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Criminology Community and Problem-Oriented Policing
by
Jack Greene

Introduction

Ideas associated with community and problem-oriented policing came about in the late 1980s and early 1990s partly in reaction to concerns about rises in crime, partly in recognition that older police strategies were not working particularly well, partly as a means of reconnecting the police to urban communities, most particularly minority and under-privileged communities, and partly to increase the transparency and accountability of policing to its many publics. For a number of years prior to the late 1980s policing in the United States and other Western countries was “experimenting” with police models that focused police attention on local communities and their crime, disorder, and fear problems. Several of these “experiments” were short lived, but collectively ideas associated with neighborhood and team policing exerted influence on how the police were to provide safety and security to urban communities, while at the same time maintaining community support and confidence. At the same time criminology, building on earlier work, focused more attention on the role of communities in crime, and what has become known as situational crime prevention. The convergence of a police neighborhood focus with academic theories emphasizing place as a major determinant of criminality represented a major shift for policing worldwide. From these early roots community and problem-oriented policing rose in police thought and practice and have spread as both the rationale for policing (community focus) as well as the preferred method of police intervention (problem solving). The following series of references is partitioned in five major ways. First, there are references on the intellectual development of community and problem-oriented policing as they evolved and have continued to the present. Second, are references that provide some assessment of community and problem-oriented policing interventions, although it has been demonstrated that many of these efforts lacked scientific rigor. Third, “Hot Spots” policing, as a variant of problem-oriented policing, has gained considerable intellectual, program, and evaluation attention, so a separate section is devoted to this topic. Fourth, references are provided that focus on the institutional, organizational, and police work changes that are often associated with implementing community and problem-oriented policing. Fifth, references are provided that focus on the future of community and problem-oriented policing and international efforts emphasizing the larger social attachments of the police, as well as their role for safety and security in modern society.

General Overviews

Community and problem-oriented policing have deep historical roots and many intellectual heritages. What has perhaps impacted policing strategies most is the shift in criminological thinking from individuals as the sources of crime problems to considerations of crime as concentrated in different neighborhoods. Additionally, where older theories of criminality often focused on psychological abnormalities or social deprivation, the emergence of a literature emphasizing reasoning criminals and situational crime prevention also provides a foundation for both community and problem-oriented policing, often focusing on urban disadvantage and social disorganization as important forces shaping individuals’ behaviors. Early works of the Chicago School of Sociology began to focus on urban dynamics and the patterning of social behaviors in cities. The early work Park, et al. 1925 provides a rationale and set of methods to examine urban areas from an ecological perspective. Such an approach guides the work of Shaw and McKay, who examined the linkage between urban communities and delinquency (Shaw and McKay 1969). Such studies fell into some disregard throughout the 1960s and 1970s but were revitalized in a broader empirical and conceptual way, in Sampson and Groves 1989 and Bursik and Grasmick 1998, rekindling ideas about social disorganization and crime. These ideas were applied to both crime and aspects of policing by Skogan 1990 and the “criminology of place” reinforced in Weisburd 1997, where public policy was to also include the social and geographic context of crime in communities. Two works, Cornish and Clarke 1986 and Felson 1998, call attention to criminality as stemming from choices made by criminals and ways to influence those choices by increasing guardianship for places and reducing opportunities for crime.

  • Bursik, Robert. J., Jr., and Harold G. Grasmick. 1998. Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington Books.

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    Using an empirical approach, this research builds on earlier models of neighborhood social disorganization by examining how community networks attempt to create and then maintain neighborhood crime prevention programs. This work also includes a review of the literature on crime and communities, as well as a discussion of the policy implications of this formulation.

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  • Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke, eds. 1986. The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

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    This collection of papers offers an alternative way of thinking about criminal behavior—a rational choice model of criminal offending, emphasizing offender decision making and adaptive choice in committing crime. How criminals choose their victims and locations are examined and the importance of this theoretical perspective as an alternative to those that emphasize social or psychological mal-adaptation is emphasized.

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  • Felson, Marcus. 1998 Crime and everyday life. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

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    Building on earlier work, the author uses the idea of routine activities—those behaviors that organize everyday life—as greatly influencing criminal choices to commit crime in places. Motivated offenders consider the availability of suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians in making their choices to commit crimes in particular locations.

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  • Park, Robert E., Ernest Burgess, and Roderick McKenzie. 1925. The city: Suggestions for the study of human behavior in the urban environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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    A central work outlining the urban social ecological approach to the study of urban life, including crime and social disorder. The central focus was to better describe the spatial organization of urban areas combining social, political, cultural, and other data to understand urban social behavior and to map areas of the city to understand differences in urban neighborhoods.

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  • Sampson, Robert J., and W. Byron Groves. 1989. Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology 94.4 (January): 774–802.

    DOI: 10.1086/229068Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research tests Shaw and McKay’s community social disorganization theory—the inability of communities to maintain effective social control—by building a community-level theory that examines the antecedents of community social disorganization and their effects on crime and delinquency rates. Analyzing data from the British Crime Survey from 1982 and 1984, the results support the hypothesis offered.

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  • Shaw, Clifford R., and Henry D. McKay. 1969. Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: the University of Chicago Press.

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    A foundational study examining the link between community social disorganization and rates of juvenile delinquency. These studies suggested that crime and delinquency were responses to the social, cultural, and structural characteristics of the communities and the inability of these communities to act collectively in shaping the public behaviors of youth.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G. 1990. Disorder and decline: Crime and the spiral of decay in American neighborhoods. New York: Free Press.

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    This work examines the relationship between neighborhood decline, social disorder, and crime as well as experimental efforts in several American cities to interrupt the cycle of decline and social disorder. The research supports the idea that social disorder erodes the level of control that neighborhoods can exercise, leading to increases in both fear of crime and its occurrence.

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  • Weisburd, David. 1997. Reorienting crime prevention research and policy: From the causes of criminality to the context of crime. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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    This report, focused on situational crime prevention research and policy, compares traditional crime prevention approaches to those of situational, or place-based, crime prevention efforts. The report considers the strengths of each approach, but emphasizes the need for a considered review of the situational approach where existing research has demonstrated its impact as a prevention strategy and as a means for reformulating thought about crime.

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Reference Resources

As community and problem-oriented policing programs and their assessment have grown between 1990 and the present, so, too, have an array of government and research program–based websites providing information on these subjects. Some of these websites are part of police associations and/or supported by federal research, while others are sponsored and supported directly by governmental funding agencies. Collectively, they provide a good amount of information about police responses that fall under the community and problem-oriented policing umbrella. Three of these websites (Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, National Institute of Justice Reference Service and Home Office) are government-sponsored websites reporting their funding and research efforts. One (the International Association of Chiefs of Police) provides information on the world’s largest police leaders’ membership organization. Both the Police Foundation and the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) are research organizations that regularly assess and evaluate police programs and initiatives. The Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) website provides program and evaluation information for the most recent series of programs in the US aimed at reducing gun and gang violence. Finally, the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing and the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy are academically affiliated websites with the former providing program and evaluation information on police problem-solving, and the latter, using an evidence-based approach, providing critique and review of current research, its rigor, and how the cumulative research in an area can shape policy.

Definitions

This section considers definitions of both community-oriented policing (COP) and problem-oriented policing (POP) as they continue to evolve. Generally speaking community policing is a broad-brushed concept focused on community engagement, police and community partnership building, and increasing acceptance of the police by the community. Alternatively, problem-oriented policing, while also achieving these ends, is most focused on addressing discrete crime and social disorder problems. Taken together COP and POP seek to solve problems, often through analysis, community engagement, and partnerships.

Community Policing

The emergence of ideas associated with community policing is directly attributable to Herman Goldstein (see Goldstein 1977 and Goldstein 1987), who challenged policing to be more analytic, and focused on what the police accomplish in community settings. Such challenges ignited a wide array of local experiments that sought to change how policing was done, organizationally and by individual police officers. Skolnick and Bayley 1986 and Skolnick and Bayley 1988 capture the themes and variations of these approaches and help frame policing as the co-production (with the community) of public safety. Trojanowicz and Bucqueroux 1990 builds on the descriptive aspects of community policing, and Greene and Mastrofski 1988 tests some of the early notions of community policing more empirically. The volume edited by Skogan (Skogan 2004) examines the claims of community policing against its achievements, asking the central question “Can it work?” and offering a set of mixed results for how community policing has been implemented and its impact.

  • Goldstein, Herman. 1977. Policing a free society. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

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    This treatise challenges historic assumptions of policing and offers a rationale for improving the role and functioning of the police. Goldstein deepens this discussion by considering the means and ends of policing and the inversion of means and ends that was guiding police structure and functioning. A broad overview on the need for police reform.

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  • Goldstein, Herman. 1987. Toward community-oriented policing: Potential, basic requirements, and threshold questions. Crime and Delinquency 33.1: 6–30.

    DOI: 10.1177/0011128787033001002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A foundational discussion of shifting the police from traditional approaches to crime suppression and deterrence toward problem-oriented policing, focused on how the police can actually address local community disorder and crime problems. Such shifts must be accompanied by a redefinition of the police role in the community. Four questions are posed as needing clarification if policing is to make such a shift.

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  • Greene, Jack R., and Stephen D. Mastrofski, eds. 1988. Community policing: Rhetoric or reality? New York: Praeger.

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    This collection of papers considers the early development of community policing in the United States, England and Wales, and Canada. Individual papers consider the conceptual development of community policing, separating the rhetoric from program realities, program development, and implementation issues as well as the quality of research undertaken to assess community policing at the time.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G., ed. 2004. Community policing: Can it work? Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This collection of papers considers developments in community policing from several perspectives that address a specific question—can this new strategy of policing actually work? The chapters are organized around three issues: (1) whether in fact the police are changing; (2) whether the public can be engaged in effective community crime prevention programs; and (3) whether police officers themselves will buy-in to community policing norms, moving away from traditional policing.

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  • Skolnick, Jerome H., and David H. Bayley. 1986. The new blue line: Police innovation in six American cities. New York: Free Press.

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    This research reports on observational studies in six American cities, each of which sought to innovate police strategy and practice, with variations of community policing and problem solving. The work outlined how each city approached issues such as community and police crime prevention collaboration, shifting the police role from deterrence to prevention, and the array of organizational and communication issues that accompany such changes.

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  • Skolnick, Jerome H., and David H. Bayley. 1988. Theme and variation in community policing. In Crime and justice: A review of research. Vol. 10. Edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, 1–37. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    This chapter considers the themes and variation of community policing, most particularly in the Western world. The central premise of community policing as the co-production of crime prevention in community settings is introduced, as are several common elements of community policing programs. Impediments to realizing the aspirations of community policing are discussed, as is the need for increased police legitimacy.

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  • Trojanowicz, Robert T., and Bonnie Bucqueroux. 1990. Community policing: A contemporary perspective. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

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    This work traces the development of community policing, outlining the underlining philosophy of community policing and its implications for police strategy, the police role changes that accompany such strategic shifts, and the need to develop closer ties to the community in matters of public safety and crime prevention. Several case studies of community policing are also provided.

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Problem-Oriented Policing

Problem-oriented policing is organized around an analytic method such that policing should broadly scan the environment to better understand problems, analyze the dynamics of these problems, design and implement responses that fit the problem analysis, and assess the impact of the response on the problem to be solved. Eck and Spelman 1987, Goldstein 1979, and Goldstein 1990 outline this general methodology and its advantages for policing. Subsequent work (Clarke 1998, Eck and Clarke 2003, and Goldstein 2003) assesses the implementation and conceptual shortcoming of problem-oriented policing as put into practice and makes recommendations for conceptual and analytic improvements. Finally, Cordner 1998 and Moore 1992 consider variations on problem-oriented policing and the linkage between community-oriented policing (COP) and problem-oriented policing (POP).

  • Clarke, Ronald V. 1998. Defining police strategies: Problem solving, problem-oriented policing and community oriented policing. In Problem oriented policing: Crime-specific patterns, critical issues and making POP work. Edited by Tara O’Connor Shelly and Anne C. Grant, 315–330. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This chapter reviews the growth and development of problem-oriented policing with specific attention to how POP has been poorly implemented and drifted from the original conception of police problem solving. The chapter reviews deficiencies in the use of the SARA Model (scanning, analysis, response, and assessment) and makes recommendations for improving the correspondence between the conceptual aspects of problem-oriented policing and its actual practice.

