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Renaissance and Reformation Cities and Urban Patriciates
by
Alexander Cowan

Introduction

Urban centers had an influence on the development of Renaissance Europe disproportionate to their overall demographic importance. Most of the population continued to live and work in the countryside, but towns and cities functioned as key centers of production, consumption and exchange, political control, ecclesiastical organization, and cultural influence. Historians still debate the relative roles of urban and rural areas in facilitating the development of capitalism in the long term. Writing on urban history has a very long pedigree dating back to the 16th century, but as an academic discipline it began to flourish in the late 19th century. Since the 1960s, the range of approaches to the field has widened considerably from concerns with political and economic organization to take in issues of governance, social structure, and, most recently, overlapping urban cultures. The role of religious belief, particularly in the context of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, runs as a thread throughout the history of the urban experience.

General Overviews

There have been several attempts to bring together detailed research on individual cities or regions of Europe, all of which offer a very useful introduction to the field of Renaissance urban history. In chronological terms they range from Hohenberg and Lees 1995, which explores the medieval and preindustrial roots of post-World War II urban Europe, and Nicholas 2002, which attempts to present important continuities between 1100 and 1700, to the narrower focus on early modern Europe offered by Friedrichs 1995 and Cowan 1998, which is limited to the 16th and 17th centuries. De Vries 1984 does not purport to be a general survey, but draws broad conclusions about the process of European urbanization between the 16th and 18th centuries grounded in a detailed database of changing urban population sizes.

Edited Collections

As an alternative approach to single-authored studies of European urban history, edited collections offer a greater diversity in subject matter and allow the reader to identify important contrasts and continuities. Two broad foreign-language collections, Mägdefrau 1979 and Pinol 2003, cover much longer chronological periods. In the case of Pinol 2003, urban developments are discussed from Classical times. Mägdefrau 1979 offers a rare opportunity to study the subject from a Marxist perspective. Other, more narrowly focused studies also examine long-term developments. In the case of small towns, a subject that rarely receives discussion from historians, the contributions in Clark 2002 range from the 15th to the early 19th century. The relationship between towns and their hinterlands is discussed for the period 1300–1800 in Epstein 2003, while Hansen 2002 considers city-state cultures from Classical times. Chapters in Allmand 1998 consider aspects of medieval urban history, while Clark 1976 contains some of the classic studies of early modern urban history that have served as a foundation for much later work.

  • Allmand, Christopher, ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. 7, c.1415–c.1500. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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    Articles by Wendy Childs on “Commerce and Trade” and Barry Dobson on “Urban Europe” are particularly relevant for the urban historian and form a useful introduction to the period.

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  • Clark, Peter, ed. The Early Modern Town: A Reader. London: Longman, 1976.

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    Originally conceived as a reader for a university course, this brings together some classic articles on European urban history in the 16th and 17th centuries, written primarily in the 1950s and 1960s.

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  • Clark, Peter, ed. Small Towns in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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    A useful complement to the majority of studies in urban history, which focus on cities and other large urban centers. Articles also range beyond familiar territory to include Scandinavia and east central Europe. Ranges from the 15th to the early 19th century.

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  • Epstein, Stefan, ed. Town and Country in Europe, 1300–1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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    Explores the relationships between urban and rural between the 14th and the 18th centuries. Extends to Scandinavia and east central Europe. The editor’s introduction is a particularly useful path into this field.

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  • Hansen, Mogens, ed. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures. Copenhagen, Denmark: Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2002.

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    Contains several articles on this period: Epstein on medieval Italian city-states, Johanek on the Holy Roman Empire, Stercken on Switzerland, and Prak on the Dutch Republic.

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  • Mägdefrau, Werner, ed. Europäische Stadtgeschichte im Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit. Weimar, Germany: Böhlau, 1979.

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    European urban history in the medieval and early modern periods from the Marxist perspective of East German historians.

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  • Pinol, Jean-Luc, et al., eds. Histoire de l’Europe urbaine. Vol. 1, De l’Antiquité au XVIII siècle. Paris: Seuil, 2003.

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    Comprehensive European urban history from Classical times to the 18th century, with a solid bibliography.

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Bibliographies

Bibliographies of urban history offer detailed information about individual countries from the Middle Ages onward. As they all date from the late 1990s, their strength lies in offering a solid start to the researcher. Backrouche and Rodger 1998 provides a guide to French urban history, while Prevenier, et al. 1996 focuses on Belgium, Ireland, and Spain. The Urban Past: An International Urban History Bibliography is an online resource on a European scale, with brief chapters on individual countries.

Primary Sources

Anthologies of primary sources specifically concerned with urban history are few and far between. Kowaleski 2006 offers insights into medieval Europe, while Richardson and James 1983 ranges throughout Britain between the 15th and 17th centuries. Both are useful to undergraduate readers.

Journals

The strength of urban history as an area of study across Europe has given birth to major specialist journals in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States. Histoire Urbaine, Zeitschrift für Stadtgeschichte, Stadtsoziologie und Denkmalplege, Urban History, Città e Storia, and The Journal of Urban History all publish articles on subjects inside and outside their countries of origin. Other journals, such as the Journal of Early Modern History and the International Review of Social History, publish important themed issues on aspects of urban history.

England

Two series of collective works offer a detailed picture of English urban history. The Longman Readers in Urban History, Holt and Rosser 1990 and Barry 1990, bring together key older articles on English towns between the 12th and mid-16th centuries, and the early 16th and later 17th centuries. The Cambridge Urban History of Britain commissioned leading scholars in the field to contribute to volumes spanning the whole of the Middle Ages from the 7th century (Palliser 2001) and from the 16th to the mid-18th century (Clark 2001). Strong editorial guidance has created an important sense of unity among the contributors. Tittler 2001, in contrast, offers a leading urban historian of England’s vision of a century of the country’s urban past through his collected articles.

France

A key starting point is Chevalier 1982, whose study of late medieval urban autonomy provides a contrast with the towns’ later political decline. Le Roy Ladurie 1981 is still the best collective survey of late medieval and early modern France, while Benedict 1992 brings together an important group of studies of individual French urban centers in the early modern period.

