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Criminology The Social and Intellectual Context of Criminology
by
Joachim J. Savelsberg

Introduction

A hallmark of established academic fields is systematic self-reflection and scientific thought about the state of the field and the degree of embeddedness in the intellectual and social contexts on which each depends. Criminology, understood here as the scientific study of criminal behavior and its causes and of the constitution and control of crime by states and societies, is a relatively new academic field. It has developed most of its own institutions, undergraduate and graduate programs, scholarly associations, journals, and funding programs in the course of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The call for scientific thought about the nature and environment of criminology as an intellectual and scientific endeavor has been raised with growing intensity, but the scientific study of criminology in this sense is still in its infancy. While some studies of criminology as a scholarly field fit well in the tradition of the history or sociology of science, many contributions are, albeit insightful at times, everyday accounts of criminology’s practitioners (akin to a criminology that seeks to explain crime through narratives of people who engage in it). Risks are increased for at least three reasons. First, such analysts have a vested interest in the institutions of this field. Second, criminology grows in close proximity to the state and its massive institutions of control (as a funding source and supplier of concepts and data). Third, its applied branch supplies government authorities with advice on how to effectively use their monopoly of the legitimate use of force toward citizens. Criminology has distinct roots in different countries and on different continents, and it has undergone massive shifts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. These features are reflected in the organization of this bibliography by historic time and places, diverse social forces affecting criminology, and atypical genres such as (auto-)biographies. Many publications could be placed under more than one category of course; in these cases we chose the category that best fits. We did not include newsletter contributions in which some thought about the state of criminology is reflected.

Historic Time and Stages

In the absence of a unifying approach, different contributions present distinct ways in which long-term changes in the field of criminology can be understood in their intellectual and social environment. Short and Hughes 2007 combines insights drawn by the authors from a long career in criminology and impressive credentials in sociology with an effort to draw on promising innovations in the sociology of science, such as found in Abbott 2001. Scull 1988 also draws on insights from the sociology of science to describe the development of social control research. While in need of updating, the Scull 1988 handbook chapter is highly informative and provides a formidable example for a systematic analysis of the unfolding of social control research in its social and intellectual context. Rafter 2010 builds on the author’s long career and her many contributions to the history of criminology (see also the section Origins of Criminology). Determined to put an end to the lack of criminology’s self-reflectivity, Rafter 2010 offers a stage model, as does Laub 2004.

  • Abbott, Andrew. 2001. Chaos of disciplines. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    Explores the development of the social sciences, challenging the notion of progress and replacing it with that of cycles around core principles and fractals. Examples include moments in the history of criminology and challenges posed to problem-oriented interdisciplinary fields in establishing new disciplines.

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  • Laub, John H. 2004. The life course of criminology in the United States: The American Society of Criminology 2003 Presidential Address. Criminology 42.1: 1–26.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2004.tb00511.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Applies the life-course perspective to the development of criminology as a field to equip it with a sense of its own history. Discusses three “life-course” phases of criminology (with associated continuities and turning points) in the United States since the beginning of the 20th century. Available online by subscription.

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 2010. Silence and memory in criminology: The American Society of Criminology 2009 Sutherland Address. Criminology 48.2: 339–355.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00188.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses conditions and consequences of the paucity of studies of criminology’s past. The author proposes a historical framework reaching back to the late 18th century and focusing on scientific modernism with three main phases: exploratory, confident, and agnostic. Goal is to stimulate study of the history and sociology of criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Scull, Andrew T. 1988. Deviance and social control. In Handbook of sociology. Edited by Neil J. Smelser, 667–693. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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    Traces the development of ideas from those of early-20th-century sociologists, who focused on individual deviants and were concerned with morality and social order, to those of the 1970s, based on structural and cultural conditions of (and reactions to) crime that were more strongly rooted in sociological theory. Recent intellectual debate and disagreement in the field has engendered development of ideas surrounding the state and social control.

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  • Short, James F., Jr., with Lorine A. Hughes. 2007. Criminology, criminologists, and the sociological enterprise. In Sociology in America: A history. Edited by Craig Calhoun, 605–638. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    In a chapter partly organized chronologically and drawing on various sources from the sociology of science and disciplines, the authors insightfully dissect, in unusual detail, the shifting relationship between sociology and criminology and the building of niches and growing specialization, but they also deal with the occasional cross-fertilization across the boundaries of subfields and disciplines.

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Origins of Criminology

Considerable interest in the origins of criminology during the 19th and early 20th centuries suggests an organization of the literature in sections that cover social scientific origins and biological approaches. Mannheim 1960 should be considered a classic. The author reflects on early contributors to criminology in their social and intellectual contexts. Other authors address early social scientific approaches and biological approaches and the “criminal man,” which are the subjects of two subheadings.

  • Mannheim, Hermann, ed. 1960. Pioneers in criminology. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

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    Biographical essays about pioneers in criminology whose lives spanned nearly two hundred years, beginning in the mid-18th century; highlights the multidisciplinary history of criminology and the historical development of contemporary ideas.

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Early Social Scientific Approaches

Smith 2008 offers a new evaluation of Émile Durkheim and his reception. Here the great sociological classic appears as a source, albeit selectively used, of later intellectual developments in criminology. Beirne 1987 spells out positions by Gabriel Tarde, one of Durkheim’s opponents, as a strong challenger of positive criminology. An early article, Garland 1985, spells out intellectual and societal conditions under which an individual-focused criminology was likely to develop. The article points to the section Biological Approaches and the “Criminal Man”, which addresses early biological approaches to the explanation of crime.

  • Beirne, Piers. 1987. Between classicism and positivism: Crime and penalty in the writings of Gabriel Tarde. Criminology 25.4: 785–820.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00820.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores three lines of Tarde’s argument: his opposition to biological positivism, challenges to the school of moral statistics, and engagement with Durkheim’s notion of the normality of crime. Suggests that Tarde helped save the legal subject of classical jurisprudence against the efforts of positive criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Garland, David. 1985. The criminal and his science. British Journal of Criminology 25.2: 109–137.

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    Critical historical account of the development of an individual-focused criminology at the turn of the 20th century as a result of societal concerns about criminality, intellectual foundations in psychiatry, rising interest in explaining and quantifying social phenomena (e.g., criminal man), and the physical space and natural laboratory of prisons for studying criminals. Available online by subscription.

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  • Smith, Philip. 2008. Durkheim and criminology: Reconstructing the legacy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41:333–344.

    DOI: 10.1375/acri.41.3.333Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes Émile Durkheim’s substantial influence on different branches of criminology, including positivism and constructivism. Spells out reasons for insufficient acknowledgment of Durkheim’s contributions and suggests future directions.

