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Renaissance and Reformation Printing and the Book
by
Erika Rummel, Mark Wilson, Milton Kooistra

Introduction

Until the 1980s, when periodization fell out of favor among historians, the development of printing was used as one of the markers for the onset of the Renaissance. Thus the significance of printing has long been recognized. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, however, its impact on social and intellectual history moved to the center of research in early modern history. This interest may be explained by the fact that the last decades of the 20th century experienced a media shift that equals the importance of the shift in the 15th century. Elizabeth L. Eisenstein’s seminal 1979 book The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (see Eisenstein 1979 cited under General Overviews) was in the vanguard of this wave of research. Criticism of Eisenstein for placing too much emphasis on the revolutionary character of printing and its singular impact on the Reformation has prompted some modification in the approach to the history of printing, but the recognition of its significance for the dissemination of information and learning and as an opinion maker has remained unchanged.

General Overviews

This section lists monographs dealing with the history of printing—its early development, the transition from manuscript to printed text, the technology used, the commercial aspects of satisfying the scholarly and popular demand, and the social and political impact of the new medium. A number of books deal with the relationship between printing and culture. The influential work is Eisenstein 1979, which emphasizes the transformative effects of the emergence of printing on European society, culture, and thought; the capacity for printing to effect change is further explored in Braida 2000. Johns 2000 takes a more evolutionary approach, discussed in the context of the relationship between printing and scientific thought. McKitterick 2005 discusses how modern culture responded to the rise of printing, while Steinberg 1955 covers various aspects of the relationship between printing and culture. The development of the printed book is covered in Febvre and Martin 1958, while Gieseke 1991 delves into the technical and practical aspects of printing and publishing. Peters 2000 covers printing in relation to the theater. Suarez and Woudhuysen 2010 offers an overview of the history of the book in the essays gathered in the first volume plus a dictionary of relevant articles in the second.

  • Braida, Lodovica. Stampa e cultura in Europa tra XV e XVI secolo. Rome: GLF editori Laterza, 2000.

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    On printing as an agent of cultural transformation in early modern Europe.

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  • Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

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    Classic study of the emergence of printing, its impact on institutions, traditions, and modes of thought. See also her response to criticism that she exaggerated the revolutionary aspects of printing and did not give enough consideration to evolution: “An Unacknowledged Revolution Revisited,” American Historical Review 107.1 (2002): 87–105. For a reprise of the question, see Eisenstein’s The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, 2d ed. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Universtiy Press, 2005).

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  • Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. L’apparition du livre. Paris: A. Michel, 1958.

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    Comprehensive survey of printing history, focusing on book production, the visual appearance of the book, and the book trade. For the English translation, see Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin, The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing, 1450–1800, 3d ed. (London: Verso, 2000).

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  • Gieseke, Michael. Der Buchdruck in der frühen Neuzeit: Eine historische Fallstudie über die Durchsetzung neuer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie. Frankfurt, Germany: Suhrkamp, 1991.

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    Detailed examination of the technical process, the economics of the book trade, the social impact of the printing press, the concept of intellectual property.

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  • Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

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    On the connection between printing and the rise of scientific knowledge in the 16th to 18th centuries; mostly but not exclusively about England; critical of Eisenstein’s emphasis on the revolutionary aspects of printing.

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  • McKitterick, David. Print, Manuscript, and the Search for Order, 1450–1830. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    On the emergence of printing and its absorption into modern culture, including technical aspects (and errata), illustrations, the relationship between print and manuscript.

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  • Peters, Julie Stone. Theatre of the Book, 1480–1880: Print, Text, and Performance in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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    On the impact of printing on European theater, including prompt books, stage texts, relationship between actor and author, ownership of text.

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  • Steinberg, Sigfrid Henry. Five Hundred Years of Printing. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1955.

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    For undergraduates, on the relationship between printing and culture, dealing with such subjects as censorship, best sellers, regional development, printing and education. Of relevance are the first two sections, covering 1450–1800. See also the revised edition: Sigfrid Henry Steinberg and John Trevitt, Five Hundred Years of Printing, new ed. (London and New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll, 2001).

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  • Suarez, Michael F., and H. R. Woudhuysen, eds. Oxford Companion to the Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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    Massive two-volume resource written by over four hundred contributors examining the whole history of the book from antiquity to modern times, with the first volume containing fifty-one essays and the second some five thousand alphabetically arranged entries.

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Dictionaries and Handbooks

A wide variety of directories exist relating to early printers, including compendia for the British Isles (Aldis, et al. 2005), Spain (Delgado Casado 1996), Southwest France (Desgraves 1995, Desgraves 2005), and Hebrew-settled Poland (Pilarczyk 2004) as well as for 16th-century Italy (Ascarelli and Menato 1989) and French female booksellers (Arbour 2003). Fouché, et al. 2002 begins to provide the comprehensive omnibus to printing and printers; two volumes were published in the early 21st century for the letters A through M. Twyman 1999 provides a concise handbook of printing history, while Dowding 1997 provides a guidebook for the development of typefaces.

Encyclopedia Articles

Encyclopedia articles on printing address the topic from a variety of directions. Cragin 2001 offers an overview rooted in the emergence of printing in relation to the Renaissance and the Reformation, while Gilmont 1996 discusses in addition the development of printing in various countries. Lowry 1999 includes the social effects of printing in relation to Renaissance and Reformation ideas. Boorsch 1999 surveys the visual aspects of the medium.

Bibliographies

Corsten and Fuchs 1988–1993 offers a bibliography of works relating to 15th-century printing, while Vervliet 1973 provides an annual compendium of book history–related works.

Journals

A number of journals are devoted to the history of print technology, book production, and the cultural relations of the book. The Archiv für die Geschichte des Buchwesens, Library, and Wolfenbütteler Notizen zur Buchgeschichte deal with all dimensions of book history, while the Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History considers book history mainly for England, La bibliofilia: Rivista di storia del libro e di bibliografia mainly for Italy, and Revue française d’histoire du livre mainly for France. Other journals focus primarily on print technology: Journal of the Printing Historical Society and Printing History.

Collections of Papers

Collections of essays on the development of printing tend to divide between those focusing on the first decades of printing in Europe in the 15th century and those that explore the maturation of the industry from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

The 15th Century

A number of anthologies cover the emergence of European publishing in the 15th century. Dicke 2003 covers the organic nature of the transition from manuscript tradition. Davies 1999 discusses the processes of book production. The social implications of the rise of printers and the book trade is explored in Hindman 1991, while Jensen 2003 covers the end result of mass literature on writer, printer, and public.

