Criminology Polyvictimization
by
Julian D. Ford
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 June 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396607-0223

Introduction

Victimization is the experience of being directly or indirectly harmed or deprived of protection from harm by the actions of other persons. Several types of victimization have been distinguished in psychological and criminological studies, including: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, physical assault, sexual assault, domestic or intimate partner violence, stalking, community violence, bullying, kidnapping, human trafficking, torture, war violence, genocide or ethnic cleansing, hate crimes or identity-based violence, property crimes, robbery. David Finkelhor’s research group originated the term, “polyvictimization” to refer to exposure to multiple (“poly”) types of victimization. A sub-group of polyvictims has been identified consistently in research conducted with community, school, psychiatric, child welfare, and juvenile justice samples of children and adolescents in numerous countries internationally. A subgroup of adults who were polyvictimized in childhood also has been identified consistently in research with college, community, psychiatric, and incarcerated samples in the United States. Polyvictims are exposed to adversity and violence, which is inflicted intentionally or as a result of neglect by a variety of perpetrators at multiple time points and in multiple contexts during formative developmental periods, including sexual, physical, and emotional maltreatment by caregivers or other adults; physical or sexual assault or bullying by peers or older youths; and witnessing violent and traumatic incidents in the home, school, and community. Polyvictims tend to have insufficient protection and limited social support to buffer the adverse effects of other forms of traumatic stressors such as severe accidents, illnesses, disasters, and loss of loved ones. Polyvictimization is associated with severe emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems across the lifespan, typically with a greater adverse impact than even the most traumatic individual types of victimization (e.g., sexual abuse or assault; catastrophic family or community violence). Therapeutic interventions for complex posttraumatic emotional and behavioral problems have shown promise in systematic empirical studies of the treatment of child/youth and adult polyvictims.

Epidemiology of Victimization

The epidemiology of victimization is based on data from governmental statistics (such as the US Bureau of Justice Statistics) and research surveys of representative community samples such as the European Union International Crime Victims Survey. These sources provide estimates of the prevalence (i.e., the overall extent of occurrence) and incidence (i.e., the frequency of occurrence within a specific period) of multiple types of victimization. Epidemiologic data thus provides a picture of trends in the occurrence of victimization over time in different populations, as well as descriptions of how different types of victimization co-occur (i.e., polyvictimization). The next two subsections provide an overview of epidemiological findings on victimization in the United States and internationally.

Victimization in the United States

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT), more than five million incidents of violent personal victimization of adolescents and adults were reported in the United States in 2015, including more than one million incidents involving adolescents. Historically, this represents a substantial decrease from the approximately fifteen million violent personal victimization incidents reported annually in the United States in the late 1990s. Boys and men were more likely to be violently victimized than girls and women in the 1990s—with the exception of women aged sixty-five and older, who were equally or more likely than men to report violent victimizations. But by 2015 the gender difference was largely erased (except among late adolescent boys) or reversed (with women aged thirty-five years and older substantially more likely than their male counterparts to report violent personal victimizations). The distribution of reported incidents of violent personal victimization by race and ethnicity in the United States has remained approximately proportionate to the overall racial/ethnic population distribution since the 1990s, with 25 percent of such victimizations reported by persons of color or Hispanic ethnicity in 1993, as compared to 40 percent in 2015: according to Gibson and Jung 2005 and Humes, et al. 2011, this almost exactly mirrors the overall distribution of “minorities” (persons of color or Hispanic ethnicity) in the United States, which was 25 percent in 1990 and 36.7 percent (and steadily increasing) by 2010. With regard to children and adolescents, the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence (NatSCEV) discussed in Finkelhor, et al. 2015 determined that in 2013–2014, more than 80 percent of children aged zero to seventeen in the United States had experienced victimization, with more than one in three (37 percent) physically assaulted in 2015. An estimated 15 percent of US children have experienced maltreatment by a caregiver. Two percent of girls experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in 2015, including 5 percent of those aged fourteen to seventeen years. Almost 6 percent of US children witnessed domestic violence involving an assault between parents. Briggs-Gowan, et al. 2010 demonstrated that victimization can occur in the earliest years of childhood, reporting that, by the age of two to four years, more than one in four children (26 percent) had experienced violence (14 percent) or life-threatening accidents or injuries (14.5 percent). Children living in poverty or with a single parent or a parent suffering from depression were at highest risk of victimization. Among adolescents, McLaughlin, et al. 2013 found that a majority (62 percent) had experienced violence or life-threatening accidents or injuries, and 5 percent had developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Youth who were not living with both parents or who had a behavioral disorder were at highest risk for violent victimization and for PTSD.

  • Briggs-Gowan, M. J., J. D. Ford, L. Fraleigh, K. McCarthy, and A. S. Carter. 2010. Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States. Journal of Traumatic Stress 23.6: 725–733.

    DOI: 10.1002/jts.20593Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes prevalence estimates of exposure to violence and life-threatening accidents or injuries in a representative healthy birth cohort of infants and toddlers (initial ages one to three years) from an urban-suburban region of the United States (38 percent ethnocultural minority, 20 percent with incomes below the poverty line). Parents completed two surveys approximately one year apart.

    Find this resource:

    • Finkelhor, D., H. A. Turner, A. Shattuck, and S. L. Hamby. 2015. Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: Results from the national survey of children’s exposure to violence. JAMA Pediatrics 169.8: 746–754.

      DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0676Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      The National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) assessed victimization exposure of a representative US community sample of four thousand children zero to seventeen years old in 2013–2014, directly interviewing those aged ten to seventeen years and interviewing caregivers of those aged zero to nine years. Exposure to violence, crime, and abuse was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire.

