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Renaissance and Reformation Coluccio Salutati
by
Craig Kallendorf

Introduction

Coluccio Salutati (b. 1331–d. 1406) is primarily known today as the scholar who ensured that the humanist movement established by Petrarch was passed on successfully to Leonardo Bruni, Poggio Bracciolini, and other scholars of the next generation. His approach to learning was more traditional than Petrarch’s; but from his base as chancellor of Florence, he began to associate humanism with the active political life in a way that would have a decisive impact on the next generation of scholars. His surviving writings range from official letters to learned treatises on government and ethics. In addition, many books survive from his substantial library, allowing us to see what his intellectual interests were and how he read his books.

Bibliography

The yearly output of books and articles on Salutati is not enormous, and some items (including De Rosa 2007) can be difficult to find. De Rosa 1981 provides an excellent orientation that extends back to the 19th century, while De Rosa 2007 and De Robertis, et al. 2008 bring Salutati scholarship up to date.

  • De Robertis, T., Giuliano Tanturli, and Stefano Zamponi, eds. “Abbreviazioni bibliografiche.” In Coluccio Salutati e l‘invenzione dell’umanesimo. Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Biblioteca medicea laurenziana, Florence, Italy, 2 November 2008–30 January 2009. Florence, Italy: Mandragora, 2008.

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    An extensive list of references accompanying an important exhibition on Salutati in connection with the anniversary of his death. This bibliography casts the net more widely to include Salutati’s scholarly and professional environment as well as his life and works.

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  • De Rosa, Daniela. “Cenni bibliografici relativi a Coluccio Salutati.” In Atti del convegno su Coluccio Salutati, Buggiano Castello, giugno 1980, 47–62. Buggiano, Italy: Comune di Buggiano, 1981.

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    A thorough overview of relevant material through the end of the 1970s. Divided into separate sections on archival documents and literary manuscripts, editions of literary works from the beginning of printing through the end of the 20th century, and secondary scholarship.

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  • De Rosa, Daniela. “La bibliografia relativa a Coluccio Salutati negli ultimi venticinque anni.” In Atti del Convegno Coluccio Salutati, cancelliere e letterato. Buggiano Castello, 27 maggio 2006, 19–100. Buggiano, Italy: Comune di Buggiano, 2007.

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    A full survey of material relevant to Salutati, updating De Rosa 1981; especially valuable for Italian material published in obscure venues.

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Life And Works

The definitive biography is Witt 1983, to be updated and supplemented by the essays in Atti del Convegno Coluccio Salutati, cancelliere e letterato 2007. Petrucci 1972 covers some of the same ground as Witt from a somewhat different perspective, while Mazzocco 1988 nuances Witt’s argument in interesting ways. Salutati is often said to be poised between the worldviews of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, with Donovan 1967 and von Martin 1913 providing evidence for the former perspective and Sciacca 1954 for the latter. The influence of Augustine, an author greatly esteemed in both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, is traced in Gianni 2000.

  • Atti del Convegno Coluccio Salutati, cancelliere e letterato. Proceedings of a conference held at Buggiano Castello, 27 maggio 2006, 19–100. Buggiano, Italy: Comune di Buggiano, 2007.

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    Contains essays by Giorgio Tori, Francesca Klein, Riccardo Fubini, Paolo Viti, Lorenzo Tanzini, and Giovanni Cherubini on topics ranging from Salutati’s early career to his political activity in Florence and his humanistic studies.

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  • Donovan, Richard B. “Salutati’s Opinion of Non-Italian Latin Writers.” Studies in the Renaissance 14 (1967): 185–201.

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    Establishes Salutati’s admiration for a wide range of medieval authors, in contrast to scholars such as Ullman who stress the more progressive aspects of his thought.

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  • Gianni, F. B. “Il magistero di Coluccio Salutati e l’eredità agostiniana.” In Tradizione patristica nell’Umanesimo. Proceedings of a conference held at the Istituzione Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento and the Biblioteca Nazionale Laurenziana, Florence, 6–8 February 1997. Edited by M. Cortesi and C. Leonardi, 43–80. Florence, Italy: Sismel-Ed. del Galluzzo, 2000.

