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Criminology Transnational Crime
by
Jay S. Albanese

Introduction

Transnational crimes are violations of law that involve more than one country in their planning, execution, or impact. These offenses are distinguished from other crimes in their multinational nature, which poses unique problems in understanding their causes, developing prevention strategies, and in mounting effective adjudication procedures. Transnational crimes can be grouped into three broad categories involving provision of illicit goods (drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, weapons trafficking, and counterfeiting), illicit services (commercial sex and human trafficking), and infiltration of business and government (fraud, racketeering, money laundering, and corruption) affecting multiple countries. Transnational crimes are distinct from international crime, which involves crimes against humanity that may or may not involve multiple countries. Examples of international crimes are genocide and terrorism, which are also included in this guide to sources.

General Overviews

There are a growing number of texts that provide general overviews of transnational crime. Dammer, et al. 2006, Reichel 2008, and Pakes 2004 offer summaries of comparative criminal justice systems with some separate treatment of transnational crime. Fichtelberg 2008 provides a summary of international justice, with a discussion of several international and transnational crimes. These books are directed toward the undergraduate- or early graduate-level reader. Naím 2006 examines transnational crimes from the perspectives of its political and economic roots in globalization. Friedrichs 2007 delineates the conceptual distinctions between transnational crime and global criminology. Two edited volumes, Albanese 2005 and Reichel 2004, have individual chapters on specific transnational crimes, which are discussed in more depth.

  • Albanese, Jay S., ed. 2005. Transnational crime. Whitby, ON: de Sitter Publications.

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    An edited volume of seven chapters, focusing heavily on human trafficking and related crimes.

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  • Dammer, Harry R., Erika Fairchild, and Jay S. Albanese. 2006. Comparative criminal justice systems. 3d ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth Learning.

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    A comprehensive overview of crime and justice around the world, focusing on the treatment of crime and criminals under four “families” of law—common, civil, socialist, and Islamic—using six “model” nations as examples. Designed as a university textbook.

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  • Fichtelberg, Aaron. 2008. Crime without borders: An introduction to international criminal justice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

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    An introductory text providing useful overviews of the basis for international law, international and transnational crimes, and the response to them from international bodies.

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  • Friedrichs, David O. 2007. Transnational crime and global criminology: Definitional, typological, and contextual conundrums. Social Justice 34:4–18.

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    An effort to delineate the broad boundaries of transnational crime, including its organization and types, and to distinguishing it from global criminology.

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  • Naím, Moisés. 2006. Illicit: How smugglers, traffickers, and copycats are hijacking the global economy. New York: Anchor.

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    Presents an economic perspective on the global smuggling of people and goods, including the geopolitical roots of such crimes in a globalized world.

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  • Pakes, Francis. 2004. Comparative criminal justice. Cullompton, UK, and Portland, OR: Willan.

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    This introductory text focuses on the criminal justice process in different countries, focusing on Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australasia. An interesting perspective is provided on the methodology for comparative research and analysis and the essential ingredients of doing justice across cultures.

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  • Reichel, Philip, ed. 2004. Handbook of transnational crime and justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    A sweeping edited effort, with a series of twenty-four concise chapters on different transnational crimes and the governmental response to them.

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  • Reichel, Philip L. 2008. Comparative criminal justice systems: A topical approach. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

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    A broad textbook treatment of crime and justice providing an international perspective with an emphasis on the criminal justice response to crime in different legal systems (with a separate chapter on Japan).

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Data Sources

There is no single comprehensive source of data on transnational crimes, and for many offenses there are no data at all. Because transnational crimes involve two or more countries, most sources offer an incomplete picture of the problem. Van Dijk 2008 offers a useful summary of the available crime data across multiple countries around the world, including their limitations. This book focuses on comparative crime data (such as homicide, robbery, theft), rather than on transnational crimes, for which comparative data do not generally exist. Covering similar crimes for eight countries in Europe and North America over twenty years is Farrington, et al. 2004. Two efforts have attempted to compile data on larger groups of nations. The United Nations conducts periodic statistical surveys of member countries regarding their experience with crime and the operations of their criminal justice systems, and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2008 presents the most recent results of these surveys. McDonald 2002, an international edited effort, compiles the criminal justice systems of separate chapters on forty-seven countries, with summary information about crime in each country. In each case, the focus is on a comparative view of domestic crime rather than transnational crime. An older effort to compile international data (1960–1984) is Bennett 1991, but it has not been updated. Indeed, the development of systematic data for any transnational crime would be a significant contribution, and Savona and Steffanizzi 2007 and United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention 1999 explain why this is difficult to accomplish.

