Renaissance and Reformation Giordano Bruno
by
Hilary Gatti
  • LAST MODIFIED: 22 February 2018
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195399301-0210

Introduction

Giordano Bruno of Nola near Naples in Italy, (b. 1548–d. 1600), was one of the major natural philosophers of the Italian renaissance. He is also remembered today for his turbulent life of exile and dissent that took him to most of the cultural centers of renaissance Europe. He died dramatically, burned at the stake as an unrepentant heretic in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome. During a brief period of intense intellectual activity, between 1582 and 1591, Bruno composed thirty works, in various European capitals where he visited and taught (including Paris, London, Wittenberg, Prague, and Frankfurt). Seven of those works were written in Italian and the rest in Latin. They covered a large variety of subjects. Some of his major works were concerned with propagating and supporting a post-Copernican cosmology that he expanded to infinite dimensions. He also proposed a meditation on the infinitely small or minimum quantity that established his reputation as one of the first modern atomists. Other works deal with the art of memory and the pictorial logic of Raymond Lull, both of which he opposed to the dominant Aristotelian logic and the increasingly complex and abstract mathematics of his time. He was concerned with the epic religious, social, and political upheavals of the Europe of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, both of which he attacked from the perspective of an antiecclesiastical polemic that privileged a search for the divine within the natural world. Magical and Hermetic strands of thought that, from his earliest works, accompanied this stand in favor of a natural religion came to dominate a final period of creative activity expressed in a number of incomplete and unpublished manuscripts, discovered and published only in the 19th century. Bruno’s return to Italy in 1591 ended in an eight-year-long trial at the hands of the Roman Catholic Inquisition, first in Venice and then in Rome, that has been the subject of much study both for the complexity of the religious doctrines debated and for his final stand in favor of freedom of thought, which led to his tragic death.

Single-Volume Studies, 1889–1968

Two early texts (Tocco 1889 and Gentile 1991 [originally 1920]) remain essential points of reference for more modern Bruno scholarship. They contribute to establishing an initial picture of Bruno’s works as those of a natural philosopher whose thought lies between the anti-Aristotelian naturalism of Bernardino Telesio and the new science of Galileo. With Corsano 2002 (originally 1940), a first suggestion is made that Bruno’s works should also be placed in an alternative context of neo-Platonic hermeticism and magic. Yates 2002 (originally 1964) carries this interpretation to a radical extreme, claiming Bruno as the ultimate Renaissance Magus in a volume that has exercised a major influence on the most recent Bruno discussion. Much Bruno criticism has since divided into two camps. Vedrine 1967 gives voice to the first substantial attack on a magical Bruno, reclaiming him as an early modern scientist. Papi 1968, more respectful of the Yates thesis, emphasizes some of the anthropological debates that color Bruno’s works, such as his interest in primitive religions.

  • Corsano, Antonio. Il pensiero di Giordano Bruno nel suo svolgimento storico. Vol. 2, of Opere scelte di Antonio Corsano. Galatina, Italy: Congedo editore, 2002

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    Originally published in 1940, this book represents a turning point in Bruno studies by underlining his attention to the art of memory and the logic of Raymond Lull, as well as his use of neo-Platonic and Hermetic sources. Corsano sees Bruno as attempting to unite ratio, fides, and mysterium.

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    • Gentile, Giovanni. Giordano Bruno e il pensiero del rinascimento. Florence: Le Lettere, 1991.

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      Originally published in 1920, this edition carries an important introduction by Eugenio Garin. Gentile sees Bruno as opening a modern era in philosophy insofar as he relegated faith and religion to another sphere, For Gentile, Bruno is thus a worthy precursor of Galileo.

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      • Papi, Fulvio. Antropologia e civiltà nel pensiero di Giordano Bruno. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1968.

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        Concentrates on Bruno’s social and political thought, offering a valuable analysis of his attitude toward the discovery of the New World and the religion and customs of the native American Indians.

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        • Tocco, Felice. Le opere latine di Giordano Bruno esposte e confrontate con le italiane. Florence: Le Monnier, 1889.

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          Investigates in detail the points of similarity and difference between Bruno’s Italian and Latin works in the context of an interpretation of Bruno as a philosopher of nature and an early scientist.

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          • Vedrine, Hélène. La conception de la nature chez Giordano Bruno. Paris: Vrin, 1967.

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            Strenuously challenges the Yates thesis based on aspects of Bruno’s thought that Vedrine continues to consider marginal. This author insists on taking Bruno seriously as a philosopher of nature, emphasizing his post-Copernican cosmology, his concept of an infinite universe, and his early atomism.

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            • Yates, Frances. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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              Originally published in 1964. Yates tends to exclude the ratio from Bruno’s life and work, denying him any role in the history of modern science. Placing him among the mystics of the neo-Platonic tradition, Yates claims the ancient Egyptian religion of the Corpus Hermeticum as Bruno’s major source. With an introduction by J. B. Trapp.

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              Single-Volume Studies, 1978–1991

              The 1980s was a decade particularly rich in Bruno’s studies. Ingegno 1978 and Blum 1980 follow alternative itineraries to the Hermeticism of Yates, while Ciliberto 1986 is more nuanced in this first of several influential single-volume studies of Bruno. Ordine 1996 (originally 1987), Badaloni 1988, and Spruit 1988 all approach Bruno through his doctrine of knowledge, acknowledging the importance of his neo-Platonic Hermeticism while not considering it paramount with respect to other influences. Aquilecchia 1991 reclaims Bruno as essentially a philosopher of nature and an early scientist.

              • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. Le opere italiane di Giordano Bruno: critica testuale e oltre. Naples, Italy: Bibliopolis, 1991.

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                Based on detailed textual analysis and an unrivalled knowledge of Bruno’s English years (see Documents), Aquilecchia’s interpretation derives from the 19th-century tradition of Bruno scholarship, launching a firm if respectful challenge to Yates’s attempt to define Bruno’s post-Copernican, infinite universe as a magical icon of no scientific value.

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                • Badaloni, Nicola. Giordano Bruno tra cosmologia ed etica. Bari, Italy: De Donato, 1988.

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                  Recognizes the merits of the Yates thesis but insists on the necessity of readmitting the ratio into the Bruno discourse. Bruno’s infinite cosmology acquires an ethical dimension because it furthers a vision of liberty and philanthropy rather than dogma and discord.

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                  • Blum, Paul Richard. Aristoteles bei Giordano Bruno. Munich: W. Fink, 1980.

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                    Defines those elements of Bruno’s natural philosophy that retained the Aristotelianism of his early philosophical training in Naples.

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                    • Ciliberto, Michele. La ruota del tempo: Interpretazione di Giordano Bruno. Rome: Editori Riuniti, 1986.

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                      Criticizes Yates for reducing Bruno to his Medieval and Renaissance sources, underlining the modernity of his challenge to the academic and philosophical culture of his times. However, Ciliberto responds positively to the magical and Hermetic themes underlined by Yates, which will assume increasing importance in his later Bruno studies.

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                      • Gatti, Hilary. The Renaissance Doctrine of Knowledge: Giordano Bruno in England. London: Routledge, 2013.

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                        Originally published in 1989, this volume discusses Bruno’s works in the light of the influence of his post-Copernican cosmology on both the new scientists of Elisabethan England and the contemporary dramatists.

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                        • Ingegno, Alfonso. Cosmologia e filosofia nel pensiero di Giordano Bruno. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1978.

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                          Challenges the Hermetic interpretation of Frances Yates, seen as reducing Bruno to a simple epigone of the Renaissance neo-Platonic tradition. Bruno’s Copernicanism is considered an essential part of a philosophical rather than a magical view of the world.

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                          • Ordine, Nuccio. The Philosophy of the Ass. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

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                            Originally published in Italian in 1987, this book approaches Bruno’s philosophy through a reading of his most fiercely challenged work, Il cabala del cavallo pegaseo, revealing the ironies and ambiguities of a doctrine of knowledge that values doubt and relative truths rather than dogmatic certainties.

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                            • Spruit, Leen. Il problema della conoscenza in Giordano Bruno. Naples: Bibliopolis, 1988.

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                              Defines Bruno’s doctrine of knowledge with respect to both the neo-Platonic and the Aristotelian traditions, underlining how knowledge of the metaphysical structure of being in an infinite universe becomes problematical for Bruno due to the finite nature of the human mind.

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                              Single-Volume Studies, 1998–2010

                              A particularly lively Bruno activity surrounded the commemoration of the 400th anniversary of his death in 2000. Foa 1998 concentrates on the antiecclesiastical elements in Bruno’s thought, while Dagron 1999, Mancini 2000, Montano 2000, and Granada 2012 (originally 2002) all investigate multiple aspects of Bruno’s philosophy of nature. Canone 2003 and Catana 2005 are both centered on the gnoseological problem of how Bruno’s infinitism relates to his natural philosophy. Pirillo 2010 is more concerned with Bruno’s political and social thought, especially in relation to the years he passed in London.

                              • Canone, Eugenio. Il dorso e il grembo dell’eterno: Percorsi della filosofia di Giordano Bruno. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, 2003.

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                                A complex study of Bruno’s philosophy that is particularly concerned to define whether it is still possible to talk of a metaphysics and a doctrine of the soul once Bruno’s infinite universe has become identified with all that exists.

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                                • Catana, Leo. The Concept of Contraction in Giordano Bruno’s Philosophy. London: Ashgate, 2005.

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                                  Elaborates a detailed analysis of one of the central concepts of Bruno’s philosophy of an infinite universe, or the terms in which he defines the eternal play between unity and multiplicity.

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                                  • Dagron, Tristan. Unité de l’Etre et dialéctique: L’idée de Philosophie Naturelle chez Giordano Bruno. Paris: Vrin, 1999.

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                                    A densely argued discussion based on a reading of one of Bruno’s principal Italian dialogues, Causa, principio et uno, which aims at defining the terms of his natural philosophy.

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                                    • Foa, Anna. Giordano Bruno. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino, 1998.

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                                      A rapid sketch of Bruno’s role as a national icon and anticlerical symbol.

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                                      • Granada, Miguel A. Giordano Bruno: Universo infinito, unión con Dios, perfección del hombre. Barcelona: Herder, 2012.

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                                        Originally published in 2002. Granada’s in-depth study of Bruno’s infinite cosmology extends to the audacious conclusions Bruno draws from the new relationship between an infinite universe and God on the one hand as well as his divinization of the human being on the other.

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                                        • Mancini, Sandro. La sfera infinita: Identità e differenza nel pensiero di Giordano Bruno. Milan: Mimesis, 2000.

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                                          Sees Bruno as operating a double movement of thought, back to the origins of Western culture but at the same time forward toward a universe that is no longer Earth-centered but an infinite sphere full of infinite identities and differences.