      Find this resource:

      • Gibson, Campbell, and Kay Jung. 2005. Historical census statistics on population totals by race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic origin, 1970 to 1990, for large cities and other urban places in the United States. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A summary of the US Census Bureau statistics on the distribution of the population in the United States based on racial and ethnic (Hispanic versus non-Hispanic) subgroups annually from 1790 to 1990.

        Find this resource:

        • Humes, Karen, Nicholas Jones, and Roberto Ramirez. 2011. Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A summary of the US Census Bureau statistics on the distribution of the population in the national census in 2000 and 2010 according to racial and ethnic (Hispanic versus non-Hispanic) subgroups.

          Find this resource:

          • McLaughlin, K. A., K. C. Koenen, E. D. Hill, et al. 2013. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 52.8: 815–830, e814.

            DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Describes results of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a survey of a nationally representative community sample of 6,500 adolescents aged thirteen through seventeen years. The survey interview assessed lifetime exposure (as a victim or as a witness) to potentially traumatic interpersonal violence or life-threatening accidents or injuries, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety, affective, behavioral, or substance use disorders.

            Find this resource:

            • U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2015. NCVS victimization analysis tool (NVAT).

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              A website that provides access to the data and tabular summaries from the annual compilations of officially reports of crime victimization experienced by youth (ages twelve to seventeen) and adults of all ages.

              Find this resource:

              Victimization Internationally

              The International Crime Victimisation Survey (ICVS) report van Dijk, et al. 2007 describes results of surveys conducted between 1989 and 2005 in ten countries in Africa, nine countries in Latin/South America, twelve Asian countries, North America, Australia and New Zealand, and thirty-nine countries in Europe. Prevalence estimates of exposure to victimization peaked in the early 1990s and declined over the next ten to fifteen years for property crimes but remained relatively unchanged or decreased slowly for contact victimization (i.e., physical or sexual assault and robbery). Differences in crime victimization between the United States, Canada, Australia, Western and Eastern Europe, and two urban sites in the developing world (Brazil, South Africa) have diminished over this time period, with generally decreasing prevalence estimates except in locales such as Belgium and Ireland which by 2005 had shifted from low prevalence rates to higher prevalence estimates that were comparable to those of other surveyed nations. Concerning children, the meta-analysis by Alisic, et al. 2014 concluded that interpersonal victimization (e.g., maltreatment, family or school/community violence) was more likely to cause children to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than noninterpersonal traumatic stressors (e.g., severe accidents or disasters). Hillis, et al. 2016 reported that between 2000 and 2015, more than 50 percent of children in Africa, Asia, and North America, and more than 30 percent in Latin America, had experienced violent victimization in the past year, and globally between 1.4 and 2 billion children between the ages of two and seventeen experienced violence each year. Child victimization prevalence was comparable in the developed and developing world (except for lower estimates in Europe, where some countries have banned or severely restricted corporal punishment of children), but population growth in the developing world resulted in an estimate of more than 1 billion children exposed to victimization in developing countries in 2014. Stoltenborgh, et al. 2013 estimated the worldwide prevalence of child physical abuse (CPA) as 22.6 percent. With a different set of studies primarily published in Chinese, Ji and Finkelhor 2015 reported a higher (27 percent) prevalence estimate for severe CPA in China. Stoltenborgh, et al. 2011 estimated the worldwide prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as 36 percent. Finally, Stoltenborgh, et al. 2012 estimated the worldwide prevalence of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) as 36 percent. These prevalence estimates are based on self-reporting by respondents and notably are approximately ten times higher than prevalence estimates based on external informants (e.g., child protective services or law enforcement records). Whether this discrepancy is due to over-reporting as a result of subjective biases among self-reporters or under-detection of victimization by official records is an unanswered question; if both possibilities are taken seriously then it is likely that these forms of severe victimization occur to at least one in five children globally, which is far more than officially reported.

              • Alisic, E., A. K. Zalta, F. van Wesel, et al. 2014. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: Meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 204:335–340.

                DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.131227Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A systematic literature search identified forty-three independent samples (n = 3563) of trauma-exposed children who were not seeking or receiving mental health treatment. One in seven (16 percent) trauma-exposed children met criteria for PTSD. Boys exposed to noninterpersonal trauma were least likely to have PTSD (8 percent), and girls exposed to interpersonal trauma were most likely to have PTSD (33 percent).

                Find this resource:

                • Hillis, S., J. Mercy, A. Amobi, and H. Kress. 2016. Global prevalence of past-year violence against children: A systematic review and minimum estimates. Pediatrics 137.3: e20154079.

                  DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-4079Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Reports a systematic review of Medline, PubMed, Global Health, NBASE, CINAHL, and the web for reports of representative surveys estimating the prevalence of violence against children ages one to four and fifteen to seventeen years old. One hundred and twelve studies provided quality data for ninety-six countries on past-year prevalence estimates of violence against children.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Ji, K., and D. Finkelhor. 2015. A meta-analysis of child physical abuse prevalence in China. Child Abuse and Neglect 43:61–72.

                    DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    Reports results of a meta-analysis of forty-seven studies found in English- and Chinese-language peer-reviewed journals that involved general populations of students or residents reporting child physical abuse prior to age eighteen years.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Stoltenborgh, M., M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, L. R. Alink, and M. H. Van Ijzendoorn. 2012. The universality of childhood emotional abuse: A meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 21.8: 870–890.