  • Bennett, Richard R. 1991. Development and crime: A cross-national, time-series analysis of competing models. Sociological Quarterly. 32:343–363.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00163.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A somewhat dated collection of data on crime and social, economic, and political variables for fifty-two nations over a 25-year period (1960–1984). The time-series data are divided into five substantive areas: offense, offender, and national social, political, and economic data. The data set is available online.

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  • Farrington, David P., Patrick A. Langan, and Michael Tonry, eds. 2004. Cross-national studies in crime and justice. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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    A comparative statistical summary of six crimes (murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, and motor vehicle theft) in eight countries in Europe and North America, covering the years 1981 to 1999. Measures of arrests, convictions, and prison sentences are included.

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  • McDonald, William, ed. 2002. World factbook of criminal justice systems. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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    An overview of the history, design, and operation of criminal justice systems in 47 countries, with separate reports on each country. Only summary crime data is presented for each country, focusing on crimes of assault and theft.

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    • Savona, Ernesto U., and Sonia Stefanizzi, eds. 2007. Measuring human trafficking: Complexities and pitfalls. New York: Springer.

      DOI: 10.1007/0-387-68044-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A compilation of papers explaining the issues involved in attempting to measure one serious form of transnational crime. Many of the observations here can be extrapolated to other forms of transnational crime.

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    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2008. The tenth United Nations survey of crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems.

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      A periodic survey conducted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to compile statistical data on crime and the operations of criminal justice systems of member countries. The tenth survey covered the years 2005–2006, with eighty-six countries have responding (as of 2009).

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      • United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention. 1999. Global report on crime and justice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        A report summarizing crime and justice data gathered by the United Nations in its periodic Surveys of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems. This volume has not been updated, but there is a single chapter on transnational crime, illustrating its still emerging status in 1999.

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      • van Dijk, Jan. 2008. The world of crime: Breaking the silence on problems of security, justice, and development across the world. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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        A good summary of available international crime statistics, focusing on the International Criminal Victims Survey. Includes a summary of available criminal justice system data across countries, much of which was gathered under auspices of the United Nations. The data itself is available online.

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      Drug Trafficking

      A great deal has been written about drug trafficking as a problem of transnational crime, because the source of most illegal drugs is often located in a country other than the one in which they are bought or used. Combined with the prohibitions against illicit drugs in most parts of the world, drug trafficking has become a central issue in transnational crime. A very useful source is the United Nations annual World Drug Report (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2008), which provides global data on the production, use, and trafficking of drugs, and also evaluates trends over time. Research based on conversations with drug traffickers provides a useful perspective into the organization of the illicit market. Decker and Chapman 2008, Chin 2009, and Zaitch 2008 provide excellent examples of this kind of research in the United States, Southwest Asia, and Colombia, respectively. Desroches 2007 offers a review of research on drug traffickers in four countries. Views of appropriate responses to the illicit drug trade are diverse, and two useful compilations of expert opinions are available in Bauder 2008 and US Congress 2008.

      • Bauder, Julia, ed. 2008. Drug trafficking. New York: Greenhaven; Thomson/Gale.

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        A collection of essays by experts, public officials, and researchers who disagree on the progress thus far, as well as possible solutions, in the fight against drug trafficking and drug-related corruption.

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      • Chin, Ko-lin. 2009. The golden triangle: Inside Southwest Asia’s drug trade. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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        A study of opiate and methamphetamine production in Burma, Thailand, and Laos, based on hundreds of interviews with poppy growers, drug dealers, users, and law enforcement authorities, illustrating the confluence of influences of nation-building, economic development, armed militias, and the global market in illicit drugs.

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      • Decker, Scott H., and Margaret Townsend Chapman. 2008. Drug smugglers on drug smuggling: Lessons from the inside. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

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        Describes how drug smugglers operate and how they evade capture, based on interviews with thirty-four incarcerated federal drug offenders.

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      • Desroches, Frederick. 2007. Research on upper level drug trafficking: A review. Journal Of Drug Issues 37:827–844.

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        A research review of major drug traffickers in four countries, including a typology of drug traffickers and models of the organization of drug networks.

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      • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2008. World drug report 2008.

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        An annual report that offers comprehensive information on estimates of drug production, use, trafficking, and consumption. This 2008 report provides a historical review of the international drug control system.

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      • US Congress. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 2008. Rogue online pharmacies: The growing problem of Internet drug trafficking. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        A transcript of the testimony of drug enforcement and treatment experts before the US Senate in 2007 on the use of the Internet to traffic in illicit narcotics, offering a good summary of opinions and experience on this form of drug trafficking.