German Lands

The best general survey of the field in German is the updated edition of Schilling’s early modern overview, Schilling, et al. 2004. Walker 1971 offers an interpretation of the disruptive impact of state building on smaller towns in the Holy Roman Empire, which has received a welcome reappraisal in Friedrichs 1997. Johanek 2002 complements the studies of smaller towns with his comparative survey of city-states in premodern Germany.

  • Friedrichs, Christopher. “But Are We Any Closer to Home? Early Modern German Urban History since German Home Towns.” Central European History 30 (1997): 163–185.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008938900014011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An attempt to reassess Mack Walker’s classic study of urban centers from the mid-17th century as a review of more recent trends in the field.

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  • Johanek, Peter. “Imperial and Free Towns of the Holy Roman Empire: City States in Pre-modern Germany?” In A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures. Edited by Mogens Hansen, 295–319. Copenhagen, Denmark: Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2002.

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    Assesses the extent to which the free cities of the Holy Roman Empire can be considered to be classic city-states.

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  • Schilling, Heinz, Gottfried Niedhart, and Klaus Hildbrand. Die Stadt in der frühen Neuzeit. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2004.

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    Second and updated edition of Schilling’s overview of German urban history in the early modern centuries, first published in 1993. Contains very useful bibliography.

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  • Walker, Mack. German Home Towns: Community, State, and General Estate, 1648–1871. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971.

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    Classic study of lesser urban centers in western and southern Germany between the mid-17th and 19th centuries, which argues that state building disrupted deeply rooted structures.

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Italy

The fragmented nature of political organization on the Italian peninsula during the Renaissance is reflected in the high volume of individual city studies and a substantial absence of general works. Many of the essays in Saitta 2006 are concerned with cities in Italy and along the Dalmatian coast. Pini 1994 is a rare attempt to look at the relationships between guilds and the urban centers within which they operated.

  • Pini, Antonio. Città, comuni e corporazioni nel medioevo italiano. Bologna, Italy: CLUEB, 1994.

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    The relationships among guilds, cities and smaller communes in the Middle Ages. Contains a substantial bibliography.

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  • Saitta, Biagio, ed. Città e vita cittadina nei paesi dell’area mediterranea, secoli XI–XV. Rome: Viella, 2006.

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    Conference papers on cities and urban life from the 11th to 14th century, in honor of Salvatore Tramontana. The contents are largely concerned with the Italian peninsula, Sicily, and Italian colonies in Dalmatia.

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Spain

Studies of the urban history of Spain begin with the union of Aragon and Castile at the end of the 15th century. Major themes are the dominance of the monarchy in its relationship with smaller urban centers (Nader 1990) and the export of urban architectural and institutional models from the Spanish mainland to the new American colonies (Kagan 2000). Reher 1990 is a useful reminder that Spanish urbanization took place more slowly than in other parts of Europe.

  • Kagan, Richard. Urban Images of the Hispanic World, 1493–1793. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

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    Brings together images of urban centers in Spain and those constructed in its Latin American colonies in order to discuss Hispanic culture. A useful art-historical dimension to urban history.

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  • Nader, Helen. Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516–1700. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

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    Explores the relationship between the rulers of Spain and their smaller towns through the perspective of the monarchy’s practice of selling the municipal status granted to villages to raise revenue.

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  • Reher, David. Town and Country in Pre-industrial Spain: Cuenca 1540–1870. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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    An analysis of the process of late urbanization on the Iberian peninsula through the experiences of a Castilian hilltop town.

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Trade

International trade and local exchanges were the lifeblood of the larger European urban centers, and changes in the direction and scope of commercial networks were fundamental to their future. The changing commercial role of individual Low Countries cities between the 14th and 16th century is discussed in Stabel, et al. 2000. Judde de la Rivière 2008 considers the decline in the scope of Venetian international trade. The contrasting experience of ports on the east and west coasts of England is explored in Williams 1988 and Sacks 1991. Montenach 2009 focuses on the supply of food and drink in Lyon, France’s second largest city, while Tognetti 2001 examines the links between trade and industry in later medieval Tuscany.

  • Judde de la Rivière, Claire. Naviguer, commercer, gouverner: Economie maritime et pouvoirs à Venise (XVe–XVIe siècles). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

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    A study of the complex factors leading to the decline of the Venetian state galley convoys to the Mediterranean and beyond during the 15th and 16th centuries, and its impact on Venetian economy and society.

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  • Montenach, Anne. Espaces et pratiques du commerce alimentaire à Lyon au XVIIe siècle: L’économie du quotidien. Grenoble, France: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2009.

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    A study of the food and drink trades in 17th-century Lyon that attempts to place them in the spatial context of places of exchange and to identify the wide range of people involved within the framework of rules, both explicit and implicit, that governed trading.

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  • Sacks, David. The Widening Gate: Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450–1700. Berkley: University of California Press, 1991.

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    Evaluates the impact of the growing Atlantic trade on a key urban center in southwestern England. Sacks argues that this was facilitated by a change in mentality.

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  • Stabel, Peter, et al., eds. International Trade in the Low Countries (14th–16th Centuries): Merchants, Organisations, Infrastructure. Louvain, Belgium: Garant, 2000.

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    Analyzes the changing role of international trade in the Low Countries between the 14th and 16th centuries, with emphasis on demography, the operation of urban networks, the organization of international trade, and the growing role of foreigners.

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  • Tognetti, Sergio. “Attività industriale e commercio di manufatti nelle città Toscane del tardo medioevo (1250 ca.–1530 ca.).” Archivio Storico Italiano 159 (2001): 423–479.

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    Considers the relationship among trade, industry, and finance in late medieval Tuscany, with special reference to Florence.

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  • Williams, Neville. The Maritime Trade of the East Anglian Ports, 1550–1590. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.

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    Posthumous publication of a study of the resilience of the ports of East Anglia in the face of the growth of London in the second half of the 16th century.