                      DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2012.708014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Reports results of a meta-analysis of prevalence estimates of childhood emotional abuse reported in twenty-nine studies published between 1980 and 2008, including forty-six independent samples with a total of 7,082,279 participants from North America (40 percent of the studies), Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Stoltenborgh, M., M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. H. van Ijzendoorn, and L. R. Alink. 2013. Cultural-geographical differences in the occurrence of child physical abuse? A meta-analysis of global prevalence. International Journal of Psychology 48:81–94.

                        DOI: 10.1080/00207594.2012.697165Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Reports results of a meta-analysis of prevalence estimates of child physical abuse reported in 111 studies published between 1980 and 2008, conducted primarily in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, with relatively few investigations from Africa and South America. The studies included 168 independent samples with a total of 9,698,801 participants.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Stoltenborgh, M., M. H. van Ijzendoorn, E. M. Euser, and M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg. 2011. A global perspective on child sexual abuse: Meta-analysis of prevalence around the world. Child Maltreatment 16.2: 79–101.

                          DOI: 10.1177/1077559511403920Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Reports results of a meta-analysis of prevalence estimates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) reported in 217 publications published between 1980 and 2008, including 331 independent samples with a total of 9,911,748 participants from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, Africa, and South America.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren, and Paul Smit. 2007. Criminal victimisation in international perspective: Key findings from the 2004–2005 ICBS and EU ICS. The Hague, Netherlands: Bibliothoek WODC.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            A survey of adults conducted between 1989 and 2005 by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute and the European Union International Crime Victims Survey Consortium. Assesses household (e.g., burglary, theft) and personal (e.g., sexual or physical assault; robbery) crimes, with questions about police contacts and victim services. Data are primarily from urban sub-populations but also include rural samples in national surveys in Latin America (Costa Rica, Mexico), Asia (China, Japan), Canada, United States, New Zealand, Australia, and twenty-five European nations.

                            Find this resource:

                            Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Childhood and Adolescence

                            Studies conducted in the United States (Ford, et al. 2010 and Turner, et al. 2016), in China (Chan 2014), in Spain (Alvarez-Lister, et al. 2014 and Soler, et al. 2013), in Sweden (Aho, et al. 2016), and a meta-analysis of studies conducted in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and South America (Le, et al. 2016), have consistently concluded that polyvictimized children and youth are at risk for developing not only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also an extensive array of severe emotional, behavioral, interpersonal (peer and family), academic, and legal/delinquency problems. The adverse effects on children and youth of polyvictimization have been confirmed for specific subgroups. Elsaesser and Voisin 2015 (cited under Measurement and Methodological Issues) found that interpersonal and school disconnection and aggressive behavior were associated with polyvictimization in a sample of urban African American adolescent boys and girls. Cudmore, et al. 2015 (cited under Measurement and Methodological Issues) found polyvictimization to be associated with anger problems and delinquent behavior among Latino youths. Ford, et al. 2013 showed that polyvictimized youth involved in the juvenile justice system (who were primarily of minority ethnicity) experienced more severe problems with anxiety, depression, anger, substance abuse, and suicidality than other justice-involved youth. Finkelhor, et al. 2009 and Grasso, et al. 2016 demonstrated that victimization experiences tend to accumulate over time as children grow from childhood to young adulthood. Polyvictimization in early childhood tends to involve family violence and child maltreatment, whereas in middle childhood and adolescence polyvictimization often involves violence in school or the community. Finkelhor, et al. 2009 found that young children were at risk for becoming polyvictims if they had severe emotional problems; however, in middle childhood and adolescence, living in dangerous communities or dangerous or conflictual families was predictive of polyvictimization, and emotional problems were not. With regard to chronicity, Finkelhor, et al. 2007 reported that polyvictims were four times more likely than other children to be re-victimized again within the next year. Children were at risk for polyvictimization if they experienced child maltreatment, had few friends, had problems with anger or aggression, or lived in a family in which violence, substance abuse, or parental unemployment had occurred. With psychiatrically hospitalized children, Ford, et al. 2010 found that polyvictims were prone to impulsivity. Consistent with evidence that developmental transitions are sensitive periods in which stressors are particularly likely to both occur and have adverse impacts, Finkelhor, et al. 2009 also found that children were most likely to become polyvictims at points in their lives when they were undergoing the stressors involved in the transition into either elementary or high school.

                            • Aho, N., M. Proczkowska-Bjorklund, and C. G. Svedin. 2016. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents. Adolescent Health Medicine and Therapeutics 7:89–99.

                              DOI: 10.2147/AHMT.S109587Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Almost six thousand second-year high school students in Sweden completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children as an assessment of victimization and psychological problems. Polyvictimization was found to be associated with all types of PTSD and emotional/behavior problems independent of the effect of each specific type of victimization.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Alvarez-Lister, M. S., N. Pereda, J. Abad, G. Guilera, and GreVia. 2014. Polyvictimization and its relationship to symptoms of psychopathology in a southern European sample of adolescent outpatients. Child Abuse & Neglect 38.4: 747–756.

                                DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.09.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Adolescent psychiatric outpatients completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist Youth Self-Report. Cluster analysis identified a subgroup of polyvictimized patients (13 percent of the sample) who reported more severe impairment and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in comparison to the other adolescent outpatients.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Chan, K. L. 2014. Child victims and poly-victims in China: Are they more at-risk of family violence? Child Abuse & Neglect 38.11: 1832–1839.

                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.05.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  A community sample of more than eighteen thousand youth ages ten to seventeen years and from six regions in China completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Past year and lifetime polyvictimization (defined by 4 or more JVQ items endorsed) were more likely than other youth to experience family stressors (i.e., low income, single parent, in-law conflicts) and violence (i.e., witnessing parental intimate partner violence or elder abuse).