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      • Zaitch, Damian. 2008. Trafficking cocaine: Colombian drug entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. New York: Springer.

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        A study of the social world of drug traffickers and how they organize their business, based on five years of ethnographic fieldwork with Colombian drug traffickers in the Netherlands and Colombia, illustrating the flexible and heterogeneous composition of cocaine trafficking enterprises.

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      Trafficking in Stolen Property

      Trafficking in stolen property occurs transnationally. Examples include international sea piracy, theft of antiquities and cultural objects, and smuggling of natural resources (such as wood and forest products, gemstones, and endangered species). Detailed studies of these kinds of transnational crimes are now emerging. Cuno 2008 and Watson and Todeschini 2007 review the problem of looted antiquities in terms of establishing ownership and the involvement of legitimate distributors. The trade in smuggling natural resources from developing to developed countries is the focus of various investigations, including Puustjärvi 2008, Tacconi 2007, and the US Congress 2008. Murphy 2007 examines the growing problem of sea piracy, while Schneider 2008 studies methods to reduce smuggling of endangered flora and fauna. Nordstrom 2007 examines the networks that underlie the illicit trade in stolen goods.

      • Cuno, James. 2008. Who owns antiquity? Museums and the battle over our ancient heritage. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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        The author, the director of the Art Institute of Chicago, addresses the international legal battle over ownership of archaeological objects, arguing that ownership is more than “ethnic nationalism” and that laws protecting cultural property should be less restrictive so more people have access to these objects.

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      • Murphy, Martin N. 2007. Contemporary piracy and maritime terrorism: The threat to international security. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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        A review of piracy as a form of maritime terrorism, examining piracy statistics, threat assessment, weapons, methods, and targets.

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      • Nordstrom, Carolyn. 2007. Global outlaws: Crime, money, and power in the contemporary world. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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        An ethnography spanning several continents, the result of the author spending several years talking to citizens, criminals, police, government officials, NGOs, and others to learn how criminal networks were organized and opportunities exploited for illicit trade.

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      • Puustjärvi, Esa. 2008. Proposal for a typology of illegal logging. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

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        Attempts to develop a typology for illegal logging incidents and recommended responses to it. The report is designed to assist the transfer of successful strategies among countries.

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      • Schneider, Jacqueline L. 2008. Reducing the illicit trade in endangered wildlife: The market reduction approach. Journal Of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24:274–295.

        DOI: 10.1177/1043986208318226Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Uses the illegal trade in endangered flora and fauna to explore how the market reduction approach can be expanded beyond its current use into the realm of nontraditional types of property crime to reduce and disrupt stolen goods markets and make it more risky for thieves to sell stolen property.

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      • Tacconi, Luca, ed. 2007. Illegal logging: Law enforcement, livelihoods and the timber trade. Sterling, VA.: Earthscan Publications.

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        A compilation of multiple perspectives on the causes and control of illegal logging. Focuses on the tension among the perspectives of law enforcement, rural livelihoods, and issues of governance and regulation.

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      • US Congress. House Committee on Natural Resources. 2008. Poaching American security: Impacts of illegal wildlife trade. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        A transcript of hearings before a committee of the US Congress in 2008, in which government and enforcement officials, as well as nongovernmental organizations and wildlife experts, testified about the “wildlife version of blood diamonds” to assess the extent to which profits from the illegal wildlife trade may be used to help finance conflict or terrorism around the world.

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      • Watson, Peter, and Cecilia Todeschini. 2007. The Medici conspiracy: The illicit journey of looted antiquities from Italy’s tomb raiders to the world’s greatest museums. New York: Public Affairs.

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        An account of an antiquities dealer found guilty of looting, explaining the various links to underground middlemen and corrupt dealers, in addition to legitimate auction houses that are implicated in this illicit trade.

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      Weapons Trafficking

      Trafficking in arms has become a major transnational crime issue, particularly following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent movement across borders of weapons originally designed for military use. The importance of the issue is highlighted by a binding United Nations protocol against the illicit manufacturing and trafficking in firearms that entered into force in 2005 and has been ratified by seventy-seven countries as of 2009. The scope of this trade is difficult to document, but several works have emerged to document known cases. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research 2005, Garcia 2006, and Thachuk 2007 analyze the relationship among governments, individuals, and traffickers and the impact of readily available supplies of small arms in fueling violence and instability around the world. Arsovska and Kostakos 2008 looks at the situation in the Balkans and demonstrates how economic incentives are only one of several important factors driving this market. Yihedgo 2007 discusses the role of international law in controlling the proliferation of small arms and light weapons.