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                                          • Montano, Aniello. La mente e la mano: Aspetti della storicità del sapere e del primato del fare in Giordano Bruno. Naples, Italy: La città del sole, 2000.

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                                            A study of Bruno’s natural philosophy by a specialist in classical studies who underlines the importance of Bruno’s relationship with the pre-Socratic philosophers and the terms of his anti-Aristotelianism.

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                                            • Pirillo, Diego. Filosofia ed eresia nell’Inghilterra del tardo cinquecento: Bruno, Sidney e i dissidenti religiosi italiani. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2010.

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                                              Enlarges our knowledge of the complex religious and political issues being debated in England during Bruno’s London years, seen as the principal context in which he develops his philosophy of doubt and dissent.

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                                              Collected Essays and Conference Volumes, 1993–2002

                                              Numerous volumes of collected essays and conference papers were published in the years surrounding the commemoration in the year 2000 of the 400th anniversary of Bruno’s death. Aquilecchia 1993 collects the author’s brief but essential contributions on various aspects of Bruno’s works, from the scientific to the literary, published over a number of years. Mann and Ciliberto 1997, Canone and Rossi 2001, Granada 2001, Gatti 2002, Giustiniani 2002, and Canone 2002 are all volumes with contributions by various authors deriving from commemorative conferences held in a number of European countries. Ciliberto 2002 collects four essays centered around Bruno’s impetuous search for new knowledge within the manifold shades of being.

                                              • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. Schede bruniane (1950–1991). Manziana, Italy: Vecchiareli, 1993.

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                                                A classic collection of brief essays that bring together many years of study into multiple aspects of Bruno’s texts and thought.

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                                                • Canone, Eugenio, ed. Letture bruniane: III. Rome: Istituto editoriale poligrafici internazionali, 2002.

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                                                  The volume brings together papers on various aspects of Bruno’s thought read at two meetings of the Lessico intellettuale europeo held at the Università di Roma “La Sapienza” in 1996 and 1997.

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                                                  • Canone, Eugenio, and Arcangelo Rossi, eds. Special Issue: Giordano Bruno tra scienza e filosofia. Physis: Rivista internazionale di storia della scienza 38 (2001).

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                                                    The final result of a conference with the title Giordano Bruno e la scienza nuova: Storia e prospettive, held in the Physics Faculty of the Università di Roma “La Sapienza” from February 16–19, 2000, to commemorate Bruno’s death in 1600.

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                                                    • Ciliberto, Michele. L’occhio di Atteone: Nuovi studi su Giordano Bruno. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2002.

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                                                      A collection of four essays that look at neo-Platonic and magical themes in Bruno’s works, including also a new departure concerning the apocalyptic aspects of Bruno’s thought.

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                                                      • Gatti, Hilary, ed. Giordano Bruno: Philosopher of the Renaissance (1600–2000). Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

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                                                        A collection of essays resulting from a conference sponsored by the British Society for the History of Philosophy at University College, London, with an inaugural lecture by Giovanni Aquilecchia delivered at the Italian Cultural Institute in London.

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                                                        • Giustiniani, Pasquale, ed. Giordano Bruno: Oltre il mito e le opposte passioni. Naples, Italy: Facoltà teologica dell’Italia meridionale, 2002.

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                                                          In commemoration of Bruno’s death, scholars connected to the Dominican moanstery in Naples where he studied organized a conference introduced by a letter of authorization from Cardinal Angelo Sodano. The volume of conference papers includes an important contribution on Bruno’s years in the monastery by Fr. Michele Miele.

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                                                          • Granada, Miguel, A., ed. Cosmologia, teologia y religión en la obra y en el proceso de Giordano Bruno. Barcellona: Publicacions Universitat de Barcelona, 2001.

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                                                            The papers read at a commemorative international conference held in Barcelona (Spain) from December 2–4, 1999.

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                                                            • Mann, Nicholas, and Michele Ciliberto, eds. Giordano Bruno, 1583–1585: The English Experience, l’esperienza inglese. Florence: Olschki, 1997.

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                                                              Publishes papers in English and Italian deriving from a conference on Bruno’s English years held at the Warburg Institute in London.

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                                                              Collected Essays and Conference Volumes, 2003–2015

                                                              An intense study of various aspects of Bruno’s thought continued well after the echoes of the year 2000 commemoration had died down. Canone 2003, Dagron and Vedrine 2003, Aresta 2003, Canone and Rowland 2007, and Catanorchi and Pirillo 2007 all testify to a multifarious Bruno activity of international dimensions. Gatti 2011 gathers together essays published over a number of years on various aspects of Bruno’s scientific and literary activity. Traversino 2015 presents essays on multiple aspects of Bruno’s thought discussed by scholars in three separate conferences.

                                                              • Aresta, Piero, ed. Giordano Bruno: Nolano e cittadino europeo. Grottaglie, Italy: Scorpione editore, 2003.

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                                                                The conference held in Grottaglie (Puglia) in January 2002 underlined both Bruno’s Nolan origins and also the European dimension of his life-story and his thought.

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                                                                • Canone, Eugenio, ed. La filosofia di Giordano Bruno: Problemi ermeneutici e storiografici. Florence: Olschki, 2003.

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                                                                  A collection of essays resulting from an international conference of specialists in Bruno’s philosophy organized in Rome by the Lessico intellettuale europeo October 23–24, 1998.