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Finkelhor, D., R. K. Ormrod, and H. A. Turner. 2007. Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort. Development and Psychopathology 19.1: 149–166.

                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0954579407070083Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    The Developmental Victimization Survey was conducted with a representative US sample of children and youth ages two to seventeen using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). Almost one in five (18 percent) children experienced at least four kinds of victimization (polyvictims) in the past year. Polyvictimization predicted PTSD symptoms and emotional/behavior problems one year later, independent of demographics, overall adversity, and initial problems.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    • Finkelhor, D., R. Ormrod, H. Turner, and M. Holt. 2009. Pathways to poly-victimization. Child Maltreatment 14.4: 316–329.

                                      DOI: 10.1177/1077559509347012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      JVQ data from a national US sample identified four pathways to becoming a polyvictim: (a) residing in a dangerous community, (b) living in a dangerous family, (c) having a multiproblem family, or (d) having emotional problems. For younger children, emotional problems were the only predictor of polyvictimization. For older children and adolescents, the other three pathways predicted polyvictimization. Polyvictimization onset was most likely at the age of entry into elementary or high school.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Ford, J. D., J. D. Elhai, D. F. Connor, and B. C. Frueh. 2010. Poly-victimization and risk of posttraumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 46.6: 545–552.

                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.212Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Latent Class Analyses (LCA) used with data from the National Survey of Adolescents identified one in six adolescents as polyvictims, including youth who had experienced childhood abuse (8 percent) or physical assault (9 percent). Polyvictims were more likely than other youth to also have witnessed violence and to have experienced traumatic accidents or disasters, to have a psychiatric diagnosis of PTSD, depression, or substance abuse, and to be involved in delinquency or with delinquent peers.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Ford, J. D., D. J. Grasso, J. Hawke, and J. F. Chapman. 2013. Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths. Child Abuse and Neglect 37:788–800.

                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.01.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of data from youth (76 percent male; 74 percent minority) in juvenile detention facilities identified 5 percent as polyvictims based on reporting an average of eleven (of nineteen possible) types of traumatic victimization in their lives. Another 36 percent of the sample reported on average three types of traumatic victimization. Polyvictims had the most severe emotional and behavioral problems. Girls and African American youth were at highest risk of polyvictimization.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Grasso, D. J., C. B. Dierkhising, C. E. Branson, J. D. Ford, and R. Lee. 2016. Developmental patterns of adverse childhood experiences and current symptoms and impairment in youth referred for trauma-specific services. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 44.5: 871–886.

                                            DOI: 10.1007/s10802-015-0086-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of data from adolescents referred for trauma-focused assessment or treatment identified polyvictim sub-groups in each of three developmental epochs. Polyvictimization in early childhood was associated with PTSD and emotional problems in adolescence. Polyvictimization in middle childhood was associated with PTSD, emotional problems, and juvenile justice involvement in adolescence. Polyvictimization in adolescence was associated with PTSD, emotional, and behavioral problems and juvenile justice involvement.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Le, M. T., S. Holton, L. Romero, and J. Fisher. 2016. Polyvictimization among children and adolescents in low- and lower-middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence & Abuse.

                                              DOI: 10.1177/1524838016659489Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Reviews studies assessing at least four forms of victimization that were conducted in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LALMIC) to estimate the prevalence of polyvictimization and its association with child/adolescent health and well-being in those understudied populations. Pooled prevalence of any form of victimization was 77 percent. Prevalence of polyvictimization ranged from 0.3 percent to 75 percent with an overall estimate of 38 percent. Polyvictimization was associated with increased likelihood of mental health problems and involvement in health risk behaviors.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Soler, L., A. Segura, T. Kirchner, and M. Forns. 2013. Polyvictimization and risk for suicidal phenomena in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. Violence and Victimology 28.5: 899–912.

                                                DOI: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-00103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                More than nine hundred youth in Spanish secondary schools completed the Child Behavior Checklist Youth Self-Report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Polyvictims (defined based on reporting 8 or more JVQ items in the past year) were more likely than other non-victimized or victimized youth to report suicide ideation or attempted suicide or self-harm.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Turner, H. A., A. Shattuck, D. Finkelhor, and S. Hamby. 2016. Polyvictimization and youth violence exposure across contexts. Journal of Adolescent Health 58.2: 208–214.

                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.09.021Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  The second National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence assessed youth ages ten to seventeen years old with the JVQ and TSCC. Latent Class Analysis identified a subgroup of almost one in five youth who were past year polyvictims. Polyvictims were likely to have been victimized in multiple settings by multiple perpetrators and to live in chaotic communities, to engage in delinquency, to have low levels of family support, and to have severe PTSD and emotional/behavior problems.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Adulthood