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    Traces and analyzes the significance of Augustine in the writings of Salutati, noting that this connection is owed at least in part to the mediation of Petrarch.

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  • Mazzocco, Angelo. “Classicism and Christianity in Salutati: Considerations in Light of Ronald G. Witt’s Hercules at the Crossroads: The Life, Works, and Thought of Coluccio Salutati.” Italica 65 (1988): 251–263.

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    Accepts the broad outlines of Witt’s presentation but argues that Salutati’s thought developed more gradually and with a less abrupt break between the earlier and later phases; also stresses the importance of Dante in Salutati’s intellectual development.

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  • Petrucci, Armando. Coluccio Salutati. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1972.

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    An important precursor to Witt’s biography, integrating his life and work in a similar way but deemphasizing somewhat his contributions to the development of Italian humanism.

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  • Sciacca, Giuseppe Maria La visione della vita nell’umanesimo di Coluccio Salutati. Palermo, Italy: Palumbo, 1954.

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    A competent survey of the standard humanistic themes in Salutati’s thought: the importance of history, the dignity of man, the individual and society, life and death, the natural world, and the role of Christianity.

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  • von Martin, Alfred Wilhelm Otto. Mittelalterliche Welt- und Lebensanschauung im Spiegel der Schriften Coluccio Salutatis. Munich and Berlin: R. Oldenbourg, 1913.

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    A frankly one-sided presentation of Salutati as a typical representative of the medieval worldview, focusing on two aspects of his thought: 1) the antithesis of withdrawal from and mastery of worldly life, and 2) the attainability and the ultimate value of human knowledge.

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  • Witt, Ronald G.Hercules at the Crossroads: The Life, Works, and Thought of Coluccio Salutati. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1983.

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    The definitive treatment of Salutati’s life and works, focusing on Salutati’s efforts to turn the new humanist movement toward Christian goals and on situating his work within the context of the Italian rhetorical tradition.

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Primary Sources

Unlike Petrarch, Salutati had to work for a living and had a family, so he was unable to devote all of his time to his scholarly endeavors. Many of his official documents survive, mostly in manuscript. Most of his literary works circulated in manuscript during the Renaissance but can now be read in modern printed editions—although few have been translated into English.

Official Documents

Petrucci 1963 offers an edition of notary documents prepared by Salutati early in his career, while Archivio di Stato di Firenze nn. 15–37 and Archivio de Stato de Firenze nn. 1–3 contain the records of the work he did while employed in Florence.

  • Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Consigli della Repubblica, Consulte e pratiche, nn. 15–37.

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    Transcriptions of the discussions held by the principal Florentine magistracies, often in the hand of Salutati himself.

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    • Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Signori, Carteggi, Registri di Elezioni, Istruzioni e Lettere ad Oratori dei Signori (Legazioni e commissarìe), nn. 1–3.

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      The instructions furnished by the Florentine chancellorship to its ambassadors, composed by Salutati as chancellor.

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      • Petrucci, Armando. Il protocollo notarile di Coluccio Salutati, 1372–1373. Milan: A. Giuffrè, 1963.

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        A collection of private documents prepared by Salutati while he was working as a notary in the rural Valdinievole. With an introduction discussing Salutati’s early career (pp. 3–20) and his contribution to the development of a distinctively humanist handwriting (pp. 21–44). See Library.

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      Public Letters

      Salutati’s official letters may be found in manuscript form in Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Capponi 147, Biblioteca Riccardiana 786, and Biblioteca Columbina, Cod. 5.5.8, with a generous selection published in Langkabel 1981. The old collections of Salutati 1741 and Salutati 1741–1742 contain many official letters that are not easily accessible elsewhere. Nuzzo 2008 provides guidance on how to work with this material, while Witt 1976 offers a widely cited analysis of the public letters.

      • Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Signori, Carteggi, Missivi, I Cancelleria, nn. 15–26.

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        The official letter collection of the Florentine chancellorship between 1375 and 1406, prepared under the direction of Salutati.

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        • Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City, Capponi 147.

