as they were found in 1435. Among other items, it has a register of the books of the library; it is thus possible to partially reconstruct the manuscript holdings of Veszprém during the period. The author provides a description of the manuscript containing the book list.

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  • Solymosi, László. “A veszprémi székesegyház leltára könyvkölcsönzési bejegyzésekkel.” In Kódexek a középkori Magyarországon. Edited by András Vizkelety, 125–126. Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtárban, 1986b.

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    At the end of the 15th century, the Veszprém cathedral library also functioned as a lending library. This can be seen in a fragment of its inventory that was compiled between 1472 and 1504: this source reveals the interests of the library’s readers, and the notes on this fragment indicate the books and the persons who borrowed them. The author provides a codicological description of this fragment.

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  • Solymosi, László. “Könyvhasználat a középkor végén (Könyvkölcsönzés a veszprémi székesegyházi könyvtárban).” In Tanulmányok a középkori magyarországi könyvkultúráról. Edited by László Szelestei Nagy, 77–119. Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, 1989.

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    Out of the twenty-four entries in the fragment compiled between 1472 and 1504, eighteen refer to books of canon law, five to theological books, and one to a liturgical handbook (William Durand, Rationale divinorum officiorum); the legal books borrowed contain standard texts (the Decretum of Gratian, the Decretales of Gregory IX, the Liber sextus of Boniface VIII, the Clementina of Clement V, and their commentaries).

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  • Solymosi, László, ed. Constitutiones synodales ecclesiae Vesprimiensis anni MDXV. Budapest: Argumentum Kiadó and Balassi Kiadó, 1997.

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    One of the constitutions of the synod of the Veszprém diocese, held under the supervision of Bishop Peter Beriszló in 1515, stressed the importance of the books used in the school.

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The Veszprém Inventory

The Veszprém inventory of 1435 is edited and commented on by Fejérpataky 1885 and Fejérpataky 1886.

  • Fejérpataky, László. “A veszprémi káptalan könyvtára a XV század első felében.” Magyar Könyvszemle 10.3 (1885): 137–151.

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    Edition and commentary of the 1435 inventory of Veszprém with five more or less overlapping divisions, such as the Inventarium librorum missalium et aliorum librorum pro divinis officiis aptorum, the Missalia, the Ordo librorum ultra libros aptos ad divina mixtim in sacristia habitorum, the Inventarium missalium et aliorum librorum, and finally the Inventarium de libris in sacristia habitis.

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  • Fejérpataky, László. “A veszprémi káptalan kincseinek összeírása 1429–1437, évekből 1.” Történelmi Tár 21.3 (1886): 553–576.

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    Edition and commentary of the inventory of the treasures of the cathedral chapter of Veszprém as they were found in 1435. Includes the book list.

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The Codex of Bishop Mesko of Veszprém

Bishop Mesko of Veszprém (fl. 1334–1344) was a man of books in many ways. He acknowledged their financial value (Kumorovitz 1953) and was himself a patron of book production, as his Pontificale attests (Szigeti 1972, Szendrei 1986).

  • Kumorovitz, Lajos Bernát, ed. Veszprémi regeszták (1301–1387). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1953.

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    In 1340 a charter recorded that two canons of the Veszprém cathedral chapter, namely, Dean Nicholas and Master Ivánka, went to the chapter of Fehérvár in order to accuse Bishop Mesko of pawning the books of the chapter without the consent of the canons themselves.

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  • Szendrei, Janka. “Veszprémi pontificale.” In Kódexek a középkori Magyarországon. Edited by András Vizkelety, 110–111. Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, 1986.

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    Codicological description of the Pontificale of Bishop Mesko of Veszprém.

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  • Szigeti, Kilián. “Mesko veszprémi püspök (1334–44) Pontificaléja.” Magyar Könyvszemle 88.1–2 (1972): 5–14.

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    Description of the Pontificale of Bishop Mesko, an item in the 1435 inventory: Item unus liber cum grossissimis litteris, continens in se certas missas sollemnes et omnes benedictionales episcopales, quem fecit scribere dominus Mesko episcopus, habens tecturam de subtili tela, desuperque crucem sutam cum serico.

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Zagreb Manuscripts

The Zagreb bishopric, established by King Saint Ladislas of Hungary and dedicated to King Saint Stephen of Hungary, is another documented venue of the library history of the medieval kingdom of Hungary. In addition to the sources related to the chapter school (Tkalèiæ 1874), the Zagreb manuscripts (Fraknói 1881, Gulyás 1923) have been subject to study in the fields of the history of liturgy (Török 1980) and art history (Munk 1964, Budiša, et al. 1987, and Wehli 1992).