                                                  Although the adverse effects of childhood exposure to multiple types of victimization on adult medical and behavioral health have been extensively empirically confirmed (see Horan and Widom 2015 and Widom, et al. 2015), there is limited research to date specifically on the adverse sequelae of polyvictimization in adulthood. Polyvictimization may occur at any point in the lifespan. Burns, et al. 2016 showed that polyvictimized men had more than twice the risk of PTSD, generalized anxiety or panic disorders, mania, or depression than men victimized only in one developmental epoch (childhood or adulthood), and seven to twelve times greater risk than men with limited victimization histories. Elliott, et al. 2009 found that childhood polyvictimization was associated with emotional/ behavior symptoms among US college students. Li, et al. 2013 found that Chinese college students with histories of polyvictimization had deficits in higher order cognitive (“executive”) functions and deficits in inhibiting impulses, initiating tasks, and emotional control. Thus, polyvictimization may compromise psychosocial capacities that are crucial when young adults are transitioning into adulthood. The adverse effects of polyvictimization may be life-threatening years or decades later. Charak, et al. 2016 found that adults with histories of polyvictimization were at highest risk for suicidal behaviors. Polyvictimization’s adverse impact also extends beyond the harm done to individual victims. For example, Chan 2015 found that parents living in China whose families had experienced polyvictimization were at risk for addictions and severe PTSD and depressive symptoms. Polyvictimization is of substantial concern in populations for whom victimization is prevalent. Martin, et al. 2013 found that the cumulative number of types of trauma experiences reported by young adults was related to depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms; moreover, victims who perceived past traumatic events as a betrayal by a trusted person or institution had more severe symptoms. Incarcerated adults are at risk for both victimization and betrayal. Listwan, et al. 2014 found that more than half (60 percent) of a large sample of men newly released from prison were polyvictims based on reporting exposure to 4 or more types of victimization, and those most vulnerable to polyvictimization were young men, men of minority ethnicity, and men identified with a mental illness, men who had limited social support, and men who perceived the prison environment and correctional officers as dangerous. In a study with both incarcerated and non-incarcerated women, Radatz and Wright 2015 found that polyvictimization was 50 percent more likely among incarcerated than non-incarcerated women, and that polyvictimization was associated with alcohol use problems among the incarcerated women but with illicit drug use and suicide attempts among the non-incarcerated women).

                                                  • Burns, C. R., S. Lagdon, D. Boyda, and C. Armour. 2016. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 40:75–82.

                                                    DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.04.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Data from civilian non-institutionalized men in the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) analyzed with Latent Class Analysis identified polyvictim subgroup (2 percent of the sample) with twice the risk of PTSD, generalized anxiety or panic disorders, mania, or depression than men victimized only in childhood or adulthood, and seven to twelve times greater risk than men with limited victimization histories.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Chan, K. L. 2015. Family polyvictimization and elevated levels of addiction and psychopathology among parents in a Chinese household sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0886260515592617Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Family polyvictimization was defined as the co-occurrence of child victimization, intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents, and elder abuse. Almost 7,500 households with at least one child under eighteen years of age in six regions in China determined that the lifetime prevalence and the past-year prevalence of family polyvictimization were 2.5 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Parents from polyvictimized families were at risk for addictions and more severe PTSD and depressive symptoms.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Charak, R., B. M. Byllesby, M. E. Roley, et al. 2016. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger. Child Abuse & Neglect 62:19–28.

                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.10.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        In a sample of almost 350 North American adults (56 percent female, ages eighteen to seventy-four years) who reported at least one of five possible types (i.e., crime, maltreatment, peer/sibling bullying, sexual violence, witnessing adult violence) of childhood victimization on the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, almost two-thirds were poly-victims (i.e., defined as reporting four to five types of victimization). Almost 40 percent reported clinically significant suicidal ideation, intent, and behavior. Polyvictims were at highest risk for suicidal behavior, and problems with anger moderated that relationship among the polyvictims.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Elliott, A. N., A. A. Alexander, T. W. Pierce, J. E. Aspelmeier, and J. M. Richmond. 2009. Childhood victimization, poly-victimization, and adjustment to college in women. Child Maltreatment 14.4: 330–343.

                                                          DOI: 10.1177/1077559509332262Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          More than 325 women college undergraduates completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and self-report measures of psychological distress, emotional/behavioral symptoms, and college social and academic adjustment. Polyvictimization, defined as the cumulative number of JVQ items endorsed, was associated with psychological distress, emotional/behavior symptoms, and problems in college adjustment. This accounted for the adverse effects of each of six types of childhood victimization and their joint contribution in predicting this wide range of impairments.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Horan, J. M., and Widom, C. S. 2015. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up. Development and Psychopathology 27.3: 927–941.

                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S095457941400090XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Children with court records of exposure to child abuse or neglect with onset in early childhood or during school years were compared to a socioeconomically matched sample of non-maltreated children, in a prospective longitudinal study with four waves of assessment over a 32–38 year period. Child abuse and neglect predicted more criminal arrests in adulthood. A cumulative risk factor score based on twelve types of adversity (e.g., impaired or deceased parents, single-parent family, out-of-home placement, homelessness, poverty, abuse or neglect) in childhood also predicted fewer years of education, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and more criminal arrests in adulthood.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Li, Y., F. Dong, F. Cao, N. Cui, J. Li, and Z. Long. 2013. Poly-victimization and executive functions in junior college students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 54.6: 485–492.

                                                              DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12083Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              More than 250 Chinese junior college students (ages eighteen to twenty-one years) completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and measures of PTSD symptoms and executive function. Polyvictims (classified based on 5 or more JVQ items endorsed in at least 3 of the 5 victimization domains self-reported poorer working memory and task monitoring abilities. Approximately half of the polyvictims self-reported clinically significant levels of PTSD symptoms, and they self-reported a broader range of executive function impairments including impulse inhibition, emotional control, and task initiation.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Listwan, S. J., L. E. Daigle, J. L. Hartman, and W. P. Guastaferro. 2014. Poly-victimization risk in prison: The influence of individual and institutional factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29.13: 2458–2481.