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          Contains 456 pages of state and private writings of Salutati, including his earliest letters as chancellor.

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          • Biblioteca Columbina, Seville, Cod. 5.5.8.

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            Contains many public letters not found in the Florentine manuscripts. A photocopy can be found in the Archivio di Stato, Florence.

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            • Biblioteca Riccardiana, Florence, ms. 786.

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              Contains more than a hundred letters transcribed from a lost original.

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              • Langkabel, Hermann, ed. Die Staatsbriefe Coluccio Salutatis: Untersuchungen zum Frühhumanismus in der Florentiner Staatskanzlei und Auswahledition. Cologne, Germany and Vienna: Böhlau, 1981.

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                A three-hundred-page selection of Salutati’s official letters from his service in Florence, with a lengthy introduction not only on how the state letters were produced but also on the distinctive features of Salutati’s composition.

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              • Nuzzo, Armando. Lettere di stato di Coluccio Salutati, cancellierato fiorentino (1375–1406): censimento delle fonti e indice degli incipit della tradizione archivistico-documentaria. 2 vols. Rome: Istituto storico italiano per il Medio Evo, 2008.

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                An alphabetical listing of the letters produced by Salutati in service to the Florentine state, including both original letters and copies entered into official registers, with basic information on each letter.

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              • Salutati, Coluccio. Lini Colucii Pierii Salutati Cancellarii Florentini epistolae nunc primum ex mss. Codd. In lucem erutae. Edited by Laurentius Mehus. Florence, Italy: Ex typographia Petri Cajetani Viviani sumptibus auctoris, prostant apud Cajetanum Tanzinium, 1741.

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                Contains a number of public letters composed by Salutati as chancellor of the Florentine republic; but these letters are mixed indiscriminately with his private letters, and the edition lacks a critical apparatus.

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              • Salutati, Coluccio. Lini Colucii Pierii Salutati epistolae. 2 vols. Edited by Josephus Rigaccius. Florence, Italy: Ex Typographio Ioannis Baptistae Bruscagli & Sociorum, 1741–1742.

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                A selection of letters written by Salutati in his official capacity as Florentine chancellor, mixed with his private letters and lacking a critical apparatus.

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              • Witt, Ronald G.Coluccio Salutati and His Public Letters. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1976.

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                Focuses on Salutati’s role in the evolution of institutional rhetoric in 13th- and 14th-century Italy, based on his position as the powerful and well-respected chancellor of Florence. An appendix contains texts of several of Salutati’s most important letters.

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              Latin Literary Works

              Notwithstanding their author’s fame in his own day, most of Salutati’s literary works were not printed during the Renaissance, but all the principal Latin writings exist in modern editions. The most important editions are Novati 1891–1911 and Ullman 1951, but Bianca 1985, Ercole 1914, Garin 1947, Garin 1952, Menestò 1971, and Ullman 1957 are needed to fill out the picture. Zintzen, et al. 1992 provides a useful general index for this material. Some minor works in prose and most of Salutati’s verse, not all of which survives, still cannot be found in printed editions.

              • Bianca, Concetta, ed. De fato et fortuna. Florence, Italy: Olschki, 1985.

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                A critical edition of Salutati’s treatise on free will, which adopts an orthodox position based heavily on Augustine.

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              • Ercole, Francisco. Tractatus de Tyranno von Coluccio Salutati: Kritische Ausgabe mit einer historischen-juristischen Einleitung. Berlin and Leipzig, Germany: Walter Rothschild, 1914.

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                A carefully prepared edition of a letter-treatise that defends a complicated proposition: that citizens have a right to kill a tyrant (although Caesar was not a tyrant), and his murderers should therefore be condemned. Republished as Il trattato “De tyranno” e lettere scelte, Bologna: N. Zanichelli, 1942.

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              • Garin, Eugenio, ed. De nobilitate legum et medicinae: De verecundia. Florence, Italy: Vallecchi Editore, 1947.

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                A nice edition with minimal notes and Italian translation of two treatises: one on the timeless problem of whether law or medicine is best, the other on whether a doctor should cultivate eloquence and whether modesty is a virtue or a vice.