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  • Cordner, Gary W. 1998. Problem oriented policing vs. zero tolerance. In Problem oriented policing: Crime-specific patterns, critical issues and making POP work. Edited by Tara O’Connor Shelly and Anne C. Grant, 303–314. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This chapter focuses on the problems that POP encountered in its first generation of implementation, and the need to balance the implementation and substance of POP moving forward. The chapter importantly considers how problem-oriented policing relates to hot spots policing and more recently to zero-tolerance policing, comparing New York City (zero-tolerance) and San Diego (problem-oriented) and concluding that much of the zero-tolerance approach has yet to be verified.

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  • Eck, John E., and Ronald V. Clarke. 2003. Classifying common police problems: A routine activity approach. In Theory for practice in situational crime prevention. Edited by Martha J. Smith and Derek B. Cornish, 7–40. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter, in a collection of readings devoted to situational crime prevention, provides a rationale for problem solving as being a new unit of police work and analysis by proposing a classification system for “problems.” Taken from routine activities theory, this classification system is based on the types of behaviors encountered and the locales in which they occur.

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  • Eck, John E., and William Spelman. 1987. Problem solving: Problem oriented policing in Newport News. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This research reports on an assessment of a department-wide effort to introduce problem-oriented policing to the Newport News, Virginia, Police Department. The study outlines a methodology for police problem solving and reports significant declines in targeted crimes. The study was one of the first large-scale assessments of problem-oriented policing, and its findings support the continued development of problem solving for the police. Case studies are provided as part of the analysis.

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  • Goldstein, Herman. 1979. Improving policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 25 (April): 236–258.

    DOI: 10.1177/001112877902500207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Goldstein argues that the police have become susceptible to an inversion of means over ends, wherein they measure effort and take those measures as statements of outcome. Goldstein argues that the professionalism movement focused the police on issues like response time and clearance rates, but not on the levels of local crime, social disorder, and fear. Focusing on outcomes is a necessary component to effective policing.

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  • Goldstein, Herman. 1990. Problem-oriented policing. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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    This is a seminal work in defining police problem solving. Problem-oriented policing is a policing strategy that analyzes crime and disorder problems in neighborhoods and then develops police interventions targeted to those problems. Rather than police strategies emphasizing general deterrence, POP places more emphasis on analysis and the engagement of public and private agencies as necessary for effective crime prevention.

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  • Goldstein, Herman. 2003. On further developing problem-oriented policing: The most critical need, the major impediments, and a proposal. In Mainstreaming problem-oriented policing. Edited by Johannes Knutsson, 13–48. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter reflects on developments associated with problem-oriented policing and identifies five impediments to advancing the idea of police problem solving: the need to strengthen the police institution, the need for improvements in analytic and evaluation strategies, the need for clearer linkage to the academic community, a reduction in uninformed outside pressures on police agencies, and an increase in financial support for these efforts.

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  • Moore, Mark. 1992. Problem solving and community policing. In Crime and justice: A review of research. Vol. 15. Edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, 99–158. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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    This essay considers the complementary models of policing as represented in problem-oriented and community policing, the former emphasizing understanding the underlying dynamics and causes of incidents reported to the police and the latter emphasizing working partnerships between the police and the community on matters of crime prevention and fear reduction. While each strategy poses some risks for the police, the gains are seen as outweighing such risks.

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Broken Windows

This section focuses on ideas associated with “broken windows,” as they often undergird community and problem-oriented policing approaches. The idea of “broken windows” was introduced by Wilson and Kelling 1982 and later refined by Kelling and Coles 1996, each emphasizing the importance of the police dealing with what may be considered small breaches of the social order, leading to larger and more serious crime. What is often called for is more aggressive policing. This set of ideas has been challenged by many, including those who consider the underlying rationale that incivility leads to crime in communities as misleading (Taylor 2001, Taylor 2006, Xu, et al. 2005), those who see “broken windows” as overreaching by the police (Harcourt 2001), and those who see the histories used in setting this perspective as flawed (Walker 1984).

  • Harcourt, Bernard E. 2001. Illusion of order: The false promise of broken windows policing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    This work tackles assumptions and some of the research used to support the “broken windows” theory of crime and what the police should do to aggressively control disorder as a precursor to more serious crime. Research reported suggests that this theory is overreaching, expanding punishment and criminalizing even small, disorderly behavior. The work concludes with an alternative to aggressive order maintenance policing.

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  • Kelling, George L., and Catherine M. Coles. 1996. Fixing broken windows: Restoring order and reducing crime in our communities. New York: Martin Kessler Books.

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    Building on earlier work establishing the “broken windows” theory of crime and its control, this work elaborates particularly on what the police should do to aggressively control order and hence crime. This work seeks to validate collaborations between the police and private forces, including the community, to reduce serious crime by aggressively enforcing laws and ordinances focused on maintaining order.

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  • Taylor, Ralph B. 2001. Breaking away from broken windows: Baltimore neighborhoods and the nationwide fight against crime, grime, fear, and decline. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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    Using data from Baltimore, this research examines the relationship between neighborhood physical decay, social disorder, and crime. The research challenges the “broken windows” thesis by suggesting that community economic decisions contribute more to crime than do physical and social incivilities. This Baltimore research suggests that efforts to stem crime in disadvantaged neighborhoods must be coupled with economic interventions that seek to improve the lives of residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

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  • Taylor, Ralph B. 2006. Incivilities reduction policing, zero tolerance, and the retreat from coproduction: Weak foundations and strong pressures. In Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Edited by David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, 98–114. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter reviews the “broken windows” thesis as well as how it has been used to support aggressive policing of social incivilities. The question raised here is whether “broken windows” or “zero tolerance” policing is really good police work, or rather whether such efforts actually increase community tensions and decrease the ability of communities and the police to work together on matters of crime prevention.

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  • Walker, Samuel. 1984. “Broken windows” and fractured history: The use and misuse of history in recent police policy analysis. Justice Quarterly 1.1 (March): 75–90.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418828400088041Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article critiques Wilson and Kelling’s broken windows theory, arguing that the line of reasoning supporting this thesis is based on a selective and skewed interpretation of police history. The author argues that the police did not enjoy a high degree of acceptance before the advent of the patrol car and police technology has not had a negative impact on police and citizen contact.

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  • Wilson, James Q., and. George L. Kelling. 1982. The police and neighborhood safety: Broken windows. Atlantic Monthly 127 (March): 29–38.

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    A widely cited article argues that serious neighborhood crime is the consequence of a series of failures to address smaller social disorder problems, especially community incivility. The metaphor of the “broken window” and whether it is repaired swiftly or not is used to characterize whether small things left unattended, like disorder, lead to larger more complex things, like serious crime.

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  • Xu, Yili, Mora L. Fiedler, and Karl H. Flaming. 2005. Discovering the impact of community policing: The broken windows thesis, collective efficacy, and citizens’ judgment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42.2: 147–186.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022427804266544Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research article compares traditional and community approaches to policing on three dimensions: goals, measurements of outcomes, and approaches to dealing with crime. Community policing is found to be more comprehensive, more measurement-oriented and more focused on reducing crime, disorder, and fear than traditional approaches. The article also considers collective efficacy, the crime-disorder nexus, and efforts of the police to work in community settings.

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Interventions

Once the rhetoric of community and problem-oriented policing had some roots a wide array of commentary, program development, and implementation began to take place, commencing in the 1980s and continuing to the present. These developments have resulted in a corpus of literature on community and problem-oriented policing; the former often with a focus on civic engagement, organizational change, and police legitimacy, and the latter with a focus on addressing crime, order, and fear problems, typically in discrete places. This literature is uneven. The community policing literature is often developed at a macro-level with attention to the roles, functions, and structures of the police, while the problem-oriented literature is most focused on addressing clearly defined crime, order, or fear problems in clearly defined places. This often results in an uneven discussion focused at broad, macro-level issues, while focused on micro-level interventions of the police. While there is clear overlap in community and problem-oriented approaches, each has developed in its own ways, with adherents and detractors on either side of the discussion. Nonetheless, the discussion of roles and functions is coupled with the discrete activities of the police in many places. This section highlights some of those efforts.

Programmatic Roots

Both community and problem policing stem from the search for more effective ways to address crime and social disorder, particularly in neighborhood settings, concerns for police legitimacy in disadvantaged neighborhoods, and the recognition that historic police interventions have been ineffective. Of course these ideas have permeated policing from its formal inception in 1829 in the form of the London Metropolitan Police and in early writings on the police concerned with the role and functioning of the police, especially in democratic societies. Beginning in the 1970s and extending into the 1980s experimentation with differing forms of policing took place. While many of these programs suffered at the hands of the police themselves, they provided a foundation of thought and some practice, which has slowly taken root in the 1980s and beyond. This section examines some of those intellectual and program threads and early attempts to experiment with “policing.” Each of the reports presented in this section examines some aspect of community policing and what it was supposed to achieve. Since there are many variants of community policing the research often moves from one topic to another. Sherman, et al. 1973 focuses on the implementation of team policing across several cities; Boydstun and Sherry 1975 focuses largely on police adopting an advocacy role for community problems; Schwartz and Clarren 1977 on the implementation of team-policing in Cincinnati; Cordner 1985 on a specialized community policing unit in Baltimore County, Maryland; Kelling, et al. 1981 on foot patrols in Newark, New Jersey; and Eck and Spelman 1987 on the implementation of problem-oriented policing in Newport News, Virginia. Collectively, these studies highlight problems of implementation and moving the institution of policing from its more traditional ideas and practices.

  • Boydstun, John. E., and Michael E. Sherry. 1975. San Diego community profile: Final report. Washington, DC: The Police Foundation.

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    One of the earliest approaches to better understanding how the police can best address community crime and disorder problems, this report presents the results and evaluation of a 1975 police program conducted in San Diego, California, aimed at better engaging the police and community in crime prevention efforts. This program encouraged officers to better assess community problems as well as their own efforts to work in the community.

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  • Cordner, Gary. W. 1985. The Baltimore County citizen oriented police enforcement (COPE) project: Final report. New York: Florence V. Burden Foundation.

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    This evaluation of Baltimore County’s COPE program is one of the earliest assessments of problem-oriented policing. In Baltimore COPE created a specialized cadre of officers to assess more deeply community crime and fear problems by surveying community residents and businesspersons, as well as police officers on the scope and depth of community problems. Once conducted, such information informed police strategies for addressing problems, and follow-up surveys were also conducted.

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  • Eck, John E., and William Spelman. 1987. Problem Solving: Problem Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    As a citywide problem-solving effort, the Newport News evaluation has become a foundational program for problem-solving policing. The report outlines a problem-solving model that has been widely adopted and presents several “case studies” of problem solving interventions made by the Newport News police. A range of problems and police intervention to address these problems is discussed.

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  • Kelling, George L., Anthony Pate, Amy Ferrera, Mary Utne, and Charles Brown. 1981. The Newark foot patrol experiment. Washington, DC: The Police Foundation.

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    This evaluation research examined foot patrol efforts in Newark, New Jersey, aimed at reducing crime and fear of crime. The findings suggested that community residents had favorable reactions to increased informal contact with the police, and that the police develop better understanding of community crime, disorder, and fear problems.

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  • Schwartz, Alfred I., and Sumner N. Clarren. 1977. The Cincinnati team policing experiment: A summary report. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute and Police Foundation.

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    Team policing was one of the ideas that emerged from the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967) suggesting that teams of officers with differing specializations coordinate their efforts in community settings to reduce crime, disorder, and fear. This report presents the results of an evaluation of team policing in Cincinnati, Ohio, importantly describing struggles to move from a traditional to a team-centered approach.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Catherine H. Milton, and Thomas V. Kelly. 1973. Team policing: Seven case studies. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

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    This report reviews efforts to implement team policing, a forerunner of community policing, in seven American cities. Team policing had as its goals the reduction of crime and improved police and community relations. The report considers the range of effort across these cities, and the problems each faced in shifting from traditional modes of policing to this new model.