      • Arsovska, Jana and Panos Kostakos. 2008. Illicit arms trafficking and the limits of rational choice theory: The case of the Balkans. Trends In Organized Crime 11:352–378.

        DOI: 10.1007/s12117-008-9052-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Identifies three different types of arms trafficking. The analysis points to cultural, social, and political factors that contribute to the illicit market beyond the incentive of profit making.

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      • Garcia, Denise. 2006. Small arms and security: New emerging international norms. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

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        Evaluates whether new international norms are emerging to regulate the proliferation of small arms, and explains how this illicit market fuels violence and instability, hindering development.

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      • Thachuk, Kimberly L., ed. 2007. Transnational threats: Smuggling and trafficking in arms, drugs, and human life. New York: Praeger Security International.

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        A collection of essays from contributors in law enforcement and the research community about transnational crimes, including arms trafficking. The nature of the threat is discussed, and the implications for security and terrorism explained.

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      • United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. 2005. Combating the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in West Africa: Handbook for the training of armed and security forces. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Publications.

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        A useful summary of the problem of small arms proliferation in the developing world. The relationships among governance, political instability, police training, and the general public are elucidated. Includes a case study of Nigeria, demonstrating the nature, scope, and impact of this problem in a specific country.

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      • Yihdego, Zeray. 2007. The arms trade and international law. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart.

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        The international movement of small arms and light weapons is assessed (ninety-nine countries and one thousand companies are identified with the manufacturing and supply of such weapons), focusing on their unregulated trade and transfer across borders and the issues raised in terms of manufacturing, legal trade and transfer, and state responsibility.

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      Counterfeiting

      The rapid growth of forged currency and sham products of all kinds has corresponded with the expansion in recent years of international communications, travel, and trade. Although systematic data do not exist, several useful studies and analyses have been undertaken to help explain the nature of the problem and potential remedies. Phillips 2005 provides a useful discussion of counterfeiting of multiple products and their social impact. The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences has written a report about making it more difficult to counterfeit US currency (National Research Council 2006). The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute has conducted an expansive overview of the problem of counterfeiting medicines and other products (United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute 2007), and the US Congress has held hearings to investigate the alleged role of the government of North Korea in sponsoring counterfeiting operations (US Congress 2007). Rutter and Bryce 2008 administered questionnaires to evaluate the conduct and motivations of the purchasers of counterfeit products in the United Kingdom.

      • National Research Council. Committee on Technologies to Deter Currency Counterfeiting. 2006. Is that real? Identification and assessment of the counterfeiting threat for US banknotes. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

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        A research report requested by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) of the Department of the Treasury on the design and printing of US bank notes. Assesses emerging threats to US currency and an analysis of a systems approach to the counterfeiting threat.

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      • Phillips, Tim. 2005. Knockoff: The deadly trade in counterfeit goods. London: Kogan Page.

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        An account by a business journalist on the nature and impact of counterfeit products on the economy, public health, corruption, and organized crime—including accounts of fake CDs, cigarettes, drugs, auto parts, software, and other products.

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      • Rutter, Jason, and Jo Bryce. 2008. The consumption of counterfeit goods: “Here be pirates?” Sociology 42:1146–1164.

        DOI: 10.1177/0038038508096938Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Quantitative data gathered through questionnaires explores the location, frequency, and motivations of purchasers of counterfeit products in the United Kingdom.

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      • United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. 2007. Counterfeiting: A global spread, a global threat. Turin, Italy: UNICRI.

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        An assessment of the nature and extent of counterfeiting of medicine, toys, spare parts, and other goods, pointing to the need for better data collection, legal changes, enforcement methods, and attention to the role of organized crime.

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      • US Congress. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs. 2007. North Korea: Illicit activity funding the regime. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        The transcript of hearing in 2006 at which government officials, researchers, and law enforcement testified about alleged counterfeiting of US currency and various products sponsored by the government of North Korea.

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      Commercial Sex

      The sale of sex and pornography across borders occurs more frequently as Internet communication and international travel become easier. Gerdes 2006 gathers perspectives on all sides of the criminalization/decriminalization and regulation/deregulation debates on commercial sex. Leitzel 2008 offers a critical analysis of the regulation of vices and the reasons for past failures, whereas United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 2006 offers a practical guide involving strategies to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation. Albanese 2007 provides an overview of the sexual exploitation of children for profit in North America. Di Nicola, et al. 2009 reports on a study that focuses on the demand side of commercial sex and how it can be addressed more effectively, and Bernstein 2007 studies the growth of commercial sex among the middle-class providers and consumers.