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                                                                  • Canone, Eugenio, and Ingrid Rowland, eds. The Alchemy of Extremes: The Laboratory of the Eroici furori of Giordano Bruno. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, 2007.

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                                                                    A bilingual volume deriving from a conference dedicated to Bruno’s sonnet sequence Heroici furori, held at the American Academy in Rome May 9–10, 2003.

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                                                                    • Catanorchi, Olivia, and Diego Pirillo, eds. Favole, metafore, storie: seminario su Giordano Bruno. Pisa, Italy: Edizioni della Normale, 2007.

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                                                                      The result of seminars held at the Scuola Normale in Pisa under the supervision of Michele Ciliberto. The first part is dedicated to Bruno’s Spaccio della bestia trionfante, the second to the principal sources and concepts of his philosophy, and the third to some central moments of his reception.

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                                                                      • Dagron, Tristan, and Hélène Vedrine, eds. Mondes, Formes et Société selon Giordano Bruno. Paris: Vrin, 2003.

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                                                                        Contains papers delivered at a conference in Paris on Bruno’s philosophy, his religion, and his cosmology as presented both in his texts and at his trial.

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                                                                        • Gatti, Hilary. Essays on Giordano Bruno. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

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                                                                          Collects together essays on Bruno published between 1995 and 2010 in three sections: “Bruno and the New Science,” “Bruno in Britain,” and “Bruno’s Natural Philosophy.”

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                                                                          • Traversino, Massimiliano, ed. Verità e dissimulazione: l’infinito di Giordano Bruno tra caccia filosofica e riforma religiosa. Naples: Editrice domenicana italiana, 2015.

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                                                                            A bilingual (Italian–English) volume of essays by various hands on multiple aspects of Bruno’s thought.

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                                                                            Bibliographies and Indexes

                                                                            Salvestrini 1958 and Severini 2003 follow a classical format and together aim at providing a complete list of the primary and secondary literature from 1582, the year of Bruno’s first publications, until the 400th commemoration of his death in the year 2000. Sturlese 1987 provides an overview of still-existing first editions of each of Bruno’s works. Two useful indexes (Ciliberto 1979 and Lefons 1998) list usage of specific words in the Italian and Latin works, respectively. These more classical bibliographical tools are now completed by a number of web resources, of which the two indicated include a particularly rich variety of bibliographical information.

                                                                            Biographies and Documents

                                                                            Bruno’s adventurous life story, terminating in his eight-year-long trial, first in Venice and then in Rome, has always been a subject of attention for his commentators. His life has been considered, in a number of recent studies (see in particular Bönker-Vallon 2003), as an integral part of his philosophy of criticism and dissent with respect to so much of the religious, political, and intellectual doctrine of his time. Documentary evidence concerning Bruno’s life story, especially with reference to his London years, has been a subject of attention for a number of specialist scholars.

                                                                            • Bönker-Vallon, Angelika. “Non disputo per amor della vittoria per se stessa: Presentazione autobiografica, metodo filosofico ed etica nel De l’infinito di Giordano Bruno.” In Autobiografia e filosofia: L’esperienza di Giordano Bruno. Edited by Nestore Pirillo, 21–35. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2003.

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                                                                              The essay presents a detailed analysis of the close links forged by Bruno himself between his autobiography and his natural philosophy, published in a volume that also engages with other aspects of the same problem.

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                                                                              Early Biographies

                                                                              Details of Bruno’s life story were slow to come to light. Biographical data was included in entries on Bruno in the enlightenment encyclopaedias: for a substantial if not uncritical entry, see Bayle 1702. The first full-length biography (Bartholmèss 1846–1847) was published only in the 19th century. The second edition of Berti 1889 is important because it includes the newly discovered documents relating to the Venetian part of Bruno’s trial. The first full-length biography in English, Frith 2000 (originally 1887), was followed by McIntyre 1903. The major, early-20th-century biography is Spampanato 1988 (originally 1921).

                                                                              • Bartholmèss, Christian. Jordano Bruno. 2 vols. Paris: Ladrange, 1846–1847.

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                                                                                Gathers together all the then-known biographical facts, placing the composition of the works in the cultural context of the various countries Bruno visited. This book contains one of the first known suggestions that Shakespeare might have been influenced by Bruno’s thought.

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                                                                                • Berti, Domenico. La vita di Giordano Bruno da Nola. Turin, Italy: Paravia, 1889.

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                                                                                  Originally published in 1868, this biography is particularly attentive to the cosmological aspects of Bruno’s thought. This second edition of 1889 is important because it includes the recently discovered documents relating to Bruno’s trial in Venice.

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                                                                                  • “Brunus.” In Dictionnaire Historique et Critique. Vol. 4. Edited by Pierre Bayle, 173–179. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Reinier Leers, 1702.

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                                                                                    Bayle offers extended biographical comment in which he is careful to condemn the heretical aspects of Bruno’s thought while underlining them as a major component of his philosophy.

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                                                                                    • Frith (Oppenheim), Isabella. Life of Giordano Bruno the Nolan. Revised by Moriz Carriere and edited by Paul Richard Blum. Bristol, UK: Thoemmes, 2000.

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                                                                                      Originally published in 1887, this first, carefully prepared biography of Bruno in English was read and revised by the German scholar Moriz Carriere who had written important pages on Bruno’s pantheism.

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                                                                                      • McIntyre, J. Lewes. Giordano Bruno. London: Macmillan, 1903.

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                                                                                        An intellectual biography particularly attentive to Bruno’s influence on Francis Bacon and early modern science.