                                                                DOI: 10.1177/0886260513518435Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Almost 1,300 incarcerated elderly men in halfway houses (53 percent minority ethnicity) reported on eight types of victimization: witnessing or directly experiencing thefts, physical assaults, emotional abuse, or sexual assaults. More than half (60 percent) reported exposure to ³ 4 types of victimization. Polyvictimization, defined as a cumulative count of the number of types of victimization, was associated with younger age, minority ethnicity, mental illness, limited social support, perceiving the prison environment and correctional officers as dangerous, and attending religious services.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Martin, C. G., L. D. Cromer, A. P. DePrince, and J. J. Freyd. 2013. The role of cumulative trauma, betrayal, and appraisals in understanding trauma symptomatology. Psychological Trauma 52.2: 110–118.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/a0025686Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  With a sample of college students who reported experiencing at least one lifetime traumatic event, the cumulative number of types of trauma experiences was related to symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD. Students who perceived traumatic experiences as betrayals by trusted persons or institutions reported the most severe symptoms. These symptoms were over and above the effects of cumulative trauma regardless of whether the betrayal was of low, moderate, or high severity.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Radatz, D. L., and E. M. Wright. 2015. Does polyvictimization affect incarcerated and non-incarcerated adult women differently? An exploration into internalizing problems. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/0886260515588921Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Women were assessed for fourteen types of victimization in childhood (physical or sexual abuse or assault), adulthood (intimate partner violence; physical or sexual assault), and lifetime traumatic events (community violence, life-threatening accidents or disasters, sudden death of loved ones). More than 60 percent of those incarcerated were polyvictims. Polyvictimized incarcerated women were more likely than other incarcerated women to report alcohol use problems, while polyvictimized non-incarcerated women were more likely than other non-incarcerated women to report past illicit drug use and suicide attempts.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Widom, C. S., Horan, J., and Brzustowicz, L. 2015. Childhood maltreatment predicts allostatic load in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect 47.1: 59–69.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.01.016Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Children with court records of exposure to child abuse or neglect with onset in early childhood or during school years were compared to a socioeconomically matched sample of non-maltreated children, in a prospective longitudinal study with four waves of assessment over a 32–38 year period. Child abuse and neglect predicted adverse health outcomes in adulthood (“allostatic load”), controlling for age, sex, race, psychiatric problems in adolescence, and social support, risky behavior, and drug and alcohol use problems in adulthood.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      Measurement and Methodological Issues

                                                                      Finkelhor, et al. 2005 conducted the Developmental Victimization Survey, administering the thirty-four-item JVQ to a representative US community sample of two- to seventeen-year-olds. More than one in five (22 percent) children were “past year polyvictims” based on experiencing at least four types of victimizations in separate incidents. Finkelhor, et al. 2009 proposed an alternative approach to classifying polyvictims, defining “lifetime polyvictims” as the 10 percent of children with the highest victimization scores in each of four age groups from early childhood to late adolescence. Cyr, et al. 2013 replicated these findings with children in Quebec. With a sample of Spanish secondary school students, Soler, et al. 2013 (cited under Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Childhood and Adolescence) applied the top 10 percent criterion to past year (rather than lifetime), defining polyvictims as youth who endorsed 8 or more JVQ items in the past year. An alternative empirically based approach to defining polyvictims was proposed in Ford, et al. 2009 based on a unique profile of childhood maltreatment, impaired parents, and multiple out-of-home placements. Ford, et al. 2009 and Ford, et al. 2013 (cited under Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Childhood and Adolescence) replicated and extended this empirical approach to identifying polyvictims using latent class analyses (LCA) of nineteen to twenty-four different types of lifetime traumatic victimization data. Charak, et al. 2016 (cited under Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Adulthood) extended those LCA studies, identifying adults with polyvictimization histories, defined as at least four of five domains of victimization (i.e., crime, maltreatment, peer/sibling bullying, sexual violence, witnessing adult violence). A priori definitions also have been formulated for polyvictimization. Elsaesser and Voisin 2015 defined polyvictimization as experiencing at least two of three types of victimization: witnessing verbal parental aggression and witnessing or being a direct victim of community violence. Chan 2015 (cited under Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Adulthood) defined “family” polyvictimization as the co-occurrence of child victimization, intimate partner violence between parents, and elder abuse. Finkelhor, et al. 2005 first demonstrated that the total number of types of victimization better predicted PTSD symptomatology than any single type of victimization. Gustafsson, et al. 2009 similarly defined polytraumatization as the cumulative number of types of traumatic experiences in the lives of children and adolescents and found polytraumatization to be associated with PTSD and emotional/behavior problems. Cudmore, et al. 2015 defined polyvictimization as the cumulative number of four potential domains of victimization (crime, maltreatment, peer/sibling bullying, sexual violence). Listwan, et al. 2014 (cited under Polyvictimization and Its Adverse Effects in Adulthood) defined polyvictimization as the cumulative number of eight types of victimization in the past year (witnessing or directly experiencing theft, physical or sexual assault, or emotional abuse) Hickman, et al. 2013 found that whereas a categorical definition of polyvictimization (i.e., victimization in at least two of four victimization domains) correlated with emotional/behavior problems in young children, the cumulative count of the number of types of victimization did not (except for the number of types of sexual violence). Research is needed to go beyond a simple count of the number of types of victimization in order to achieve an understanding of the specific mechanisms of action involved in polyvictimization.

                                                                      • Cudmore, R. M., C. A. Cuevas, and C. Sabina. 2015. The impact of polyvictimization on delinquency among Latino adolescents: A general strain theory perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0886260515593544Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        A US national sample of 1,500 Latino adolescents (50 percent female) completed Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire items for past year exposure to four types of victimization: crime, maltreatment, peer/sibling bullying, and sexual violence. Polyvictimization, defined as the cumulative number of types of victimization, was associated with problems with anger and involvement in delinquency.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Cyr, K., C. Chamberland, M. E. Clement, et al. 2013. Polyvictimization and victimization of children and youth: Results from a populational survey. Child Abuse & Neglect 37.10: 814–820.