  • Budiša, Dražen, Vladimir Magić, and Milan Pelc, eds. Katalog izlobe slika u knjizi: Iluminirani kodeksi i ilustrirane knjige od XI. do XVI. stoljeća. Zagreb: Nacionalna i Sveuilina Biblioteka, 1987.

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    Further descriptions of liturgical codices from the collection of the medieval library of Zagreb.

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  • Fraknói, Vilmos. “Egy érdekes zágrábi kézirat.” Magyar Könyvszemle 6.1 (1881): 26–30.

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    Describes a codex to be added to the manuscripts once possessed by the medieval cathedral library of Zagreb.

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  • Gulyás, Pál. “A könyv sorsa Magyarországon a legrégibb időktől napjainkig, 1.” Magyar Könyvszemle 30 1–2 (1923): 27–94.

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    Estimates that the early-15th-century cathedral library of Zagreb possessed more than two hundred books in total.

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  • Munk, Zdenka, ed. Minijatura u Jugoslaviji. Zagreb: Muzej za Umjetnost, 1964.

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    Descriptions of liturgical codices from the collection of the medieval library of Zagreb—they were the earliest pieces in the library due to the liturgical requirements of the new cathedral.

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  • Tkalèiæ, Ivan, ed. Monumenta historica episcopatus Zagrabiensis. Vol. 2. Zagreb: Karl Albrecht, 1874.

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    The mid-14th-century statutes of the chapter school of Zagreb contain some basic information on the canons inviting external masters to teach in their school. The curriculum, in turn, influenced the development of local manuscript holdings.

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  • Török, József. “Szent László liturgikus tisztelete.” In Athleta patriae: Tanulmányok Szent László történetéhez. Edited by László Mezey, 135–160. Budapest: Szent István Társulat, 1980.

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    On the liturgical codices illustrating the cult of Prince Emeric and King Saint Ladislas of Hungary in medieval Zagreb: their names appear in the descriptions of two gradualia: habens in fine libri sequentiam de sancto Emerico duce and in fine libri habet aliquas sequentias additas de diebus dominicis, de sancto Ladislao, et de nativitate beate virginis.

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  • Wehli, Tünde. “A zágrábi püspökség Szent László-kori kódexei.” In Szent László és Somogyvár: Tanulmányok a 900 éves somogyvári bencés apátság emlékezetére. Edited by Kálmán Magyar, 83–97. Kaposvar, Hungary: Somogy Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatósága, 1992.

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    Argues that the late-11th-century illuminated liturgical codices of Zagreb demonstrate the connection between the kingdom of Hungary and the influential scriptoria of Salzburg and Regensburg.

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Zagreb Inventories

In addition to book-related transactions of the bishops of Zagreb—James in 1348 (Tkalèiæ 1889), and John in 1433 (Kercselich 1770)—two major inventories survive: one from 1394 (Kniewald 1951) and another from 1426 (Fejérpataky 1880, Tkalèiæ 1881). Most of the items contain liturgical texts (Kniewald 1940).

  • Fejérpataky, László. “A zágrábi káptalani könyvtár XV. századi könyvlajstroma.” Magyar Könyvszemle 5.5–6 (1880): 363–368.

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    Edition and commentary of the 1426 book list of the Zagreb chapter library, incorporated in a general inventory of the cathedral. According to calculations based partly on this book list, the early-15th-century library possessed more than two hundred books in total. The author also discusses the various subdivisions of the book list.

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  • Kercselich, Balthasar Adam. Historia cathedralis ecclesiae Zagrabiensis. Vol. 1.1. Zagreb: Anton Jander, 1770.

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    In 1433 Bishop John of Zagreb bequeathed his books to the Zagreb cathedral (Libros . . . Ecclesiae Zagrabiensi). Although there are no exact data about these libri, it is probable that Bishop John endowed his cathedral library mainly with his own liturgical books.

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  • Kniewald, Dragutin. Zagrebaki liturgijski kodeksi XI.–XV. Stoljeća. Zagreb: Tisak Narodne Tiskare, 1940.

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    An overview of the liturgical codices of Zagreb.

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  • Kniewald, Dragutin. “Najstariji inventari zagrebake katedrale.” Starine 43 (1951): 49–81.

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    Edition of the first complete inventory of the library, surviving in the general inventory of the Zagreb cathedral, containing thesaurum ecclesie, res et bona, compiled in 1394. It kept a sophisticated rule to identify various manuscripts of popular texts, such as the Bible (Item liber exodi copertus coreo albo et finit in textu primi folij: “multiplicati sunt”) or the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville (Item liber Isidori etimologiarum, copertus coreo albo, et finit in textu primi folij: “unam ad patrem et unam”).

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  • Tkalèiæ, Ivan. “Dva inventara prvostolne crkve zagrebake iz XIV. i XV. Vieka.” Starine 13 (1881): 119–149.

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    Another edition of the text of the 1426 inventory.