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                                                                                        • Spampanato, Vincenzo. Vita di Giordano Bruno con documenti editi ed inediti. Edited by Nuccio Ordine. Rome: Gela editore, 1988.

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                                                                                          Originally published in 1921, this is still an essential biographical tool today. Spampanato spent a lifetime searching for new documents, especially in the archives of Bruno’s home town, Nola.

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                                                                                          Later Biographies

                                                                                          Spampanato 1933 (cited under Documents) held sway as the standard biography for the 20th century. The production of new biographies derived a strong impetus from the 400th centenary of Bruno’s death in the year 2000. Three Italian-language biographies stand out as essential reading: Ricci 2000, Aquilecchia 2001, and Ciliberto 2007. An elegant new English-language biography, Rowland 2009, makes available to the English-language reader the most recent discussion of Bruno’s life story. In an unusual contribution, Carlo Vecce 2017 reconstructs aspects of Bruno’s early years between Nola and Naples in the form of an imaginary autobiographical document.

                                                                                          • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. Giordano Bruno. Edited by Tiziana Provvidera. Turin, Italy: Nino Aragno Editore, 2001.

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                                                                                            Offers a detailed overview of Bruno’s life and intellectual achievements. The volume contains a bibliography of Aquilecchia’s publications on Bruno compiled by Tiziana Provvidera.

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                                                                                            • Ciliberto, Michele. Giordano Bruno: Il teatro della vita. Milan: Mondadori, 2007.

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                                                                                              Presents Bruno’s life story as a consciously constructed drama of rebellion and dissent, underlining the close connection between his life and his philosophical works.

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                                                                                              • Ricci, Saverio. Giordano Bruno nell’Europa del cinquecento. Rome: Salerno editrice, 2000.

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                                                                                                A richly documented biography that examines in detail the context of European culture and politics in which Bruno’s life story developed.

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                                                                                                • Rowland, Ingrid D. Giordano Bruno: Philosopher/Heretic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                  A new biography by a distinguished American scholar that makes Bruno’s life story available in English in a clear and readable format. (Translated into Italian by Germana Ernst as Un fuoco sulla terra: Vita di Giordano Bruno, Rome-Bari: Laterza, 2011).

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                                                                                                  • Vecce, Carlo. “Dark Shadows from the Youth of Giordano Bruno.” In The Italian Renaissance: A Zest for Life. Edited by Michel Jeanneret and Nicolas Ducimetière. Cambridge, UK: Legenda, 2017.

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                                                                                                    Presented in the form of an imaginary document said to have been found in a library in Venice, this essay offers a lively reconstruction of Bruno’s dramatic early years before he fled from the Dominican convent in Naples.

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                                                                                                    Documents

                                                                                                    Spampanato 1933 much increased the documentary evidence previously available. The next major documentary breakthrough was the discovery (see Mercati 1972 [originally 1942]) of an official summary of the Roman part of Bruno’s trial, which had previously been shrouded in mystery. This was due to the disappearance of the Roman trial documents, taken back to Paris and destroyed by Napoleon after his retreat from Rome. All the known trial documents, relating both to the Venetian and the Roman parts of Bruno’s trial, were finally brought together in the essential volume Firpo 1993. In the meantime, the field of Bruno studies had been shaken by Bossy 1991, a much publicized attempt to identify Bruno with the Elizabethan spy Henry Faggot on the basis of supposed similarity of handwriting in the letters written by Faggot to Elisabeth I’s secretary of state, Francis Walsingham. Bossy’s proposal failed to convince the community of Bruno scholars and was later partly withdrawn in Bossy 2001. Canone 1992 and Canone 2000 are important documentary collections, with informed comment, relating to Bruno’s entire life story and intellectual achievement. Aquilecchia 1995 brings the author’s unparalleled knowledge of Bruno’s English years to comment on the documentary evidence relevant to Bruno’s stay in London between 1583 and 1585. Provvidera 2015 adds new documentary evidence concerning Bruno’s London years.

                                                                                                    • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. “Giordano Bruno in Inghilterra (1583–1585): Documenti e testimonianze.” Bruniana e campanelliana 1 (1995): 21–42.

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                                                                                                      A commented collection of all the documents relating to Bruno’s stay in the French Embassy in London and his visits to Oxford between 1583 and 1585.

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                                                                                                      • Bossy, John. Giordano Bruno and the Embassy Affair. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                        A much-publicized documentary attempt to identify Bruno with the spy Henry Faggott, who unmasked the Throckmorton plot to assassinate Elizabeth I.

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                                                                                                        • Bossy, John. Under the Molehill: An Elizabethan Spy Story. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                          Bossy here withdraws his identification of Bruno with the Elizabethan spy Henry Faggot, while still considering him as implicated in the events surrounding the anti-Elizabethan plot being hatched in the French embassy during his stay there in London between 1583 and 1585.

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                                                                                                          • Canone, Eugenio, ed. Giordano Bruno: Gli anni napoletani e la “peregrination” europea. Cassino, Italy: Università degli Studi, 1992.

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                                                                                                            A collection of Bruno documents with comment by various hands that pays particular attention to Bruno’s early monastic years in Naples.

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                                                                                                            • Canone, Eugenio, ed. Giordano Bruno, 1548–1600: Mostra storico documentaria: Rome: Biblioteca Casanatense, 7 giugno-30 settembre 2000. Florence: Olschki, 2000.

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                                                                                                              A richly documented and illustrated catalogue of an exhibition in Rome devoted to Bruno’s life and works.