Beyond the 15th Century

After the 15th century the issues relating to the social, literary, and commercial aspects of printing become legion. Baron, et al. 2007 is a collection on the relationship between printing and culture. Crapulli 1985–1987 explores the manuscript-to-print transmission. Aquilon and Martin 1988 and Tyson and Wagonheim 1986 focus on various aspects of publishing in the Renaissance. Barker 2003 collects essays relating to the production and sale of books in western Europe. Finkelstein and McCleery 2006 includes the effects of printing on society and the scholarly discussion thereof. Crick and Walsham 2004 discusses the public and social uses to which publishing was put in England, while Hanebutt-Benz, et al. 2002 discusses the development of printing traditions in Middle Eastern regions and languages.

  • Aquilon, Pierre, and Henri-Jean Martin, eds. Le livre dans l’Europe de la Renaissance. Paris: Promodis, 1988.

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    Topics covered include aspects of book production, local cultural context, use of the print medium in religious controversies, Hebrew printing, and women printers.

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  • Barker, Nicolas, ed. Form and Meaning in the History of the Book: Selected Essays. London: British Library, 2003.

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    Mostly reprints of journal articles; subjects range from aspects of book production (binding, typography) to printing houses in England, the Low Countries, France, and Spain and the book trade.

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  • Baron, Sabrina A., Eric N. Lindquist, and Eleanor F. Shevlin, eds. Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.

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    Topics include typographical aspect, illustrations, broadsheets, and the cultural impact of printing from the 16th century to the early 21st century in Europe, Spanish America, and Arabian countries; contains an interview with Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, (re)appraisal of her work, reviews of her classic book.

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  • Crapulli, Giovanni, ed. Trasmissione dei testi a stampa nel periodo moderno. 2 vols. Rome: Edizioni dell’Ateneo, 1985–1987.

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    Essays in German, French, and Italian on book trade, transmission of text from manuscript to print, printing manuals, role of humanists as collaborators. Covers the 16th through the 18th centuries.

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  • Crick, Julia, and Alexandra Walsham, eds. The Uses of Script and Print, 1300–1700. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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    Essays on the impact of printing on the Reformation and textual tradition; broadsides of ballads, printed speeches and sermons, polemics; focuses on England.

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  • Finkelstein, David, and Alistair McCleery, eds. The Book History Reader. London: Routledge, 2006.

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    Includes essays on historiographical and bibliographical aspects, the cultural and practical impact of printing, and the relationship among author, text, and reader.

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  • Hanebutt-Benz, Eva, Dagmar Glass, and Geoffrey Roper, eds. Middle Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution. Westhofen, Germany: WVA-Verlag Skulima, 2002.

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    Essays in English and German on the beginnings of printing in Hebrew, Armenian, Syriac, Coptic, and Arabic in early modern Europe.

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  • Tyson, Gerald P., and Sylvia S. Wagonheim, eds. Print and Culture in the Renaissance: Essays on the Advent of Printing in Europe. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986.

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    Essays on topics including the printing of scientific works, music printing, the use of images on broadsheets, and the impact of printing on the Reformation.

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Print Technology

The technique of printing with movable types, which developed in the 15th century, combined and built on existing technologies—wood printing, the screw press used in winemaking, and the steel punches used at mints. Printers also modified ink and paper to suit the mechanical process. For these developments see Typographical Aspects. At first only books in Latin script were produced; later printers acquired specialized fonts (see Greek Font, Hebrew Font, Irish Font, and Music Printing; for Cyrillic, see Northern and Eastern Europe). Printed images were not an invention of the Renaissance, but the use of woodcuts and engravings in books greatly expanded during that period (see Map Printing and Illustrations).

Typographical Aspects

Enenkel 2005 covers the function and the role of typography in cognition, while Wehde 2000 likewise treats printing as visual communication throughout history. Typeface design progressed according to regional needs. Glen 2001 provides the overview, while Janssen 2004 discusses typography in France and the Low Countries. Smith 2000 traces the origins of title pages and frontispieces; Rhodes 1994 and Foot 2004 provide essays on bookbinding in relation to the book trade and broader cultural patterns, while Hobson 1989 traces Renaissance bookbinding style from its origins in Padua through northern Italy and France.

  • Enenkel, Karl A. E., ed. Cognition and the Book: Typologies of Formal Organisation of Knowledge in the Printed Book of the Early Modern Period. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005.

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    Essays on typography, the emblematic, illustrations, and typography as a cognitive aid, focusing on Germany and France.

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  • Foot, Mirjam M., ed. Eloquent Witnesses: Bookbindings and Their History. London: Bibliographical Society, 2004.

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    A richly illustrated collection of essays examining how bookbinding materials and techniques reflect broader cultural trends and relate to the book trade.

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  • Glen, Duncan. Printing Type Designs: A New History from Gutenberg to 2000. Kirkaldy, Scotland: Akros, 2001.

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    Chapters 1–8 are relevant, dealing with the development of typefaces in Germany, Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland; also discusses individual printers (for example, Aldo Manuzio, William Caxton, Christopher Plantin).

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  • Hobson, Anthony. Humanists and Bookbinders: The Origins and Diffusion of the Humanistic Bookbinding, with a Census of Historiated Plaquette and Medallion Bindings of the Renaissance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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    Traces the origins of Renaissance style in bookbinding to the Paduan circle of artisans and scribes in the later 15th century, from which center the phenomenon was diffused along with humanism itself through northern Italy and, promoted by King Francis I, to Paris.

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  • Janssen, Frans A. Technique and Design in the History of Printing: 26 Essays. Houton, The Netherlands: HES and de Graaf, 2004.

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    Essays focus on typographical design in early modern France and the Netherlands.

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  • Rhodes, Dennis E., ed. Bookbindings and Other Bibliophily: Essays in Honour of Anthony Hobson. Verona, Italy: Edizioni Valdonega, 1994.

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    Essays on bindings, book trade, and book collectors.

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  • Smith, Margret M. The Title Page: Its Early Development, 1460–1510. London: British Library, 2000.

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    On origins, stages of development, purpose of title page, and illustrating woodcuts.