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Guilds

Guilds were one of the key social and economic organizations in Renaissance cities and as such have received detailed attention in collective works arising out of conferences. Gadd and Wallis 2006 takes a very long-term view from the 10th to the 20th century, while the individual contributions to Epstein and Prak 2008 are all equally concerned with long-term developments. Epstein’s death at an early age is commemorated in the same year by a special issue of the International Review of Social History. Farr 2000 offers a synthesis of changing conditions in the workplace before and after industrialization, while recent work on guilds in Italy, Germany, Spain, and the Netherlands is collected in Nuñez 1998.

  • Epstein, Stephan, and Maarten Prak, eds. Guilds, Innovation, and the European Economy, 1400–1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511496738Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive collection in which individual authors take a long-term approach. Articles by the editors, Lis and Soly, Reith, Pfister, Trivellato, and Turner focus on industrial organization and technology in different parts of Europe.

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  • Farr, James. Artisans in Europe, 1300–1914. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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    Wide-ranging survey of organization in the workplace from the 14th to early 20th century. Discusses relations between journeymen and master craftsmen, the place of the guilds in the polity, and the place of artisans in popular culture.

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  • Gadd, Ian, and Patrick Wallis, eds. Guilds and Association in Europe, 900–1900. London: Centre for Metropolitan History, 2006.

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    Essay collection covering a thousand years of industrial organization. Late medieval and early modern contributions by Rosser (England), Dambruyne (Low Countries), and Marsh (England).

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  • Nuñez, Clara, ed. Guilds, Economy, and Society. Seville, Spain: Secretario de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla, 1998.

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    Brings together conference papers on craft guilds and proto-industrialization in early modern Europe; guilds and rural industries in Spain; guilds, markets, and regulation in Italy; Dutch guilds and society; and wage conflicts in Germany.

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  • Special Issue: The Return of the Guilds. International Review of Social History 53 supp. S16 (2008).

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    Special issue to commemorate the work of S. R. Epstein. Articles of relevance to this period of European urban history include Prak on Epstein’s work, Lucassen on a global history of preindustrial guilds, Crowston on women, gender and the guilds, Soly on power relations in the guilds, Mocarelli on Italian guilds, and Ehmer on early modern central Europe.

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England

A common thread linking studies of guilds in late medieval and early modern England is the impact of the Reformation on institutions with deep roots as charities. Their medieval role is illustrated in McRee 1993, while the detailed impact of religious change on a single guild in Salisbury is discussed in Douglas 1989. The role of the London Livery Companies at a time of the capital’s major commercial expansion is considered in a collection produced by the Centre for Metropolitan History (Gadd and Wallis 2002).

  • Douglas, Audrey. “Midsummer in Salisbury: The Tailor’s Guild and Confraternity, 1444–1642.” Renaissance and Reformation 13 (1989): 35–51.

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    Traces the impact of the Reformation on the evolution of the tailor’s guild in a major English urban center.

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  • Gadd, Ian, and Patrick Wallis, eds. Guilds, Society, and Economy in London, 1450–1800. London: Centre for Metropolitan History, 2002.

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    A comparative study of individual London Livery Companies. As a useful complement to the essays in the book, the comments from discussants at the original 2000 conference are also included.

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  • McRee, Ben. “Charity and Gild Solidarity in Late Medieval England.” Journal of British Studies 32 (1993): 195–225.

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    Provides a helpful synthesis of the charitable role of guilds in late medieval England.

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France

Garden 1986 provides a general survey of the organization of work in France, while Truant 1994 offers a rare analysis of journeymen and their organization as a subgroup among guild members, and Dolan 1989 emphasizes the social functions of guilds in a case study from Aix-en-Provence.

  • Dolan, Claire. “The Artisans of Aix-en-Provence in the 16th Century: A Micro-analysis of Social Relationships.” In Cities and Social Change in Early Modern France. Edited by Philip Benedict, 171–216. London: Routledge, 1989.

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    This brings together the twin themes of artisan organization and the integration of immigrants in the urban community through a prosopographical approach to social relationships.

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  • Garden, Maurice. “The Urban Trades: Social Analysis and Representation.” In Work in France: Representations, Meaning, Organisation, and Practice. Edited by Steven Kaplan and Cynthia Koepp, 287–296. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.

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    An important contribution in English on the organization of urban artisans; by a leading urban historian of early modern France.

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  • Truant, Cynthia. The Rites of Labor: Brotherhoods of Compagnonnage in Old and New Regime France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

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    An anthropological study of journeyman organizations in France. The pre-18th-century discussion is based on smaller provincial centers.

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German Lands

Studies of guilds in German centers focus on their responses to the threat of economic decline in the 16th and 17th centuries. Wiesner 1991 traces misogyny in the workplace to weaker economic prospects, while Ogilvie 2004 argues that the continuing existence of guilds was linked to their capacity to function as social networks rather than innovative producers.

  • Ogilvie, Sheila. “Guilds, Efficiency, and Social Capital: The Evidence from German Proto-industry.” Economic History Review 57 (2004): 286–333.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0289.2004.00279.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An important article that revisits recent debates about the capacity of guilds to respond to market changes through innovation and concludes that their strength lay rather in their social role.

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  • Wiesner, Merry. “Wandervogels and Women: Journeymen’s Concepts of Masculinity in Early Modern Germany.” Journal of Social History 24 (1991): 767–782.

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    Classic study of the growing intolerance of women in workshops by male journeymen whose bonding as dependent workers with very little prospect of getting married generated an overt articulation of masculine ideals.

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Italy

The main chronological focus of work on Italian guilds lies in the periods of adversity in the 16th and 17th centuries. Historians consider the impact on the organization of industrial production of competition from Northern Europe. Studies of individual cities show major contrasts. The consumer demand for luxuries and other goods in capital cities such as Rome (Ago 1998) and Turin (Cerutti 1990) created more favorable conditions than in the manufacturing export centers of Venice and the Veneto, as considered in Mackenney 1987 and Lanaro 2006.

  • Ago, Renata. Economia barocca: Mercato e istituzioni nella Roma del Seicento. Rome: Donzelli, 1998.