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                                                                                                              • Firpo, Luigi. Il processo di Giordano Bruno. Edited by Diego Quaglione. Rome: Salerno editrice, 1993.

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                                                                                                                A posthumously published volume that brings together a lifetime of study devoted to the collection of all the documents testifying to the various stages of Bruno’s trial.

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                                                                                                                • Mercati, Angelo. Il sommario del processo di Giordano Bruno. Città del Vaticano, Italy: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1972.

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                                                                                                                  Originally published in 1942, this important documentary volume, containing a summary of the Roman trial drawn up by clerks to help the Inquisitors arrive at their sentence, is colored by a markedly hostile attitude toward Bruno.

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                                                                                                                  • Provvidera, Tiziana. “Bruno, Charlewood and Munday: Politics, Culture and Religion during Bruno’s Time in England.” In Authority, Innovation and Early Modern Epistemology. Edited by Martin McLaughlin and Elisabetta Tarantino, 137–156. Oxford: Leganda, 2015.

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                                                                                                                    A densely documented contribution that discusses Bruno’s links to his London publisher, John Charlewood, the playwright Anthony Munday, as well as to multiple members of Elizabeth I’s court, both Protestant and Catholic.

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                                                                                                                    • Spampanato, Vincenzo, ed. Documenti della vita di Giordano Bruno. Florence: Olschki, 1933.

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                                                                                                                      Includes all the known documents already present in this author’s biography of 1921 and some previously undiscovered ones.

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                                                                                                                      Texts

                                                                                                                      Bruno’s works, both Italian and Latin, were published originally in single volumes in the European cities he visited. Modern editions only began to appear in the 19th century, after a revival of interest in Bruno was stimulated by the European Romantic Movement. The multivolume edition of Bruno’s Latin works published between 1879 and 1891 with the support of a National Committee set up by the then Minister of Education, Francesco De Sanctis, remains an essential point of reference today, providing still, in some cases, the only modern text available. A new National Edition of the Latin works, directed by Michele Ciliberto, is in the course of publication. Four volumes have appeared between the year 2000 and 2012. New editions of Bruno’s Italian works, largely dependent on the essential textual study and analysis by Giovanni Aquilecchia, have appeared in the wake of the 400th centenary commemorations of Bruno’s death in the year 2000. Also associated with these commemorations are the anastatic reprints of all the Italian works edited by Eugenio Canone. A volume presenting and commenting on all Bruno’s illustrations, in both the Italian and Latin works has been edited by Gabriele (see Bruno 2001 cited under Italian Works).

                                                                                                                      Italian Works

                                                                                                                      Giovanni Aquilecchia’s lifetime study of Bruno’s Italian texts was first published as a complete series with facing French translations, produced by Les Belles Lettres in Paris, between 1993 and 1999. Aquilecchia’s texts were then used as the basis of a single-volume edition of the Italian philosophical dialogues by Ciliberto (Bruno 2000). Bruno 2002 is considered the standard text with essential critical comment by the Editors Aquilecchia and Ordine and a number of other prestigious Bruno scholars. Bruno 1999 is a useful anastatic reprint of first editions of all the Italian works. Bruno 2001 presents and discusses all Bruno’s illustrations and diagrams in both his Italian and Latin works.

                                                                                                                      • Bruno, Giordano. Opere italiane: Ristampa anastatica delle cinquecentine. Edited by Eugenio Canone. 4 vols. Florence: Olschki, 1999.

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                                                                                                                        Anastatic reprints of Bruno’s seven works written in Italian.

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                                                                                                                        • Bruno, Giordano. Dialoghi filosofici italiani. Edited by Michele Ciliberto. Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori, 2000.

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                                                                                                                          A single-volume, annotated edition of the six philosophical dialogues written and published by Bruno in London.

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                                                                                                                          • Bruno, Giordano. Corpus iconographicum: Le incisioni nelle opere a stampa. Edited by Mino Gabriele. Milan: Adelphi, 2001.

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                                                                                                                            This volume reproduces and discusses all Bruno’s illustrations, both in his Italian and Latin works, most of which were authorial.

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                                                                                                                            • Bruno, Giordano. Opere italiane di Giordano Bruno. 2 vols. Edited by Giovanni Aquilecchia and Nuccio Ordine. Turin, Italy: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 2002.

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                                                                                                                              A two-volume edition of all Bruno’s works in Italian, with substantial philological and critical comment by the editors, supported by a number of other prestigious Bruno scholars.

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                                                                                                                              Latin Works

                                                                                                                              The 19th-century national edition of Bruno’s Latin works (1879–1891) is gradually being superseded by a new national edition, with original Italian translations, directed by Michele Ciliberto. See Bruno 2000, Bruno 2004, Bruno 2009, and Bruno 2012, where the texts are supported by ample and detailed critical comment and notes. Bruno 1957 contains two unknown works discovered by Giovanni Aquilecchia, together with two known but rare works belonging to the same Parisian period. Two new mathematical manuscripts that came to light in the late 20th century were published for the first time by Aquilecchia (Bruno 1964). Bruno 1981 contains the first Italian translation of Bruno’s three Latin masterpieces, the so-called Frankfurt trilogy.

                                                                                                                              • Bruni Nolani, Jordani. Opera latine conscripta. Edited by Francesco Fiorentino, Felice Tocco, and Giordano Bruno. Stuttgart: Friedrich Frommann Verlag, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                Originally published from 1879 to 1891 in three volumes in eight parts, this is the historical 19th-century national edition of Bruno’s Latin works. Vol. III contained the first publication of the manuscripts left unpublished by Bruno at his death, many of which were concerned with doctrines of magic.