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  • Wehde, Susanne. Typographische Kultur: Eine zeichentheoretische und kulturgeschichtliche Studie zur Typographie und ihrer Entwicklung. Tübingen, Germany: Niemeyr, 2000.

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    On the significance of typographical choices, semiotic basis and esthetic elements, visualization as means of communicating ideas, typography as art form. Covers the period from antiquity to the 20th century.

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Greek Font

The importance of classical Greek texts to Renaissance philosophy, theology, and literature created a new and urgent need for a standard means of printing Greek material using an alphabet unfamiliar to most Westerners. Proctor 2007 offers the classic study of the origination of Greek fonts in western Europe, especially in Italy. Barker 1992 discusses scholars’ efforts to develop Greek typography in Italy. Irigoin 2001 covers the shift to print at the end of a comprehensive survey of the published Greek word, while Sklavenitis and Staikos 2004 follows the post-Byzantine development of the Greek printed text.

Hebrew Font

The development of printing in Hebrew is studied in its 15th-century inception in Offenberg 1992 and its subsequent development in Heller 2008, with a bibliography provided in Heller 2003.

Irish Font

Ireland had unique problems in adapting to printing. McGuinne 1992 covers the multifaceted development of Irish printing in the late 16th century.

Music Printing

The printing of musical scores was essayed as early as the 16th century. Boorman 2005 covers the processes involved in music printing in Italy and in other European publishing capitals, while Carter 2000 concentrates on late Renaissance Florence.

  • Boorman, Stanley. Studies in the Printing, Publishing, and Performance of Music in the 16th Century. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

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    Examines music printing and trade practices focusing on Renaissance Italy but also includes chapters specifically dealing with printers in Salzburg, Venice, and Antwerp. Other topics covered are printing and the ascription of works and the demands of a specialty market.

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  • Carter, Tim, ed. Music, Patronage, and Printing in Late Renaissance Florence. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000.

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    Essays focusing on the late 16th and early 17th centuries. They examine the printing of the compositions by Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini. Discusses the printers Giorgio Marescotti and Zanobi Pignoni as well as the bookseller Piero di Giuliano Morosi.

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Map Printing

The revolution in printing coincided with the dawn of the age of exploration, creating new demands and challenges for the production of printed maps. Brotton 1998 explores the processes involved in cartography, while Short 2004 discusses printed maps as a means of understanding the world. Campbell 1987 provides a catalogue.

Illustrations

The importance of illustrations both in conveying ideas and in enhancing value carried forward from the manuscript codex into printed books. The conceptual theory relating illustration with understanding and memory is explored in Bolzani 2001 and with learning in Kusukawa and Mclean 2006. The transition to printed illustration can be discussed in terms of architecture (Carpo 2001) as well as natural and mechanical science (Lefèvre, et al. 2003). Landau and Parshall 1994 covers the origination of illustrations for printed works and the roles of artists and guilds, with Bowen and Imhof 2008 discussing the innovations of the Belgian Christopher Plantin in particular.

  • Bolzani, Lina. The Gallery of Memory: Literary and Iconographic Models in the Age of the Printing Press. Translated by Jeremy Parzen. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

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    Connects the history of printing and illustration with the history of psychology and the art of mnemonics.

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  • Bowen, Karen L., and Dirk Imhof. Christopher Plantin and Engraved Book Illustrations in Sixteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Plantin’s influential role in the use of illustrations in 16th-century printed books and in the context of the book trade and Antwerp’s political, economic, cultural, and religious history. Interdisciplinary perspective includes history of the book, art history, and economic and social history.

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  • Carpo, Mario. Architecture in the Age of Printing: Orality, Writing, Typography, and Printed Images in the History of Architectural Theory. Translated by Sarah Benson. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

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    Contrasts architectural theory in the oral and manuscript traditions with its transmission in the age of printing.

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  • Kusukawa, Sachiko, and Ian Mclean, eds. Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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    Examines the uses of pictures in learning; focuses on illustrations in science.

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  • Landau, David, and Peter Parshall. The Renaissance Print, 1470–1550. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994.

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    Includes chapters on craft guilds, individual artists and printers, production rates and costs, illustrations as art, the market for prints.

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  • Lefèvre, Wolfgang, Jürgen Renn, and Urs Schoepflin, eds. The Power of Images in Early Modern Science. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser, 2003.

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    Includes illustrations of artillery and machines; essays on the use of illustrations in natural history, astronomy, architecture.

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The Book Trade

Printing presses, first established in Germany in the 1450s, saw a rapid spread to the rest of Europe. By 1500 only 250 cities had print shops, with Venice dominating up to 1500. In the 16th century dominance passed gradually to Paris, Antwerp, and Basel (see France and the Low Countries; see also Regional Issues in Printing for the emergence of printing in other areas). Printers were often highly literate, skilled craftspeople and of necessity people of entrepreneurial skills. In Scandinavia and eastern Europe (with the exception of Krakow) printing developed later (see Northern and Eastern Europe). Among general works on the book trade, Hirsch 1967 provides a baseline for the social and economic impacts of printing. Barnes, et al. 1998 collects essays on key aspects of the business side of things, and Myers, et al. 2007 takes up the distribution angle, including markets and book fairs, with Ruppel 1956 looking at the Frankfurt fair in particular. Erdmann 1999 explores the role of women in the trade, while Loewenstein 2002 looks at the author’s position in England’s early printing environment.

  • Barnes, Robin B., Robert A. Kolb, and Paula L. Presley, eds. Habent sua fata libelli/Books Have Their Own Destiny: Essays in Honor of Robert V. Schnucker. Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1998.

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    Essays on topics including printers’ marks, the book trade, pamphlet literature, women printers, and printing of catechisms and sermons.

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  • Erdmann, Axel. My Gracious Silence: Women in the Mirror of 16th Century Printing. Lucerne, Switzerland: Gilhofer and Ranschburg, 1999.

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    Part 1, women in the book trade; Part 2, biographical information on women writers, illustrators, and printers in early modern Europe.

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  • Hirsch, Rudolf. Printing, Selling, and Reading, 1450–1550. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 1967.

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    Study of the social and intellectual impact of printing and the economics of early printing. See also a collection of Hirsch’s articles on the history of printing, The Printed Word: Its Impact and Diffusion (Primarily in the 15th–16th Centuries) (London: Variorum, 1978).