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General Applications

Community policing has been applied to many situations in communities with substantial differences and within police agencies also having considerable variation. At the same time community policing, and most especially problem-oriented policing have had specific applications and focused on types of neighborhoods or crimes. The literature of community-policing often shifts focus from large-scale interventions, such as what to do in an urban neighborhood (Alpert and Dunham 1988) or in an entire city (Skogan and Hartnett 1997; Skogan, et al. 1999; Skogan 2006). At the same time community policing is ultimately performed by street-level police officers who must make a transition from traditional police practices to those focused on the community (Rosenbaum 1998). How officers make such changes and with what implications is the subject of Reisig and Parks 2004, which researches two very different communities.

  • Alpert, Geoffrey P., and Roger G. Dunham. 1988. Policing multi-ethnic neighborhoods: The Miami study and findings for law enforcement in the United States. New York: Greenwood.

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    This work focuses on the Miami/Dade County, Florida, Police Department attempts to police multi-ethnic communities. The authors identify substantial gaps in how the police and community perceive their problems and police responses. Differences between and across black, Anglo, and Cuban communities are examined. Neighborhood, not race or gender, tended to define attitudes toward the police, and police styles did not match the characteristics of communities.

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  • Reisig, Michael, and Roger B. Parks. 2004. Community policing and quality of life. In Community policing: Can it work? Edited by Wesley G. Skogan, 207–227. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This chapter examines the impact of community policing on individuals and neighborhoods. Community residents in St. Petersburg, Florida, and Indianapolis, Indiana, were surveyed about perceived neighborhood quality of life, police partnerships, and the visibility of the police. The findings suggest that visible community policing and police partnerships were positively associated with reported feelings of safety and improved quality of life.

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  • Rosenbaum, Dennis P. 1998. The changing role of police: Assessing the current transition to community policing. In How to recognize good policing: Problems and issues. Edited by Jean-Paul Brodeur, 3–29. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    This chapter reviews and assesses police transition toward community policing. It reviews the broad features of this reform movement, and then considers changes to police roles, and measures of police effectiveness. This review also considers improvements in police-community partnerships and their attachment to coalition-building and community crime prevention, as well as the question of the efficiency of a community policing approach.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G. 2006. Police and community in Chicago: A tale of three cities. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This work examines the effects of community policing in Chicago, with particular attention to how race interacts with such efforts. Whether one was African American, Latino, or white intersected with problems communities confronted, such as drug markets versus gang violence versus parking and traffic, respectively. It also intersected with how well communities could cope with these problems, and their willingness to work with the police.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G., and Susan M. Hartnett. 1997. Community policing: Chicago style. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This work reports the results of three years of program development and assessment surrounding the adoption of community policing in Chicago, Illinois. The research reports the results of process and outcome evaluation, examining critically how this program was created, how it was adopted by the rank-and-file police in Chicago, and what it meant to communities.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G., Susan M. Hartnett, Jennifer T. Comey, Jill DuBois, Marianne Kaiser, and Justine Lovig. 1999. On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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    The book reports the results of a five-step problem-solving model developed in Chicago and the organizational and service delivery changes associated with community policing. The study reports on 156 beats selected for analysis and the variation in crime problems, economic circumstances, and racial groupings across these beats, as well as how police worked with these differences to address issues of crime prevention.

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Crime Prevention and the Community

As one of the goals of community and problem-oriented policing is the prevention of crime, several studies have examined the crime impacts of such interventions. Hope 1995 provides a broad overview of community crime prevention and the need for shared responsibility in such efforts, and Rosenbaum 1986, Rosenbaum 1988, and Sherman 1997 provide assessments of the roles that communities and the police can take in shifting from traditional to community-oriented policing practices. Braga 2002 assesses the existing research on problem-oriented policing, providing clarity on interventions and their impact. In addition to these assessments, Eck and Maguire 2000 take on a larger question, “have the collective efforts toward community policing produced noticeable crime reductions?” Read and Tilley 2000 conducts an analysis of police problem solving in Britain, concluding that successful police forces (those using a problem-solving approach) were those that were more invested in thorough problem analysis. Better analysis yielded better results. Lastly, Sherman and Eck 2002, using a systematic review and evidence-based approach, seeks to strengthen the scientific rigor of community policing research to better understand the impacts of these efforts.

  • Braga, Anthony A. 2002. Problem-oriented policing and crime prevention. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This book is a synthesis of existing literature on problem-oriented policing and crime prevention. It is organized around three interventions: (1) addressing crime problems at specific places; (2) targeting high crime repeat offenders; and (3) protecting victims. The book reviews strategies and programs that are focused in these crime prevention areas and recommends improvements in crime analysis, police performance measurement, and community partnerships.

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  • Eck, John E., and Edward R. Maguire. 2000. Have changes in policing reduced violent crime? An assessment of the evidence In The crime drop in America. Edited by Alfred Blumstein and Joel Wallman, 207–265. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This chapter in a collection of essays examining the crime drop in the United States reviewed published studies focused on the relationship between police strength and level of violent crime. The published work on this topic had mixed results: almost half of the studies reported no relationship, 30 percent reported a positive relationship—more police, more crime—and 20 percent reported a negative relationship—more police, less crime.

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  • Hope, Tim. 1995. Community crime prevention. In Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention. Edited by Michael Tonry and David P. Farrington, 21–90. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    This chapter reviews the growth and development of, and obstacles to, community crime prevention—that is, changing social conditions in communities that lead to and sustain crime. Over time several policy paradigms have evolved, ranging from community organizing to changes in the environment. The chapter reviews these developments, concluding that such efforts have generally failed absent a clearer understanding of community social dynamics and external factors that shape community crime.

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  • Read, Tim, and Nick Tilley. 2000. Not rocket science? Problem-solving and crime reduction. Crime Reduction Research Series. Paper 6. London: Home Office.

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    This British government report surveyed the forty-three police forces in Great Britain seeking information on strategies employed to reduce crime. Twelve selected police forces were observed and given more detailed questionnaires. Analysis of the data suggests that using a more systematic problem-solving approach led to greater success in reducing selected crime and disorder problems.

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  • Rosenbaum, Dennis P., ed. 1986. Community crime prevention: Does it work? Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.

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    This collection of essays reviews several community-based crime prevention programs and provides grounding in the concepts and methods of community-based crime prevention. The central question is, “do such efforts by the police and community actually reduce crime?” The volume includes several studies of crime prevention programs conduced in several large US cities. The volume is written for a wide audience, including academics and policy makers.

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  • Rosenbaum, Dennis P. 1988. Community Crime Prevention: A review and synthesis of the literature. Justice Quarterly 5:323–395.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418828800089781Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The literature on community crime prevention is reviewed from the perspective of viewing such efforts as a major alternative to traditional practices of the criminal justice system. The article focuses on the prevention of property crime and the ways in which communities go about protecting themselves from such victimization.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W. 1997. Communities and crime prevention. In Preventing crime: What works, what doesn’t, what’s promising? Edited by Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise Gottfredson, Doris MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn Bushway, 48–100. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

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    This chapter, part of a volume of research papers compiled by the US National Institute of Justice, focuses attention on the roles that communities can and do play in crime prevention, by examining existing federal efforts to support these efforts. Using a community risk factor perspective, the chapter argues for a focus on the proximate causes of community crime, and for a strengthening of programmatic and evaluation efforts.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., and John E. Eck. 2002. Policing for crime prevention. In Evidence-based crime prevention. Edited by Lawrence W. Sherman, David P. Farrington, Brandon C. Welsh, and Doris L. MacKenzie, 295–321. New York: Routledge.

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    This chapter presents eight major hypotheses about how the police can prevent crime and then systematically reviews the scientific evidence, from the perspective of adequate scientific rigor that addresses these hypotheses. Available scientific evidence concludes that some police efforts are indeed promising, especially where police strategies are focused. Program development and funding implications for strengthening police crime prevention programs are discussed.

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Reducing Gun Violence

One clear set of problem-oriented policing strategies deals with access to guns and the levels of gun violence in urban cities. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1999 provides an overview of gun violence reduction strategies across eight US cities, exploring the range of police interventions to reduce gun violence. Kennedy, et al. 2001 reports on Operation Ceasefire, one of the first coordinated police and community efforts to tackle youth gun violence in Boston. Tita, et al. 2003 evaluates the implementation of Operation Cease Fire in Los Angeles. McGarrell, et al. 2009 reports on the efforts of Project Safe Neighborhoods, the latest evolution of police and community partnerships to address gun violence. At a closer level of resolution Sherman and Rogan 1995 examines the impact of gun seizures in Kansas City, Missouri, while White, et al. 2003 examines efforts in Richmond, California, to reduce homicide using a problem-oriented approach.

  • Kennedy, David M., Anthony A. Braga, Anne M. Piehl, and Elin J. Waring. 2001. Reducing gun violence: The Boston gun project’s Operation Ceasefire. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice.

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    This report discusses Boston’s Operation Ceasefire—focused on reducing gun violence among gang members. The report considers how a working group came together in 1995, assessed the dimensions of gun violence and became operational in 1996. The strategies were twofold: coordinated and focused law enforcement and the targeting of high-risk gangs to receive a collective message that such behavior would not be tolerated.

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  • McGarrell, Edmund F., Natalie K. Hipple, Nicholas Corsaro, Timothy S. Bynum, Heather Perez, Carol A. Zimmermann, and Melissa Garmo. 2009. Project Safe Neighborhoods: A national program to reduce gun crime. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

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    This report, prepared for the National Institute of Justice, presents findings of the evaluation of Project Safe Neighborhoods, a program aimed at reducing gun violence in violence-prone neighborhoods. The report focuses on the five key elements of this intervention, building partnerships, linking strategic planning with ongoing research, effective training, and community outreach and program accountability. The report provides case studies as well as impact assessments.

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  • Office of Juvenile Justice, and Delinquency Prevention. 1999. Promising strategies to reduce gun violence. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, US Department of Justice.

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    This government report reviews the findings from eight US cities, addressing gun violence in their community. The report considers interventions designed to interrupt sources of illegal guns, such as gun tracing and oversight of gun dealers, strategies to deter the possession and carrying of guns, such as use of consent searches, surveillance of probationers, and school-based interventions, as well as strategies to respond to illegal gun use.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., and Dennis P. Rogan. 1995. Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: “Hot spots” patrol in Kansas City. Justice Quarterly 12.4: 673–693.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418829500096241Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research article reports on the evaluation of a gun seizure program in Kansas City, Missouri, using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. Treatments included aggressive police attention to gun detection, through safety frisks and car stops. The research shows that gun seizures in the targeted area significantly increased, gun crimes in these areas significantly decreased, and homicides significantly declined. No displacement effects were detected.

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  • Tita, George, K. Jack Riley, Greg Ridgeway, Clifford A. Grammich, Allan Abrahamse, and Peter W. Greenwood. 2003. Reducing gun violence. Results from an intervention in East Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

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    This evaluates research conducted in Los Angeles, California, on a program to reduce gun violence in high-risk locations and with high-risk populations, typically gang members. The program was adapted from Operation Ceasefire in Boston. The evaluation found that this targeted intervention reduced violence and gang crime in the targeted area, with a diffusion of benefits by also reducing violence and gang crime in the surrounding communities.

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  • White, Michael D., James J. Fyfe, Suzanne P. Campbell, and John S. Goldkamp. 2003. The police role in preventing homicide: Considering the impact of problem-oriented policing on the prevalence of murder. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 40:194–225.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022427803251126Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research article reports on a series of interventions in Richmond, California, to apply lessons from problem-oriented policing to reducing homicide. Comparing Richmond’s homicides to seventy-five other California communities between 1985 and 1998 using an interrupted time-series design, the research found reductions in Richmond’s homicide rate associated with the adoption of problem-oriented policing.