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Biological Approaches and the “Criminal Man”

Two scholars in particular contributed to our understanding of early criminology, especially the strong position of biological approaches and the emergence of the notion of the “criminal man.” Piers Beirne published a series of articles in which he takes at times controversial positions in subsuming scholars under this heading against generally accepted wisdom (e.g., Beirne 1991 on Cesare Beccaria and Beirne 1987 on Adolphe Quetelet). Beirne 1988 considers Charles Goring’s work ambiguous, partially advancing the notion of heredity. More recently, Nicole Rafter has contributed greatly to our understanding of the history of early criminology, especially its biological branches. Rafter 1997 describes the emergence of eugenic criminology, fed by middle-class fears and misinterpretations by diverse professional groups. Rafter 2009 offers a powerful collection of biologist criminological readings from the 19th century. Rafter 2007 provides a case study on the psychiatrist William H. Sheldon, stressing how funding trumped strong evidence from the social sciences. Rafter 2008 recounts the problematic history of biological criminology, simultaneously urging social scientists to take seriously contemporary promising contributions from the biological sciences that are radically separated from the early 21st century’s mostly social scientific criminology. Horn 2003 considers the Italian Cesare Lombroso’s role in studying the criminal body and in distinguishing criminology from other fields of scientific inquiry. Simon 2006 indicates the path dependency of scholarly knowledge by arguing that old ideas continue to contribute to excessive penal practices.

  • Beirne, Piers. 1987. Adolphe Quetelet and the origins of positivist criminology. American Journal of Sociology 92.5: 1140–1169.

    DOI: 10.1086/228630Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Places Quetelet (b. 1697–d. 1874) in the “statistical movement” amid growing concerns with the “dangerous classes,” nurturing ideas about constancy of crime and criminal propensities. Concludes that Quetelet’s work contributed to a rigid binary opposition between normality and deviation. Available online by subscription.

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  • Beirne, Piers. 1988. Heredity versus environment: A reconsideration of Charles Goring’s The English Convict (1913). British Journal of Criminology 28.3: 315–339.

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    Critical evaluation of Goring’s engagement with Lombrosianism. Affirms that, rejecting some factors of heredity but supporting others, Goring advances an ambiguous argument. Available online by subscription.

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  • Beirne, Piers. 1991. Inventing criminology: The “science of man” in Cesare Beccaria’s Dei Delitti et Delle Pene (1764). Criminology 29.4: 777–820.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01088.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Challenges conventional understanding of Beccaria as a contributor to legal rationality and classical criminology. Views him instead as an example of the Scottish “science of man” who exhibits features such as probabilism and utilitarianism. Available online by subscription.

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  • Horn, David. 2003. The criminal body: Lombroso and the anatomy of deviance. New York: Routledge.

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    Lombroso saw the criminal man as part of the process by which Italy became a modern nation. Transformations of ideas about crime in Italy allowed scientists of the criminal body, including Lombroso, to quantify characteristics of potential criminals and their environments, thus distinguishing themselves from other scholars, whose focus was on crimes.

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 1997. Creating born criminals. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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    Highlights prejudices and misunderstandings of diverse professional groups, fed by middle-class fears in light of rapid social change, as a foundation of “eugenic criminology” in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Criminals were constructed as inherently defective, an understanding that encouraged practices such as life confinement, sterilization, and eugenics.

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 2007. Somatotyping, antimodernism, and the production of criminological knowledge. Criminology 45.4: 805–833.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00092.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    For the case of the psychiatrist William H. Sheldon, Rafter examines the emergence of ideas regarding links between body type and delinquency. Explores social and personal contexts of early ideas and the institutional and funding contexts that supported Sheldon’s ideas even in the face of social scientific challenges. Available online by subscription.

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 2008. The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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    Situates the emergence of biosocial criminology as an effort to scientifically understand crime in historical, political, and intellectual contexts. Urges criminologists to engage with biological theories of crime and to consider a biosocial model in which environmental interventions reduce the effects of biology on crime.

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 2009. The origins of criminology: A reader. New York: Routledge-Cavendish.

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    Rafter’s work includes some sixty contributions by early criminologists of the 19th century who were primarily concerned with biological factors. The book is divided into ten sections, each of which Rafter introduces. While the field of criminology was not yet established, cross-referencing across contributors is documented.

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  • Simon, Jonathan. 2006. Positively punitive: How the inventor of scientific criminology who died at the beginning of the twentieth century continues to haunt American crime control at the beginning of the twenty-first. Texas Law Review 84.7: 2135–2172.

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    Considers the dramatic increase in rates of punishment since the 1970s as enhanced by penological notions rooted in Lombroso’s ideas at the turn of the 20th century about the scientific identification of criminals and the long-term imprisonment of offenders. Available online by subscription.

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Maturation of the Field

The middle third of the 20th century brought considerable maturation to the field of criminology, especially American criminology, mostly still within its sociological context. Laub 1983 provides rich interviews with classical contributors during this era. Albeit biographical in nature, the application of clear analytic dimensions draws out profound insights into the conditions of two generations of scholars. The interview with Albert K. Cohen in Laub 1983, for example, shows how his innovative thought is the product of cross-fertilization from his exposure to distinct intellectual traditions at Harvard University and Indiana University. A rare contribution by a sociologist of science to the literature on criminology, Cole 1975 explores the effect of student–teacher relations for the case of Robert K. Merton. This is supplemented by an interview with Merton on the contextual conditions of his theory in Cullen and Messner 2007. Wolfgang, et al. 1978 and Ward and Webb 1984 engage in thorough attempts at book-length stocktaking of criminological research at the height of this era of maturation. Shichor, et al. 1981 offers a sense of the prestige of criminological journals at this juncture. Laub 2006 provides a critique of Edwin H. Sutherland’s effort to create a profoundly sociological explanation of crime, one of the main lines of sociological-criminological thought during this era of maturation. Robinson 1997 reflects on one of the major efforts of the maturing, predominantly sociological, field of criminology to contribute to policy making in the context of social programs of the Johnson-Humphrey administration. Gibbons 1979 provides an early account of the history of American criminology on its way toward maturation.

  • Cole, Stephen. 1975. The growth of scientific knowledge. In The idea of social structure: Papers in honor of Robert K. Merton. Edited by Lewis A. Coser, 175–220. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

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    Discusses the spread and relative importance of Merton’s theory of social structure and anomie over time as a result of training students, who carried on and developed Merton’s ideas, and shifts in theoretical and topical foci.

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  • Cullen, Francis T., and Steven F. Messner. 2007. The making of criminology revisited: An oral history of Merton’s anomie paradigm. Theoretical Criminology 11.1: 5–37.

    DOI: 10.1177/1362480607072733Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An interview with Merton on the development of his theory of crime and deviance that focuses on influential background factors and other contextual effects, criticisms of his ideas regarding social structure and anomie, and revisions of his initial ideas along with reflections on the impact of his theoretical work on the field. Available online by subscription.

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  • Gibbons, Don C. 1979. The criminological enterprise: Theories and perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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    Lays out the history of American criminology from its origins through the 1970s and seeks to forecast future trends in criminological theory.

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  • Laub, John. 1983. Criminology in the making. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press.

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    Biographic interviews with prominent criminologists, such as A. K. Cohen, D. Glaser, E. M. Lemert, Donald R. Cressey, T. Sellin, and L. E. Ohlin, along a set of analytic dimensions. Laub’s introduction highlights conditions of expansion and development in which early criminologists came of age professionally and became active participants in creating and delineating the parameters under which criminologists work and study.

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  • Laub, John H. 2006. Edwin H. Sutherland and the Michael-Adler report: Searching for the soul of criminology seventy years later. Criminology 44:235–258.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00048.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Uses a critique of Edwin H. Sutherland’s sociological positivist approach to argue that an interdisciplinary criminology, based on a life-course approach, is more promising. Discusses risks facing the advancement of criminology as a science and as a serious intellectual pursuit.