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    A study of economic institutions and artisans in 17th-century Rome that is of considerable methodological interest.

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  • Cerutti, Simona. La ville et les métiers: Naissance d’un langage corporative; Turin, 17e et 18e siècles. Paris: École des Hautes Études, 1990.

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    Marks an interesting contrast to the traditional organization of work by analyzing the very late introduction of guilds in Turin from the 17th century.

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  • Lanaro, Paola, ed. At the Centre of the Old World: Trade and Manufacturing in Venice and the Venetian Mainland, 1400–1800. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria University, 2006.

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    Collected articles on changing conditions and organization in manufacturing, mostly textiles, in Venice and the Veneto in response to Venice’s changing commercial position in the world economy.

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  • Mackenney, Richard. Tradesmen and Traders: The World of the Guilds in Venice and Europe, c. 1250–c. 1650. London: Croom Helm, 1987.

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    Essentially a study of Venetian guilds, complemented by some comparative material in each chapter. Mackenney demonstrates that guild membership was fluid and that guild-based confraternities were supplanted by new religious organizations during the Counter-Reformation.

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The Netherlands

Recent Dutch approaches to the role of the guilds place less emphasis on their institutional history and more on guild membership as a source of status and cultural capital (Deceulaer 1998 and De Munck 2007). van den Heuvel 2008 is an equally important contribution to the debates about the role of women in urban manufacturing (see Gender).

  • Deceulaer, Harald. “Guildsmen, Entrepreneurs, and Market Segments: The Case of the Garment Trades in Antwerp and Ghent (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries).” International Review of Social History 43 (1998): 1–29.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0020859098000017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Combines the social approaches of guilds and their members in Antwerp and Ghent with institutional organization and cultural attitudes.

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  • De Munck, Bert. Technologies of Learning: Apprenticeship in Antwerp from the 15th Century to the End of the Ancien Régime. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2007.

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    Argues that apprenticeship training did more than inculcate artisan skills but provided an important form of symbolic capital linked to the quality of the work produced.

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  • van den Heuvel, Dannielle. “Partners in Marriage and Business? Guilds and the Family Economy in Urban Food Markets in the Dutch Republic.” Continuity and Change 23 (2008): 217–236.

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    Considers the diversity of the ways in which husbands and wives worked together in the food markets of the early modern Dutch Republic.

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Markets and Shops

While studies of medieval retailing tend to focus on marketplaces, Masschaele 2002 and Postles 2004 demonstrate that these spaces continued to be important centers of exchange in early modern England. Historians mark two important trends in indoor retailing from the 15th century, the creation of exchanges being one (Calabi and Keene 2007). Harreld 2003 more specifically discusses Antwerp, and Baer 2007 discusses London. Garrioch 1994 and Wallis 2008 cover the development of individual shops as retailing outlets.

Urban Space

The uses and meanings of urban space, its contested nature, and its importance to the understanding of the nature of urban society are the objects of a recent form of urban history, drawing on theoretical approaches developed by geographers but also intersecting with concerns about urbanism and planning. Tracy 2000 represents a bridge between a longstanding interest in city walls and more recent interpretations of them as delimiters of space. Hanawalt and Kobialka 2000 provides the first discussions of space in the late medieval city. The use of urban space in northern Europe is the subject of a special issue of the Journal of Interdisciplinary History (Arnade, et al. 2002). This is complemented for southern Europe by case studies of Venice (Bamji 2007), Milan (Boucheron 2006), and Rome (Visceglia 2005). Contemporaries had their own perceptions of space. This is examined in Fournier 2007 for early modern France. The differing uses of post-Reformation sacred space in Protestant and Catholic areas are considered in Coster and Spicer 2005.

  • Arnade, Peter, Martha Howell, and Walter Simons, eds. “Fertile Spaces: The Productivity of Urban Space in Northern Europe.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32 (2002): 515–548.

    DOI: 10.1162/002219502317345493Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introductory article to a special issue of the Journal of Interdisciplinary History devoted to the multiple uses and symbolic importance of urban space in Northern Europe.

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  • Bamji, Alexandra. “The Control of Space: Dealing with Diversity in Early Modern Venice.” Italian Studies 62 (2007): 175–188.

    DOI: 10.1179/007516307X227640Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Government policies controlling the use of public space are seen as a response to the diversity of Venice as a metropolis. Based on the perspective of the control of disease.

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  • Boucheron, Patrick. “Milano e i suoi sobborghi: Identità urbana e prattiche socio-economiche ai confine di uno spazio incerto (1400 ca.–1500 ca.).” Società e Storia 29 (2006): 235–252.

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    The reinterpretation of urban space in Milan in the context of the expansion of its suburbs in the 15th century.

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  • Coster, Will, and Andrew Spicer, eds. Sacred Space in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    Essay collection concerned with the dimensions of sacred space in Reformation and Counter-Reformation Europe.

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  • Fournier, Patrick. “La ville au milieu des marais au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Discours théoriques et pratiques de l’espace.” Histoire Urbaine 18 (2007): 23–40.

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    Early French theoretical discussion of urban space and its uses.

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  • Hanawalt, Barbara, and Michal Kobialka, eds. Medieval Practices of Space. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

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    Essays by Camille on Paris, Smail on Marseille, and Burroughs on Italian cities deal with the later medieval period.

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  • Tracy, James, ed. City Walls: The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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    Large comparative volume with global coverage on the diverse roles of city walls and their representation by contemporaries. Articles by Reyerson, Wolfe, Pepper, and Pollak cover late medieval and early modern Europe.

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  • Visceglia, Maria. “Identità urbana, rituali civicio e spazio pubblico a Roma tra rinascimento e controriforma.” Dimensioni e Problemi della Ricerca Storica 2 (2005): 7–38.

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    The shaping of public space in Rome by the Renaissance and Counter-Reformation papacy.