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                                                                                                                                • Bruno, Giordano. Due dialoghi sconosciuti e djue dialoghi noti. Edited by Giovanni Aquilecchia. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1957.

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                                                                                                                                  Four brief Latin texts (two of which had not been included in the 19th-century national edition) are brought together by Aquilecchia as all belonging to Bruno’s years in Paris.

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                                                                                                                                  • Bruno, Giordano. Praelectiones geometricae and Ars deformationum. Edited by Giovanni Aquilecchia. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1964.

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                                                                                                                                    A first edition of two brief mathematical works in Latin transcribed from previously unpublished manuscripts discovered by Paul Oscar Kristeller.

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                                                                                                                                    • Bruno, Giordano. Opere Latine. Translated by Carlo Monti. Turin, Italy: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                      The first Italian translation of the so-called Frankfurt trilogy (De triplici minimo, De monade, and De immenso) based on the texts of these works in the 19th-century Opera latine conscripta (1879–1891), with an introduction underlining their Lucretian inspiration.

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                                                                                                                                      • Bruno, Giordano. Opere magiche. Edited by Simonetta Bassi, Elisabetta Scapparone, and Nicoletta Tirinnanzi. Milan: Adelphi, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                        Latin texts with facing Italian translations. The first volume of this new national edition presents a modern edition of the seven texts on magic first published in Volume 3 of the 19th-century Opera latine conscripta, with original Italian translations and ample comment and notes.

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                                                                                                                                        • Bruno, Giordano. Opere mnemotecniche, tomo primo. Edited by Marco Matteoli, Rita Sturlese, and Nicoletta Tirinnanzi. Milan: Adelphi, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                          Latin texts with facing Italian translations. Presents the first two works published in Paris in 1582, the memory works titled De umbris idearum and Cantus Circaeus, with original Italian translations and ample comment and notes.

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                                                                                                                                          • Bruno, Giordano. Opere mnemoniche, tomo secondo. Edited by Marco Matteoli, Rita Sturlese, and Nicoletta Tirinnanzi. Milan: Adelphi, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                            Latin texts with facing Italian translations. Presents Bruno’s remaining four works on the art of memory, with original Italian translations and ample comment and notes.

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                                                                                                                                            • Bruno, Giordano. Opere lulliane. Edited by Marco Matteoli, Rita Sturlese, and Nicoletta Tirinnanzi. Milan: Adelphi, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                              Latin texts with facing Italian translations. Presents Bruno’s three works dedicated to the art of Raymond Lull, with original Italian translations and ample comment and notes.

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                                                                                                                                              English Translations

                                                                                                                                              Bruno’s texts have been translated into a number of languages. English translations of the Latin works are limited to some pages of his manuscript notes on magic and the last of his works on the art of memory (see Bruno 1998 and Bruno 1991). The seven Italian works have all been translated into English by, among others, Singer (Singer 1950), Hale (Bruno 1964a), Imerti (Bruno 1964b), Gosselin and Lerner (Bruno 1995), Blackwell and De Lucca (Bruno 1998), and Sondergard and Sowell (Bruno 2002). A coordinated edition of new English-language translations of the six philosophical dialogues with facing Italian texts is at present underway. The edition is sponsored by the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies of the University of California at Los Angeles and is being published by the University of Toronto Press as part of the Lorenzo da Ponte Italian Library, whose general editors are Luigi Ballerini and Massimo Ciavolella. Publication began with Bruno 2013.

                                                                                                                                              • Bruno, Giordano. “The Candle Bearer.” In The Genius of the Italian Theatre. Edited by Eric Bentley, 196–314. New York: Mentor, 1964a.

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                                                                                                                                                Bruno’s only dramatic text is translated here by J. R. Hale, a prestigious scholar of Italian renaissance literature.

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                                                                                                                                                • Bruno, Giordano. The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast. Translated and edited by Arthur D. Imerti. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1964b.

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                                                                                                                                                  The first and only modern translation of Bruno’s anti-Christian mythological work on universal reform.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Bruno, Giordano. On the Composition of Images, Signs and Ideas. Translated by Charles Doria. Edited and annotated by Dick Higgins. New York: Willis, Locker & Owens, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                    The first English translation of a complete Latin text. This is Bruno’s final work on the art of memory.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Bruno, Giordano. The Ash Wednesday Supper. Translated by Edward A. Gosselin and Lawrence S. Lerner. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                      Originally published in 1977, this is a first translation of Bruno’s Italian cosmological dialogue accompanied by comment deeply colored by magical and Hermetic influences.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Bruno, Giordano. Cause, Principle and Unity, and Essays on Magic. Translated and edited by Richard J. Blackwell and Robert de Lucca. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139164221Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        A new translation of Bruno’s most metaphysical Italian dialogue accompanied by some pages from his works on magic.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Bruno, Giordano. The Cabala of Pegasus. Translated and edited by Sidney L. Sondergard and Madison U. Sowel. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300092172.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          The first English translation of what Bruno himself considered his most heretical work, with comment underlining its literary quality.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Bruno, Giordano. On the Heroic Frenzies. Translated by Ingrid Rowland. Toronto: Toronto University Press (Lorenzo da Ponte Library), 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                            With facing Italian text by Eugenio Canone. A remarkable new translation of Bruno’s anti-Petrarchan sonnet sequence that translates his sonnets for the first time into English sonnets, offering the reader a clear idea of his extraordinary status not only as a philosopher but also as a poet.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Singer, Dorothea. Giordano Bruno: His Life and Thought: With Annotated Translation of His Work “On the Infinite Universe and Worlds.” New York: Henry Shulman, 1950.