      Human Trafficking

      Trafficking in human beings involves the movement or harboring of persons for the purpose of exploitation, using force, fraud, or coercion. The literature is divided between law and policy analyses and attempts to develop and analyze data. DeStefano 2007 traces the events leading up to the US law that defined human trafficking in 2000 and how it has worked in practice. Aronowitz 2009 provides an international perspective on the human trafficking issue. Newman 2006 offers a guide from the perspective of police officers trying to detect and appropriately address cases of human trafficking. A global perspective is provided in United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006, a report that attempted to document the extent of human trafficking in world regions using secondary sources. A country-by-country presentation of anti-human trafficking efforts is offered in United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2009. Zhang 2008 reports on fieldwork and interviews with Chinese human smugglers, and Surtees 2008 reports on data on human trafficking offenders and victims in southeastern Europe. The related issue of trafficking in human body parts has only recently drawn attention, and its dimensions are discussed in United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2008.

      Fraud

      Fraud involves purposely obtaining the property of another through deception. Entrusting property to the custody of others, storing property at remote locations, and electronic movement of property are major changes in the way property is now handled, increasing opportunities for theft. Albanese 2007 compiles research studies that assess intellectual property theft from several different perspectives. US Congress 2008 presents perspectives on the problem of intellectual property theft and counterfeiting frauds emanating from Russia and China. Burgess 2008 and Chaudry and Zimmerman 2009 take a broad view of the problems of intellectual property theft and counterfeiting as forms of fraud, and suggest how they can be more clearly understood and addressed on a global level. Levi 2008 offers a typology of frauds and networks engaged in fraud to explain the different types of fraud offenses and offenders. Nasheri 2005 offers a contextual analysis of economic espionage and fraud in the private sector.

      • Albanese, Jay S., ed. 2007. Combating piracy: Intellectual property theft and fraud. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.

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        A collection of research papers examining the causes of intellectual property theft, its links to organized crime, white-collar crime, and global policy, as well as a report of a US Justice Department task force on intellectual property.

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      • Burgess, Christopher, and Richard Power. 2008. Secrets stolen, fortunes lost: Preventing intellectual property theft and economic espionage in the 21st century. Oxford: Syngress.

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        A series of case studies that illustrate common causes of intellectual property theft and economic espionage, along with ways to prevent it.

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      • Chaudhry, Peggy, and Alan Zimmerman. 2009. The economics of counterfeit trade: Governments, consumers, pirates, and intellectual property rights. New York: Springer.

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        An examination of the size of the counterfeit market, together with recommendations for business in combating piracy and fraud in global perspective.

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      • Levi, Michael. 2008. Organized fraud and organizing frauds: Unpacking research on networks and organization. Criminology And Criminal Justice 8:389–419.

        DOI: 10.1177/1748895808096470Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        An assessment of the variety of actors, settings, and variables important to understanding various types of frauds. Also analyzes the organization of frauds and the relationship of fraud networks to organized and transnational crimes.

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      • Nasheri, Hedieh. 2005. Economic espionage and industrial spying. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        An examination of the historical and conceptual foundation of economic espionage, trade secret thefts, and industrial spying. Nasheri analyzes the impact of these activities and the legislative efforts to control them domestically and internationally, using more than forty actual cases.

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      • US Congress. House Committee on the Judiciary. 2008. International piracy: The challenges of protecting intellectual property in the 21st century. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        A transcript of 2007 hearings before Congress on piracy and counterfeiting, focusing on Russia and China. Includes testimony and perspectives from government officials, representatives of trade groups, and nongovernmental organizations on the extent of the problem and enforcement alternatives.

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      Racketeering

      Racketeering was created as an offense by a 1970 US law that provided for extended penalties for crimes committed as part of an ongoing criminal enterprise. Similar laws have since been enacted in a number of other countries. Glenny 2009 and Saviano 2008 provide broad descriptions of the operations of racketeering enterprises in several countries. Paoli 2008 and Siegel and Nelen 2008 report on social science research into the political and market forces and the local cultures that create and maintain racketeering enterprises. Van Dijk 2007 attempts to measure the impact of organized crime activity on national wealth. US Congress 2007 describes the nature of bribery and extortion between businesses and criminal groups in Colombia, whereas Jacobs 2006 examines similar types of racketeering and extortion in the construction industry in New York.

      • Glenny, Misha. 2009. McMafia: A journey through the global criminal underworld. New York: Vintage.