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Planning and the Urban Fabric

Capital cities in particular experienced considerable changes to their urban fabrics in the 16th and 17th centuries to accommodate the needs of the court and the elite. These changes constituted the insertion of squares and streets (Tamborrino 2007); the construction of new public buildings, such as town halls (Tittler 1991); and the outward extension of the city through the construction of new quarters (Ballon 1991). They were strongly shaped by architectural theories of the ideal city (Escobar 2004).

Urban Patriciates and Ruling Elites

Renaissance urban centers were dominated by patriciates, small groups of powerful families, a pattern that had emerged during the first urban expansion of the 12th century, and by looser elite groupings. Two contrasting attempts at typologies—one based on two centers in relative economic decline (Cowan 1986), the other linking an open elite organization with economic growth (Burke 1994)—demonstrate the variety of organizational forms across northern and southern Europe. Isaacs and Prak 1996 places issues of the exercise of power in individual urban centers in the context of the growing influence of territorial rulers (see also Relations with Outside Authority).

  • Burke, Peter. Venice and Amsterdam: The Study of Two Seventeenth-Century Elites. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1994.

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    Burke argues that Venice and Amsterdam represented examples of the “closed” and “open” urban elite, respectively, but that they shared several common characteristics.

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  • Cowan, Alexander. The Urban Patriciate: Lübeck and Venice 1580–1700. Cologne, Germany: Böhlau, 1986.

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    Compares two urban patriciates in cities experiencing economic decline to establish a typology for early modern urban elites. Focuses on the integration of newcomers, family organization, and the social implications of marriage patterns.

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  • Isaacs, Anne, and Maarten Prak. “Cities, Bourgeoisies, and the State.” In Power Elites and State Building. Edited by Wolfgang Reinhard, 207–234. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

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    A very useful general discussion of power relationships among European urban elites, local territorial lords, and the emerging princely states.

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England

There were major contrasts between England and continental Europe. English urban elites were characterized by the absence of strong family groupings and the presence of greater social mobility. The case of London, as discussed in Archer 1991, also differed from provincial centers because it lacked a homogeneous elite, whereas evidence from Bristol (Lee 2007) and York (Murphy 2006) supports the argument that the elites in regional centers shared a common political culture and goals. Relations with the English monarchy acted as a constraint on urban political autonomy among the elite, although the latter gained much through royal patronage (Patterson 2000).

France

The social composition of French urban elites varied. The traditional distinction between the landed nobility and the office-holding or parlementaire “nobility of the robe” is now being replaced by a recognition that there were overlapping old and new elites in many urban centers, such as Aix-en-Provence (Bohanan 1992). The view that the latter were encouraged through royal patronage is contested in the case of 17th-century Dijon (Breen 2007). On the other hand, when faced with adversity during the French wars of religion, urban elites demonstrated that they had interests in common, as in the cases of Nantes (Tingle 2006) and the towns of Champagne (Konnert 2006).

  • Bohanan, Donna. Old and New Nobility in Aix-en-Provence 1600–1695: Portrait of an Urban Elite. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

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    An examination of the nobility in Provence that focuses on the city of Aix and argues that a distinction between old and new nobilities is a better tool than the traditional categories of the nobility of the sword and the robe.

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  • Breen, Michael. Law, City and King: Legal Culture, Municipal Politics, and State Formation in Early Modern Dijon. Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press, 2007.

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    Argues that the elite of lawyers that dominated 17th-century Dijon was alienated when Louis XIV excluded them from patronage links with the monarchy.

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  • Konnert, Mark. Local Politics in the French Wars of Religion: The Towns of Champagne, the Duc de Guise, and the Catholic League, 1560–95. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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    Comparative study of the behavior of urban elites faced with the challenges of heresy and Catholic radicalism in the province of Champagne during the French wars of religion.

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  • Tingle, Elizabeth. “Stability in the Urban Community in a Time of War: ‘Police,’ Protestantism, and Poor Relief in Nantes during the French Wars of Religion.” European History Quarterly 36 (2006): 521–547.

    DOI: 10.1177/0265691406068127Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This study of Nantes finds that between 1560 and 1580, great efforts were made by both crown and city elites to promote order and good governance in the urban community through developments in policing.

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German Lands

The common association of German urban elites with “classic” patriciates is less convincing for the 16th and 17th centuries than for the Middle Ages. Conditions varied, depending on political and economic circumstances. There was much continuity among elites in major international ports such as Lübeck (Cowan 1986). In cities where the Reformation was not fully embraced by the ruling elite, as in Münster (Hsia 1984), there was considerable social instability for several generations. In Prussia, on the other hand, the strong external influence of the landed nobility necessitated close relationships with urban elites, which brought about changes in the latter’s composition over time (Mikulski 2000).

  • Cowan, Alexander. The Urban Patriciate: Lübeck and Venice, 1580–1700. Cologne, Germany: Böhlau, 1986.

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    A major focus of this comparative study of the urban patriciate is an analysis of the social composition of the Lübeck elite in the later 16th and 17th centuries and the successful integration of newcomers, mostly merchants.

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  • Hsia, Ronald. Society and Religion in Münster (1535–1618). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

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    Examines the changing urban elite in a city dominated in turn by Lutherans, Anabaptists, and Catholics, and their relations with the local Catholic bishop.

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  • Mikulski, Krysztof. “Adel und Patriziat im Königlichen Preussen vom 15. bis 18. Jahrhundert: Versuch einer Bestimmung ihrer Beziehungen zueinander.” Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 49 (2000): 38–51.

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    The relationships between the Prussian nobility and local urban patriciates from the 15th through 18th century.

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Italy

The experience of urban elites in Italy varied according to the political context within which they lived. In the dependent cities on the Venetian mainland, although ultimate authority rested with the Venetian state, local elites in cities like Brescia (Ferraro 1993) and Verona (Lanaro 1994) protected their social position through increased endogamy and continued to exercise a great deal of influence on their city councils. Under princely rule, the Milanese elite evolved to take in merchant newcomers (Mocarelli 2003). Elsewhere, as in Modena, the elite was redefined by the local ruler as part of a process of aristocratization (Fontaine 2003). In the Kingdom of Naples, where urban autonomy has never been widespread, there was much cooperation between urban elites and the landed nobility (Carrino 2006).