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  • Loewenstein, Joseph. The Author’s Due: Printing and the Prehistory of Copyright. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

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    A study of historical and cultural aspects of the book trade in England to 1710, investigating the development of authorship and copyright.

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  • Myers, Robin, Michael Harris, and Giles Mandelbrote. Fairs, Markets, and the Itinerant Book Trade. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll, 2007.

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    Essays on the Frankfurt book fair and itinerant booksellers in England, Scotland, and the Netherlands.

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  • Ruppel, Aloys. “Die Bücherwelt des 16. Jahrhunders und die Frankfurter Büchermessen.” In Gedenkboek der Plantin-Dagen, 1555–1955: Internationaal Congres voor Boekdrukkunst en Humaniszme, 4–10 September 1955; Memorial Volume of the Plantin-Celebration. By the Internationaal Wetenschappelijk Congres voor Boekdrukkunst en Humanisme, 146–165. Antwerp, Belgium: Vereeniging der Antwerpsche Bibliophielen, 1956.

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    Discusses the impact of the Frankfurt book fair on the book market in the 16th century; provides information on attendance, printers represented, enforcement of printing privileges, and censorship by Catholic authorities.

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Regional Issues in Printing

While the development of printing was a revolution for all of Europe, how that revolution played out locally varied widely. The regional impact of printing can be discussed in terms of France and the Low Countries, central Europe, the German Empire, Italy, England, the Iberia Peninsula, and Northern and Eastern Europe.

France and the Low Countries

Martin 1993 is the key work on the development of publishing in France; Pettegree 2007 looks at the emergence of French printing in the context of the rest of Europe. The printers, booksellers, and libraries that sprang up in France and the Low Countries are discussed in Coppens 2005, with De Vlieger–De Wilde 2004 zeroing in on Flanders. Key innovations in engraved illustration took place in Belgium (Bowen and Imhof 2008), while early ideas of authors’ rights in France are covered in Armstrong 2002. The interaction between print and culture is explored by Chartier 1987, with Conley 1992 looking at the author-culture interplay of leading writers of the period.

  • Armstrong, Elizabeth. Before Copyright: The French Book-Privilege System, 1498–1526. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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    An analysis of 463 recorded privileges of the period.

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  • Bowen, Karen L., and Dirk Imhof. Christopher Plantin and Engraved Book Illustrations in Sixteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Plantin’s influential role in the use of illustrations in 16th-century printed books in the context of book trade and Antwerp’s political, economic, cultural, and religious history. Interdisciplinary perspective includes history of the book, art history, and economic and social history.

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  • Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

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    A collection of eight articles on cultural forms and practices, book circulation, and dissemination. Contains case studies based on printed “arts of dying,” manuals of civilité (civility), cahiers de doléances (lists of grievances), and placards.

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  • Conley, Tom. The Graphic Unconscious in Early Modern French Writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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    A study of Clément Marot’s, François Rabelais’s, Pierre de Ronsard’s, and Michel Montaigne’s poetics and works in detail, locating each author’s works in the politics of emergent print culture and French politics more generally; a study of how graphic patterns themselves created versions of ut pictura poesis (as is painting so is poetry).

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  • Coppens, Christian, ed. Printers and Readers in the Sixteenth Century. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2005.

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    Essays on libraries, printers, and publishers focusing on France and the Netherlands.

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  • De Vlieger–De Wilde, Koen, ed. Adresboek van zeventiende-eeuwse drukkers, uitgevers en boekverkopers in Vlaanderen = Directory of Seventeenth-Century Printers, Publishers, and Booksellers in Flanders. Antwerp, Belgium: Vereeniging van de Antwerpsche Bibliophielen, 2004.

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    Identifies the print personnel active in Antwerp during the critical period of its re-Catholicization when it became a Counter-Reformation publishing center.

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  • Martin, Henri-Jean. Print, Power, and People in 17th-Century France. Translated by David Gerard. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1993.

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    An English translation of the author’s magisterial survey of the 17th-century French book trade.

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  • Pettegree, Andrew. The French Book and the European Book World. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

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    An examination of Protestant printing during the Wars of Religion, the religious cultures in print during the period, French books at the Frankfurt fair, translation and migration of these works, and the growth of a provincial press in 16th-century Europe.

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The German Empire

German printing starts with Johannes Gutenberg. Kapr 1996 provides a major biography, Man 2002 delves into his technical genius and the hurdles he faced, and Füssel 2005 explores his innovations and impact. Halporn 2000 looks at one printer’s correspondence to discuss the social ramifications of printing, while Wolkenhauer 2002 studies the printers’ devices from a number of printing houses.

  • Füssel, Stephan. Gutenberg and the Impact of Printing. Translated by Douglas Martin. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

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    An analysis of Gutenberg’s influence covering the European intellectual climate; the spread of printing to Italy, France, and England; printing effects on the church, the Reformation, and academics; how-to manuals, encyclopedias, novels, periodicals; and the persistence of Gutenberg’s process to industrialization.

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  • Halporn, Barbara, trans. and ed. The Correspondence of Johann Amerbach: Early Printing in Its Social Context. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

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    A selection of letters illustrating the workings of the Amerbach family business, their collaboration with other Basel printers, and their output of patristic editions.

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  • Kapr, Albert. Johann Gutenberg: The Man and His Invention. 3d ed. Translated by Douglas Martin. Aldershot, UK: Scolar, 1996.

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    A classic biography of Gutenberg. The revised edition incorporates books and journal articles on Gutenberg written in French or English that were not readily accessible to the author when living in the former East Germany.

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  • Man, John. The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story of a Genius and an Invention That Changed the World. London: Review, 2002.

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    Gutenberg’s invention and the problems he faced bringing it to light.

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  • Wolkenhauer, Anja. Zu schwer für Apoll: Die Antike im humanistischen Druckerzeichen des 16. Jahrhunderts. Wolfenbütteler Schriften zur Geschichte des Buchwesens 35. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2002.

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    A study of classical elements in 16th-century printers’ devices. Includes a catalogue offering detailed commentaries on devices of some thirty (mostly but not exclusively German) printing houses, including Baptista de Fargengo and Aldo Manuzio, through Johann Schott, Johann Froben, Johann Setzer, Wolfgang Köpfel, Wendelin Rihel, Philipp Ulhart Sr., and Nicolaus Episcopus Jr.