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  • Robinson, Laurie, ed. 1997. The challenge of crime in a free society: Looking back, looking forward; Symposium on the 30th anniversary of the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

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    Members and staff from the 1967 President’s Crime Commission along with criminal justice scholars and professionals reflect on progress and discuss challenges ahead regarding crime. While great progress has been made in the development of institutions of criminal justice, many concerns about crime in 1967 lingered in 1997.

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  • Shichor, David, Robert M. O’Brien, and David L. Decker. 1981. Prestige of journals in criminology and criminal justice. Criminology 19.3: 461–469.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1981.tb00431.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a ranking of criminology and criminal justice journals of the 1970s based on reputation as expressed in expert opinion (a survey). Available online by subscription.

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  • Ward, Richard H., and V. J. Webb. 1984. Quest for quality. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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    Describes how disciplinary roots of criminology and criminal justice led to emphases on criminal behavior and law and order, respectively. Highlights the initial importance of federal funding for the establishment of training programs and shows the disproportionate representation of sociology-trained faculty in specialized programs.

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  • Wolfgang, Marvin E., Robert M. Figlio, and Terence P. Thornberry. 1978. Evaluating criminology. New York: Elsevier.

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    Major effort, based on a review of a rich array of sources and publications and a survey of scholars, to evaluate the state of criminology. Both methods identify the same set of publications that were most influential. Concerns expressed regarding steering the field during a period of massive funding by the US Justice Department’s Law Enforcement Assistance Agency.

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Debating Substantive and Theoretical Foci

Much work on criminology as a scholarly endeavor is discussed under other headings. Here, however, several titles reflect late-20th- and early-21st-century debates regarding substantive and theoretical directions taken by contemporary criminology. Garland 2001 relates the state of criminology at the turn of the 21st century to the challenges of late modern society. Dooley 2010 is a dissertation on developments of criminology into the early 21st century that incorporates theory and is based on empirical data. An early work, Gibbs 1987, diagnoses a theory deficit of criminology and demands continued focus on theory development. Silverman, et al. 2002 reflects on the contributions of Marvin E. Wolfgang to criminology through a collection of essays by Wolfgang, his colleagues, and his students. Cullen 2011 critiques criminology’s focus on juveniles and suggests a further shift toward the study of contexts and crime control.

  • Cullen, Francis T. 2011. Beyond adolescence-limited criminology: Choosing our future; The American Society of Criminology 2010 Sutherland Address. Criminology 49.2: 287–330.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00224.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Cullen argues that the focus of criminology on adolescents, which emerged in the 1960s and has dominated since, was nurtured by the theoretical contributions of two prominent thinkers—Sutherland and Travis Hirschi—and the tumultuous 1960s. Despite the dominance and contributions of this paradigm, Cullen argues that it is time for a new direction focusing on contexts and interventions for controlling crime. Available online by subscription.

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  • Dooley, Brendan D. 2010. Whither criminology? On the state of criminology’s paradigm. PhD diss., Univ. of Missouri at St. Louis.

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    Explores theoretical and methodological consensus, boundaries, the departure from sociology, and the current and future status of criminology through semistructured interviews with criminologists and a content analysis of 2,109 peer-reviewed articles appearing in the top journals in the field from 1951 to 2008.

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  • Garland, David. 2001. The culture of control: Crime and social control in contemporary society. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    Historical account that diagnoses the new culture of control due to the uncertainties of late modernity, accompanied by a transformation from a correctionalist criminology focusing on the criminal and the causes of crime, toward a new criminology of everyday life concerned with routine activities and a criminology of essentialized difference focusing on genetic explanations and dangerous offenders or “superpredators.”

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  • Gibbs, Jack P. 1987. The state of criminological theory. Criminology 25.4: 821–840.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00821.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes how criminologists were critiqued in the 1960s for focusing primarily on etiological questions about crime. While the study of crime broadened, Gibbs argues that ideas about reactions to crime and control of crime must be accompanied by theory development in criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Silverman, Robert A., Terence P. Thornberry, Bernard Cohen, and Barry Krisberg, eds. 2002. Crime and justice at the millennium. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

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    A volume of essays by scholars such as Freda Adler, Charles Wellford, and Hans Toch in honor of Marvin E. Wolfgang, who had a significant influence on the development of sociological criminology and on his students and colleagues.

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Growth, Uses, and Usefulness

Other publications on the current state of criminology offer descriptive accounts regarding its growth, such as Kerner 1998 or, for criminal justice scholarship, Clear 2001. Or they seek to understand the uses and usefulness of particular types of criminological research, such as experimental criminology in Sherman 2005 and public criminologies in an issue of Criminology and Public Policy with the introductory essay, Uggen and Inderbitzin 2010, followed by a critical discussion of their theses. Loader and Sparks 2010 examines the possibilities of a public criminology, carefully examining institutional and environmental constraints of this program.

  • Clear, Todd. 2001. Has academic criminal justice come of age? Justice Quarterly 18:709–726.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418820100095071Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that criminal justice is an established area of study and provides descriptive evidence of continued growth since the 1970s in the number of graduates, productive scholars, and scholarly journal outlets.

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  • Kerner, Hans-Jürgen. 1998. The global growth of criminology. International Annals of Criminology 36.1–2: 27–42.

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    Descriptive account of the growth of criminology with its own institutions as a global development.

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  • Loader, Ian, and Richard Sparks. 2010. Public criminology? New York: Routledge.

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    Inquires about the role of criminology in a democratic society. Authors explore challenges associated with the politicized nature of issues of crime and punishment. They provide a sociological analysis both of the diverse positions criminologists take as policy advisers, scientific experts, or social movement theorists and of the waxing and waning of the credibility and influence of these roles.

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  • Sherman, Lawrence W. 2005. The use and usefulness of criminology, 1751–2005: Enlightened justice and its failures. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 600.1: 115–135.

    DOI: 10.1177/0002716205278103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Suggests that the early usefulness of criminology during the Enlightenment era vanished to return only in the late 20th century, particularly in the form of experimental criminology, which the author favors. Available online by subscription.

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  • Uggen, Christopher, and Michelle Inderbitzin. 2010. Public criminologies. Criminology and Public Policy 9.4: 725–750.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00666.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An issue of Criminology and Public Policy introduced by the editor Todd Clear with critical discussions by the criminologists Paul Rock, Kenneth C. Land, Ian Loader and Richard Sparks, Michael Tonry, and Daniel P. Mears. Uggen and Inderbitzin depict criminology along two dimensions: academic versus extra-academic audiences and instrumental versus reflexive scholarship. They speak (analytically and normatively) to different links between these types of criminology and their societal environment. Available online by subscription.

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Place

The intellectual and social conditions of criminology as a field of scholarship vary not only across time but also by place. Here, too, much comparative work, including work on non-American and non-European regions of the world, remains to be done. The subsections here identify literature that depicts country-specific conditions and the types of criminology it has generated.

North American Criminology

Hamilton and Sutton 1989 is not concerned with criminology per se, but the authors reveal sources of a particular American way of thinking about social control that grew out of America’s pragmatist school of philosophy, itself explained by the co-occurrence of massive social change and the lack of a strong central government in the United States. Cullen, et al. 2011 offers a collection of chapters on the origins of American criminology proper, including Robert J. Sampson’s contribution on the Chicago school, which itself is rooted in pragmatist thought.