  • Carrino, Annastella. “Citta, patriziati, fazioni: La political locale nel mezzogiorno spagnolo; tre studi di caso.” Societa e Storia 29 (2006): 559–598.

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    Three case studies from the Kingdom of Naples during its Spanish domination, focusing on the elites’ links within the region and on the revolts of 1647.

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  • Ferraro, Joanne. Family and Public Life in Brescia, 1550–1650: The Foundations of Power in the Venetian State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

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    An analysis of the Brescian elite under Venetian rule. Argues that in spite of their subject status, they exercised substantial local influence.

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  • Fontaine, Michelle. “Back to the Future: Remaking the Commune in Ducal Modena.” In Beyond Florence: The Contours of Medieval and Early Modern Italy. Edited by Paula Findlen, Michelle Fontaine, and Duane Osheim, 205–218. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.

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    The Modenese elite was reshaped by the city’s duke in the early 17th century to exclude merchants from what was an increasingly aristocractic ruling body.

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  • Lanaro, Paola. “‘Essere famiglia di Consiglio’: Social Closure and Economic Change in the Veronese Patriciate of the Sixteenth Century.” Renaissance Studies 8 (1994): 428–438.

    DOI: 10.1111/1477-4658.00162Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The closing in upon itself of the Verona patriciate during the 16th century as part of a phenomenon common to northern Italy.

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  • Mocarelli, Luca. “Ascesa sociale e investimenti immobiliari: La famiglia Clerici nella Milano del sei-settecento.” Quaderni Storici 38 (2003): 419–436.

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    Traces the rise to social prominence of a family of silk merchants in the 17th and 18th centuries, reflected in the homes they had built for them.

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Spain

While some earlier Spanish urban elites had a strong mercantile component, as in Barcelona (Soldani 2004), even their descendants became part of a general project to give high urban social status an exclusively aristocratic character during the 16th and 17th centuries (Amelang 1986, Alegre Carvajal 2008, Hernandez 2000).

  • Alegre Carvajal, Esther. “La configuraciòn de la ciudad nobiliaria en el Renascimiento come proyecto ideologico de una elite de poder.” Tiempos Modernas 8 (2008): 1–19.

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    Rival elite factions put forward competing visions of the ideal city.

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  • Amelang, James. Honored Citizens of Barcelona: Patrician Culture and Class Relations, 1490–1714. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

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    A study of the Barcelona elite demonstrating parallels with patriciates elsewhere in the urban foundations of their power and the comparative unimportance of noble birth. Amelang argues that it was their education as governors and a growth of elite ideology that developed a cohesive ruling class.

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  • Hernandez, Mauro. “Forging Nobility: The Construction of a Civic Elite in Early Modern Madrid.” Urban History 27 (2000): 165–188.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0963926800000213Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An assessment of the impact on the civic elite of the venality of office and the exclusion of non-nobles from office in Madrid.

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  • Soldani, Maria. “Alleanze matrimoniali e strategie patrimoniali nella Barcellona del xv secolo: I mercanti toscani fra interazione e consolidamento della ricchezza.” Archivio Storico Italiano 162 (2004): 667–698.

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    The participation of Tuscan merchants through marriage alliances in the 15th-century Barcelona elite.

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Gender

Gendered perceptions of urban society by both contemporaries and present-day historians represent one of the key fields in this sector. Many urban gender studies, such as Cohn 1996, Gowing 1996, and Hardwick 2008, place a major emphasis on sexual behavior and sexual reputation. Others examine the interactions between women, as does Capp 2003. For an introduction to gender and urban society in individual “countries,” see Boes 2003 and Rublack 2002 for Germany, Gowing 1996 and Capp 2003 for England, Hardwick 2008 and Broomhall 2004 for France, and Cohn 1996 and Miguel and Schiesari 1991 for Italy.

Foreigners

The place of foreign immigrants in European urban society, their motives for moving, and the degree to which they were assimilated by their hosts has become a major strand in Renaissance European urban history, which has moved on from a narrow concern with categories established by law. The fruits of collaboration between French and Italian urban historians have been published as a result of conferences on the foreigner and the city held in Naples (Rossetti 1989) and Paris (Bottin and Calabi 1999). In turn, they have influenced a major international research project on cities and cultural exchange (Amelang 2007) and specialized case studies such as Dorren 1998 on the rejection and integration of immigrants in Haarlem, Brunelle 1989 on Spanish merchants in Rouen, and Cowan 2000 on Dutch merchants in Venice. A longstanding English interest in the Huguenots from the late 17th century has been complemented by an important collection of studies on French and Netherlands immigrants to Tudor and early Stuart England (Goose and Luu 2005).

  • Amelang, James. “Cities and Foreigners.” In Cities and Cultural Exchange in Europe, 1400–1700. Edited by Donatella Calabi and Stephen Christensen, 42–55. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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    Discusses the place of the foreigner in European cities from the 15th to 17th century as a framework for a consideration of developments in cultural exchange.

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  • Bottin, Jacques, and Donatella Calabi, eds. Les étrangers dans la ville: Minorités et espace urbain du bas Moyen Age à l’époque moderne. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1999.

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    Publication based on papers of the second Italo-French conference on the experience of foreigners in European cities in the Middle Ages and early modern centuries. Follows on from Rossetti 1989.

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  • Brunelle, Gayle. “Immigration, Assimilation and Success: Three Families of Spanish Origin in Sixteenth-Century Rouen.” Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989): 203–220.

    DOI: 10.2307/2540659Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses how the increasing integration of three Spanish merchant families in Rouen led to an abandonment of links with Spain.

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  • Cowan, Alexander. “Foreigners and the City: The Case of the Immigrant Merchant.” In Mediterranean Urban Culture, 1400–1700. Edited by Alexander Cowan, 45–55. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2000.

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    The case of a successful Dutch merchant in 17th-century Venice is used to illustrate the difficulties of social integration and the ambiguous position of foreign merchants.