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        A comprehensive description of changes in organized crime and illegal trade, focusing on the newly independent states emerging after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The author, a journalist, also describes the operation of organized criminal networks in other global locations.

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      • Jacobs, James B. 2006. Mobsters, unions, and feds: The Mafia and the American labor movement. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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        A study of the history and current status of racketeering in the construction industry, focusing on the influence of Italian-American organized crime in New York City. The causal conditions of pervasive corruption are assessed, as are the outcomes of multiple prosecutions and the mixed success of federal monitors to replace convicted labor leaders.

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      • Paoli, Letizia. 2008. Mafia brotherhoods: Organized crime, Italian style. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        A research study of the mafia in Italy, relying on historical work and the confessions of former mafia members who became government informants; the author finds the consolidation of local political power to be a major factor in understanding the activities, motivations, and structure of the mafia.

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      • Saviano, Roberto. 2008. Gomorrah: A personal journey into the violent international empire of Naples’ organized crime system. Translated by Virginia Jewiss. New York: Picador.

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        A detailed description of organized crime in Italy focusing on the Camorra in Naples and the efforts of the police to control their racketeering activity and violence. The Camorra is portrayed as a network of professional criminals with a pervasive influence in the clothing market, art collecting, drug dealing, construction trades, and toxic waste disposal.

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      • Siegel, Dina, and Hans Nelen, eds. 2008. Organized crime: Culture, markets, and policies. New York: Springer.

        DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-74733-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This book, with fifteen research contributions, points to the need for more in-depth studies and empirical knowledge about organized crime in specific situational contexts. The contributors address many different aspects of organized crime, including drugs, diamonds, human trafficking, ecological crime, conflict resolution, and underground banking in many different countries.

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      • US Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs and House Committee on Education and Labor. 2007. Protection and money: US companies, their employees, and violence in Colombia. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        A transcript of testimony before a joint congressional hearing on the conduct of US businesses in Colombia that are paying money to protect their operations and employees in that country. Government officials, nongovernmental organizations, and businesses (in both Colombia and the United States) testified to their version of the circumstances of payments made in response to demands from criminal and terrorist groups in Colombia.

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      • Van Dijk, Jan. 2007. Mafia markers: Assessing organized crime and its impact upon societies. Trends In Organized Crime 10:39–56.

        DOI: 10.1007/s12117-007-9013-xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        An empirical exploratory model is presented to assess the independent effect of organized crime, rule of law, and corruption on national wealth. The findings suggest that toleration of activities of local criminal groups have measurable negative impacts.

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      Money Laundering

      Money laundering is the processing of criminal proceeds to disguise their illegal origin. It first became a transnational crime issue during the 1980s, when drug-trafficking profits became a problem of international concern. Currently, money laundering is closely associated with terrorism in finding ways to generate and move funds around the world. In 2006, the first US–government-wide analysis of money laundering vulnerabilities in the nation was issued (United States Money Laundering Threat Assessment Working Group 2006). Reuter and Truman 2004 provides an economic assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of existing anti–money laundering measures. Schott 2006 is a World Bank report on international anti–money laundering standards and is intended to serve as a guide for nations and international organizations to comply with detection, reporting, and prosecution standards. Koh 2006 and Stessens 2000 review international criminal law and how it can be used to suppress money laundering and the financing of terrorism, and both offer an assessment of money laundering prevention strategies and mechanisms for international cooperation. Vlcek 2007 discusses the costs to individual liberty of increased financial surveillance of all citizens in the search for terror suspects.

      • Koh, Jae-myong. 2006. Suppressing terrorist financing and money laundering. New York: Springer.

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        An analysis of the development of international law for countering terrorist financing from the perspective of international criminal law, tracing the operational and theoretical development of global anti–money laundering strategy.

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      • Reuter, Peter, and Edwin M. Truman. 2004. Chasing dirty money: Progress on anti-money laundering. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.

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        Tracing the development of anti–money laundering strategies from illegal drugs to terrorism, the authors describe what is known about the nature and extent of the problem and assess existing anti–money laundering measures.

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      • Schott, Paul Allen. 2006. Reference guide to anti–money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism. 2d ed. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

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        A World Bank report that details international anti–money laundering standards, including the specific actions countries and international organizations must take to comply in preventing, detecting, and prosecuting money laundering and terrorist financing.

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      • Stessens, Guy. 2000. Money laundering: A new international law enforcement model. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        An overview and assessment of anti–money laundering instruments, prevention strategies, and mechanisms for international cooperation from a European perspective.