                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Data from a representative population sample of 2,800 Quebec children ages two to seventeen years showed that a majority had been lifetime victims (76 percent) and during the previous year (61 percent), and 8 percent were polyvictims in the previous year using the definition of four or more JVQ items endorsed. Almost all (>90 percent) of children identified using the lifetime polyvictim definition of the 10 percent of children with the highest victimization scores in each of four age groups) experienced victimization in more than one domain, and all adolescent lifetime polyvictims reported victimizations in at least three different domains.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Elsaesser, C. M., and D. R. Voisin. 2015. Correlates of polyvictimization among African American youth: An exploratory study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30.17: 3022–3042.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0886260514554424Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            In a sample of more than 550 urban African American adolescents, boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization (defined as experiencing at least two of three types of victimization: witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposure) than girls. For girls, polyvictimization was associated with low family income, risky peer norms, aggressive behavior, and a lack of connectedness to teachers. For boys, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and low academic achievement and afterschool activity participation were associated with polyvictimization.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Finkelhor, D., R. K. Ormrod, and H. A. Turner. 2009. Lifetime assessment of poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect 33:403–411.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.09.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Using parent-report (for children ages two to eleven years old) and self-report (for adolescents) data from a national US sample of 1,467 children interviewed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, polyvictims were classified as the 10 percent of children and youth with the highest victimization scores in four age groups: two to five years old, six to eleven years old, twelve to fourteen years old, and fifteen to seventeen years old. “Lifetime” polyvictims reported more emotional distress and behavioral problems and more non-victimization adversities than other children and were less likely to come from an intact family.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Finkelhor, D., R. K. Ormrod, H. A. Turner, and S. L. Hamby. 2005. Measuring poly-victimization using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Child Abuse and Neglect 29.11: 1297–1312.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.06.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Administered the thirty-four-item Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire in a national random digit dial telephone survey of 2,030 ten- to seventeen-year-old youth children or a parent of children two to nine years old. Polyvictims were defined as children who had experienced four or more different kinds of victimizations in separate incidents within the past year. Polyvictimization was associated with PTSD and related behavioral and emotional problems assessed with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                • Ford, J. D., D. F. Connor, and J. Hawke. 2009. Complex trauma among psychiatrically impaired children: A cross-sectional, chart-review study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70.8: 1155–1163.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.4088/JCP.08m04783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Cluster analysis identified a complex trauma subgroup of child psychiatric inpatients who were polyvictims characterized by histories of either physical abuse or sexual abuse by multiple perpetrators, plus extensive out-of-home placement and severe parental impairment. Although all participating children had similar profiles of psychiatric diagnoses, polyvictims had more severe behavior problems and lower body mass index over independent of psychiatric diagnosis, gender, or ethnicity.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Gustafsson, P. E., Nilsson, D., and Svedin, C. G. 2009. Polytraumatization and psychological symptoms in children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 18.5: 274–283.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s00787-008-0728-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Past exposure to traumatic events was reported by 63 percent of a sample of 270 school-aged children and 89.5 percent of 400 adolescents. The number of types of past traumatic events reported was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Cumulative trauma exposure was more strongly associated with psychological problems than exposure to any specific type of traumatic event.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Hickman, L. J., L. H. Jaycox, C. M. Setodji, et al. 2013. How much does “how much” matter? Assessing the relationship between children’s lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28.6: 1338–1362.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/0886260512468239Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Interviews with parent/caregivers of more than 750 violence-exposed children (75 percent younger than 6.5 years old) using JVQ items for four domains (i.e., maltreatment, peer/sibling assault, sexual violence, and witnessing adult violence) showed that polyvictimization, defined as a dichotomous variable (i.e., victimization in two or more domains) was associated with child behavioral/emotional problems, but the cumulative number of victimizations was not a factor except that PTSD symptoms were associated with the number of sexual violence items.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Pereda, N., J. Abad, and G. Guilera. 2015. Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish youth involved in juvenile justice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/0886260515597440Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Youths (N=101) involved in juvenile justice (77 percent in detention facilities) completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Almost two thirds (61 percent) were past-year polyvictims (using the Finkelhor, et al. 2005 criterion [4 or more items endorsed]). Using the top 10 percent Finkelhor, et al. 2009 criterion, lifetime polyvictims had experienced on average fifteen to sixteen distinct types of victimization.

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Pereda, N., G. Guilera, and J. Abad. 2014. Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish children and youth: results from a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect 38.4: 640–649.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.01.019Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          More than 1,100 youth from a Spanish secondary schools sample (55 percent boys) completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire Almost one in five (19 percent) were past-year polyvictims (using Finkelhor, et al. 2005 criterion [4 or more items endorsed]). Using the Finkelhor, et al. 2009 top 10 percent criterion, lifetime polyvictims had experienced on average between seven (ages twelve to fourteen years old) to nine (ages fifteen to seventeen years old) distinct types of victimization.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Evidence-Based Treatment for Polyvictimized Children and Adults