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Italy

The role that printing played in the development of Italian literature and humanism, as well as the reverse, are discussed in a number of studies. Regional differences across the peninsula are particularly important; see the sections Rome and Venice. Santoro 1994 discusses the printers’ playing field, while Lincoln 2000 profiles three key printers in different Italian cities. The crucial emerging role of the editor in shaping literature and the vernacular is explored in Richardson 1994. Printing’s social role in the fluctuating Italian landscape is covered in Bregoli-Russo 1990, with Hendrix and Procaccioli 2008 discussing workshops and the social interactions of writers, artists, and editors in Italy and England; the influence of published emblems on identity is taken up in Maggi 1998. Fenlon 1995 looks at early music publishing and Bernstein 2001 specifically at music publishing in Venice, while issues in textual bibliography in early printed Italian literature are covered in Fahy 1988.

  • Bernstein, Jane A. Print Culture and Music in Sixteenth-Century Venice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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    A study of the business of music printing in Venice that highlights the connections among literacy, commerce, and musical performance.

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  • Bregoli-Russo, Mauda. L’impresa come ritratto del Rinascimento. Naples, Italy: Loffredo, 1990.

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    On the printing press as a social force; chapters on Aldo Manuzio, the De’ Ferrari family, Gabriello Simeoni, and the initiatives of the Roman Academy.

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  • Fahy, Conor. Saggi di bibliografia testuale. Medioevo e Umanesimo 66. Padua, Italy: Editrice Antenore, 1988.

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    A collection of thirteen essays divided into two sections. The first section is devoted to the discussion of general issues in textual bibliography; the second section deals with problems of bibliographical analysis and the history of printing of individual works of Italian literature.

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  • Fenlon, Iain, ed. Music, Print, and Culture in Early Sixteenth-Century Italy. Panizzi Lectures. London: British Library, 1995.

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    A series of lectures that focus on the first fifty years of the publication of polyphonic musical composition, an era that began with the appearance of Ottaviano Petrucci’s Odhecaton in 1501.

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  • Hendrix, Harald, and Paolo Procaccioli, eds. Officine del nuovo: Sodalizi fra letterati, artisti ed editori nella cultura italiana fra Riforma e Controriforma; Atti del Simposio internazionale, Utrecht 8–10 novembre 2007. Manziana, Rome: Vecchiarelli, 2008.

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    Contains a section on printing in England and Italy (Ludovico Arrighi, Francesco Marcolini, Michelangelo Biondo).

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  • Lincoln, Evelyn. The Invention of the Italian Renaissance Printmaker. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

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    Includes studies on three individual printmakers: Andrea Mantegna in Mantua, Domenico Beccafumi in Siena, and Diana Mantuana (Scultori) in Rome.

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  • Maggi, Armando. Identità e impresa rinascimentale. Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 1998.

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    A study of how identity was imagined through the medium of Renaissance emblems.

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  • Richardson, Brian. Print Culture in Renaissance Italy: The Editor and the Vernacular Text, 1470–1600. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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    A study of the editing and printing of Italian vernacular texts; concentrates on Venice and Florence.

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  • Santoro, Marco. Storia del libro italiano: Libro e societa in Italia dal Quattrocento al Novecento. Milan, Italy: Bibliografica, 1994.

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    Sheds light on the role of the key players of the Italian book trade and provides a contemporary interpretation of the social and cultural functions of the book.

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Venice

Venice was the major printing center of Italy from the origins of print through the end of the 16th century. Its lively publishing industry, marked above all by the work of Aldo Manuzio, who printed the whole corpus of the known classical texts, both Greek and Latin, was known for its production of heterodox Christian and Hebrew works. Castellani and Ferrari 1973 provides an overview of Venetian printing from its origins up through Manuzio’s death. Rhodes 1995 catalogues the then-anonymous early Venetian printers, and Gerulaitis 1976 surveys surviving editions. For Manuzio himself, Davies 1999 provides a general-audience introduction, Lowry 1979 places him in his commercial and scholarly context, and Barberi 1985 inventories his published editions. Another key figure is the French émigré Nicolas Jenson, profiled in Lowry 1991. Pon and Kallendorf 2009 offers a diverse array of essays examining multiple aspects of book production and commerce.

Rome

After Venice, Rome was the most important printing center in Italy. Miglio and Rossini 1997 provides an overview; Witcombe 2008 covers the printers and the interrelations, while Barberi 1983 looks at the work of several key figures in the Roman printing scene. Miglio 2002 examines the influential editorial prefaces of Giovanni Bussi; Witcombe 2004 examines the development of the author’s privilege in advance of the idea of copyright in Italy. Veneziani 2007 offers an important review of extant copies.

  • Barberi, Francesco. Tipografi romani del Cinquecento: Guillery, Ginnasio mediceo, Calvo, Dorico, Cartolari. Florence, Italy: Leo S. Olschki, 1983.

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    On the production of Stefano Guillery, Greek editions from the Gymnasium Mediceum, Roman editions of Francesco Minizio Calvo, and the Dorico brothers; with chronological lists of their editions.

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  • Miglio, Massimo. Saggi di stampa: Tipografi e cultura a Roma nel Quattrocento. Edited by Anna Modigliani. Rome: Roma nel Rinascimento, 2002.

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    Includes a lengthy introduction, first published in 1978, to the prefatory letters of Giovanni Andrea Bussi, the first such letters in printed books; dissemination of humanistic culture.

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  • Miglio, Massimo, and Orietta Rossini, eds. Gutenberg e Roma: Le origini della stampa nella Città dei Papi (1467–1477). Naples, Italy: Electa Napoli, 1997.

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    On early printing in Rome, the book trade, and relationship between printers and humanists.

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  • Veneziani, Paolo. Tracce sul foglio: Saggi di storia della tipografia. Edited by Paola Piacentini. Rome: Roma nel Rinascimento, 2007.

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    A posthumous book by one of the most celebrated Italian specialists in the study of incunabula (d. 2006).

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  • Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. Copyright in the Renaissance: Prints and the “Privilegio” in Sixteenth-Century Venice and Rome. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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    Examination of the emergence and early history of copyright in Venice and Rome, with a focus on the privilegio (privilege) and the use made of it by printers, publishers, engravers, painters, architects, mapmakers, and others to protect their commercial interests.

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  • Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. Print Publishing in Sixteenth-Century Rome: Growth and Expansion, Rivalry and Murder. London: Harvey Miller, 2008.