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              • Garin, Eugenio, ed. “Invectiva in Antonium Luschum Vicentinum.” In Prosatori latini del Quattrocento, 7–37. Milan and Naples, Italy: Ricciardi, 1952.

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                Text and Italian translation, with minimal explanatory notes, of Salutati’s response to the invective against Florence written by Antonio Loschi. Pretends that Loschi could not have been the author and defends the city whose government Salutati led.

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              • Menestò, Enrico. “Declamatio Lucretiae.” In Coluccio Salutati: editi e inediti latini dal ms. 53 della Biblioteca Comunale di Todi, 35–43. Todi, Italy: Tipografia Porziuncola, 1971.

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                An excellent edition with Italian translation of Salutati’s most popular work: the imagined speech of Lucretia after her rape but before her suicide, which takes its place in a literary tradition that extends to Shakespeare. Also contains two short letters and the Declamation of Priam.

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              • Novati, Francesco, ed. Epistolario di Coluccio Salutati. 4 vols. Rome: Istituto Storico Italiano, 1891–1911.

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                An older edition of Salutati’s letters, the most readable of his compositions, which provide the best source for Salutati’s ideas and values. Reprinted in 1968.

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              • Ullman, Berthold L., ed. De laboribus Herculis. 2 vols. Zurich, Switzerland: Thesauri Mundi, 1951.

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                Critical edition of Salutati’s major work, an allegorizing of the Hercules myth that arose out of an attempt to explain Seneca’s Hercules furens but expanded into a broader defense of poetry and humanistic learning.

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              • Ullman, Berthold L., ed. De seculo et religione. Florence, Italy: Olschki, 1957.

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                Critical edition of a treatise on the joys of monastic life, written to encourage a Camaldolese monk who had asked Salutati to strengthen his determination to maintain his vows.

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              • Zintzen, Clemens, Ute Ecker, and Peter Riemer, eds. Coluccio Salutati: Index. Tübingen, Germany: Gunter Narr, 1992.

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                An immensely valuable index of names, concepts, places, and sources, keyed to the standard editions of Salutati’s Latin works listed in this section. Also contains a brief appendix with critical editions of selected minor Latin works.

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              English Translations

              Given his importance as the major second-generation Italian humanist, Salutati has been ill-served by English translations. Short extracts from some of his other works can be found elsewhere, but the major efforts to make his work accessible to an Anglophone audience are Emerton 1925 and Kohl, et al. 1978.

              • Emerton, Ephraim. Humanism and Tyranny: Studies in the Italian Trecento. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925.

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                Contains a translation of Salutati’s treatise on the tyrant along with letters in defense of liberal studies to Giuliano Zonarini, the chancellor of Bologna, Brother Giovanni di Duccio, and Giovanni Dominici. Reprinted in 1964.

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              • Kohl, Benjamin G., Ronald G. Witt, and Elizabeth B. Welles, ed. The Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978.

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                Contains translations of Salutati’s letters to Peregrino Zambeccari and Caterina di messer Vieri di Donatino d’Arezzo to illustrate the complexities involved in his general preference for the active life over the contemplative one.

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              Salutati’s Thought

              Initially it may be difficult for a modern reader to appreciate Salutati’s literary works: he is not a dazzlingly original thinker, and the conventions of his day privileged modes of argument that sometimes differ from modern ones. Yet Salutati occupies a unique position of great historical interest: he was the heir to Petrarch and passed his master’s cultural innovations on to the next generation while retaining a set of priorities and values that were uniquely his own.

              Philosophy

              Salutati’s philosophical works repay study by anyone interested in 14th century thought. Trinkaus 1995 stresses his ability to move forward intellectually while retaining his roots in medieval culture. Garin 1943–1946 and Kahn 1985 emphasize Salutati’s philosophical orientation toward the active life, while Trinkaus 1989 explores his approach to divine activity in human affairs. Gasparetti 1941 and Iannizzotto 1959 suggest that Salutati’s work is best appreciated on its own terms rather than according to modern standards, while Rüegg 1954 approaches the material from a more modern perspective.