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Reducing Gang Violence

Gang behavior, violence, drugs, and gun use are all intertwined. Nonetheless, a series of studies have focused on gangs and how community and problem-oriented approaches can impact gang violence. Setting the stage for understanding gangs and violence in urban neighborhoods, Decker and Van Winkle 1996 uses ethnographic methods to consider what it means to be in a gang and how gangs influence gang member’s lives. Akerlof and Yellen 1994 considers the roles that gangs play in urban settings and the resulting challenges for community policing. Webb and Katz 2003 also considers community policing as it has grappled with urban gang and violence problems. Braga, et al. 2001 examines gang interventions in Boston (Operation Ceasefire) and how coordinated efforts across many agencies and with civic leaders can influence gang behavior. Similar approaches are discussed in Bullock and Tilley 2003 for Great Britain; in McGarrell and Chermak 2003 for Indianapolis, Indiana; in McDevitt, et al. 2007 for Lowell, Massachusetts; and in Tita, et al. 2003 for Los Angeles. Collectively, these studies suggest that communication and coordination of police, government agencies, and community leaders are necessary to address urban gang problems. Kennedy, one of the original architects of Operation Ceasefire in Boston, considers the growth and development of the “pulling levers” strategy as a means of reducing gang violence (Kennedy 2006).

  • Akerlof, George, and Janet L. Yellen. 1994. Gang behavior, law enforcement, and community values. In Values and Public Policy. Edited by Henry J. Aaron, Thomas E. Mann, and Timothy Taylor, 173–209. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

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    This essay offers a coherent theory of an essential aspect of community policing: the police are in a struggle with territorial gangs to win the hearts and minds of the community, especially parents of gang members, and they are less inclined to win the struggle when they appear as a hostile alien force.

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  • Braga, Anthony A., David M. Kennedy, Elin J. Waring, and Anne M. Piehl. 2001. Problem oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38.3: 195–225.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022427801038003001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on Operation Ceasefire in Boston, Massachusetts. This program was focused on reducing homicide and youth firearms violence based on a “pulling levers” strategy emphasizing coordination and targeting of criminal justice, social service, and civic leadership action among a small group of gangs and gang members most associated with violence in this city. The impact evaluation demonstrated significant reductions in youth homicide victimization.

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  • Bullock, Karen, and Nick Tilley. 2003. Crime reduction and problem-oriented policing. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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    This book reports on efforts in Great Britain to implement problem-oriented policing, called the Targeted Police Initiative. Several problem-focused projects such as gang-related violence, violence linked to alcohol abuse, racially motivated and hate crime, and drug-related crime among others are reviewed with particular attention to the problem-solving process, lessons learned, and efforts to institutionalize these programs. The difficulties of initiating, assessing, and replicating problem-solving programs are discussed.

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  • Decker, Scott H., and Barrik Van Winkle. 1996. Life in the gang: Family, friends and violence. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    One of the foundational ethnographic studies of gang life and the values, attitudes, and behavior of gang members. Based on over three years of fieldwork and interviews with gang members and their families, this book traces gang life from entering the gang, gang activities and their meanings for members, and the individual, organizational, and institutional meanings of gang membership.

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  • Kennedy, David M. 2006. Old wine in new bottles. Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Edited by David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, 155–170. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter reviews the research literature and advocates for “pulling levers,” a focused deterrence strategy involving concentrated enforcement and social services, the moral voice of the community, and direct communications with targeted groups or individuals to dissuade criminal behavior, most particularly gang violence. The chapter describes the evolution of this strategy and its application to other crime types.

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  • McDevitt, Jack, Anthony A. Braga, Shea Cronin, Edmund F. McGarrell, and Timothy S. Bynum. 2007. Project Safe Neighborhoods: Strategic interventions: Lowell, District of Massachusetts, Case study 6. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

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    This report discusses the implementation of Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) in Lowell, Massachusetts. The report suggests that the PSN task force in Lowell benefited from Boston’s previous experience with Operation Ceasefire, focused on reducing gun crime. The strategy selected in Lowell focused on incapacitating a small number of chronic offenders known to the police to be gang members. The project documents a 28 percent reduction in aggravated firearms assaults.

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  • McGarrell, Edmund F., and Steven Chermak. 2003. Problem solving to reduce gang and drug-related violence in Indianapolis. In Policing gangs and youth violence. Edited by Scott H. Decker, 77–101. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This chapter in a collection of papers focused on gangs and violence reports on an evaluation of a gang drug and violence strategy implemented in Indianapolis. Based on the Boston Gun Project, this program created the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership, a problem-solving working group involving federal, state, and city agencies. The interventions targeted firearms violence and those involved in such behavior.

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  • Tita, George, K. Jack Riley, and Peter Greenwood. 2003. From Boston to Boyle Heights: The process and prospects of a “pulling levers” strategy in a Los Angeles barrio. In Policing gangs and youth violence. Edited by Scott H. Decker, 102–130. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This chapter reports on efforts in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to implement a program of gun violence reduction modeled after Operation Ceasefire in Boston. Using a collaborative working group approach these interventions used a “sticks and carrots” approach to hold gang members accountable for violence. The research reports mixed findings; gang crime fell, but gun crime did not. Increased collaboration was an important benefit of the program.

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  • Webb, Vincent J., and Charles Katz. 2003. Policing gangs in an era of community policing. In Policing gangs and youth violence. Edited by Scott H. Decker, 17–49. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    One of a collection of papers focused on approaches to gangs and violence, this chapter examines police gang units in relation to community policing. The authors suggest that gang units are often loosely coupled to community policing efforts and recommend improvement to gang units through a closer association with community policing ideals and practices in the development of these units, and in the use of the information they generate for problem solving.

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Reducing Drug Crime

Like violence and gangs, crime associated with drug use and sales has occupied a considerable amount of police attention. Police responses have focused on “open air” drug markets and how to intervene in these places. Rengert, et al. 2005 provides an overview of the use of spatial and geographic analysis in identifying and then intervening in drug markets in an East Coast city. Hope 1994 considers police interventions in drug marketplaces using three case studies from St. Louis, Missouri; Mazerolle 1997 provides a glimpse of police intervention in drug marketplaces in Oakland, California; and Corsaro, et al. 2009 considers the application of a problem-oriented policing approach to drug problems in Rockford, Illinois. Lawton, et al. 2005 examines the strategic placement of police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia, and Weisburd and Green 1995 considers policing drug “hot spots” in Jersey City, New Jersey. Collectively, these studies stress the importance of thorough analysis of the underlying dynamics of drug marketplaces and the assessment of police interventions.

  • Corsaro, Nicholas, Rod K. Brunson, and Edmund F. McGarrell. 2009. Problem-oriented policing and open-air drug markets: Examining the Rockford pulling levers deterrence strategy. Crime and Delinquency 55:1–23.

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    This research article examines the effects of a problem-oriented approach to policing conducted in Rockford, Illinois. This project was designed as a “pulling levers” effort building on the Boston Gun Project. The focus of these interventions was in drug markets in a high-crime neighborhood. The research found statistically significant reductions in crime, drugs, and nuisance offenses in the targeted neighborhood.

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  • Hope, Tim. 1994. “Problem-oriented policing and drug market locations: Three case studies.” In Crime prevention studies. 2. Edited by Ronald V. Clarke, 5–31. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter examines overlap between problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention. Three case studies of problem solving in St. Louis, Missouri, are reviewed. The review concludes that police officers played an important role in mobilizing the community and agencies in these communities and that problem-oriented policing when localized can help coordinate actions to address drugs in community settings.

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  • Lawton, Brian A., Ralph B. Taylor, and A. J. Luongo. 2005. Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia, drug crime, and violent crime: Intended, diffusion, and displacement impacts. Justice Quarterly 22.4: 427–451.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418820500364619Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research reports an assessment of Operation Safe Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Police offices in that city were stationed at the 214 identified drug locations. Analyses suggest localized effects on serious violent and drug crime, spatial diffusion of benefits in reducing violent crime, and spatial displacement of drug crime.

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  • Mazerolle, Lorraine Green. 1997. Policing places with drug problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    The work is the result of an evaluation of the Oakland, California, Specialized Multi-Agency Response Team, a problem-oriented approach involving policing and nontraditional strategies to address drug problem locations. The findings suggest that such a coordinated approach can be effective in reducing drug crime in targeted areas and that the displacement effects were outweighed by benefits accruing to adjacent areas.

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  • Rengert, George, Jerry Ratcliffe, and Sanjoy Chakravorty. 2005. Policing illegal drug markets: Geographic approaches to crime prevention. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This work proposes that approaches to reducing drug trafficking in urban communities be multipurposed following a comprehensive analysis of drug markets in an East Coast city. While current evaluations suggest little impact of traditional police practices on drugs, the alternative problem-oriented approach is offered, involving considerable crime analysis of drug locations and matching crime prevention tactics to local conditions.

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  • Weisburd, David, and Lorraine Green. 1995. Policing drug hot spots: The Jersey City drug market analysis experiment. Justice Quarterly 12.4: 711–735.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418829500096261Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article presents the results of a randomized experimental evaluation of drug enforcement in Jersey City, New Jersey. Fifty-six drug activity “hot spots” were identified and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The treatment areas received multiple treatments, while the controls received traditional police narcotics interventions. The findings identified strong effects on disorder-related calls for police service, and a diffusion of benefits to surrounding areas, with little crime displacement.

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Variations

Of course problem-oriented policing has been applied to more specialized crimes or locations with mixed results. Moreover, interpretations of what problem-oriented policing seeks to accomplish range from zero-tolerance for any negative social behaviors to improving community quality of life, both interpretations having considerable latitude. At the macro-level, that describing the goals of problem-oriented policing, zero-tolerance has been linked to police efforts to curb negative social behavior (Greene 1999), often reducing those behaviors but with considerable community complaint. Improving quality of life in neighborhoods also produces mixed results (Katz, et al. 2001), reducing some but not all crime and displacing crime to adjacent communities. Problem-oriented policing has also been applied to areas that differ from urban neighborhoods, or to problems that are specific to particular populations. Greene and Stokes 1998 examines the application of a problem-oriented approach to policing a business district in Philadelphia, and Stokes, et al. 1996 examines the application of problem-oriented policing to getting children to and from school safely. Mazerolle, et al. 2000 examines problem-oriented policing in public housing, and Mazerolle and Ransley 2005 examines the impact of third parties on community safety issues and how the police can use third parties (landlords, bar owners, and the like) to increase public safety and reduce social disorder and crime. Koper 1995 considers the importance of having the right resources available to address crime hot spots, and Clarke and Goldstein 2002 assesses the reduction of theft from construction sites using a problem-oriented policing approach.

  • Clarke, Ronald, and Herman Goldstein. 2002. Reducing theft at construction sites: Lessons from a problem-oriented project. In Analysis for crime prevention. Edited by Nick Tilley, 89–130. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter reports the results of an assessment of a problem-oriented approach to policing in Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, focused on reducing theft from construction sites. Following an analysis of theft and associated risks, the police encouraged builders to delay the installation of appliances until home occupancy, resulting in substantial theft reduction. The analysis underscores the role of analysis and partnerships in problem solving.

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  • Greene, Jack R., and Robert Stokes. 1998. Policing business districts: Problem solving in a different context. In Problem oriented policing: Crime-specific patterns, critical issues and making POP work. Edited by Tara O’Connor Shelly and Anne C. Grant, 205–230. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This chapter reports on an assessment of a police crime prevention and problem-solving project conducted in the Central Business District of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This effort was focused on building a police-business partnership for the Central Business District to stem crime and disorder, as well as to reduce fear of crime and victimization in the area. This effort was designed as a problem-solving approach.

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  • Greene, Judith. A. 1999. Zero tolerance: A case study of police policies and practices in New York City. Crime and Delinquency 45.2: 171–187.

    DOI: 10.1177/0011128799045002001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on police strategies in New York City focused on “zero-tolerance” policing, emphasizing aggressive police order maintenance activity. New York’s results were mixed, with lower crime rates accompanied by skyrocketing complaints about police abuse. The article compares crime rates, arrests, and citizen complaints between New York and San Diego, finding that San Diego’s problem-oriented strategy produces similar crime drops with fewer community complaints.

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  • Katz, Charles M., Vincent J. Webb, and David R. Schaefer. 2001. An assessment of the impact of quality-of-life policing on crime and disorder. Justice Quarterly 18.4: 825–876.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418820100095111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines issues of community quality-of-life, in Chandler, Arizona. Using calls for service data and an interrupted time-series analysis, the research found that two types of quality-of-life crime—public morals and physical disorder crime—out of ten offense categories, were impacted by police actions. The study also found displacement effects.