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  • Dorren, Gabrielle. “Communities within the Community: Aspects of Neighbourhood in Seventeenth-Century Haarlem.” Urban History 25 (1998): 173–188.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0963926800000791Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The power of the neighborhood as a mechanism for compensating for the tensions brought by immigration and cultural pluralism.

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  • Goose, Nigel, and Lien Luu, eds. Immigrants in Tudor and Stuart England. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex Press, 2005.

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    Key collection of studies of immigration in 16th- and early-17th-century England to complement research into the later wave of Huguenot arrivals. Covers Colchester, Canterbury, and Norwich as well as London.

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  • Rossetti, Gabriella, ed. Dentro la città: Stranieri e realtà urbana nell’Europa dei secoli xii–xvi. Naples, Italy: Liguori, 1989.

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    Collected papers from an Italo-French conference on the experience of foreigners in European cities from the 12th to the 16th century. Precursor to Bottin and Calabi 1999.

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Relations with Outside Authority

Urban elites in cities within territorial states were fully aware of potential areas of conflict and cooperation with outside political authority. This has been discussed comparatively as part of long-term developments in state building in Tilly and Blockmans 1994 and Reinhard 1996, and as regional cases studies in medieval Flanders (Dumolyn 2008), 16th-century France (Roberts 2007), 17th-century France (Beik 1985), and early modern Scotland (Lynch 1987).

Governing Bodies

Early urban autonomy from the 12th century led to the development of local governing bodies with wide-ranging powers and responsibilities, which operated in an uneasy balance of power with the citizenry in general. Friedrichs 2000 is an excellent short introduction to the main issues, complemented by Archer’s contribution to the Cambridge Urban History of Britain (Archer 2001), which examines developments in both England and Scotland. This is also exemplified in detail in the issue of Urban History devoted to urban stability and civic liberties (Gunn, et al. 2007) and, for France, by Irvine 1989. Dumons and Zeller 2006 places these developments in a long-term context ending in the 20th century.

Welfare Policies

The institutional response to poverty and ill health in European towns altered over time in two main directions: the increasing involvement of secular authority alongside religiously inspired charitable provision, and a growing preference for the enclosure of welfare subjects as part of a policy of social control. van Leeuwen 1994 offers a useful introduction to these long-term changes, while the contrasting ideological approaches in Protestant and Counter-Reformation towns are considered in Pullan 2005. These divergent developments are discussed in two collections of articles concerned with health care and poor relief, respectively, in Protestant Europe (Grell and Cunningham 1997) and Counter-Reformation Europe (Grell et al. 1999). Historians differ over the extent to which the introduction of Protestantism represented a real ideological break with the past in this context. Safley 2003 emphasizes the importance of continuities.

England

The general picture of European developments in welfare is nuanced in McRee 1993, that emphasizes the charitable contribution of medieval guilds, in Rubin 2002, that examines the ideological basis for charitable giving, and in Bennett 1992, that argues some of the poor engaged in self-help, a view debated in Moisà 1997.

France

Studies of poor relief in individual cities highlight the links between responses to the poor and social and political attitudes. Farmer 2001 illustrates the extent to which poor relief discriminated according to gender and social status, while Tingle 2006 argues that welfare policies were used in order to underpin social stability during the wars of religion.

  • Farmer, Sharon A. Surviving Poverty in Medieval Paris: Gender, Ideology, and the Daily Lives of the Poor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.

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    Argues that responses to the poor in medieval Paris depended on the beneficiaries’ gender and social status. Also considers self-help organizations among the poor.

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  • Tingle, Elizabeth. “Stability in the Urban Community in a Time of War: ‘Police’, Protestantism and Poor Relief in Nantes during the French Wars of Religion.” European History Quarterly 36 (2006): 521–547.

    DOI: 10.1177/0265691406068127Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Poor relief as an integral part of Nantes’ rulers to maintain order during the French wars of religion.

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German Lands

Studies of early modern poor relief in the Holy Roman Empire are dominated by a consideration of the impact of Protestantism, as in Fehler 1999, but Safley 1997 emphasizes the financial management of charitable institutions and the extent to which this was shaped by market-oriented attitudes.

  • Fehler, Timothy G. Poor Relief and Protestantism: The Evolution of Social Welfare in Sixteenth-Century Emden. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1999.

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    Tests theory that the Reformation led to changes to welfare systems and permitted them to be used as instruments of social control. Conditions in Emden were far more nuanced.

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  • Safley, Thomas. Charity and Economy in the Orphanages of Early Modern Augsburg. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1997.

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    Strong evidence for market-oriented policies in running the orphanages of early modern Augsburg. These were modified under the impact of confessional tensions between Protestants and Catholics.

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Italy

Italian long-term developments in urban welfare mirrored changes elsewhere (Pullan 1988). While confraternities played a large part in the administration of charity (Henderson 1994), the heavy involvement of elite families ensured that these concerns were later adopted and managed in part by municipal government (Terpstra 1994).

  • Henderson, John. Piety and Charity in Late Medieval Florence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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    Considers the role of confraternities in administering charity in late medieval Florence.

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  • Pullan, Brian. “Support and Redeem: Charity and Poor Relief in Italian Cities from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Century.” Continuity and Change 3 (1988): 177–208.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0268416000000941Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A wide-ranging discussion of charitable giving and the relief of poverty in Italy, contrasting older concepts of individual generosity to the needy with the heavily institutional solutions influenced by Counter-Reformation ideas.

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  • Terpstra, Nicholas. “Apprenticeship in Social Welfare: From Confraternal Charity to Municipal Poor Relief in Early Modern Italy.” Sixteenth Century Journal 25 (1994): 101–120.

    DOI: 10.2307/2542555Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Studies ambitious reform program of charitable institutions carried out by a group of patrician families in late-15th- and early-16th-century Bologna and modeled on confraternal organization.

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Spain

Flynn 1989 examines the impact on poor relief of the Counter-Reformation, but Fraile 2004 also makes it clear that the use of welfare institutions for the purposes of social discipline was shared in the 16th century between Protestant and Catholic areas.