              • Garin, Eugenio. “I trattati morali di Coluccio Salutati.” In Atti e memorie dell’Accademia fiorentina di scienze morali la “Colombaria” 15.1 (1943–1946): 53–88.

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                A good overview of Salutati’s moral thought. Examines its forward-looking orientation away from contemplative withdrawal toward the world of human affairs.

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              • Gasparetti, L. “Il ‘De fato, fortuna et casu’ di Coluccio Salutati.” La Rinascita 4 (1941): 555–582.

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                A sympathetic appreciation of Salutati’s treatise on fate, necessity, and free will. Notes that like most works of humanistic philosophy, this one is notable not for the new ideas it contains but for its success in breathing new life into old principles.

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              • Iannizzotto, M.Saggio sulla filosofia di Coluccio Salutati. Padua, Italy: Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani, 1959.

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                A leisurely presentation of the key elements of Salutati’s thought. Begins with a more theoretical approach and focuses on ethics and politics without attempting to impose a rigor and consistency that the writings do not warrant.

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              • Kahn, Victoria. “Coluccio Salutati on the Active and Contemplative Lives.” In Arbeit, Musse, Meditation: Betrachtungen zur Vita activa und Vita contemplativa. Edited by Brian Vickers, 153–179. Zurich, Switzerland: Verlag der Fachvereine, 1985.

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                Focuses on the private letters and On the Nobility of Law and Medicine. Presents Salutati as the foremost Florentine humanist representative of the active life and as the man who played Augustine off Aristotle to allow the active life to emerge with a new rhetorical prominence.

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              • Rüegg, W. “Entstehung, Quellen und Ziel von Salutatis ‘De fato et fortuna.’” Rinascimento 1.5 (1954): 143–190.

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                An important analysis of Salutati’s treatise on fate, chance, and free will, discussing the dating of the work and its sources, both ancient and medieval.

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              • Trinkaus, Charles. “Coluccio Salutati’s Critique of Astrology in the Context of his Natural Philosophy.” Speculum 64 (1989): 54–68.

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                Examines Salutati’s thinking about divine operation through nature in this world as expressed in his treatise on fate and fortune. Culminates in an analysis of the important critique of astrology presented in that work. Reprinted in Renaissance Transformations of Late Medieval Thought. Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999.

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              • Trinkaus, Charles. “Coluccio Salutati: The Will Triumphant.” In In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought. Vol. 1. Edited by Charles Trinkaus, 51–102. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.

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                Argues that Salutati plays an important role in intellectual history: integrating ideas about the primacy of the humanist idea of human will with the central issues of 14th-century scholasticism, which were associated with a new conception of divine omnipotence. Originally published in 1970.

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              Poetry

              For Salutati, poetry was an especially important part of the new humanistic study. All four works in this section examine his defense of poetry, with Greenfield 1981 offering a good overview of the issues involved. Aguzzi-Barbagli 1965 anchors that defense in his appreciation for Dante; Witt 1977 takes up the topic as part of a general belief that Salutati’s thought evolved over time; and Craven 1996 argues that inconsistencies in the relevant material should not be explained away but are inherent in the genre they are expressed in.

              • Aguzzi-Barbagli, D. “Dante e la poetica di Coluccio Salutati.” Italica 42 (1965): 108–131.

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                Explains Salutati’s positive assessment of Dante in relation to his broader ideas about poetry and its value.

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              • Craven, W. G. “Coluccio Salutati’s Defence of Poetry.” Renaissance Studies 10.1 (1996): 1–30.

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                Suggests that the inconsistencies in Salutati’s treatment of poetry cannot be resolved, which throws into question the possibility of tracking the author’s intellectual development. Also reminds us that for the early humanists, the genre of disputation did not require its practitioners to adopt positions they believed in.

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              • Greenfield, Concetta C. “Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406).” In Humanist and Scholastic Poetics, 1250–1500. Edited by Concetta C. Greenfield, 129–145. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1981.

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                Argues that Salutati’s contribution to the poetics of his day was his syncretism and his effort to unify the classical heritage and Neoplatonic philosophy with the late Antique encyclopedists and the church fathers. With a stress on the continuity from pagan to Christian literature.