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    On book trade and its control and partnership and rivalry. The appendices include alphabetical lists of Roman publishers, engravers, artists, and illustrations.

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England

The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain provides an authoritative examination of the wide variety of printed material and techniques in 15th-century and early Tudor England (Vol. 3, Hellinga and Trapp 1999) and Elizabethan and 17th-century Britain (Vol. 4, Barnard and McKenzie 2002). Isaac and MacKay 2000 tackles a variety of issues relating to early modern printing, including regional printing houses. Griffiths and Pearsall 1989 looks at aspects of the bookselling trade, while Halasz 2006 explores the commercial relationships of authors, printers, and distributors in England. Gillespie 2006 covers the conveyance of English favorite sons Chaucer and John Lydgate into print, while Taylor 2002 looks at foreign-language authors printed in England. Marotti and Bristol 2000 explores the relationship between print media and the surrounding culture.

  • Barnard, John, and D. F. McKenzie, eds. The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain. Vol. 4, 1557–1695. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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    Essays on the printing of religious tracts, travel literature, scientific works, and maps and atlases; printing at universities; patrons of scholarly printing; collections.

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  • Gillespie, Alexandra. Print Culture and the Medieval Author: Chaucer, Lydgate, and Their Books, 1473–1557. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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    Based on previously published essays on the printing of medieval authors in the Tudor period, including a survey of the earliest printing of Chaucer’s and John Lydgate’s works, with a chapter on William Caxton.

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  • Griffiths, Jeremy, and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375–1475. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 1989.

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    Essays on book design and binding, the book trade (including publishing by religious orders and the Lollards), patrons, and book collectors.

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  • Halasz, Alexandra. The Marketplace of Print: Pamphlets and the Public Sphere in Early Modern England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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    On problems of authorial control, the new medium and pamphlet literature, and commercial opportunities. Originally published in 1997.

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  • Hellinga, Lotte, and J. R. Trapp, eds. The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain. Vol. 3, 1400–1557. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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    Essays on technical aspects of printing (including binding), the book trade (including importation of books), collators and libraries, and the use of books.

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  • Isaac, Peter C. G., and Barry MacKay, eds. The Mighty Engine: The Printing Press and Its Impact. Winchester, UK: St. Paul’s Bibliographies, 2000.

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    A collection spanning the 16th to the 20th centuries (proceedings of a seminar on the British book trade), including essays on early printing in Wales and York.

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  • Marotti, A. F., and Michael D. Bristol. Print, Manuscript, and Performance: The Changing Relations of the Media in Early Modern England. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2000.

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    On print and cultural change, including essays on subscription publication, speeches in print, and the relationship between manuscripts and print.

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  • Taylor, Barry, ed. Foreign-Language Printing in London, 1500–1900. London: British Library, 2002.

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    Essays spanning the 16th century to 1900, including early Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek printing in London.

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The Iberian Peninsula

Studies of Iberian printing often extend to include the introduction of printing to Iberian colonies in the Americas and elsewhere. Lafaye 2002 covers the development of Iberian and colonial printing; Cátedra 2003 looks at the vital role played by the broadsheet. For Spain in particular, Norton 1966 furnishes an overview of its first emergence, Martín Abad 2003 explores the technical, commercial, and legal environment through 1520, and Marsá 2001 covers the subsequent period through 1700. Reyes Gómez 2000 zeroes in on Spanish printing-related legislation, while Simón Díaz 2000 explores how both the state and the church restricted printing in Spain. For Portugal, Anselmo 1981 provides an overview of the emergence of printing there. Hendrich 2007 profiles a key figure, the German printer Velentim Fernandes.

  • Anselmo, Artur. Origens da imprensa em Portugal. Lisbon, Portugal: Imprensa Nacional–Casa da Moeda, 1981.

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    On technical, historical, cultural aspects of printing, individual printers and their programs, and printing in Hebrew, Portuguese, and Latin. Extensive bibliography. For a French translation, see Les origines de l’imprimerie au Portugal (Braga, Portugal: Barbosa and Xavier, 1983).

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  • Cátedra, Pedro M. Invención, difusión, y recepción de la literatura popular impresa (siglo XVI). Mérida, Spain: Editora Regional de Extremadura, 2003.

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    On the distribution of broadsheets, with special consideration of the case of Mateo de Brizuela.

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  • Hendrich, Yvonne. Valentim Fernandes ein deutscher Buchdrucker in Portugal um die Wende vom 15. zum 16. Jahrhundert und sein Umkreis. Mainzer Studien zur neueren Geschichte 21. Frankfurt, Germany: Lang, 2007.

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    An examination of the work and effect of Fernandes, a German printer working in Portugal in the first decades of the 16th century.

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  • Lafaye, Jacques. Albores de la imprenta: El libro en España y Portugal y sus posesiones de ultramar (siglos XV–XVI). Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Economia, 2002.

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    On the origin and development of printing in Spain, Portugal, and its colonies in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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  • Marsá, Maria. La imprenta en los Siglos de Oro: 1520–1700. Madrid: Ediciones del Laberinto, 2001.

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    Survey of the early history of printing in Spain: technology, typography, production, role of humanism, legislative controls.

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  • Martín Abad, Julián. Los primeros tiempos de la imprenta de España, c. 1471–1520. Madrid: Ediciones de Laberinto, 2003.

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    On the beginnings of printing in Spain in the 15th and early 16th centuries: technical aspects, production, censorship. With an excellent bibliography.

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  • Norton, Frederick J. Printing in Spain, 1501–1520. London: Cambridge University Press, 1966.

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    Comprehensive survey of printing firms in Spain during these key decades, many owned or run by non-Spaniards. See the Spanish reprint for an updated bibliography: Frederick John Norton and Julian Martín Abad, La imprenta en España 1501–1520 (Madrid: Ollero and Ramos 1997).

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  • Reyes Gómez, Fermín de los. El libro en España y America: Legislación y censura (siglos XV–XVIII). 2 vols. Madrid: Arco/Libros, 2000.

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    Survey of Spanish legislation controlling printing and publication. Vol. 1, analytical account (first six chapters on Spain, remainder on American colonies); Vol. 2, source texts.

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  • Simón Díaz, José. El libro español antiguo. Madrid: Ollero and Ramos, 2000.