  • Cullen, Francis T., Cheryl L. Jonson, Andrew J. Myer, and Freda Adler, eds. 2011. The origins of American criminology: Advances in criminological theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    Collection of essays by criminologists, such as R. Agnew, Steven F. Messner, and R. Rosenfeld (on Robert K. Merton) and Robert J. Sampson (on the Chicago school). Discusses the guiding role of theory in criminology. Theory itself is attributed to diverse factors, including disciplinary ideologies, cognitive environments of specific universities, scholarly networks, and biographical contingencies.

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  • Hamilton, Gary G., and John Sutton. 1989. The problem of control in the weak states: Domination in the United States, 1880–1920. Theory and Society 18:1–46.

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    Explores the impact of relatively weak governmental institutions in combination with dramatic social change and problems in intellectual thought regarding social control. Contributes to the explanation of the rise of the pragmatist school of philosophy and the community focus of social control ideas. Long-term effect on institutions and ideas in the United States are discussed.

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European Criminology and Views across Countries

In addition to an overview of European criminology in Baars-Schuyt 2001, several publications illuminate the state of criminology in particular countries, specifically British and German criminology. Rock 1988, Garland and Sparks 2000, and Garland 2002 examine particularly British criminology. Savelsberg 1989 offers an overview of the state of criminology and controversies in Germany shortly before the transformations accompanying the unification of that country. A few contributions also look beyond the boundaries of Europe. Becker and Wetzell 2006 provides insights into the history of (primarily) European criminology; however, the work also includes material on a diverse range of countries.

  • Baars-Schuyt, Adrienne. 2001. Overview of criminology in Europe. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 9:301–313.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1011612826382Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Offers a descriptive account of the development and state of criminology in Europe.

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  • Becker, Peter, and Richard F. Wetzell, eds. 2006. Criminals and their scientists: The history of criminology in international perspective. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    Essays on the history of criminology, especially in eastern and western Europe, but also includes chapters on Argentina, Australia, Japan, and the United States. Focus is on the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. Covers contributions made by practitioners and scholars to knowledge about crime and criminals alike.

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  • Garland, David. 2002. Of crimes and criminals: The development of criminology in Britain. In The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 3d ed. Edited by Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan, and Robert Reiner, 7–50. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Argues that British criminology developed as the product of the slow convergence of government investigations into various aspects of crime control and scientific inquiry into the factors differentiating criminals from noncriminals.

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  • Garland, David, and Richard Sparks. 2000. Criminology, social theory, and the challenge of our times. British Journal of Criminology 40.2: 189–204.

    DOI: 10.1093/bjc/40.2.189Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduction to a special journal issue on criminology and social theory. Focus is on intellectual challenges of criminology posed by late-20th-century economic transformations. Emphasizes British criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Rock, Paul Elliott. 1988. A history of British criminology. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    A collection of thirteen essays by prominent authors reflecting on the history of (primarily) British criminology. Focuses on central contributors and institutions, linking empirical observation with theoretical arguments.

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  • Savelsberg, Joachim J. 1989. Zukunftsperspektiven der Kriminologie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Materialien zu einem DFG-Kolloquium. Papers presented at a colloquium held at the Universität Bremen, 27–29 November 1986. Stuttgart: Enke.

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    Provides a collection of partly conflicting contributions on the status and prospects of German criminology presented at a colloquium of the German National Science Foundation. Indicates overcoming of past psychiatric and legal constraints of German criminology and a move toward social scientific perspectives.

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Social Forces

As an alternative to examining historical and country-specific conditions and formations of criminology as an intellectual and scholarly endeavor, the sociology of science has long focused on diverse social forces that have inspired the advancement of science. Some literature, more or less founded in the sociology of science, applies these insights to criminology. Factors considered include scholarly communities and networks, a gendered social world, institutional contexts within academia, and the political economy. A few studies speak to different context conditions simultaneously. Bourdieu 1988 does not address criminology specifically, but the author discusses those branches of academic life that are oriented toward fields of practice, including law and penal law. Foucault 1977 is a classic, identifying criminology with disciplinary power in the context of changing economic and political structures. It is juxtaposed with Garland 1992, a critique that leads to a better understanding of criminology’s intellectual and institutional history. Leps 1992 focuses on both the intellectual and the larger social conditions surrounding the emergence of criminology. Hogeveen and Woolford 2006 and Christie 1997 reflect greater sympathy with Foucaultian ideas. Savelsberg and Flood 2011 uses a set of qualitative interviews with criminologists to explore effects of scholarly networks, their institutional contexts, and the larger socioeconomic environment on criminology. The authors use as organizing principles basic dimensions laid out by Randall Collins.

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1988. Homo academicus. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    While not dealing with criminology directly, this work is still relevant because it identifies the advantages of scholarship that seeks independence from government institutions. Based on classic arguments by the Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant and empirical analysis of the academic field carried out in French universities in the late 1960s.

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  • Christie, Nils. 1997. Four blocks against insight: Notes on the oversocialization of criminologists. Theoretical Criminology 1.1: 13–23.

    DOI: 10.1177/1362480697001001002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a highly critical reflection on the state of criminology as a field that produces much of trivial value. Potential conditions include an oversocialization of criminologists in the university system, risks posed by governments with interest in scholarly production, and an intrusion of state perspectives into criminology via available files and archives. Available online by subscription.

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  • Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and punish. London: Allen Lane.

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    Radical analysis of the development of disciplinary techniques and professional knowledges in association with the birth of the prison in the context of the changing shape of the state and the economy. Criminological knowledge is closely associated with governing power.

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  • Garland, David. 1992. Criminological knowledge and its relation to power: Foucault’s genealogy and criminology today. British Journal of Criminology 32.4: 403–422.

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    Based on a critique of Michel Foucault’s association of criminology with power, especially in light of the diversity of 20th-century intellectual developments, Garland offers guidelines for a reading of the history of criminology, involving its intellectual, institutional, social, and cultural history. Available online by subscription.

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  • Hogeveen, Bryan, and Andrew Woolford. 2006. Critical criminology and possibility in the neo-liberal ethos. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 48.5: 681–702.

    DOI: 10.1353/ccj.2006.0048Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes conditions of contemporary criminology, which is argued to be marked by either “administrative complicity” or “self-inflicted irrelevance.” Pleads for a replacement of common judgments about existing policies, programs, and institutions toward radical innovation. Available online by subscription.

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  • Leps, Marie-Christine. 1992. Apprehending the criminal: The production of deviance in nineteenth-century discourse. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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    Examines the transformation of crime as a given during the 19th century and the subsequent control of crime as rooted in the establishment of criminology as a science, the rise of mass journalism, and the spread of stories about crime into popular genres.

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  • Savelsberg, Joachim J., and Sarah M. Flood. 2011. Collins meets criminology: Intellectual change in a policy-oriented field. Sociological Forum 26:21–44.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1573-7861.2010.01223.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article follows the theoretical model of intellectual change developed by the sociologist Randall Collins in examining the effects of intellectual networks, institutional arrangements, and the larger political economy on American criminology. Patterns are illustrated by materials from in-depth interviews with prominent criminologists.