                                                                                          A variety of approaches to individual, group, and family psychotherapy have been evaluated for children who have experienced severe interpersonal victimization, summarized in the reviews Harvey and Taylor 2010 and Morina, et al. 2016, and for adults who experienced interpersonal victimization in childhood summarized in the reviews Ehring, et al. 2014 and Taylor and Harvey 2010. Landolt, et al. 2017 and Schnyder and Cloitre 2015 provide an overview of treatments focusing on enabling youth and adult victims to recover from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including cognitive behavioral therapies in which specific traumatic memories of victimization are therapeutically reviewed and processed (Landolt, et al. 2017; Schnyder and Cloitre 2015). Ford 2017 describes present-centered and psychodynamic therapies in which capacities for emotion regulation that have been disrupted by past victimization are systematically accessed and enhanced in order to restore full psychosocial functioning. A complex trauma framework and three-phase approach to psychotherapy articulated originally in Herman 1992 has guided the development of treatments for polyvictimized adults, as described by Cloitre, et al. 2011 and Courtois and Ford 2009, and children and adolescents, as described by Ford and Cloitre 2009 and Ford and Courtois 2013. The three phases of psychotherapy for complex traumatic stress disorders involve: (1) establishing physical and psychological safety for the survivor of polyvictimization in the context of a trusting and trustworthy client-therapist working alliance, which includes strengthening or developing the personal and interpersonal skills necessary to modulate intense emotions; (2) identifying memories of particularly troubling victimization experiences or symptoms that arose as adaptations to survive past victimization, and developing an understanding of and ability to cope with those memories or symptoms, in order to reduce self-defeating attempts at avoidance or hypervigilance and feelings of shame and blame (toward self or others); (3) transferring the enhanced self and relational capacities and knowledge gained in therapy into day-to-day life in order to achieve sustained remission from symptoms and the ability to anticipate and effectively cope with any future resurgence of symptoms.

                                                                                          • Cloitre, M., C. A. Courtois, A. Charuvastra, R. Carapezza, B. C. Stolbach, and B. L. Green. 2011. Treatment of complex PTSD: Results of the ISTSS expert clinician survey on best practices. Journal of Traumatic Stress 24.6: 615–627.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1002/jts.20697Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Formulates initial guidelines for psychotherapy of complex traumatic stress symptoms and impairments with adults who have experienced multiple severe forms of traumatic victimization, based on results of a survey of expert psychotherapists’ views on best clinical practices.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Courtois, C. A., and J. D. Ford, eds. 2009. Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: An evidence-based guide. New York: Guilford.

                                                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              Presents an overview of critical theory and research, a set of clinical practice guidelines, and descriptions with case examples of specific evidence-based or evidence-informed models of psychotherapy for adults who are impaired by complex traumatic stress disorders.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Ehring, T., R. Welboren, N. Morina, J. M. Wicherts, J. Freitag, and P. M. Emmelkamp. 2014. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review 34.8: 645–657.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.10.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the outcomes of replicable models of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with adult survivors of childhood abuse.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Ford, J. D. 2017. Emotion regulation and skills-based interventions. In Handbook of trauma psychology. Vol. 2. Edited by J. Cook, S. Gold, and C. Dalenberg, 227–252. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Provides a systematic review of evidence-based and evidence-informed models of psychotherapy designed to treat adults and children who are impaired by post-traumatic stress disorder or complex traumatic stress disorders by enhancing present-centered emotion/interpersonal regulation skills.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Ford, J. D., and M. Cloitre. 2009. Best practices in psychotherapy for children and adolescents. In Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: An evidence-based guide. Edited by C. A. Courtois and J. D. Ford, 59–81. New York: Guilford.

                                                                                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Presents an overview of critical theory and research and a set of initial clinical practice guidelines for psychotherapy with children who are impaired by complex traumatic stress disorders.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Ford, J. D., and C. A. Courtois, eds. 2013. Treating complex traumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents: Scientific foundations and therapeutic models. New York: Guilford.

                                                                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Presents an overview of critical theory and research, a set of clinical practice guidelines, and descriptions with case examples of specific evidence-based or evidence-informed models of psychotherapy for children and youth impaired by complex traumatic stress disorders.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Harvey, S. T., and J. E. Taylor. 2010. A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with sexually abused children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review 30.5: 517–535.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the approaches to treatment and outcomes of psychotherapy for children who have experienced sexual abuse.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Herman, J. L. 1992. Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.

                                                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Describes how victimization leads to complex traumatic stress symptoms that begin as necessary psychobiological adaptations to threat, violation, and betrayal. Presents a three-phase psychotherapy model (i.e., alliance/emotion regulation, trauma processing, generalization/closure) that has become the standard of practice for psychotherapy with polyvictimized adults and children.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          • Landolt, M., M. Cloitre, and U. Schnyder. 2017. Evidence based treatments for trauma-related psychological disorders in children and adolescents. New York: Springer International.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-46138-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Presents an overview of critical theory and research and detailed descriptions with case examples of specific evidence-based or evidence-informed models of psychotherapy for children and adolescents who are impaired by complex trauma-related psychological disorders.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Morina, N., R. Koerssen, and T. V. Pollet. 2016. Interventions for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Clinical Psychology Review 47:41–54.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.05.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the outcomes of replicable models of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with children and adolescents.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Schnyder, U., and M. Cloitre, eds. 2015. Evidence based treatments for trauma-related psychological disorders. Zurich: Springer.

                                                                                                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Presents an overview of critical theory and research and detailed descriptions with case examples of specific evidence-based or evidence-informed models of psychotherapy for adults who are impaired by trauma-related psychological disorders.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Taylor, J. E., and S. T. Harvey. 2010. A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with adults sexually abused in childhood. Clinical Psychology Review 30.6: 749–767.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.05.008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the approaches to treatment and outcomes of psychotherapy for adults with histories of childhood sexual abuse.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  back to top

                                                                                                                  Article

                                                                                                                  Up

                                                                                                                  Down