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  • Koper, Christopher. 1995. Just enough police presence: Reducing crime and disorderly behavior by optimizing patrol time in crime hot spots. Justice Quarterly 12:649–672.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418829500096231Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on observational research conducted in Minneapolis, using survival models to estimate the effects of police patrol activities in high-crime locations. The results suggest that the effects of police patrol presence, especially patrol stops, must reach a threshold of ten minutes to be effective, with optimal residual deterrence being achieved between eleven and fifteen minutes.

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  • Mazerolle, Lorraine Green, and Janet Ransley. 2005. Third party policing. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book reports on a growing trend in crime prevention—third-party policing—where multiple nodes of social control, typically outside of the police, come together, often in an ad hoc way, to address specific crime or disorder problems. This book considers the dimensions and implications of third-party policing, as well as the social control and legal issues it raises.

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  • Mazerolle, Lorraine Green, Justin Ready, Bill Terrill, and Elin Waring. 2000. Problem-oriented policing in public housing: The Jersey City evaluation. Justice Quarterly 17:129–158.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418820000094501Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on an evaluation of a problem-oriented policing program in six public housing sites in Jersey City, New Jersey. Problem-solving teams were formed at each site and interventions tailored to the circumstances of each site. Analyses were conducted over a period of 2.5 years. Findings suggest that this form of policing, compared to previous strategies, accounted for less serious crime, reducing violent and property crime in two sites.

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  • Stokes, Robert, Neil Donahue, Dawn Caron, and Jack R. Greene. 1996. Safe Travel to and from School: A Problem-Oriented Policing Approach. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

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    This report provides analysis and comment on a program to increase safety among school children traveling to and from a North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, school. Following crime and victimization analysis a “safe corridor” was created to facilitate travel safety. Treatment and comparison student groups were administered pre- and postintervention surveys, and the results suggest that victimization was not impacted in the safe corridors, as students perceived greater likelihood of victimization at school.

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Complexity of Implementation

The complexity of implementing all of the changes associated with community and problem-oriented policing still constrains the institutionalization of these forms of policing in the United States and elsewhere. Changes associated with these new forms of policing are associated with major revisions to the formal and social organization of the police, how the police use information to analyze problems and make decisions, and how they will engage with the community and other external actors to co-produce crime and safety services. Each represents a significant change, and hence barrier to effectively implementing community or problem-oriented policing. There still remains considerable skepticism about community and problem-oriented policing—not particularly on whether these ideas have some validity, but rather whether they have really been implemented and whether they have affected the institution of policing in any significant way so as to suggest that they have changed policing and improved crime and safety services.

Organizational Issues

Policing is organizationally centric to the extent that police organizations seek to control and direct the behaviors of police officers. Police organizations are typically characterized by strict hierarchies of authority, command and control systems designed to segment police work, and internal specialization (e.g., police officers versus detectives). Such military-like structures drive much of what we know as police management, and community policing and its variants seek a decentralization of policing, some de-specialization, and more local interaction and control, among other things. Greene 2000 examines the rise of community policing in the US, noting its intentions and whether those intentions have been achieved. Zaho 1996 offers one of the earliest studies to assess organizational changes associated with the implementation of community policing. Using aggregate data Maguire 2003 examines the organizational characteristics of modern-day policing and the structural attributes of these organizations, while Wilson 2006, using a contingency theory approach, examines the advent of community policing in American police departments. Maguire and Katz 2002 considers two aspects of community policing shaping police organizations—loose coupling and sensemaking. Mastrofski, et al. 2007 reports the results of a national survey focused on the implementation obstacles facing community policing.

  • Greene, Jack R. 2000. Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police. In Criminal justice 2000, Vol. 3, Policies, processes and decisions of the criminal justice system. Edited by Julie Horney, Ruth Peterson, Doris MacKenzie, John Martin, and Dennis Rosenbaum, 299–370. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

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    This chapter is part of a compendium of research summaries regarding the criminal justice system. The chapter considers the development of community in the United States, available research assessing the impact of community policing efforts, impediments to change and to institutionalizing community policing, and the likely direction of future community policing efforts. Changes in organization and police work practice are also considered.

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  • Maguire, Edward R. 2003. Organizational structure in American police agencies. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    This is a comprehensive analysis of the organizational characteristics of modern-day American police agencies. The analysis reviews the considerable variation that exists in police structures and argues that these structures are the result of the contexts in which these organizations find themselves imbedded. The attributes of these contexts are agency size, age, technology, and environment. Using structural equation models, the elements of these contexts are explored.

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  • Maguire, Edward R., and Charles M. Katz. 2002. Community policing, loose coupling and sensemaking in American police agencies. Justice Quarterly 19:501–534.

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    This article analyzes community policing from two organizational perspectives—loose coupling and sensemaking. The former refers to the strength of structural arrangements between organizational entities, while the latter refers to how organizations and their personnel interpret organizational purposes and events. The study concludes that the links between the claims and practices of community policing are loosely coupled, and community policing ambiguity leads to considerable agency sensemaking.

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  • Mastrofski, Stephen D., James J. Willis, and T. R. Kochel. 2007. The challenges of implementing community policing in the United States. Policing: A journal of policy and practice 1.2: 223–234.

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    This article reports on a national mail survey of police agencies investigating agency success and challenges with implementing community policing. The results suggest that while police leaders believe that they have had some success with community policing, persistent problems continue to plague implementation. They include resistance to organizational change and scarce resources; agencies that were nationally accredited report greatest success in implementation.

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  • Wilson, Jeremy M. 2006. Community policing in America. New York: Routledge.

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    This work thoroughly examines organizational dynamics associated with the advent of community policing in American police departments. The book, using both contingency and institutional theory, as well as an open systems perspective, examines the task and general environments of police agencies in a time of community policing, community-oriented policing (COP) implementation, organizational and environmental structures, and, using structural equation modeling, tests these ideas against several data sets.

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  • Zaho, Jihong. 1996. Why police organizations change: A study of community-oriented policing. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This work presents research on organizational change associated with community-oriented policing. Using data from a survey of 281 police departments, the research systematically investigates organizational values, leadership, and external conditions influencing the adoption of community policing. Of specific attention are those factors that facilitate and hinder organizational change. The research concludes that not much has changed within policing and that COP represents external pressure for change.

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Officer Behavior and Policing the Streets

Of course the type and quality of policing any community receives is ultimately associated with the on-the-street police officers who provide those services. Community and problem-oriented policing are meant to change police officer behavior in several ways, including more analytic thought applied to solving crime problems, greater community engagement, and the building of police and community partnerships. Several of the entries presented raise serious concern about whether police behavior on the street has really changed in the advent of community or problem-oriented policing. Braga and Weisburd 2006 suggests that most problem solving is “shallow,” and Cordner and Biebel 2005 suggests that much of what falls under the guise of community policing practice is traditional policing in practice, although Frank, et al. 1997 does detect some variation on work patterns between community officers and those assigned to general patrol. Parks, et al. 1999 finds that whereas community police officers were expected to spend more time with the community, they did not. Alternatively, Terrill and Mastrofski 2004 finds that community policing can help to increase collaborative problem solving and build community confidence in the police. Importantly, changes to policing associated with community approaches need officer buy-in, that acceptance of the premise that the police should work collaboratively with residents to increase public safety. Lurigio and Skogan 1998 finds that community-oriented policing (COP) officers were more likely to adopt these values, but Rosenbaum, et al. 1994 did not find attitudinal changes in officers assigned to COP roles.

  • Braga, Anthony A., and David Weisburd. 2006. Problem-oriented policing: The disconnect between principles and practice. In Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Edited by David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, 133–152. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter focuses on the gaps between what was proposed of problem-oriented policing and what has emerged as police practice. The chapter reviews what it considers to be the “disconnects” between problem-oriented policing as designed compared to problem solving as a field practice. While the authors conclude that a “shallow” form of problem solving has emerged in policing, it has been effective and led to real crime reduction benefits.

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  • Cordner, Gary W., and Elizabeth Perkins Biebel. 2005. Problem-oriented policing in practice. Criminology & Public Policy 4.2: 155–180.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2005.00013.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using surveys and interviews this research reports on the use of problem-oriented policing in San Diego, California. While officers were trained in problem solving, the study reports that they engaged in small and recognizable problems, with little preliminary analysis, a small range of traditional police responses, and little evaluation of the effects of selected interventions.

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  • Frank, James, Steven G. Brandl, and R. Corey Watkins. 1997. The content of community policing: A comparison of the daily activities of community and “beat” officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 20:716–728.

    DOI: 10.1108/13639519710368116Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A general proposition of community policing is that it should change what officers do in their day-to-day interactions with the community. This proposition is neither well understood nor tested. Using observational data from a Midwestern city the researchers compare the activities of community and beat officers.

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  • Lurigio, Arthur J., and Wesley G. Skogan. 1998. Community policing in Chicago: Bringing officers on board. Police Quarterly 1.1: 1–25.

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    This study reports on a survey conducted in Chicago regarding police officers’ acceptance of a community policing strategy being implemented in that city. Using treatment and control officers in matched districts in Chicago, surveys were administered prior to the program initially and after two years. Treatment officers were more optimistic about COP, were better accepting of the community, and evidenced more job satisfaction than did control officers.

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  • Parks, Roger B., Stephen D. Mastrofski, Christina DeJong, and M. Kevin Gray. 1999. How officers spend their time with the community. Justice Quarterly 16:483–518.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418829900094241Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research explores the similarities and differences of the tasks performed by community policing officers, and those assigned to general patrol duties. The data come from a study of two American police departments. Interestingly, COP officers spent less face-to-face time with the public and tended to engage in higher-status and less problematic clientele than did their patrol counterparts.

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  • Rosenbaum, Dennis P., Sandy Yeh, and Deanna Wilkinson. 1994. Impact of community policing on police personnel: A quasi-experimental test. Crime and Delinquency 40:331–353.

    DOI: 10.1177/0011128794040003003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper reports on an evaluation of police personnel in Joliet, Illinois, using a pre-test–post-test control group design and changes in officer perceptions and behaviors following the implementation of a community policing initiative. The results showed few changes in officer perceptions of management practices over the two-year period of the assessment but significant changes in understanding of community policing and reported changes to street-level behavior.

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  • Terrill, William, and Stephen D. Mastrofski. 2004. Working the street: Does community policing matter? In Community policing: Can it work? Edited by Wesley G. Skogan, 109–235. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This chapter focuses on the impact of community policing on the level of coercion used by police officers in two cities—Indianapolis, Indiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida. Indianapolis was characterized as a “broken windows” site, while St. Petersburg was seen as a more COP site. The research compared officer use of coercion using systematic observation and officer interviews.

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The Role of Analysis

A central component of problem-solving is for the police to become more analytic in targeting places for police interventions, matching interventions with the varying needs of places, and assessing those interventions for their impacts, intended and unintended. Much of this effort is tied to a larger concern with measuring more effectively what the police do (Alpert and Moore 1993). Several methods and techniques have arisen in the advent of problem-oriented policing, including improvements in crime mapping and crime analysis (Boba 2005) and linking analysis to problem solving (Bynum 2001 and Eck 2002). The analytic strategies have been closely associated with hot spots analysis and understanding the concentration of crime and other problems temporally (Eck, et al. 2005). Additionally, broader assessments of crime prevention (Tilley 2002) require greater sophistication in evaluation and research methodologies if they are to produce information useful to police policy makers and the general public and address the question, “do the efforts of the police work?”

  • Alpert, Geoffrey, and Mark Moore. 1993. Measuring Police Performance in the new paradigm of policing. In Performance measures for the criminal justice system, 109–142. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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    Police performance measurement in light of shifts toward community policing is discussed with concern for broadening and making police performance measurement more systematic. Historic approaches to measuring police performance are seen as outdated and new approaches linking performance to community attitudes, partnerships, and measures that reflect more accurately police actions in the community are proposed. Consideration of how such measurement information can be used for police management is also discussed.