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Scholarly Communities and Networks

Cappell and Guterbock 1992 and Ennis 1992 provide excellent examples of the rigorous empirical study of the structural position of criminology, here specifically sociological criminology, in its larger scholarly context. Both works identify criminology’s substantial isolation within the larger sociological community. Savelsberg and Flood 2004 uses a dataset based on content analysis drawn from more than 1,600 criminological journal articles to find that cohort membership is less influential on criminological work than current-day contexts. Merton 2000 illustrates the development and expansion of the author’s 1938 concept of opportunity structure, highlighting the importance of both vertical and horizontal network ties. Cullen 2005 argues that a small group of loosely networked scholars reawakened criminology’s interest in rehabilitation.

  • Cappell, Charles L., and Thomas M. Guterbock. 1992. The social and conceptual structure of sociological specialties. American Sociological Review 57:266–273.

    DOI: 10.2307/2096210Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Cluster analyses of members of the American Sociological Association (ASA), using data on section memberships and thematic self-identification of ASA members to identify distinct structural positions of researchers in the area of crime and social control.

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  • Cullen, Francis T. 2005. The twelve people who saved rehabilitation: How the science of criminology made a difference; The American Society of Criminology 2004 Presidential Address. Criminology 43.1: 1–42.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00001.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that a small group of loosely coupled criminologists caused a rejection of the 1970s “nothing works” doctrine regarding the rehabilitation of criminal offenders. Available online by subscription.

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  • Ennis, James G. 1992. The social organization of sociological knowledge: Modeling the intersection of specialties. American Sociological Review 57:259–265.

    DOI: 10.2307/2096209Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Diagnoses for American Sociological Association (ASA) members, working in some crime-related subspecialties, marginal positions at the fringe of the sociological community.

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  • Merton, Robert K. 2000. Opportunity structure: The emergence, diffusion, and differentiation of a sociological concept, 1930s–1950s. In The legacy of anomie theory. Edited by Freda Adler and William S. Laufer, 3–78. Advances in Criminological Theory 6. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    Traces the development, especially through conversations with students and colleagues, spread, and critique of Merton’s 1938 concept of opportunity structure. Scholars such as Albert K. Cohen, R. Cloward, and L. E. Ohlin combined Merton’s ideas with Sutherland’s theory of differential association to extend and develop the original concept of opportunity structure.

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  • Savelsberg, Joachim J., and Sarah M. Flood. 2004. Period and cohort effects in the production of scholarly knowledge: The case of criminology, 1951–1993. Criminology 42:1009–1041.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2004.tb00543.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article develops theoretical arguments about cohort and period effects that affect criminological work. Empirical examination, based on content analysis of more than sixteen hundred scientific journal articles, shows that period effects trump cohort effects.

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Citations Studies

Citation studies provide one avenue toward an understanding of scholarly communities and relative influence within them. One group of scholars has for many years used this methodology primarily to identify the “citation stars” and national patterns in criminology. Cohn and Farrington 1990 finds that British authors are barely considered in American criminology except when they adopt the quantitative methods that dominate American criminology. Cohn and Farrington 1994 identifies the dominance of American citation stars and of scholars in specific subfields in the English-speaking world. Cohn and Farrington 1998a and Cohn and Farrington 1998b find that career research is most often cited, even though theoretical criminology appears to be catching up, and they identify considerable consistency in citation frequency over time (albeit more in the United States and the United Kingdom than in Australia and New Zealand). Cohn and Farrington 2007 confirms many of the authors’ earlier results but finds a decline in the position of some former citation stars. They also find that citation stars cluster in criminology versus criminal justice journals. Wright 1995 finds that textbooks show different patterns from journal articles.

  • Cohn, Ellen G., and David P. Farrington. 1990. Differences between British and American criminology. British Journal of Criminology 30.4: 467–482.

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    Citation analysis shows that British authors are increasingly cited in the journal Criminology but only if they use advanced statistical methods (1984–1988). The article thus illustrates the relative restriction of criminology to national confines, except where adaptation to US methodological preferences occurs. Available online by subscription.

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  • Cohn, Ellen G., and David P. Farrington. 1994. Who are the most influential criminologists in the English-speaking world? British Journal of Criminology 34.2: 204–225.

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    Citation analysis of the leading criminology journals in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia and New Zealand shows that top citation records are tied to specific themes: longitudinal research on criminal careers (e.g., Marvin E. Wolfgang), measuring crime (e.g., Blumstein), correlates of crime (e.g., Hindelang), and public policy discussions (e.g., Wilson). “Stars” in the United States tend to be stars elsewhere also, but “stars” elsewhere do not tend to be recognized in the United States. Available online by subscription.

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  • Cohn, Ellen G., and David P. Farrington. 1998a. Changes in the most-cited scholars in major American criminology and criminal justice journals between 1986–90 and 1991–95. Journal of Criminal Justice 26.2: 99–116.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0047-2352(97)00073-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A careful and thorough data collection effort and a straightforward accounting of citations in each of the top three American criminology and criminal justice journals show that theoretical and longitudinal/criminal career research continued to be most cited. Nearly half of the scholars most cited in the earlier period remained among the most cited.

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  • Cohn, Ellen G., and David P. Farrington. 1998b. Changes in the most-cited scholars in major international journals between 1986–90 and 1991–95. British Journal of Criminology 38.1: 156–170.

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    A follow-up to Cohn and Farrington 1994 that shows that leads in citation records shifted to a focus on criminological theories. Findings show more similarity in the most-cited scholars in the United States and the United Kingdom over time (about 60 percent) compared to Australia and New Zealand (about 35 percent) and little agreement across places about the most-cited scholars in criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Cohn, Ellen G., and David P. Farrington. 2007. Changes in scholarly influence in major American criminology and criminal justice journals between 1986 and 2000. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 18:6–34.

    DOI: 10.1080/10511250601144225Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shows the rising influence of maturing scholars and the declining position over time of some who were influential in earlier periods. General agreement about the most-cited scholars in criminology journals and in two of three criminal justice journals; less agreement between criminology and criminal justice. The most-cited topics of study were consistent with earlier periods.

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  • Wright, Richard A. 1995. The most-cited scholars in criminology: A comparison of textbooks and journals. Journal of Criminal Justice 23.4: 303–311.

    DOI: 10.1016/0047-2352(95)00021-HSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparison of the most-cited scholars in introductory criminology textbooks from 1989 to 1993 to textbooks from 1976 to 1980 and to those in leading criminology journals published from 1986 to 1990. Documents more agreement between books over time than between books and journals. Only Travis Hirschi and Marvin E. Wolfgang were among the ten most-cited scholars in both textbooks and journal articles.

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Gender

Because men commit a disproportionate percentage of crimes, men as criminals have traditionally been the focus of criminology. Daly and Chesney-Lind 1988 illustrates how the women’s movement brought issues of women and crime to the attention of criminologists and the topics to which feminism contributed in the late 1970s and 1980s. Naffine 1996 describes how criminological knowledge is socially situated and partial because it focuses on criminal men despite the inherently gendered nature of crime. Rafter and Heidensohn 1995 highlights the importance of time and space for the particular emergence and development of feminism in criminology. Hartman and Sundt 2011 explores the rise of feminist criminology, focusing on the career and work of Freda Adler. Piquero 2011 deals with the career and work of Terrie E. Moffitt. Flood 2009 describes and analyzes the gendered career contexts of scholars of crime and crime control.