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      • United States Money Laundering Threat Assessment Working Group. 2006. U.S. money laundering threat assessment. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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        This report was the first government-wide analysis of money laundering in the United States, focusing on money transmitters, check cashers, currency exchangers, money orders, debit cards, online payments systems, informal value transfer systems, bulk cash smuggling, insurance companies, shell companies, and casinos.

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      • Vlcek, William. 2007. Surveillance to combat terrorist financing in Europe: Whose liberty, whose security? European Security 16:99–119.

        DOI: 10.1080/09662830701442436Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        An analysis of recent developments to combat terrorist financing, particularly questioning the utility of financial surveillance as a method to counter terrorism. The impact on individual liberty from unproven surveillance practices in pursuit of security is described.

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      Corruption

      Corruption is defined broadly as the abuse of power for private gain. It is a core problem that underlies a great deal of transnational and international crime and prevents nations from operating effectively under the rule of law, rather than by deception or tyranny. Much corruption research is economic in nature, searching for the precise links between corruption and economic development (including crime). Buscaglia and van Dijk 2003 is a macro-level empirical analysis of institutional factors associated with corruption and organized crime among nations. Spector 2005 reviews corruption in nine development sectors of the economy and the issue of “re-corrupting” after reforms are made. Economic analyses include Lambsdorff 2008, which provides an economic analysis of corruption and the impact of reforms, and Rose-Ackerman 2007, which offers a collection of essays and research that links corrupt economic incentives to institutional structures in government and business. Fisman and Miguel 2008 provides expert opinion regarding the failure of developing countries to develop because of corruption, and Transparency International 2008 is an annual report based on survey research that describes comparative levels of corruption around the world.

      • Buscaglia, Egardo, and Jan van Dijk. 2003. Controlling organized crime and corruption in the public sector. Forum On Crime And Society 3:3–34.

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        An empirical study of multiple nations on factors associated with corruption and organized crime. The authors conclude that the quality of state institutions, such as police, prosecution, and courts, is the most significant factor in explaining levels of corruption, regardless of the level of national development.

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      • Lambsdorff, Johann Graf. 2008. The institutional economics of corruption and reform: Theory, evidence and policy. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        An economic analysis of corruption and potential reforms by the developer of Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index, arguing that reforms should increase the likelihood of betrayal among corrupt actors.

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      • Fisman, Raymond, and Edward Miguel. 2008. Economic gangsters: Corruption, violence, and the poverty of nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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        The authors, who are economists, conclude that many developing countries have not progressed because of corruption, and they argue for better research to evaluate various development approaches and their relationship to corruption.

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      • Rose-Ackerman, Susan, ed. 2007. International handbook on the economics of corruption. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

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        A collection of commissioned essays and research that links corrupt incentives to institutional structures. Also reports on surveys of households or businesses on corruption, and on corruption in education, tax administration, public works, customs, and pharmaceuticals.

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      • Spector, Bertram I. 2005. Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian.

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        An examination of corruption and its impact in nine development sectors—education, agriculture, energy, environment, health, justice, private business, political parties, and public finance. Offers policy suggestions that minimize the risk of “re-corrupting” forces.

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      • Transparency International. 2008. Global corruption report 2008. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        An annual report based on international comparative surveys on the nature and extent of corruption in the business and governmental sectors of different countries. The report also discusses corruption-related developments around the world and summarizes of recent corruption-related research. The data are available online.

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      International Crime

      International crimes are offenses against humanity, including such offenses as genocide, war crimes, and terrorism. There is a large body of literature on this topic, covering the fields of law, political science, international studies, and criminology. Forst 2009 explains the relationship between terrorism and other forms of crime, as well as the policies needed to address it. Both Morrison 2008 and Simpson 2007 examine the unique legal issues involved in the prosecution of war crimes under international law. Henham and Behrens 2007 reviews the law of genocide from its creation as a crime to its current status under international law. Kalek, et al. 2007 and Mettraux 2006 assess the prosecution of international crimes from the perspectives of national practices, ad hoc tribunals, and the International Criminal Court.

      • Forst, Brian. 2009. Terrorism, crime, and public policy. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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        A historical and contemporary assessment of the many manifestations of terrorism, with a discussion of near-term and long-term responses, together with an argument for the relevance of terrorism and its impacts on the field of criminology.

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      • Henham, Ralph, and Paul Behrens, eds. 2007. The criminal law of genocide: International, comparative, and contextual aspects. Aldershot, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

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        A compilation of perspectives on genocide in World War II, Darfur, and Rwanda, and an analysis of the legal jurisdiction and jurisprudence issues in responding to these incidents.