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  • Tkalèiæ, Ivan, ed. Monumenta historica liberae regiae civitatis Zagrabiae metropolis regni Dalmatiae, Croatiae et Slavoniae. Vol. 1, Diplomata: 1093–1399. Zagreb: Karl Albrecht, 1889.

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    In 1348 a charter by Bishop James of Zagreb commanded the canons of the cathedral chapter to spend their money pro reformacione librorum, perhaps for the refreshment or updating of their library, or, more likely, to repair the liturgical books of the church.

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The Pozsony Chapter Library

Hungarian and Slovak scholars addressed various aspects of the library collection of the collegiate chapter of Saint Martin in Pozsony: issues of medieval literacy (Šedivý 2007), the inventory of the library (Ipolyi 1856), and its extant manuscripts (Knauz 1870).

Parish Libraries

Due to the fragmented nature of surviving evidence, parish libraries of medieval Hungary constitute a relatively neglected field of study. Two original contributions deserve particular attention: Ipolyi 1876 and Ivánka 1938.

School Libraries

Various aspects of school libraries in medieval Hungary were studied by historians of education. Regarding the standing of the school of Veszprém, Ábel 1881 and Békefi 1896 articulated differing views. The latter also touched upon issues of library history in monographs on the history of education in general and that of cathedral schools in particular (Békefi 1897, Békefi 1906, Békefi 1910).

Peregrination

Academic peregrination of Hungarian students to various central and western European universities contributed to the development of library collections in late medieval Hungary. Besides the general central European circumstances (Hlaváek 1979), the universities of Krakow (Csontosi 1882, Dbrowski 1963), Prague (Barta 1948), Bologna (Veress 1941, Körmendy 1994), Paris (Gabriel 1938), and Oxford (Laszlovszky 1988) are considered.

  • Barta, István. “L’Université Charles de Prague et la Hongrie.” Revue dHistoire Comparée 26.2 (1948): 213–231.

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    Includes information on the manuscript traces of the peregrination of Hungarian students to the University of Prague.

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  • Csontosi, János. “A krakkói könyvtár hazai vonatkozású kéziratai.” Magyar Könyvszemle 7.5–6 (1882): 373–398.

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    On the manuscript traces of the peregrination of Hungarian students to the University of Krakow.

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  • Dbrowski, Jan. “Les relations de Cracovie et son Université avec la Hongrie a l’époque de l’humanisme.” In La Renaissance et la Réformation en Pologne et en Hongrie (1450–1650). Edited by György Székely and Erik Fügedi, 451–464. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1963.

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    Informative study of the manuscript traces of Hungarian students’ peregrination to the University of Krakow.

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  • Gabriel, Astrik L. “Magyar diákok és tanárok a középkori Párizsban.” Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny 62.4–9 (1938): 182–210.

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    Information on manuscript traces of the peregrination of Hungarian students and masters to the University of Paris, demonstrating that some students carried their books back home to Hungary, while others lost them on the way (Cum semel quidam de numero talium fatuorum rediret ad patriam cum numerositate librorum casu contigit quod summerarius ejus libros portans in aquam cecidit et sic totum amisit).

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  • Hlaváek, Ivan. “Alte Handschriftenbesitzervermerke, mittelalterliche Bibliothekskataloge und die mittellateinische Literatur.” Philologus 123.1 (1979): 186–191.

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    Based on central European evidence, suggests that the establishment of the provenance of codices through various possessor notes helps to define the manuscript traces of the peregrination of students.

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  • Körmendy, Kinga. “A 14–15 századi bolognai egyetem könyvkultúrájának egy magyar vonatkozású kódexe.” Magyar Könyvszemle 110.1 (1994): 1–15.

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    On the manuscript traces of the peregrination of Hungarian students to the University of Bologna.

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  • Laszlovszky, József. “Nicholaus Clericus: A Hungarian Student at Oxford University in the Twelfth Century.” Journal of Medieval History 14.3 (1988): 217–231.

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    The case of the Hungarian Nicholas at the end of the 12th century illustrates how Hungarian students became acquainted with English ones in Paris and how they were invited to Oxford and to the Lincoln cathedral school.

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  • Veress, Endre, ed. Matricula et acta Hungarorum in universitatibus Italiae studentium 1221–1846. Budapest: MTA, 1941.

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    Includes information on the manuscript traces of Hungarian students’ peregrinations to universities in Italy.

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Peregrination and Paleography

Academic peregrination to European universities did influence the development of writing in Hungary as well, although surviving evidence is fragmentary. Consult Hajnal 1952 and Hajnal 1957.

Humanist Libraries

Kardos 1941 and Csapodi 1987 deal with what is considered the golden age of Hungarian library history: the 15th century. It witnessed the lavish book culture of humanist scholars, such as János Vitéz, (explored in Zsák 1907 and Csapodiné Gárdonyi 1984) and Janus Pannonius (Csapodi 1974). Secular libraries are also considered in this context in Kurcz 1988.