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  • Boba, Rachel. 2005. Crime analysis and crime mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    This book provides an introduction to crime analysis and crime mapping and is divided into five major sections examining definitions, applications, technologies and the role of crime analysts in police agencies. The book highlights the conceptual, methodological, and technical aspects of crime analysis and crime mapping and is a good primer on these subjects.

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  • Bynum, Timothy. 2001. Using analysis for problem-solving: A guidebook for law enforcement. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

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    This guidebook is focused on improving analysis in support of problem-oriented policing. It reports the problem-solving experiences of sixteen law enforcement agencies that participated in Project Safe Neighborhoods and were part of an enhanced evaluation of these efforts. Six general crime types are examined. The guidebook is oriented toward practitioners implementing problem solving as a tactical and strategic methodology in policing.

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  • Eck, John E. 2002. Assessing responses to problems: An introductory guide for police problem-solvers. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

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    This guide focuses on practitioners attempting to evaluate the effects of problem solving in their agencies, and serves as a descriptive primer on program evaluation. The guide describes goals, objectives, foci, and applications of evaluations, as well as the information such assessments provide in understanding program effectiveness. The guide provides agency personnel with a conceptual framework and some tools for evaluating problem-solving efforts.

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  • Eck, John E., Spencer Chainey, James G. Cameron, Michael Leitner, and Roland E. Wilson. 2005. Mapping crime: Understanding hot spots. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

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    This report focuses on improving practitioner use of crime mapping techniques and hot spots analysis. The report discusses hot spots analysis and crime mapping, using chapters to progressively develop facility in the use of these techniques. As chapters progress so does the sophistication of the presentations made. The report emphasizes a multimethod approach to crime and hot spots analysis.

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  • Tilley, Nick, ed. 2002. Evaluation for crime prevention. Crime Prevention Studies. Vol. 14. New York: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This collection of thirteen essays is focused on improvements to evaluations of crime prevention programs. The essays range from broad-brushed considerations of process and outcome evaluations to more focused considerations of a range of analytic techniques and research designs such as assessment of crime displacement, cost-benefit analysis, the benefits and limitations of experimental research designs, and the use of multi-agency partnerships and their evaluation.

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Policing and Partnerships

Community and problem-oriented policing require community partnership, engagement, and communication. DeLeon-Granados and DeKeseredy 1999, a broad analysis of public safety issues, suggests that crime control and public safety are shifting toward a shared (police and community) responsibility in such matters. Moore 2002 echoes this discussion, arguing for the strengthening of community and institutional networks to address social problem like crime. Thacher 2001 reminds us that effective community engagement and partnership requires a focus on “collective goods.” Skogan, et al. 2000 reviews the community aspects of a community policing program, while Bullock, et al. 2006 stresses the importance of cooperation and collaboration in making effective interagency partnerships, and DuBois and Hartnett 2002 considers the elements of effective partnerships in Chicago, Illinois.

  • Bullock, Karen, Rosie Erol, and Nick Tilley. 2006. Problem-Oriented Policing and Partnerships: Implementing an Evidence-Based Approach to Crime Reduction. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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    This work drawing from the British experience in problem-oriented policing examines processes associated with implementing what are thought to be successful programs. The work carefully examines problem-oriented approaches to crime prevention, but also organizational and institutional partnerships closely associated with successful problem-solving efforts. Here the focus is on interagency cooperation and collaboration.

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  • DeLeon-Granados, William, and Walter DeKeseredy. 1999. Travels through crime and place: Community building as crime control. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

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    This work considers how crime control and prevention efforts have shifted back toward shared responsibility between the police and the community, as well as the struggles to establish this definition of co-sponsorship and the implementation issues surrounding the maintenance of such relationships. The work examines the cultural, ecological, and institutional constraints to make public safety a collective and shared responsibility, and considers the dynamics of building and sustaining partnerships.

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  • DuBois, Jill, and Susan M. Hartnett. 2002. Making the community side of community policing work. In Policing and community partnerships. Edited by Dennis J. Stevens, 1–16. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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    This chapter examines the community elements of the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department’s CAPS strategy, and attempt to implement community policing department-wide. The authors suggest that to implement community-oriented policing (COP) effectively the community needs to be accepting of the concept—hence the need for effective communications—given a meaningful role in the process through proper training, and organized to assist the police.

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  • Moore, Mark. 2002. Creating networks of capacity: The challenge of managing society’s response to youth violence. In Securing our children’s future: New approaches to juvenile justice and youth violence. Edited by Gary S. Katzmann, 338–385. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

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    This chapter considers the broad array of social institutions that have some “stake” in solving youth violence problems, especially from the perspective of how these organizations individually and collectively perform in this arena. Throughout the United States, individuals and organizations have established a loosely constructed “network of capacity” that poses several integration and managerial problems and acts at differing levels within and outside of government and with differing goals and objectives.

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  • Skogan, Wesley G., Susan M. Hartnett, Jill DuBois, Jennifer T. Comey, Karla Twedt-Hall, and J. Erik Gudell. 2000. Public involvement: Community policing in Chicago. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice.

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    This report assesses the involvement of community residents in Chicago’s CAPS program. The report considers difficulties in identifying “community interests,” engaging the community purposefully, making the public aware of the program, using “beat meetings” as a tool to increase and then sustain community involvement. It reviews assumptions of community policing that require community acceptance and involvement and the ways the police can mobilize the community.

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  • Thacher, David. 2001. Equity and community policing: A new view of community partnerships. Criminal Justice Ethics 20.1 (Winter/Spring): 4–16.

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    While community policing stresses a stronger role for the community in matters of crime prevention and control, the struggles to define community, have some sense of community representation in dealing with the police, and ensure equity in the provision of police services are lingering questions. This article considers how the police can focus these partnerships on issues of collective good by examining community partnerships from three case studies.

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Hot Spots Policing

“Hot spots” policing is focused on micro areas, typically in urban communities, and examines the frequency of crime, social disorder, and fear in those areas, and police interventions to address those problems. Hot spots policing stems from the premise that a small number of places account for a large volume of crime, disorder, and fear problems, and through proper analysis the police can identify these places, and design interventions to surgically address these problems. Hot spots policing is clearly a variant of problem-oriented policing, but it is highlighted here because it has the greatest depth of focus, as well as scientific rigor, of all problem-oriented police interventions. Moreover, hot spots policing has also given considerable life to computer-assisted crime analysis and tying police interventions to such analysis, thereby increasing police accountability for problem areas and police interventions. Hot spots policing is also linked with situational crime prevention and the management of public places.

Defining Hot Spots

Hot spots, or the places in communities where crime and disorder concentrate, mark a shift in thinking about crime as a people enterprise to a crime and a place enterprise. How hot spots are defined is central to their use. Sherman, et al. 1989 introduces the idea of “hot spots” in an assessment of repeat calls for police service in Minneapolis. Subsequently, the idea of hot spots has been refined (Sherman 1995 and Buerger, et al. 1995). Tests of hot spots have also occurred using more rigorous field methods (Sherman and Weisburd 1995, Weisburd, et al. 1993, and Braga 2008). Hot spots policing is now seen as a model for improving police effectiveness and responsiveness to community problems (Weisburd and Braga 2006). Despite such claims, Taylor 2009 suggests that hot spots are statistical artifacts, involving the intersection of differing communities and unlikely to accurately reflect crime in the streets as experienced by police officers and the community.

  • Braga, A. A. 2008. Crime prevention research review No. 2: Police enforcement strategies to prevent crimes in hot spot areas. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

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    This report summarizes the findings from several academic studies of hot spots policing, and concludes that focusing police attention on places with high crime incidents and calls for police service can be used strategically to better utilize police resources and prevent crime in those places. In most of the studies reviewed, police calls for service and the incidence of crime declined in the hot spots areas receiving police interventions.

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  • Buerger, Michael E., Ellen G. Cohn, and Anthony J. Petrosino. 1995. Defining the “hot spots” of crime: Operationalizing theoretical concepts for field research. In Crime and place. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 4. Edited by John E. Eck and David Weisburd, 237–258. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter discusses problems in translating new theories of policing into police operational practice. It considers the frequent conflict between place-based definitions of crime in communities using physical boundaries and more fluid social definitions. Using examples from the Minneapolis Hot Spots experiment, the chapter examines struggles between experimental design and the operational and field-based practices and policies of the police.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W. 1995. Hot spots of crime and criminal careers of places. In Crime and place. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 4. Edited by John E. Eck and David Weisburd, 35–52. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This chapter argues for shifting thinking about crime from individuals to places. Summarizing literature on offender decision making, situational crime prevention, and Routine Activities Theory, the chapter examines what we know about criminal careers and applies this to places, concluding that the explanatory power is stronger for places than for individuals, calling for new thinking about crime and crime control policy.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Michael Buerger, and Patrick Gartin. 1989. Repeat Call Address Policing: The Minneapolis RECAP Experiment. Washington, DC: Crime Control Institute.

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    This research confirmed the hypothesis that a small number of places in a city account for a large proportion of police calls for service and crime. This experiment analyzed calls for police service and then targeted these places for police interventions. This experiment led to the idea of “hot spots” of crime and disorder, strengthening the problem-oriented policing approach.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., and David Weisburd. 1995. General deterrent effects of police patrol in crime “hot spots”: A randomized, controlled trial. Justice Quarterly 12.4: 625–648.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418829500096221Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on research conducted in Minneapolis using a randomized trial focused on the “dosage” of police activities between treatment and control areas. Monitored through systematic observations, the amount of patrol dosage doubled in half of the hot spots in this city, and the results suggest that crime calls were modestly reduced and that disorder was significantly reduced.

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  • Taylor, Ralph B. 2009. Hot spots do not exist, and four other fundamental concerns about hot spots policing. In Contemporary issues in criminal justice policy: Policy proposals from the American Society of Criminology conference. Edited by Natasha Frost, Joshua Freilich, and Todd Clear, 271–278. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This policy debate paper challenges the existence of hot spots and offers a critique of the conceptual and methodological foundations of such an approach. The paper identifies conceptual confusion in the varied definitions of hot spots policing, the types of locations that are often amalgamated into hot spots, and what might be considered a discontinuity between crime on maps, and crime in the streets.

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  • Weisburd, David, and Anthony A. Braga. 2006. Hot spots policing as a model for police innovation. In Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Edited by David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, 225–244. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter argues that hot spots policing should become the underlying model for policing because it represents a linkage between advances in criminological thinking as well as an empirical assessment of this strategy, which has suggested that it impacts crime in places. The chapter argues that there is strong theoretical justification for hot spots policing as well as considerable empirical evidence suggesting this approach should continue to receive attention.

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  • Weisburd, David, Lisa Maher, and Lawrence W. Sherman. 1993. Contrasting crime general and crime specific theory: The case of hot –spots of crime. In New directions in criminological theory. Advances in Criminological Theory. Vol. 4. Edited by Freda Adler and William S. Laufer, 45–70. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    This chapter examines specific and general approaches to understanding crime across places. The chapter provides a review of crime causation theory and the emerging theories of crime in places, focusing particularly on ecological and environmental criminology. The review broadens the discussion to hot spots and the role of criminogenic places in understanding crime.

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Crime in Places

Closely related to “hot spots,” the idea of the criminology of place directs attention to how certain places in communities account for a disproportionate level of crime and social disorder, often necessitating greater police attention. Such considerations have led to the expansion of ideas associated with situational crime prevention, or the activities and contexts within which crime occurs—local places. Lersch 2007 develops the conceptual outline of how time, space, and crime intersect, while Eck and Weisburd 1995 and Clarke 1997, using case studies, outline the situational dynamics of places leading to greater levels of crime, and approaches to address these situational problems. Sherman, et al. 1989, using routine activities theory, examines predatory crime in places, and Weisburd, et al. 2004 demonstrates how a small number of places within a city can account for variations in the overall rates of crime. Braga, et al. 1999, using a randomized controlled experiment, and Braga 2005 and Weisburd, et al. 2010, using a systematic review of research on crime in places, provide support for hot spots policing concepts in furtherance of problem-oriented policing.

  • Braga, Anthony A. 2005. Hot spots policing and crime prevention: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Experimental Criminology 1.3 (September): 317–342.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11292-005-8133-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reviews five randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of concentrating police enforcement in hot spots. A meta-analysis of the effect sizes of these studies suggests overall reductions in calls for police service in treatment locations compared to controls. Collectively, these studies find no displacement effects, indicating that concentrated effort in hot spots can reduce crime in those locations.