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      • Kalek, Wolfgang, Michael Ratner, Tobias Singelnstein, and Peter Weiss, eds. 2007. International prosecution of human rights crimes. Berlin and New York: Springer.

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        An evaluation of current developments in the prosecution of human rights crimes. Experts from different countries describe national practices and a growing universal jurisdiction under the International Criminal Court.

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      • Mettraux, Guénaël. 2006. International crimes and the ad hoc tribunals. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        A critical review of case law developments in prosecuting international crimes under the ad hoc tribunals in several postconflict countries. Provides a summary of the workings of the tribunals and their legal and operational impacts.

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      • Morrison, Howard. 2008. International crimes and trials. International Criminal Law Review 8:391–398.

        DOI: 10.1163/157181208X308727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A discussion of issues of national sovereignty, universal jurisdiction, impunity, immunity, and the International Criminal Court, suggesting that global developments in international criminal law are closely connected to international human rights laws.

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      • Simpson, Gerry J. 2007. Law, war, and crime: War crimes, trials, and the reinvention of international law. Malden, MA: Polity.

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        Analysis of the political, legal, and cultural context of war crimes trials, tracing their development from the origins in outlawing piracy to the establishment of the International Criminal Court.

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      Policy and Prevention

      There has been a great deal written about what should be done to prevent the spread of transnational crime. This literature usually takes a policy and practice perspective, focusing on national and international agreements and law enforcement approaches needed to better control transnational crimes and bring offenders to justice. Aromaa and Viljanen 2006 offers a critical assessment of transnational crime prevention programs. Bayley 2006 offers specifics on how policing can be improved more systematically in developing nations. Both Brown 2008 and Leong 2007 assess legal tools and cross-border approaches for international crime. Clark and Newman 2006 applies a situational crime prevention approach to the crime of terrorism, while Fazey 2007 critically examines the multiple international approaches to drug control policy. Small and Taylor 2006 describes state and local law enforcement responses to transnational crime. Aromaa and Redo 2008 presents a number of ways in which accepted standards, laws, and programs can be disseminated more effectively around the world.

      • Aromaa, Kauko, and Slawomir Redo, eds. 2008. For the rule of law: Criminal justice teaching and training across the world. Helsinki, Finland: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI).

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        An edited volume of twenty papers that evaluate ways to disseminate accepted international standards, laws, and crime prevention procedures through various training and education methods.

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      • Aromaa, Kauko, and Terhi Viljanen, eds. 2006. International key issues in crime prevention and criminal justice. Helsinki, Finland: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI).

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        A compilation of ten papers critically assessing crime prevention programs and approaches. Addresses organized crime, corruption, human rights, and international cooperation in law enforcement and adjudication.

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      • Bayley, David H. 2006. Changing the guard: Developing democratic police abroad. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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        An explanation of how reform of police departments and police conduct can be systematically improved around the world, especially in developing countries, in the context of encouraging the development of democratic governments.

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      • Brown, Steven David, ed. 2008. Combating international crime: The longer arm of the law. London and New York: Routledge-Cavendish.

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        A collection of essays discussing the role of international organizations, liaison offices, investigative techniques, and extradition, emphasizing the need for cross-border approaches to the problem of transnational and international crimes.

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      • Clarke, Ronald V., and Graeme R. Newman. 2006. Outsmarting the terrorists. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

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        A situational crime prevention approach to terrorism is presented, offering specific suggestions for reducing opportunities for terrorist incidents, understanding terrorist decision making and target selection, and how such a prevention policy might be implemented in practice.

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      • Fazey, Cindy. 2007. International policy on illicit drug trafficking: The formal and informal mechanisms. Journal Of Drug Issues 37:755–779.

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        A critique of the formal and informal transnational groups that have formed in recent years to prevent and intervene in drug trafficking. An integrated approach focuses on money laundering and precursor chemicals to address the problem earlier in the process. Authors note the need for better cooperation and the harmonization of statistics among key international bodies.

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      • Leong, Angela Veng Mei. 2007. The disruption of international organised crime: An analysis of legal and non-legal strategies. Aldershot, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

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        An assessment of national (United Kingdom) and international legal instruments and civil recovery regulations designed to address transnational organized crime and the flow of illicit goods and services across borders.

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      • Small, Kevonne, and Bruce Taylor. 2006. State and local law enforcement response to transnational crime. Trends In Organized Crime 10:5–17.

        DOI: 10.1007/s12117-006-1033-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Reports on the results of a survey that describes current identification and response strategies to transnational organized crime by state and local law enforcement agencies. Needs for improving effectiveness in the future are also noted.

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      LAST MODIFIED: 12/14/2009

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396607-0024

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