  • Daly, Kathleen, and Meda Chesney-Lind. 1988. Feminism and criminology. Justice Quarterly 5:497–538.

    DOI: 10.1080/07418828800089871Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Locates early interest in women and crime in the second-wave women’s movement and early books on gender and crime in the 1970s (e.g., Freda Adler). Feminist ideas were better received in the 1980s, as the field expanded to examine issues of victimization, female offenders, corporate crime, and crime control and as more women participated in the field.

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  • Flood, Sarah M. 2009. “Gendered careers in changing social and institutional contexts: Criminology in the post-WWII era.” PhD diss., Univ. of Minnesota.

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    Examines the changing context of careers and scholarship in criminology during the second half of the 20th century. Draws on interviews with 37 criminologists, content-analyzed peer-reviewed articles published in leading sociology and criminology journals between 1951 and 1993, and survey data from 445 scholars who published in leading journals.

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  • Hartman, Jennifer L., and Jody L. Sundt. 2011. The rise of feminist criminology: Freda Adler. In The origins of American criminology: Advances in criminological theory. Edited by Francis T. Cullen, Cheryl Lero Jonson, Andrew J. Myer, and Freda Adler, 205–220. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    The authors explore relationships between social and historical contexts as well as Adler’s early life experiences and her theoretical work. Much of the chapter centers on Adler’s 1975 work on gender and crime, which challenged mainstream criminological thought and fueled numerous scholarly discussions and investigations.

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  • Naffine, Ngaire. 1996. Feminism and criminology. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

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    A feminist critique of historical and contemporary US criminology for minimizing feminist approaches that contribute knowledge to issues at the heart of the field, for continuing to focus on men as criminals, and for rewarding scholarship that ignores gender issues despite the gendered nature of criminology.

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  • Piquero, Alex R. 2011. Understanding the development of antisocial behavior: Terrie E. Moffitt. In The origins of American criminology: Advances in criminological theory. Edited by Francis T. Cullen, Cheryl Lero Jonson, Andrew J. Myer, and Freda Adler, 397–408. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    This chapter about Moffitt’s life and scholarship is set in a life-course context. Key points in Moffitt’s biography are highlighted, which taken together detail her path to formulating the ideas in her developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior.

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  • Rafter, Nicole H., and Frances Heidensohn, eds. 1995. International feminist perspectives in criminology: Engendering a discipline. Philadelphia: Open Univ. Press.

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    Collection of essays that describes the history and state of feminism in criminology around the world, showing how the timing and impact of feminism depends on social, political, and institutional contexts in which criminological knowledge is produced. Scholarly networks of feminists are also important for the production of feminist knowledge about crime.

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Criminology within Academic Institutional Contexts

Academic institutions free scholarship from the immediate pressures of practical life. Yet the autonomy of these institutions is fragile at times. In addition, their particular shape contributes to the nature of scholarship. Heydebrand 1990 does not deal with criminology directly, but the author discusses the conditions within (American) universities that limited their autonomy during the period of criminology’s growth. Laub and Sampson 1991 shows how the presence or absence of graduate programs in an academic unit affects the influence of scholars.

  • Heydebrand, Wolf. 1990. The technocratic organization of academic work. In Structures of power and constraint: Papers in honor of Peter M. Blau. Edited by Craig Calhoun, Marshall W. Meyer, and W. Richard Scott, 271–320. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    While it does not deal with criminology specifically, still highly relevant, as the chapter documents the receptivity of academic institutions to federal support in establishing new programs and to growing demand for educational opportunities. Under the pressure of maintaining enrollments, rising operating costs, and obtaining adequate fiscal resources, universities have resorted to the creation of new policy-oriented programs.

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  • Laub, John, and Robert J. Sampson. 1991. The Sutherland-Glueck debate: On the sociology of criminological knowledge. American Journal of Sociology 96.6: 1402–1440.

    DOI: 10.1086/229691Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes Edwin H. Sutherland’s debate with Sheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck, based on archival materials and publications. Argues that Sutherland’s prominent institutional location in a sociology graduate program helped advance his position vis-à-vis that of his opponents, who were situated in law schools.

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Criminology in Relation to Sociology

The relationship of criminology to sociology has varied by place and time. It was especially intense in the United States, but it has separated itself increasingly from this mother discipline since the mid-20th century. Akers 1992 describes this process of separation and the move toward a separate academic field with its own institutions. Costs and benefits are greatly debated. Garland 2009 spells out risks associated with this separation. Deflem 2006 assembles a collection of partially autobiographic essays in which authors speak to the benefits for criminological research from its links with sociological theory and vice versa. Savelsberg 2007 and Silbey 2002, together with other articles in issues of the journal Crime, Law, and Social Change, illustrate the benefits criminological work can draw from different specialty areas in sociology, such as stratification research, the sociology of organization, and the sociology of law.

  • Akers, Ronald. 1992. Linking sociology and its specialties: The case of criminology. Social Forces 71:1–16.

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    Recounts the massive change in the academic organization of crime-related academic work in the 1960s and 1970s: the separation from sociology, the specialization of departments and schools, and the massive expansion of both academic associations dedicated to crime issues and the number of specialized journals and other outlets. Diagnoses temporal link to funding by the Law Enforcement Assistance Agency after 1968.

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  • Deflem, Mathieu, ed. 2006. Sociological theory and criminological research: Views from Europe and the United States. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

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    Diverse American and European scholars, including Karl F. Schumann, Sanjay Marwah, Imke Dunkake, Ross Matsueda, Karen Heimer, Susanne Karstedt, Nigel Fielding, and Robert Crutchfield, explore the benefits criminology can draw from its link with sociological theory (and the contributions it can make).

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  • Garland, David. 2009. Disciplining criminology?. Sistema Penal e Violência 1:114–125.

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    Discusses criminology and its relationship to the state and other academic fields. Warns against distancing criminology from disciplines such as sociology, psychology, and law, which provide it with intellectual energy and distinction. Argues for institutional conditions that advance a dialogic conception of criminology.

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  • Savelsberg, Joachim J. 2007. Introduction: Against narrow, distorted, fossilized, and unconscious adaptations of sociological theory. In Special issue: Overcoming narrow, distorted, and unconscious adaptations of theory in criminology. Edited by Joachim J. Savelsberg. Crime, Law, and Social Change 42.1–2: 1–2.

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    In addition to Savelsberg, other scholars, including Ross Matsueda, John Hagan and Holly Foster, Mark Cooney, and James F. Short Jr., illustrate the strength criminology draws from its affiliation with diverse specializations in sociology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Silbey, Susan S. 2002. Mutual engagement: Criminology and the sociology of law. Crime, Law, and Social Change 37.2: 163–175.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1014571818493Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Silbey is joined by a group of scholars, including James F. Short Jr., John Hagan, and Diane Vaughan, who illustrate the strengths criminology draws from its continuing institutional affiliation with sociology, including its specializations in the areas of theory, stratification, organizations, and law. Available online by subscription.