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    On censorship and control of book publishing through the Crown and the church in 16th- to 17th-century Spain. First published in 1983.

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Northern and Eastern Europe

For the emergence of printing and its ramifications in Poland, the key work is Buchwald-Pelcowa and Kawecka-Gryczowa 1991, with Wydra 1987 looking at the earliest Polish-language printed books and Zimmer 1983 exploring early Cyrillic printing in Kraków. For Hungary, see Csaky 1963, for Bohemia, Hejnová, et al. 2000. For Scandinavia, Horstbøll 1999 covers the early book trade in Denmark, while Lindberg 1983 focuses on illustrated and luxury books in Sweden.

  • Buchwald-Pelcowa, Paulina, and Alodia Kawecka-Gryczowa, eds. Z badań nad dawną książką: Studia ofiarowane profesor Alodii Kaweckiej-Gryczowej w 85-lecie urodzin. 2 vols. Warsaw, Poland: Biblioteka Narodowa, 1991.

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    Essays on the history of the book in Poland.

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  • Csaky, Susan D. “The History of Printing in Hungary, 1600–1711.” MS, University of North Carolina, 1963.

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    Produced in microcard format by University of Rochester Press in 1965. A brief survey of the operation and output of early Hungarian printers, with sections on Miklos Kis and Abraham Kertesz.

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  • Hejnová, Miroslava, Julius Hůlek, and Zdeněk Uhlíř. Under the Torch of the Modern Era: The First Two Centuries of Book-Printing in Bohemia. Prague: National Library of the Czech Republic, 2000.

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    Descriptive catalogue of an exhibition in the National Library, Prague, with a brief polyglot introduction to Czech printers and print technology, 15th to 19th centuries. Laments the lack of a comprehensive study of the history of Czech printing.

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  • Horstbøll, Henrik. Menigmands medie: Det folkelige bogtryk i Danmark 1500–1840; En kulturhistorisk undersøgelse. Copenhagen, Denmark: Kongelige Bibliotek, Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 1999.

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    On production, typography, the book trade (printers’ catalogues), and the social impact of printing in Denmark.

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  • Lindberg, Sten G. The Art of the Book in Sweden: Five Centuries of Printing. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Institute, 1983.

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    Includes material on illuminated manuscripts, illustrated printed books, and fine bindings.

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  • Wydra, Wieslaw “Die ersten in polnischer Sprache gedruckten Texte, 1475–1520.” Gutenberg Jahrbuch 62 (1987): 88–94.

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    On the earliest printed texts in the Polish language.

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  • Zimmer, Szczepan K. The Beginning of Cyrillic Printing: Crakow, 1491; From the Orthodox Past in Poland. Edited by Ludwik Krzyzanowski, Irene Nagurski, and Krystyna M. Olszer. East European Monographs 136. Boulder, CO: Science Monographs, 1983.

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    On Szwajpolt Fiol’s press and his heirs, dissemination of Cyrillic printing, dating of books, typographical aspects.

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Printing and Humanism

Humanists were quick to embrace the print medium. They supplied manuscripts to printers and were employed by them as editors, proofreaders, and translators. In the process they made fundamental contributions to the disciplines of philology and textual criticism (see Collaboration with Printers). The humanists were also among the first to recognize the importance of the new medium as a tool of self-fashioning and as a potential opinion maker (see Print as Opinion Maker).

Collaboration with Printers

Humanists worked with printers in a number of developing aspects of publishing. The process of converting manuscript to printed text is covered in Kraye 1996. As editors the humanist scholars played a crucial role in this transmutation, particularly for Greek texts (Ishigami-Iagolnitzer 1991); see also Greek Font. The long relationship between Byzantine and Italian scholars played a vital role in the transmission of texts from the ancient Greeks (Wilson 1992); see also Italy. Jones 2004 covers the printing of the classical text in general, as does Mazal 2003, which also considers the printing of ancient Christian and Jewish texts, while the printing of scripture is considered by Bentley 1983. The humanists’ role in encouraging the publication of classical works is addressed by Staikos 1998, while D’Amico 1988 profiles the individual humanist Beatus Rhenanus. Gilmont 1984 explores the printers’ perspective.

  • Bentley, Jerry H. Humanists and Holy Writ: New Testament Scholarship in the Renaissance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

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    Examines the methods of two generations of biblical scholars: Lorenzo Valla, Erasmus of Rotterdam, and the scholars contributing to the Complutensian Polyglot under the direction of Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros.

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  • D’Amico, John. Theory and Practice in Renaissance Textual Criticism: Beatus Rhenanus between Conjecture and History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

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    Examines the historical method and textual criticism of the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in its historical context.

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  • Gilmont, Jean-François, ed. Palaestra typographica: Aspects de la production du livre humaniste et religieux au XVIe siècle. Aubel, Belgium: Gason, 1984.

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    Essays on printers and printing in the age of humanism (focuses on France and Germany).

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  • Ishigami-Iagolnitzer, Mitchiko, ed. Les humanistes et l’antiquité Grecque. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1991.

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    Essays on humanists as editors, dissemination of Greek texts, and the role of Aldo Manuzio.

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  • Jones, Howard. Printing the Classical Text. ’t Goy-Houten, The Netherlands: HES and de Graaf, 2004.

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    On the economic and social context of printing; survey of printing of classical texts (range of authors, number of editions, patterns of distribution), printing of classical Greek texts; humanists as editors.

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  • Kraye, Jill, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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    See especially the chapters of Michael Reeve on classical scholarship and Martin Davies on the transition from manuscript to print.

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  • Mazal, Otto. Die Überlieferung der antiken Literatur im Buchdruck des 15. Jahrhunderts. 4 vols. Stuttgart, Germany: Hieresemann, 2003.

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    Comprehensive study of the transmission of ancient texts—not only Greek and Roman classical works but also Christian and Jewish texts—from manuscript to print medium during the incunabular period.

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  • Prete, Sesto. The Humanists and the Discovery of Printing. Krefeld, Germany: Scherpe Verlage, 1982.

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    Essays on the role of humanists in the transmission of classical texts through the new print medium.

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  • Staikos, Konstantinos. Charta of Greek Printing: The Contribution of Greek Editors, Printers, and Publishers in Italy and the West. Vol. 1, The Fifteenth Century. Translated by Timothy Cullen. Cologne, Germany: Dienter, 1998.