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              • Witt, Ronald G. “Coluccio Salutati and the Conception of the Poeta Theologus in the Fourteenth Century.” Renaissance Quarterly 30.4 (1977): 538–563.

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                Concludes that Salutati eventually came to believe, along with Petrarch and Boccaccio, that when Christian material appeared in pagan poetry, the religious truths the pagan poets attained were accessible to natural reason without divine inspiration.

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              Humanism

              As the intellectual successor to Petrarch, Salutati has attracted considerable attention from scholars interested in the history of humanism. As the books and articles below indicate, a chapter on Salutati often appears in a broader study of Italian Renaissance thought, but his relationship to the classics as a model for human development can also be the primary focus of attention as well. De Robertis 2008 offers a good introduction to current scholarship in this area. Von Martin 1916 and Kessler 1968 offer good orientations to Salutati as a humanist. Baron 1966 examines the extent to which Salutati’s humanism was grounded in political involvement, while Witt 2000 explores the relationship between humanism and Christianity in Salutati’s thought. Seigel 1968 offers a sympathetic assessment of the challenges Salutati faced in his intellectual life, while McLaughlin 1995 suggests why humanists of a later generation found his work wanting and Jed 1989 provides an analysis that shows why modern feminists might have problems with Renaissance humanism in general and Salutati in particular.

              • Baron, Hans. The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny. 2d ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

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                Offers an angle on Salutati’s espousal of monarchism while he served as chancellor of the Florentine republic. Confirms that it was not until Giangaleazzo Visconti attacked Florence in 1402 that civic humanism, the fusion of humanism with civic concerns, was born. Originally published in 1955.

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              • De Robertis, Teresa, Giuliano Tanturli, and Stefano Zamponi, eds. Coluccio Salutati e l‘invenzione dell’umanesimo, Catalog of an exhibition held at the Biblioteca medicea laurenziana, Florence, Italy, 2 November 2008–30 January 2009, 365–385. Florence, Italy: Mandragora, 2008.

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                Contains essays on Salutati’s official career as well as his relationship to the literary culture of his time and his work as a writer. There are also sections on his biography, his individual literary works, and his library and official working environment. Each essay is supported by illustrations and analyses of supporting primary documents.

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              • Kessler, E. Das Problem des frühen Humanismus. Seine philosophische Bedeutung bei Coluccio Salutati. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1968.

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                A vigorous general defense of the importance of humanism in Salutati’s thought, comparing his treatment of key topics—such as the pursuit of virtue through examples and the attainment of learning through literature—to those of other early Renaissance thinkers in Italy.

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              • McLaughlin, M. L. “Coluccio Salutati.” In Literary Imitation in the Italian Renaissance: The Theory and Practice of Literary Imitation in Italy from Dante to Bembo. By M. L. McLaughlin, 60–78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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                Examines Salutati’s Latin style, noting that imitation brought him at least as close to classical models as Petrarch, although his position as a representative of compromise and continuity made him seem inadequate by later 15th century standards.

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              • Seigel, Jerrold E. “Wisdom and Eloquence in Salutati, and the ‘Petrarch Controversy’ of 1405–1406.” In Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism: The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, from Petrarch to Valla. By Jerrold E. Seigel, 63–98. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968.

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                Examines the complexities of and evolutions in Salutati’s efforts to balance philosophy and rhetoric as disciplines within humanistic studies.

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              • Jed, Stephanie H., ed. Chaste Thinking: The Rape of Lucretia and the Birth of Humanism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

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                An idiosyncratic feminist study of Salutati’s Declamation of Lucretia. A recreation of the speeches exchanged between the Roman matron Lucretia and her kinsman after she has been raped and before she commits suicide. Argues that 15th century humanism conceals its own role in legitimizing this rape by reproducing it textually.

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              • von Martin, Alfred Wilhelm Otto Coluccio Salutati und das humanistische Lebensideal: Ein Kapitel aus der Genesis der Renaissance. Berlin and Leipzig, Germany: B. T. Teubner, 1916.