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The Political Economy

Institutions that grant science independence can develop only in appropriate political and economic contexts. Political and policy demands are heard in scientific work even where science is relatively autonomous. The selection of research questions, as Max Weber has argued, can hardly be understood within the context of science alone. However, some authors go further, arguing that criminology is defined particularly closely by demands from the political sector. Sarat and Silbey 1989 makes this point generally for sociolegal research, which includes that branch of criminology that addresses the functioning of criminal law. Braithwaite 2000 argues that new conditions of governance translate into new thematic foci and theoretical sensitivities in criminology. Maier-Katkin, et al. 2009 argues, more specifically, that criminology is linked to state concerns and thus tends to be blind to situations in which Leviathan no longer protects but rather becomes the perpetrator itself. The authors develop suggestions leading to a criminology of state crime. A simple, descriptive empirical account, Yacoubian 2000 confirms the neglect of this theme in criminology. LaFree 2007 speaks to the interrelationship between democratic forms of governance and criminology. Gaylord and Galliher 1988 and Geis and Goff 1983 speak to the challenges Edwin H. Sutherland faced when seeking to bring the issue of white-collar crime into the realm of criminological subjects.

  • Braithwaite, John. 2000. The new regulatory state and the transformation of criminology. British Journal of Criminology 40:222–238.

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    Draws a causal chain from changing forms of governance in late modern states (from Keynesian welfare state to neoliberal) to changing concerns in the area of crime and new criminological subject matter (from street crime and traditional criminal justice to new forms of risk management and the implications for restorative justice).

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  • Gaylor, Mark S., and John F. Galliher. 1988. The criminology of Edwin Sutherland. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    Describes Sutherland’s search for the social origins of criminal behavior and the development of differential association theory in the context of an American criminology largely rooted in biological determinism; Sutherland’s personal background; his scholarly training, colleagues, and location in sociology; and the larger social context of the Great Depression.

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  • Geis, Gilbert, and Colin Goff. 1983. Introduction. In White-collar crime: The uncut version. By Edwin Sutherland, ix–xxxiii. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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    Describes how Sutherland’s study of white-collar crime challenged dominant ideas in criminology about the causes of crime and motivated much scholarly work on white-collar crime, which had not previously been the focus of criminological investigations.

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  • LaFree, Gary. 2007. Expanding criminology’s domain: The American Society of Criminology 2006 Presidential Address. Criminology 45.1: 1–31.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00070.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers how most of criminology, situated in the context of democracy, has contributed to its expansion and affected its shape. Pleads for the nourishing of democracy through criminological education and research and spells out steps toward an enriched criminology. Available online by subscription.

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  • Maier-Katkin, Daniel, Daniel P. Mears, and Thomas J. Bernard. 2009. Towards a criminology of crimes against humanity. Theoretical Criminology 13.2: 227–255.

    DOI: 10.1177/1362480609102880Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the conditions surrounding the neglect by criminology of the study of crimes against humanity. A major section addresses the benefits to be drawn from a new criminology of crimes against humanity, arguing that incorporating these types of crime would inspire a reformulation of basic criminological theories. Available online by subscription.

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  • Sarat, Austin, and Susan Silbey. 1989. The pull of the policy audience. Law and Policy 10.2–3: 97–166.

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    Argues, broadly for social-legal research, that scholarship tends to orient itself toward the interests of policy audiences. Available online by subscription.

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  • Yacoubian, George. 2000. The (in)significance of genocidal behavior to the discipline of criminology. Crime, Law, and Social Change 34:7–19.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1008312732333Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Descriptive account of the minimal representation of state crime in leading journals and at annual meetings of dominant criminological associations. Speculation that this is reflective of the state centeredness of criminology.

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State Administration

In addition to the basic constitution of the state, the specific forms of administration of justice are another significant environment of criminology. Feeley and Simon 1992 is an influential article in which the authors explore this link theoretically for the rise of a risk-oriented criminal justice administration, which branches of criminology supply with the tools it requests. On a more optimistic note, Jenness 2008 speaks to the epistemic benefits of criminological research conducted in the context of the administration of justice.

  • Feeley, Malcolm, and Jonathan Simon. 1992. The new penology: Notes on the emerging strategy of corrections and its implications. Criminology 30.4: 449–474.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01112.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Diagnoses the undermining of the penal welfare state with its reformist and rehabilitative concerns and the rise of a new model, involving punitive sanctions, commercialization of crime control, and a primary concern with the management of risk. Under new administrative demands of processing large control populations, criminology seeks to develop analytic tools. Available online by subscription.

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  • Jenness, Valerie. 2008. Pluto, prisons, and plaintiffs: Notes on systematic back-translation from an embedded researcher. Social Problems 55.1: 1–22.

    DOI: 10.1525/sp.2008.55.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In a presidential address to the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP), Jenness explores the role of “embedded scholars” based on the author’s experience with her work in the California prison system. Engages in an auto-ethnographic project to explore the effects of field research on the researcher and the research process. Available online by subscription.

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Funding and Commissions

One body of publications addresses specifically the impact of funding (especially by state institutions) on criminological research. Wheeler 1975 and Cressey 1978 are two early essays that describe a trend toward focusing on policy concerns that correlates with the development of criminology as an independent field together with growing input by the federal government. Feeley and Sarat 1980 examines more closely the effects on criminology of the move by justice research funding into the Department of Justice, especially the Law Enforcement Assistance Agency. The observations of these authors are later picked up in Petersilia 1991. The diagnosis in Chilton 2001 is one of “self-censorship” by criminologists, based on multiple observations during the author’s career in policy-oriented criminological research. Dowdy 1994 uses simple bivariate analyses to diagnose a correlation between government funding and specific features of criminological research. Savelsberg, et al. 2004 applies multivariate analyses to a large dataset derived from content analysis of 1,612 criminological publications to identify the impact of government and criminal justice funding compared to (and in interaction with) the impact of disciplinary specialization. Short 1975 shows that demands for policy-oriented work can be closely tied to insistence on high scholarly standards.

  • Chilton, Ronald. 2001. Viable policy: The impact of federal funding and the need for independent research agendas; The American Society of Criminology 2000 Presidential Address. Criminology 39.1: 1–8.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00914.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that policy-oriented criminologists tend to engage in self-censorship by exploring only those policy options that are politically feasible. Available online by subscription.

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  • Cressey, Donald R. 1978. Criminological theory, social science, and the repression of crime. Criminology 16.2: 171–191.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1978.tb00086.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reflecting on 20th-century trends in the field (and quite similar to Wheeler 1975), Cressey observes a trend away from research into the causes of crime and punishment toward policy concerns. Available online by subscription.

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  • Dowdy, Eric. 1994. Federal funding and its effect on criminological research: Emphasizing individualistic explanations for criminal behavior. American Sociologist 25.4: 77–89.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02691991Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Bivariate analyses of criminological research published in leading journals in the field between 1975 and 1993 indicates that research supported by funding from the federal government is more likely to support individualistic rather than structural explanations of crime.

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  • Feeley, Malcolm, and Austin Sarat. 1980. The policy dilemma: Federal crime policy and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

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    The authors analyze shifts in the 1960s in funding for criminological research away from federal agencies that address social conditions of crime (urban development, housing, health) toward the US Department of Justice and the Law Enforcement Assistance Agency (later the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention).