Corvinian Library

The most luxurious library of late medieval Hungary was that of King Matthias Corvinus (r. 1458–1490): the so-called Corvinian Library in the royal palace of Buda. A considerable part of the manuscripts of its stock were copied and illuminated in Renaissance Florence, but the king established a scriptorium in Buda as well. The library suffered dispersion during the Turkish invasion in the early 16th century. Depending on the definition of what manuscript qualifies to be called a Corvina, the number of identified manuscripts of the Corvinian Library is around two hundred. They are kept in more than twenty libraries around the world, including libraries in Budapest, Cambridge, Florence, New York, Venice, Vienna, and Wolfenbüttel. While Berkovits 1963 provides art-historical descriptions, Csapodiné Gárdonyi 1963 and Csapodi, et al. 1967 review the material from the points of view of paleography and codicology. Csapodi 1973 is the most comprehensive treatment of the subject.

Miscellaneous Evidence

Circumstantial evidence on various aspects of library culture in medieval Hungary includes records of book stealing (Horváth 1894), book destruction (Jakubovich 1923), as well as bequests (Ivánka 1937). Apart from studies on the books of Bishop Saint Gerard of Csanád, such as Szegfű 1979, and the Cistercians (as in Lovass 1938), Transylvanian developments are also considered separately in Jakó 1976. Mezey 1981 and Madas 1981 are significant codicological studies on vernacular Hungarian glosses in Latin manuscripts.

  • Horváth, Sándor. “Könyvlopás a XIV. Században.” Magyar Könyvszemle 2.4 (1894): 380.

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    A charter, issued by King Charles Robert of Hungary at Visegrád in 1327, records the stealing of the books of the church of Saint John the Baptist in Liptószentmiklós (in crepusculo noctis fures et latrones in ecclesia sancti Johannis baptiste in possessione ipsorum habita calicem, libros cum rebus et indumentis ecclesie iamdicte . . . subtrahendo deportassent).

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  • Ivánka, Endre. “László mester esztergomi prépost könyvtára 1277-ben.” Theologia 4.3 (1937): 216–226.

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    On the detailed bequest of Master Ladislas, provost of the cathedral of Esztergom. He distributed his books to his fellow canons in the same chapter, to the convents of the Franciscan and Dominican friars in the city of Esztergom, and to the poor. This inventory includes biblical, liturgical, and legal books, as well as the Soliloquia of Saint Augustine, the Moralia in Iob of Saint Gregory the Great, the Liber sententiarum of Peter Lombard, and the Historia scholastica of Peter Comestor.

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  • Jakó, Zsigmond. “Könyv és könyvtár az erdélyi magyar művelődésben.” In Írás, könyv, értelmiség: Tanulmányok Erdély történelméhez. By Zsigmond Jakó, 284–304. Bucharest, Romania: Kriterion, 1976.

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    An overview of book and library culture in medieval Transylvania.

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  • Jakubovich, Emil. “A gyulafehérvári könyvpusztítás 1277-ben.” Magyar Könyvszemle 30.1–2 (1923): 139–140.

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    A letter of Bishop Stephen of Kalocsa to Pope John XXI recalls the pillage of the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in 1277, leading to the destruction of the books as well (kathedralem expugnavit . . . libros . . . in usus suorum inmundissimorum distribuit sociorum et feritate demum usus tartarica ipsam combussit).

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  • Lovass, Gyula. “Egy középkori francia kolostor könyvei Magyarországon.” Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny 62.4–9 (1938): 224–226.

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    On the monastic libraries of the Cistercians in Hungary from the late 12th century. Being affiliations, the Cistercian monasteries maintained a strong relationship with France. This connection affected their book provision as well: it served as a channel of book supply at the formative stage of their libraries.

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  • Madas, Edit. “Bécsi Glosszák.” Magyar Nyelv 77.4 (1981): 506–510.

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    On an early-15th-century codex with glosses in the vernacular Hungarian.

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  • Mezey, László. “Az oxfordi glosszák.” Magyar Nyelv 77.3 (1981): 372–376.

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    Argues that an early-13th-century manuscript (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lyell 70), containing the Historia scholastica of Peter Comestor, was used as a textbook and glossed in the vernacular Hungarian in the cathedral school of Esztergom.

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  • Szegfű, László. “Néhány XI századi liber portabilis nyomában (Gellért püspök kézikönyvei).” Acta Universitatis Szegediensis de Attila József Nominatae: Acta Bibliothecaria 8.1 (1979): 3–60.

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    On the sources relevant to the private library of Bishop Saint Gerard of Csanád in the 11th century.

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