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                A thoughtful overview of how Salutati’s humanism marks the initial steps away from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Identifies key features without glossing over inconsistencies and problems. Reprinted in 1973.

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              • Witt, Ronald G. “Coluccio Salutati.” In In the Footsteps of the Ancients: The Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni, 292–337. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2000.

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                A thoughtful assessment of the difficulties Salutati had in reconciling his love for pagan culture and his Christian faith, with the balance tipping toward the latter at the end of his life.

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              Studies Of Individual Classical Authors

              Like any good humanist, Salutati spent a great deal of time studying ancient authors. May 2006 explores his work with Apuleius, and McKie 1989 studies Salutati’s scholarship on Catullus—Apuleius and Catullus being two authors that were rarely studied in the Middle Ages. Brown and Kallendorf 1987 shows how Salutati read a standard canonical author, Oliver 1940 anchors his study of Plato into the larger question of his relation to scholasticism and humanism, and Bond 2006 suggests how Salutati’s literary studies may have affected how he approached his job as chancellor of Florence.

              • Bond, Christopher. “Lucan the Monarchist: The Anti-Republicanism of the De tyranno and the De bello civili.” Renaissance Studies 20.4 (2006): 478–493.

                DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-4658.2006.00203.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Shows how Salutati refers extensively to Lucan in expressing monarchist arguments in the language of classical republicanism; demonstrates the dexterity with which the supposedly old-fashioned humanist could apply classical literature to contemporary political concerns.

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              • Brown, Virginia, and Craig Kallendorf. “Two Humanist Annotators of Virgil: Coluccio Salutati and Giovanni Tortelli.” In Supplementum Ficinianum: Studies in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller. Edited by James Hankins, John Monfasani, and Frederick Purnell Jr., 65–148. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1987.

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                Studies Salutati’s annotations in his manuscript of Virgil (Basel, Öffentliche Bibliothek der Universität, F II 23), showing how he read his books and how he used his reading as a basis for his own literary compositions. Reprinted in Craig Kallendorf, In Praise of Aeneas: Virgil and Epideictic Rhetoric in the Early Italian Renaissance (Hanover, NH, and London: University Press of New England, 1989) pp. 77–99 and 194–202.

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              • May, Regine. “The Prologue to Apuleius’ Metamorphoses and Coluccio Salutati: MS Harley 4838 (with an appendix on Sozomeno of Pistoia and the Nonius marginalia).” In Lectiones scrupulosae: Essays on the Text and Interpretation of Apuleius’ Metamorphoses in Honour of Maaike Zimmerman. Edited by Wytse Keulen, Ruurd Nauta, and Stelios Panayotakis, 280–312. Groningen, The Netherlands: Barkhuis , 2006.

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                Transcription and translation of Salutati’s notes to Metamorphoses 1.1 in MS Harley 4838: important because Salutati argued that the prologue was written not in prose but in comic meter. This was an argument with a long afterlife, ultimately being proved wrong in regard to the iambics but right in its attention to Plautine intertextuality.

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              • McKie, D. S.. “Salutati, Poggio, and Codex M of Catullus.” In Studies in Latin Literature and Its Tradition in Honour of C. O. Brink. Edited by J. Diggle, J. B. Hall, and H. D. Jocelyn, 66–86. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Philological Society, 1989.

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                Clarifies Salutati’s role in the textual transmission of Catullus, also noting that his textual work and the manuscripts he worked on were intimately connected with the development of humanistic script.

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              • Oliver, Revilo. “Plato and Socrates.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 56 (1940): 315–334.

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                Although marred by a sort of Nietzschean approach to humanism as antithetical to moral restraint, Oliver makes the intriguing argument that Salutati saw the humanist reaction to scholasticism as analogous to the Socratic reaction against sophistry in its substitution of moral for natural philosophy.

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              Library

              Despite the high cost of manuscripts in his day, Salutati owned a large library, much of which has been found and identified. Ullman 1963 did the pioneering work in this area. As Ullman 1960 shows, Salutati copied some of his books in a hand that begins to diverge from the Gothic script of his day, with de la Mare 1973 providing a fuller discussion of his handwriting.