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    Comprehensive introduction on the pivotal role of humanists in promoting the printing and translation of classical Greek texts; discusses individual scholars in the 15th century and lists their publications.

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  • Wilson, Nigel Guy. From Byzantium to Italy: Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

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    On Byzantine scholars as preservers and transmitters of classical Greek texts.

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Print as Opinion Maker

Humanists quickly made use of printing as a tool to disseminate ideas. Late 20th-century and early 21st-century scholarship reveals that Erasmus in particular displayed acumen in such ancillary aspects of idea transmission as self-promotion (Jardine 1993) and managing the use and ownership of content (Crousaz 2005). The publishing of humanist ideas also had an interactive effect on the humanists themselves (Krafft and Wuttke 1978).

Printing and the Reformation

Printing played an important role in the dissemination of Reformation thought and in the ensuing debate between Catholics and Reformers. The Reformers, often writing in the vernacular, retained an edge over the Catholics in the first half of the 16th century. The use Martin Luther and John Calvin made of the print medium is characteristic (Edwards 1994, Gilmont 2005a); the question of reaching children through print was not neglected (Luke 1989). Catholics followed suit eventually (Martin 1996), though print also catalyzed political divisions within the church (Kuhaupt 1998). Authorities tried to censor publications that did not support their own religious party (Gilmont 1998), but pamphlets, often published anonymously and without the name of a publisher, were difficult to control, as were publications produced in other jurisdictions (see Printers in the Service of the Reformation). The printers’ network of business connections also played a role (Fudge 2007). Wilkinson 2007 covers the first printed Syriac Bible and its connections to the Reformation in the West.

  • Edwards, Mark U., Jr. Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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    A study of the production of Reformation propaganda and counterpropaganda in Strasbourg, concentrating on the years 1518–1525.

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  • Fudge, John D. Commerce and Print in the Early Reformation. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

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    A study of networks of trade, commercial typography, legal and illicit book distribution, espionage, and censorship.

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  • Gilmont, Jean-François. John Calvin and the Printed Book. Translated by Karin Maag. Kirksville, MO: Truman University Press, 2005a.

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    The impact of the print medium on Calvin’s career, his choice of printers, and censorship in Geneva. Originally published as Jean Calvin et le livre imprimé (Geneva: Droz, 1997).

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  • Gilmont, Jean-François. Le livre réformé au XVIe siècle. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2005b.

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    Survey of the relationship between the printed book and the Reformation in 16th-century France.

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  • Gilmont, Jean-François, ed. The Reformation and the Book. Translated by Karin Maag. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1998.

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    Essays on the impact of printing on Reformation Europe; conditions governing book production, the publication programs of selected printers; censorship, categories, format, and typography of works produced. Originally published as La Réforme et le livre: l’Europe de l’imprimé (1517–v. 1570) (Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1990).

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  • Kuhaupt, Georg. Veröffentlichte Kirchenpolitik: Kirche im publizistischen Streit zur Zeit der Religionsgespräche (1538–1541). Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1998.

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    On the significance of the print medium in church politics, 1538–1541 (colloquies of Haguenau, Worms, Regensburg).

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  • Luke, Carmen. Pedagogy, Printing, and Protestantism: The Discourse on Childhood. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

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    Social and ideological influences of print medium; Lutheran pedagogy.

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  • Martin, Henri-Jean. The French Book: Religion, Absolutism, and Readership, 1585–1715. Translated by Paul Saenger and Nadine Saenger. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

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    A published version of four lectures Martin delivered at Johns Hopkins University that offers an overview of French book history from the Wars of Religion to the beginning of the Enlightenment; an emphasis of the connection between the Catholic Reformation and the spread of printing.

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  • Wilkinson, Robert J. Orientalism, Aramaic, and Kabbalah in the Catholic Reformation. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

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    An examination of the production of the first edition of the Syriac New Testament in 1555. Provides a new account of the origin of Syriac studies in Europe.

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Printers in the Service of the Reformation

Some printers were active participants in the Reformation, producing books and pamphlets that helped spread Protestant ideas. Profiles of specific printers include those of Philipp Ulhart (Schottenloher 1967) and Georg Erlinger (Schottenloher 1907); other studies focus on the publishing environments in key locations such as Geneva (Bremme 1969) and the Netherlands (Sprunger 1994). The role and process of pamphlet distribution in the Reformation is discussed by Schwitalla 1983.

  • Bremme, Hans Joachim. Buchdrucker und Buchhändler zur Zeit der Glaubenskämpfe: Studien zur Genfer Druckgeschichte 1565–1580. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1969.

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    On printers and the printing trade in Geneva during the later Reformation.

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  • Schottenloher, Karl. Die Buchdruckertätigkeit Georg Erlingers in Bamberg von 1522 bis 1541 (1543): Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Reformationszeit. Leipzig, Germany: R. Haupt, 1907.

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    Details the work of the 16th-century printer and cartographer Georg Erlinger, court printer of the prince-bishop of Bamberg, who published several Reformation works, including some by Martin Luther. Reprinted in 1969 (Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus).

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  • Schottenloher, Karl. Philipp Ulhart, ein Augsburger Winkeldrucker und Helfershelfer der “Schwärmer” und “Wiedertäufer” (1523–1529). Nieuwkoop, The Netherlands: B. de Graaf, 1967.

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    A study of Philipp Ulhart, whose publications aided the Anabaptists.

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  • Schwitalla, Johannes. Deutsche Flugschriften, 1460–1525: Textortengeschichtliche Studien. Tübingen, Germany: Niemeyer, 1983.

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    Definition and history of pamphlet literature in the Reformation era; production, characteristics, distribution.

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  • Sprunger, Keith L. Trumpets from the Tower: English Puritan Printing in the Netherlands, 1600–1640. Brill’s Studies in Intellectual History 46. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994.

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    A study of English Puritan book printing and publishing in the Netherlands, especially Amsterdam and Leiden. Focuses on about 350 Puritan books, mostly in English, printed in the Dutch Republic by Puritan printers in exile or by sympathetic Dutch printers.

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  • Weiss, Ulman, ed. Flugschriften der Reformationszeit: Colloquium im Erfurter Augustinerkloster, 1999. Tübingen, Germany: Bibliotheca Academica Verlag, 2001.

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    Contains essays on the effect and influence of print medium (pamphlets) in the Reformation era.

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LAST MODIFIED: 05/10/2010

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195399301-0004

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