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  • Braga, Anthony A., David Weisburd, Elin J. Waring, Lorraine Green Mazerolle, G. William Spelman, and Francis F. Gajewski. 1999. Problem-oriented policing in violent crime places: A randomized controlled experiment. Criminology 37.3: 541–580.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00496.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research article reports the results of a randomized controlled experiment to assess the value of problem-oriented policing to control violent street crime. Using twenty-four high-activity areas in Jersey City, New Jersey, randomly assigned to treatment and control groups, the researchers determined that problem-focused activities in problem places does impact violent street crime, without displacing it to other areas of the city.

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  • Clarke, Ronald, ed. 1997 Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. 2d ed. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This book contains twenty-three case studies focused on situational crime prevention over a range of offenses and settings. The book builds on earlier efforts to define and broaden the situational crime prevention concept, a strategy focused on reducing opportunities for crime. This edition includes discussion of repeat victimization, hot spots analysis, and experimentation in police problem solving.

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  • Eck, John E., and David Weisburd, eds. 1995. Crime and place. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 4. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This collection of fifteen papers highlights the key role that places have in both understanding and reacting to crime. The papers explore issues of hot spots and the geographic distribution of different crimes, as well as how places can be controlled by people, or are avoided because of fear of victimization. There is also a consideration of the limitations of place-based analysis and responses.

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  • Lersch, Kim Michelle. 2007. Space, time and crime. 2d ed. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

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    This book provides an overview of many theoretical explanations of the spatial and geographic concentration of crime. It provides theoretical materials as well as their practical applications, concluding with a critical critique of various geographical theories of crime, crime analysis, and community and problem-oriented policing efforts directed through such analyses, while expanding a discussion on issues such as the ethics of crime prevention and environmental justice.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin, and Michael E. Buerger. 1989. Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology 27:27–55.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb00862.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In what is a foundational study in hot spots policing, this study, using a routine activities approach to crime causation reports the result of analyses of over 115,000 calls to the police conducted in Minneapolis, finding that 50 percent of these calls were associated with 3 percent of the locations in that city.

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  • Weisburd, David, Shawn Bushway, Cynthia Lum, and Sue-Ming Yang. 2004. Trajectories of crime at places: A longitudinal study of street segments in the city of Seattle. Criminology 42:283–321.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2004.tb00521.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This study conducted in Seattle, Washington, using fourteen years of police data, segmented at the street level, reports on the stability of crime in micro-spaces. The research concludes that crime is stable across these spaces, but that certain places had marked increases or decreases in crime, thereby accounting for city-level increases/decreases in crime.

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  • Weisburd, David, Cody W. Telep, Joshua C. Hinkle, and John E. Eck. 2010. Is problem-oriented policing effective in reducing crime and disorder: Findings from a Campbell systematic review. Criminology and Public Policy 9.1: 139–172.

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    Reports on a systematic review examining more than fifty-five hundred articles and reports on the effectiveness of problem-oriented policing in reducing crime. Ten of these studies met the criteria for methodological rigor, and a meta-analysis of these studies suggested modest but statistically significant crime impacts. Considers the positive impacts of problem-oriented policing, but conditions expectations toward modest results, arguing for more investment in scientific study.

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Compstat

Compstat, a program of computer crime analysis coupled with accountability for crime problems being shifted to area commanders in New York City, has become a large-scale enterprise in policing since the late 20th century. It has been popularized in self-accounts of major crime changes in New York (Bratton 1998), as well as in more scientific assessments of the impact of this program on changes in crime and policing in New York (Silverman 1999 and Henry 2002). Despite repeated pronouncements of the success of Compstat as a tool for increased crime prevention and police accountability, there are claims that such efforts are not as successful as presented. Moore 2003 suggests that such practices lack a justice component and often reinforce traditional police practices. Such concerns are echoed by Weisburd, et al. 2003 and Weisburd, et al. 2006, which suggest that while the adoption of Compstat has been substantial, it continues to reinforce bureaucratic and military-like responses from the police. One reason for the gap between the preachment and practice of Compstat as suggested by Eck 2004 is that even with statistical patterns of crime in places, we often do not understand what constitutes the underlying problem.

  • Bratton, William J. 1998. Turnaround: How America’s top cop reversed the crime epidemic. New York: Random House.

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    This book is a reflection by William Bratton, the tough-minded chief of police credited with turning around the New York City Police Department. The book chronicles the lax and bad habits that specialized units had perfected, the general low regard that line officers experienced, the reform measures created and implemented, and the impacts of such changes on the department, crime, and the community.

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  • Eck, John E. 2004. Why don’t problems get solved? In Community policing: Can it work? Edited by Wesley G. Skogan, 185–206. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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    This chapter in a collection of papers considering the strengths and weaknesses of community and problem-oriented policing considers how problems get defined and then addressed by the police. The general argument is that we often know little about the nature of the problems that we seek to address. It considers the role of academics and the police in better defining problems.

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  • Henry, Vincent E. 2002. The COMPSTAT paradigm: Management accountability in policing, business, and the public sector. Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law.

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    The book, written by an NYPD insider, examines Compstat—a management process embodying much of problem-oriented policing, and coupling such assessment with managerial accountability for controlling and preventing crime. The key elements of Compstat were the decentralization of authority and accountability for crime prevention and control to precinct commanders, the use of crime analysis to direct police operations, and the systematic review of results achieved.

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  • Moore, Mark. 2003. Sizing up COMPSTAT: An important administrative innovation in policing. Criminology and Public Policy 2.3: 469–494.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2003.tb00009.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides a critique of Compstat aimed at increasing accountability for crime prevention and control for local commanders. It reviews the implementation of Compstat in New York City, but also provides a critical assessment of Compstat that includes concern with the absence of a justice perspective in such programs, its implications for police abuse of authority, and the resulting loss of police legitimacy.

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  • Silverman, Eli B. 1999. NYPD battles crime: Innovative strategies in policing. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

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    This book examines the implementation of changes within the New York City Police Department as envisioned by Chief William Bratton. The book anchors this review in a consideration of prior reforms of the NYPD and then considers the changes brought about by the implementation of Compstat, using crime analysis to inform decentralized police decision making and hold precinct commanders accountable for crime reduction.

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  • Weisburd, David, Stephen D. Mastrofski, Ann Marie McNally, Rosann Greenspan, and James J. Willis. 2003. Reforming to preserve: Compstat and strategic problem solving in American policing. Criminology and Public Policy 2.3: 421–456.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2003.tb00006.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides a framework for strategic police problem solving as well as a description of Compstat programs used across the United States. Based on a survey of police agencies this research reports that while police agencies across the country report the adoption of Compstat or derivative programs, many agencies have interpreted this problem-solving methodology within the “bureaucratic” and paramilitary frameworks of policing, thereby limiting its impact.

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  • Weisburd, David, Stephen D. Mastrofski, James J. Willis, and Rosann Greenspan. 2006. Changing everything so that everything can remain the same: Compstat and American policing. In Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Edited by David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, 284–301. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334.015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter considers the promise, practice, and prospects of Compstat as an innovative model in policing. Compstat is often presented as the embodiment of problem solving, but its practice has been less compelling, often reinforcing more traditional police practices. The chapter argues that Compstat as a crime prevention strategy is not yet independently demonstrated, acting as a reinforcement of past practice, rather than an innovation in policing.

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The Future of Community and Problem-Oriented Policing

Community and problem-oriented policing are works in process. Neither is settled as the common or premiere mode of police strategy, organization, or tactic. In many ways the police often continue to operate in their 19th-century model of functioning, emphasizing general patrol, response to emergency situations, and follow-up criminal investigations. Nonetheless, there is a growing body of literature that foresees greater adoption, adaptation, and diffusion of community and problem-oriented police, or their variants. Often this is couched in terms of measuring more clearly what the police do, what impact such behaviors have on crime, social disorder, and fear, and how such behaviors shape public and police conceptions of what the police should do, with attention to substantive and procedural justice. This section considers some of those ideas. Additionally, it considers police legitimacy, a byproduct of police adherence to procedural justice and public conceptions of fairness. At times community and problem-oriented policing have been seen as having a downside, that is, negative impacts on communities and community residents. Lastly, we consider the implications of police innovation.

Trends

Given the range of changes that are thought to be associated with community and problem-oriented policing, several trends in policing appear to have emerged. Maguire and King 2004 examines changes in policing but suggests that longitudinal research is lacking to establish with great clarity the emergent trends. Alternatively, research in Roth 2000 and the National Research Council 2004 suggest that community policing remains vague and not well connected to changes in policing, while problem-oriented policing is more precise and better able to address discrete crime problems. Scott 2001 identifies several improvements to policing introduced through problem-oriented policing and Zaho, et al. 2002 suggests that community policing has had an impact on crime. Klofas, et al. 2010 suggests that shifts in policing are attributable to better analysis and partnerships in addressing persistent crime and social order problems.

  • Klofas, John M., Natalie K. Hipple, and Edmund F. McGarrell, eds. 2010. The new criminal justice: American communities and the changing world of crime control. New York: Routledge.

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    This collection of papers considers the substantial changes that policing in the United States has undergone since the 1970s, and the emerging trends that now characterize crime control and public safety in the 21st century. The new model of policing and crime control is rooted in three broad ideas: collaboration, local problem solving, and a commitment to systematic research and improved program evaluation.

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  • Maguire, Edward R., and William R. King. 2004. Trends in the policing industry. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593:15–41.

    DOI: 10.1177/0002716204262960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses some of the trends in policing and systematically summarizes what we currently know about these trends and how they are shaping the police industry. The article is a review of the limitations in existing longitudinal research, or the lack thereof, on policing and the limitations in explaining shifts in policing that accrue to such limited information.

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  • National Research Council. 2004. Fairness and effectiveness in policing: The evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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    This work is a major assessment of the state of knowledge about policing and its effects, drawing on a broad research literature. The book considers what we know about policing, its role and functioning, how officers behave, how lawful police actions are, and what influences police behavior, how community and problem-oriented policing have worked, and what can be done to improve research on the police.

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  • Roth, Jeffrey A. 2000. National evaluation of the COPS program—Title 1 of the 1994 Crime Act. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice.

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    This report examines how community policing has developed with federal mandates and financial support to local police agencies. The report is the result of significant surveying, review of funding to local agencies, and systematic observation in a broad sample of police agencies throughout the United States. The results are mixed, suggesting some progress in the growth of community policing, but also outlining many failures to implement change.

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  • Scott, Michael S. 2001. Problem-oriented policing: Reflections on the first 20 years. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

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    This book provides a review and reflection of over twenty years of discussion, program implementation, and evaluation of problem-oriented policing. The papers review improvements to the conceptual and methodological underpinnings of problem-oriented policing, as well as the problems and prospects of wide-scale adoption of this model of policing in the future, including performance measurement and increasing effective partnerships.

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  • Zaho, Jihong S., Matthew C. Scheider, and Quint Thurman. 2002. Funding community policing to reduce crime: Have COPS grants made a difference? Criminology & Public Policy 2:7–32.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2002.tb00104.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This research examines the question, “has (sic) massive amounts of federal funding for community policing made a difference in crime?” The research, drawing on six years of panel data, reports that significant crime reductions in both violent and property crime occurred in cities with populations greater than ten thousand. The policy and funding implications of the findings are also discussed.

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The Downside

Community-oriented policing (COP) and problem-oriented policing (POP) have their downside as well. In general two downsides are quickly identified in the literature. The first is the intrusiveness of COP and POP into private life. Public spaces are being privatized under the guise of crime prevention and public safety (Khon 2004), and the ideologies and practices of “fixing broken windows” have been challenged as neo-conservative in philosophy and control and punishment centered (Herbert 2001 and Thacher 2001). Case studies of zero-tolerance and aggressive police often said to be extensions of community policing reveal the political underpinnings of social control (McArdle and Erzen 2001, Stenson 2000, and Lyons 1999).