              • de la Mare, A. C. “Coluccio Salutati.” In The Handwriting of Italian Humanists 1.1, 30–43. Oxford: Association Internationale de Bibliophilie, 1973.

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                An expert but also clear discussion of the development of Salutati’s bookhand, building on Petrucci (see Official Documents). With excellent illustrations.

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              • Ullman, Berthold L. “Background and Inspiration—Coluccio Salutati.” In The Origin and Development of Humanistic Script, 11–19. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1960.

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                Suggests that Salutati made the first tentative step toward the development of a distinctively humanist style of writing, which was invented, properly speaking, by Poggio Bracciolini shortly afterward.

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              • Ullman, Berthold L.The Humanism of Coluccio Salutati. Padua, Italy: Antenore, 1963.

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                Focuses on the extensive collection of manuscripts owned by Salutati and how they were used, with a lengthy overview of Salutati’s writings and thought. Other manuscripts owned by Salutati have been discovered since (see Brown and Kallendorf 1987 and May 2006 in Studies of Individual Classical Authors), but this book remains the essential starting point for researching Salutati’s library.

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              Political Career

              It is important to remember that Salutati’s identity was formed by the administrative jobs he held as well as by his studies. Witt 1969 and Tori 1994 focus on his appointments in Lucca at the beginning of his career, while Gilli 1993 explores the international connections in Salutati’s later political work. De Rosa 1980 connects Salutati’s administrative career with his political thought, while Herde 1965 looks at how he managed to exercise his duties successfully for so long. Cardini and Viti 2008 offers a selection of documents through which Salutati’s official work can be appreciated.

              • Cardini, Roberto, and Paolo Viti, eds. Coluccio Salutati e Firenze: ideologia e formazione dello Stato. Catalog of an exhibition held at the Archivio di Stato, Florence, Italy, 9 October 2008–14 March 2009. Florence, Italy: M. Pagliai, 2008.

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                A sumptuous catalogue that accompanied an exhibition commemorating the 600th anniversary of Salutati’s death, with essays on various aspects of his political career and descriptions of documents the essays were based on.

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              • De Rosa, Daniela. Coluccio Salutati: Il cancelliere e il pensatore politico. Florence, Italy: La Nuova Italia Editrice, 1980.

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                An important study that begins with Salutati’s official writings and works from there to his relationship with the Florentine ruling class and his approach to the general problem of whether a monarchy or a republic is preferable.

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              • Gilli, P. “Coluccio Salutati, chancelier de Florence, et France.” Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 55 (1993): 479–501.

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                Examines the place of France in Salutati’s writings. Notes that the tensions within his work stemmed from the effort to balance the traditional ties between Florence and the French monarchy with the new republican ideas emerging in Florence.

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              • Herde, Peter. “Politik und Rhetorik in Florenz am Vorabend der Renaissance. Die ideologische Rechtfertigung der Florentiner Aussenpolitik durch Coluccio Salutati.” Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 47.2 (1965): 141–220.

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                Examines Salutati’s political rhetoric at work in the letters he wrote for the Florentine Signory, concluding that he was politically neutral and fit his political ideas to the demands of the occasion.

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              • Tori, Giorgio. “Coluccio Salutati, Chancellor of the Republic of Lucca, and the problem of the Minute di Riformagioni Pubbliche (1370–71).” In The “Other Tuscany”: Essays in the History of Lucca, Pisa, and Siena during the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Thomas W. Blomquist and Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, 111–122. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, 1994.

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                Studies the notes from which Salutati drew up the register of his activities as Cancelliere delle Riformagini in Lucca from 1370–1371. Raises questions that have not been answered about how he conducted business in this early administrative appointment.

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              • Witt, Ronald G. “Coluccio Salutati, Chancellor and Citizen of Lucca.” Traditio 25 (1969): 191–216.

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                Discusses Salutati’s appointment as chancellor of Lucca in 1370–1371. Also looks at his time as judge and major consul of Merchants’ Court for several months afterward: it was a period of major disappointment that guided him toward the greater political wisdom he later exercised in Florence.

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              LAST MODIFIED: 04/14/2011

              DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195399301-0141

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