Plague

Living with the fear of plague and confronting outbreaks when they happened were a constant thread in the Renaissance, even though major outbreaks were few and far between. Slack 1985 successfully draws together these concerns in a study of Tudor and Stuart England. Contemporary behavior was particularly influenced by theories of contagion, as illustrated in Carmichael 1991, for Milan, omnipresent religious images in Italian cities (Marshall 1994), and known European medical practice (Eamon 1999). Methodologically, historians rely on contemporary statistics in the cases of both Italy (Alfani and Cohn 2007) and London (Greenberg 2004), and on court records of human behavior during epidemics (see Calvi 1986 for Italy), to underpin arguments that prevailing medical knowledge and human behavior prevented the urban authorities from achieving more than damage limitation during the worst outbreaks of the disease. Torno 1998 offers important insights into the management of the 1630 outbreak in Milan in an edition of Cardinal Borromeo’s chronicle.

Social Unrest

Riots and revolts were a feature of early modern urban life. This is illustrated for Germany in Friedrichs 1982 and for London in Lindley 1983. Their genesis and the context within which the authorities brought them under control were both a reflection of the complexities of socioeconomic relationships and the uneasy nature of the relationship between urban governments and territorial rulers. The latter is demonstrated particularly well by the French cases of Paris in 1588 (Carroll 2000), La Rochelle in 1614 (Robbins 1995), and Dijon in 1630 (Breen 2006). The context for Italian revolts was complicated even further by the presence of the Spanish as an external territorial power in Naples (Villari 1993) and Palermo (Titone 2003).

Pre-Reformation Religion

Writing about urban religion in the centuries before the Reformation focuses on the frameworks for lay piety provided by the church across Europe (Abulafia, et al. 2002), in England (Slater and Rosser 1998), and in Italy (Golinelli 1991). The important place of the religious orders in an urban setting is exemplified for Scotland in Foggie 2003, while Mattox 2006 demonstrates that the use of domestic sacral space for personal devotion predated the 16th century among the Florentine elite.

Protestantism

Studies of the urban Reformation in England, Germany, and Switzerland demonstrate the diversity of the ways in which religious change was introduced and its impact on the society and culture of individual towns. Collinson and Craig 1998 and Tittler 1998 offer overviews of the English Reformation, while the selected work of Scribner 2001 provides sustained insights into the urban reformation in Germany. The detailed implementation of the Reformation in individual towns is discussed in Hacke 2007 for Switzerland, Coulton 2000 for England, and Lee 2008 for Germany. Morke 1983 explores the nature of the German urban Reformation in terms of the social origins of its participants and opponents. The political and cultural impact of the Reformation lies at the center of Wolfart 2001 and is also an important focus in Collinson and Craig 1998.

Counter-Reformation

The nature of the urban impact of the Counter-Reformation depended on whether or not towns had a Protestant phase. Spicer 2007, Robbins 1995, and Schrader 1991 explore the reintroduction of Catholicism in France and Germany, respectively. The reassertion of Catholic principles through the decisions of the Council of Trent was particularly evident in the renewed activities of confraternities, considered on a European scale in Black and Gravestock 2006, for Italy in Black 1989, and for Spain in Flynn 1989, but there is also much evidence of the slowness with which Tridentine ideas were introduced in practice (see Comerford 2001 and Cruz and Perry 1992).

  • Black, Christopher. Italian Confraternities in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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    Comparative study of the organization and operation of confraternities in 16th-century Italy. Heavily weighted toward towns.

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  • Black, Christopher, and Pamela Gravestock, eds. Early Modern Confraternities in Europe and the Americas: International and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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    Proceedings of a conference on “recent trends in confraternity studies.” The book also contains articles on medieval confraternities. A heavy emphasis on Italy is complemented by case studies from across Catholic Europe and two from colonial South America.

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  • Comerford, Kathleen M. Ordaining the Catholic Reformation: Priests and Seminary Pedagogy in Fiesole, 1575–1675. Florence, Italy: Olschki, 2001.

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    Demonstrates the slow impact of Tridentine principles on the training of priests through a study of the seminary at Fiesole.

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  • Cruz, Anne, and Mary Perry, eds. Culture and Control in Counter-Reformation Spain. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

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    A series of case studies of the cultural impact of the Spanish Counter-Reformation, focusing in particular on the veneration of saints, and on the control of women and crypto-Jews.

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  • Flynn, Maureen. Sacred Charity: Confraternities and Social Welfare in Spain, 1400–1700. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

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    Focuses on Zamora and its confraternities and reflects changes brought to poor relief by the Counter-Reformation in Spain.

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  • Robbins, Kevin. “Municipal Justice, Urban Police, and the Tactics of the Counter-Reformation in La Rochelle, 1618–1650.” French History 9 (1995): 273–293.

    DOI: 10.1093/fh/9.3.273Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Case study of the reintroduction and enforcement of Catholicism in 17th-century La Rochelle through the operation of the city’s police courts.

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  • Schrader, William C. “The Catholic Revival of Osnabrück and Minden, 1591–1651.” Catholic Historical Review 78 (1991): 35–50.

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    Explores the revival of Catholicism in two urban centers in Lutheran Germany.

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  • Spicer, Andrew. “(Re)building the Sacred Landscape: Orleans, 1560–1610.” French History 21 (2007): 247–268.

    DOI: 10.1093/fh/crm018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Responses by the Orleans urban and religious authorities to two periods of Huguenot iconoclasm by rebuilding and emphasizing the use of rituals and relics.

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Urban Culture

Research into the history of urban culture has diversified from a concentration on popular culture and attempts to control its manifestations by the elite, illustrated by the older works of Reay 1985, Leinwand 1989, and Stewart 1993. More recent studies have examined the importance of foreigners as agents of cultural exchange (Calabi and Christensen 2007), the role of music and musicians (Kisby 2001 and Cockayne 2002), the importance of the city as a general soundscape (Garrioch 2003), and the cultural significance of divergent forms of spoken language (Wright 2006).

LAST MODIFIED: 05/10/2010

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195399301-0018

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