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  • Petersilia, Joan. 1991. Policy relevance and the future of criminology: The American Society of Criminology 1990 Presidential Address. Criminology 29.1: 1–15.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01056.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes shifts in funding by the Law Enforcement Assistance Agency, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention from block grants to finance broad research agendas through funding of researcher-defined topics to strategic funding of agency-defined research projects. The definitions set by the agencies typically affect topics of research and at times methods and data. Available online by subscription.

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  • Savelsberg, Joachim J., Lara L. Cleveland, and Ryan D. King. 2004. Institutional environments and scholarly work: American criminology, 1951–1993. Social Forces 82.4: 1275–1302.

    DOI: 10.1353/sof.2004.0093Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article examines the effect of specialization of criminology in its own departments and schools and of political funding programs on the content of criminological work. Based on content analysis of 1,612 scientific journal articles, the hypotheses are supported that specialization and political funding enhance a state-centered criminology.

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  • Short, James F., Jr. 1975. The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence: Reflections on the contributions of sociology and sociologists. In Sociology and social policy: The case of presidential commissions. Edited by Mirra Komarovsky, 61–91. New York: Elsevier.

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    Reflects on the greater proficiency of lawyers compared to academics to contribute to policy discussions in a timely manner as a result of their more time-sensitive working conditions and their typical audiences. Argues that academics need both to be more active producers of knowledge that carries clear policy implications and to reach broader audiences with their scholarship.

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  • Wheeler, Stanton. 1975. Trends and problems in the sociological study of crime. Social Problems 22:525–534.

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    Reflecting on 20th-century trends in the field, the author observes a trend away from research into the causes of crime and punishment toward policy concerns.

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Ideology

Science, especially social science, can function only if it is relatively autonomous from its ideological environment. Research has been done that addresses the relationship between criminology and ideology under extreme circumstances. Wetzell 2000 offers a thorough historical study on criminology in Germany under very distinct political regimes. Rafter 2008 addresses the specific case of biocriminology during the Nazi regime. Racist ideologies paired with powerful interests may also impede crucial research agendas, as Hagan and Rymond-Richmond 2009 diagnoses for Edwin H. Sutherland’s omission in failing to develop a sociology of genocide.

  • Hagan, John, and Wenona Rymond-Richmond. 2009. Darfur and the crime of genocide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    While primarily offering a criminology of genocide, for the case of Darfur, the authors also provide a sociology of criminology, arguing that widespread anti-Semitism impeded a criminology of grave human rights violations by actors such as Sutherland (despite his work on crimes of the powerful) and Sheldon Glueck (despite his involvement in the preparation of the Nuremberg Tribunal).

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  • Rafter, Nicole. 2008. Criminology’s darkest hour: Biocriminology in Nazi Germany. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41.2: 287–306.

    DOI: 10.1375/acri.41.2.287Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Conservatives critiqued the progressive criminal justice policies of the Weimar Republic and focused on biology as the root of criminality, ideas extended and used by the Nazi state that followed as a tool to advance both its eugenic goal regarding criminals and its political agendas via the criminal justice system. The perfect storm creating the strong link between science and the Nazi state is revealed through a comparison with fascist Italy. Available online by subscription.

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  • Wetzell, Richard F. 2000. Inventing the criminal: A history of German criminology, 1880–1945. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

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    Provides a thorough historical study of changes in German criminology under the shifting ideologies of three radically distinct political regimes: the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and the Third Reich. Diagnoses an astonishing degree of independence even under conditions of totalitarianism.

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Biographies and Autobiographies

Biographies and autobiographies often provide valuable reflections on the state of criminology and its conditions. In addition to sources referenced under other topical headings, for example, the autobiographical interviews collected in Laub 1983 (see Maturation of the Field), Geis and Dodge 2002 offers a collection of such essays by a number of prominent criminologists. Other autobiographical essays include an early one, Short 1969, and Cressey 1990. Interview-based contributions to a biographical understanding of criminology are cited on Albert K. Cohen (Cavender 1994), Jerome H. Skolnick (Cavender and Mulcahy 1994), Meda Chesney-Lind (Cavender 1995), and Coramae Richey Mann (Cavender 1996). For collections of biographical accounts see Hayward, et al. 2010 and Cullen, et al. 2011.

  • Cavender, Gray. 1994. Doing theory: An interview with Albert K. Cohen. American Journal of Criminal Justice 18:153–167.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02887644Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Cohen traces his path into sociological criminology and the intellectual influences on his work, especially by scholars who offered different theoretical perspectives, including Talcott Parsons, Pitirim Sorokin, and Edwin H. Sutherland.

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  • Cavender, Gray. 1995. We matter: The lives of girls and women; An interview with Meda Chesney-Lind. American Journal of Criminal Justice 19:287–301.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02885920Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chesney-Lind’s account highlights the important influence of larger social and political contexts and mentoring relationships on her career as a criminologist and her scholarship, especially her experience as a woman in a male-dominated field studying women and crime.

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  • Cavender, Gray. 1996. I tried to change the world: An interview with Coramae Richey Mann. American Journal of Criminal Justice 20:259–271.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02886929Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Details Mann’s career as a pioneering woman of color in higher education who faced barriers to success, such as a controversial tenure review and a lack of mentorship and role models. Highlights the importance both of the social context surrounding race and of Mann’s biographical experiences for her scholarly work and career path.

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  • Cavender, Gray, and Aogan Mulcahy. 1994. Social ambiguities: An interview with Jerome H. Skolnick. American Journal of Criminal Justice 19:133–143.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02887443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Skolnick describes his shift from studies on alcohol to law to the police, highlighting the importance both of the institutional context and of colleagues for scholarly work.

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  • Cressey, Donald R. 1990. Learning and living. In Authors of their own lives: Intellectual autobiographies. Edited by Bennett M. Berger, 235–259. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    An autobiographical chapter describing childhood and adolescent experiences that later took shape in the form of scholarly ideas and the importance of key individuals, most noteworthy Edwin H. Sutherland, in influencing Cressey’s career as a sociologist of crime, law, and justice.

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  • Cullen, Francis T., Cheryl Lero Jonson, Andrew J. Myer, and Freda Adler, eds. 2011. The origins of American criminology: Advances in criminological theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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    Collection of biographical essays describing effects of the sociopolitical context, intellectual communities, and individual backgrounds, choices, and career pathways on the development of criminology’s dominant theoretical perspectives.

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  • Geis, Gilbert, and Mary Dodge, eds. 2002. Lessons of criminology. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

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    Collection of autobiographical essays by thirteen eminent scholars in criminology and criminal justice, such as Francis T. Cullen, J. McCord, and James F. Short Jr., about their careers; offers advice to young scholars. Several chapters provide insights into the intellectual and social environment in which the authors’ criminological careers unfolded.

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  • Hayward, Keith, Shadd Maruna, and Jayne Mooney. 2010. Fifty key thinkers in criminology. New York: Routledge.

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    Intellectual biographies of criminological theorists whose ideas helped shape academic criminology. Entries highlight both the contributions scholars have made and their scholarly legacies.

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  • Short, James F., Jr. 1969. A natural history of one sociological career. In Sociological self-images: A collective portrait. Edited by I. L. Horowitz, 117–143. Irving, CA: SAGE.

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    Short’s autobiographical account of his career in sociology highlights the importance throughout his education and work of both horizontal and vertical network ties and the influence of the Chicago school of sociology.

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LAST MODIFIED: 04/24/2012

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396607-0094

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