  • Herbert, Steven. 2001. Policing the contemporary city: Fixing broken windows or shoring up neo-liberalism? Theoretical Criminology 5.4: 445–466.

    DOI: 10.1177/1362480601005004003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article contrasts the two models of policing that have emerged to reform policing: community and broken windows policing. The article considers the conflation of these two models as a consequence of police organization and culture, public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice, and the actions of political elites. The article concludes that broken windows policing is most congruent with the forces currently shaping policing.

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  • Kohn, Margaret. 2004. Brave new neighborhoods. New York: Routledge.

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    This work considers how public space has been privatized, and the implications of such privatization for First Amendment rights. The author considers how security and control at megamalls; private control of public areas, such as the Times Square Partnership; gated communities and social exclusion; and Internet chat rooms controlled and overseen by major corporations have been restructuring how we understand public space and privacy rights.

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  • Lyons, William. 1999. The politics of community policing: Rearranging the power to punish. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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    This work focuses on the community side of reform, emphasizing geographic integrity aligned with community boundaries, working partnerships, and police accountability. A case study in Seattle examines the dimensions of community concern for police engagement, how a new chief implemented such changes, and how such engagement atrophied over time, resulting in the police returning to practices that distanced them from the public.

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  • McArdle, Andrea, and Tanya Erzen. 2001. Zero tolerance: Quality of life and the new police brutality in New York City. New York and London: New York Univ. Press.

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    This book critically examines the implications of zero-tolerance policing in New York City and the accompanying abuses of police powers. This collection concludes that while the zero-tolerance policy of the NYPD has been hailed as producing dramatic declines in crime, the reality is that racial and sexual minorities, homeless persons, and those living on the margins are often targeted for aggressive police responses.

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  • Stenson, Kevin. 2000. Some day our prince will come: Zero-tolerance policing and liberal government. In Crime, risk and insecurity: Law and order in everyday life and political discourse. Edited by Tim Hope and Richard Sparks, 215–237. London and New York: Routledge.

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    This chapter examines zero-tolerance policing in New York City and its appeal to western European countries experiencing anxiety and fear, not only of crime, but also of an array of social, immigration, and economic issues. The analysis links a war metaphor with liberal governments, often calling for firm and charismatic leadership from government officials, including the police.

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  • Thacher, David. 2001. Conflicting values in community policing. Law and Society Review 35.4: 765–798.

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    While police reform through community policing emphasizes community partnerships with the police, realizing such partnerships is complex, contrasting and competing values between the community and the police being paramount. Reviewing case studies, this article examines the values conflicts in community policing, how they arise, and how the police respond to values conflicts with the community.

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Legitimacy and the Police

Public policing relies on public acceptance of the police. The authority of the public police is derived from the legitimacy they receive from the larger public. Such institutional legitimacy is an important factor in maintaining order in civil society, and larger forces leading to the loss of legitimacy in many social institutions have been accompanied by crime and disorder problems (LaFree 1998). Tyler 2001, Tyler 2004, Tyler 2006, and Tyler and Huo 2002 have clearly demonstrated that people obey the law for reasons other than fear of punishment. Rather, acceptance of the law and legal institutions, like the police, are predicated on the belief of fairness and procedural justice. When the police are perceived to treat people differently, they loose civic legitimacy. Police use of violence and overpolicing in poor and disadvantaged neighborhoods influence the level of continued violence in those communities (Kane 2005).

  • Kane, Robert J. 2005. Compromised police legitimacy as a predictor of violent crime in structurally disadvantaged neighborhoods. Criminology 43.2: 469–498.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00014.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reports on research conducted in New York City, examining variation in police legitimacy and violent crime between 1975 and 1996. The study reports that in communities characterized as being highly disadvantaged, police misconduct predicted variations in violent crime. In extremely disadvantaged communities police misconduct and overpolicing predicted variation in violent crime.

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  • LaFree, Gary. 1998. Losing legitimacy: street crime and the decline of social institutions in America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

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    This work considers how the decline in social institutions—increased distrust of political institutions, economic stress, and the disintegration of the family—accounts for increasing crime in the United States. It reports that efforts to stabilize traditional social institutions in the 1990s had some modest effects, more broadly tying issues of crime prevention to the legitimacy and strengths of larger social institutions.

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  • Tyler, Tom R. 2001. Public trust and confidence in legal authorities: What do majority and minority group members want from the law and legal institutions? Behavioral Sciences & the Law 19:215–235.

    DOI: 10.1002/bsl.438Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article considers how the public comes to trust legal institutions, including the police. The prevailing view is that public trust and confidence in the police and the courts results from the outcomes the public receives. Procedural justice—the perceived fairness of the process used to arrive at legal outcomes—is reported to be more important to increasing public confidence and trust.

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  • Tyler, Tom R. 2004. Enhancing police legitimacy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593:84–99.

    DOI: 10.1177/0002716203262627Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Recognizing that in democratic society the police need the support and confidence of the public, this article considers the need for process-oriented strategies in policing, in which procedural justice is strengthened. The paper argues that public assessments of how the police use their authority are increasingly important for maintaining police legitimacy and whether the public will cooperate with the police, particularly for lower level–order maintenance types of crime.

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  • Tyler, Tom R. 2006. Why people obey the law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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    Considered a major contribution to understanding legal compliance, this work argues that people obey the law not because they fear punishment, but rather because they see the law and its enforcement as being legitimately exercised. This research provides considerable insight into how people decide whether the law and its institutions are acceptable.

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  • Tyler, Tom R., and Yuen J. Huo. 2002. Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    Based on citizen surveys in Oakland and Los Angeles, this work examines how people come to frame encounters with the police as favorable or unfavorable. The research examines these interactions from the perspective of the citizen and finds that how people are treated, with or without dignity and respect, and the extent to which they believe they were treated fairly, greatly shapes their views.

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International Considerations

Of course community and problem-oriented policing are not singularly American; rather, they have been the outgrowth of police experimentation, most particularly in Western countries. Bayley 1994 chronicles the need for changes in policing using a cross-national perspective, and Bayley 2006 examines how democratic processes can be helped by effective and civically accountable policing. Manning 2010 critically assesses policing from the perspective of democratic principles and values, while Grabosky 2009 examines policing from the perspective of international peacekeeping and processes associated with restorative justice. Brogden and Nijhar 2005 expands the consideration of community policing from the Western world to other continents and cultures. Finally, Fridell and Wycoff 2004 and Ratcliffe 2008 consider the role of policing in a world increasingly concerned with terrorism, and intelligence-led policing, a variant of policing that emphasizes information analysis.

  • Bayley, David H. 1994. Police for the future. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This work explores the thesis that the police do not prevent crime. Using a comparative international perspective, the book examines the reasons why the police do not prevent crime, the impediments in doing so, and what societies must do to create police forces that can more effectively prevent crime.

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  • Bayley, David H. 2006. Changing the guard: Developing democratic police abroad. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This work considers how policing abroad might be seen as a means of encouraging the development of democratic governments, particularly in nations where policing may be synonymous with repression. The book outlines the essential elements of democratic policing, including adherence to the rule of law and international standards of human rights, and accountability and transparency to the public. The work considers why policing can be at the forefront of democratic reform.

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  • Brogden, Mike, and Preeti Nijhar. 2005. Community policing: National and international models and approaches. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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    This work provides a critical examination of the community policing movement worldwide by considering how community policing has been realized, the myths that surround its development, and how community policing has become an export business from many Western countries. The book also considers the globalization of community policing by examining the variations of community policing in many parts of the world.

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  • Fridell, Lorie, and Mary Ann Wycoff, eds. 2004. Community policing: The past, present and future. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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    This collection considers how community policing has come about, and most particularly how it is being shaped by such events as September 11, 2001, with its subsequent focus on national security. The papers cover a range of issues and collectively provide a means for agency assessment of the current and future development of community policing.

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  • Grabosky, Peter, ed. 2009. Community policing and peacekeeping. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    DOI: 10.1201/9781420099751Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection of papers considers how community policing meets, or fails to meet, the challenges of established societies, as well as how it may be used in developing nations as a peacekeeping tool, going beyond what is thought as traditional police work. The question underpinning the book is this: “How do the police respond to community needs?’’ The community policing paradigm offered includes community consultation and the provision of safety and security.

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  • Manning, Peter K. 2010. Democratic policing in a changing world. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

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    This book examines the underlying trends in democratic processes and what these trends mean for policing. The author critically examines police reforms under democratic auspices and finds that in the main these reforms have failed to significantly alter policing. Moreover, the author argues that these “reforms” have actually increased inequality. The book concludes with a series of proposals focused on establishing more effective policing.

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  • Ratcliffe, Jerry. 2008. Intelligence-led policing. Cullompton, UK: Willan.

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    Intelligence-led policing is an extension of crime analysis in that it seeks to link police operations and practices to the kinds of information police have available and analytic methods used to assess crime, disorder, and other problems calling for police attention. This work provides an overview of intelligence-led policing, its concepts and practices, and the implications of this paradigm for policing.

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Implications of Police Innovation

Much thought associated with community and problem-oriented policing is related to how policing in a modern-day world can innovate, that is shift styles of policing to accommodate new problems and techniques for analyzing and then responding to social problems, including crime and terrorism. An early entry in this discussion is Kelling and Moore 1988, which recognizes some important shifts in policing as it moved from political and administrative control to better serving community interests. Mastrofski, et al. 1995 and Shearing 1998 consider how this new era of community and problem-oriented policing is influencing policing and its governance, while Weisburd and Eck 2004 considers what the police can do to effectively address crime and fear problems. The papers in Knutsson 2003 and in Weisburd and Braga 2006 offer important critiques on the rise and institutionalization of forms of community and problem policing.

  • Kelling, George L., and Mark Moore. 1988. From political to reform to community: The evolving strategy of police. In Community policing: Rhetoric or reality. Edited by Jack R. Greene and Stephen D. Mastrofski, 3–26. New York: Praeger.

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    This essay interprets US police history as having passed through three primary stages. The first, the political era of policing, was captured by local politics. The second era, the administrative era of policing, wrested control from politicians and gave it to police administrators. And the third, the community era, is focused on rebalancing control and functioning of the police with community concerns for oversight and transparency.

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  • Knutsson, Johannes, ed. 2003. Problem-oriented policing: From innovation to mainstream. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

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    This volume considers the ways in which problem-oriented policing (POP) has begun to become more visible in policing and how it can be expanded as a major police crime prevention tool. Ten papers examine the complexities of problem-oriented police; the conceptual, organizational, and analytic impediments to implementing POP; and ways the police can advance the use of problem-oriented policing.

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  • Mastrofski, Stephen D., Robert E. Worden, and Jeffrey B. Snipes. 1995. Law enforcement in a time of community policing. Criminology 33.4: 539–563.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01189.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using observational methods, this paper presents data from Richmond, Virginia, on nontraffic police-suspect encounters and the arrest behaviors of officers who support community police as compared to officers who do not. The analysis reports observable differences in arrest patterns between these two groups of officers.

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  • Shearing, Clifford D. 1998. Changing paradigms in policing: The significance of community policing for the governance of security. Occasional paper, (August)No. 34. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.

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    This paper considers the ways in which community policing shifts the role of the police and the public in preventing crime. It contrasts two models of security, the first focused on the formal institutions of security—police, prosecutors, courts, and correctional agencies—the second emphasizing the role that the community and other public and private institutions have in crime.

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  • Weisburd, David, and Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2006. Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511489334Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection considers several changes to policing that have occurred since the late 20th century, most particularly various applications and variations of community and problem-oriented policing. The papers are arranged in a point/counterpoint framework, debating issues including the core mission of policing, what police strategies work and with what effects, and what is the nature of the relationship between the police and the public.

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  • Weisburd, David, and John E. Eck. 2004. What can police do to reduce crime, disorder, and fear? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 593:42–65.

    DOI: 10.1177/0002716203262548Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This review focuses on changes to policing and whether such changes can reduce crime, disorder, and fear. The authors develop a typology of innovation in police practices based on the diversity of approaches used and the specific focus of any particular approach. The research concludes that the standard model of policing has low diversity and weak focus, while community and problem-oriented approaches expand diversity and help to clarify focus.

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LAST MODIFIED: 05/25/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396607-0071

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