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                                                                                                                                                              A translation of Bruno’s major Italian work on the infinite universe with substantial critical comment underlining the importance of his cosmological thought.

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                                                                                                                                                              Journal and Encyclopedias

                                                                                                                                                              In 1995, Eugenio Canone and Germana Ernst founded a journal devoted to Bruno and Campanella studies (Canone and Ernst 1995–) and later a two volume encyclopedia that started publication in 2006 (Canone and Ernst 2006–2010). In 2014 Michele Ciliberto published a Bruno encyclopedia in three volumes, including a bibliography of primary and secondary texts.

                                                                                                                                                              • Canone, Eugenio, and Germana Ernst, eds. Bruniana e campanelliana: Ricerche filosofiche e materiali storico-testuali. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionale, 1995–.

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                                                                                                                                                                A well-coordinated multilingual journal that continues to be published twice yearly. Although principally dedicated to work by specialist scholars on Giordano Bruno and Tommaso Campanella, it also includes contributions on historically related subjects.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Canone, Eugenio, and Germana Ernst, eds. Enciclopedia bruniana e campanelliana. 2 vols. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionale, 2006–2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                  A useful selective encyclopedia dedicated to entries relating to Bruno and Campanella studies that brings together papers read at a series of seminars held at the Università degli Studi Roma Tre.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Ciliberto, Michele, ed. Parole, concetti, immagini. 3 vols. Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A substantial two-volume encyclopedia with entries by various hands plus a third volume of bibliographical material of various kinds.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Reception of the Historical Figure and Works

                                                                                                                                                                    The historical reception of Bruno’s works has been analyzed by a number of scholars in various works. Carella 2016 investigates the cultural context in Rome lying behind a largely ignored reference to Bruno, twelve years after his death, by Cesare Lagalla. Fattori 2003 comments on an important document discovered by her in the Vatican archives in Rome in which prominent ecclesiastics confirm their severe condemnation of Bruno as a heretic more than twenty years after he was burnt alive in the Campo dei Fiori. Ricci 1990 follows the complex Bruno discussion that developed during the European enlightenment. Canone 1998 contains comment by various hands on the romantic and post-romantic discussion. Bruno’s modern reputation was also enhanced by the statue sculpted by Ettore Ferrari and erected in 1886 in the Campo dei Fiori, where the philosopher had been burned at the stake. Berggren 1991 narrates the dramatic story behind the erection of the statue. Berggren and Sjöstedt 1996 contains a section on the Bruno statue where much of this material was translated from Swedish into Italian.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Berggren, Lars. Giordano Bruno på Campo dei Fiori. Lund, Sweden: Artifex, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Narrates in Swedish the complex story of the antiecclesiastical struggle that lay behind the erection of the statue in memory of Bruno erected in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Berggren, Lars, and Lennart Sjöstedt, eds. L’ombra dei grandi. Rome: Artemide Edizioni, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Contains a substantial section on Ettore Ferrara’s statue of Bruno, which translates into Italian the material in Berggren 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Canone, Eugenio, ed. Brunus redivivus: Momenti della fortuna di Giordano Bruno nel XIX secolo. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A volume of collected essays by various authors that covers multiple aspects of Bruno’s growing 19th-century reputation.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Carella, Candida. “All’ombra del rogo. Riferimenti bruniani nella Roma degli inizi del seicento.” In L’altro seicento. Arte a Roma tra eterodossia, libertinismo e scienza. Edited by Dalma Frascarelli, 55–70. Rome, Italy: Bretshneider, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses a little-known comment on Bruno as a man of no religious faith, written in Greek by a Roman medic, Cesare Lagalla, and attributed by him to the English Queen, Elizabeth I.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Fattori, Marta. “Qua epistola cum nimium utilis, et fructuosa, sit, potius laude, quam censura est digna: un nuovo documento sulla lettera di Gaspare Scioppio.” Nouvelles de la républiique des lettres 1–2 (2003): 191–200.

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                                                                                                                                                                              A document discovered by the author in the Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede shows how, more than twenty years after his death, Bruno remained for the Catholic church nothing more than a heretic.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Ricci, Saverio. La fortuna del pensiero di Giordano Bruno 1600–1750. Florence: Le Lettere, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                With a prefazione by Eugenio Garin. Traces Bruno’s “fortuna” from the moment of his death in 1600 through the European Enlightenment, with a particular emphasis on the discussion of his infinitism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                The Early Cosmological Discussion

                                                                                                                                                                                Dating from the early years of Bruno criticism in the 19th century, his Copernicanism and infinite cosmology have been considered as central aspects of a philosophy that identifies an infinite universe with all that exists. Whewell 1837 and Berti 1876 were among the first to dedicate serious attention to Bruno’s reading of Copernicus. Lovejoy 2005 (originally 1936), Kuhn 1957, and Koyré 1957 dedicate ample space to Bruno’s cosmology in volumes that have become famous landmarks. Michel 1973 (originally 1962) is an essential full volume study by a prestigious historian of astronomy.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Berti, Domenico. Copernico e le vicende del sistema copernicano in Italia nella seconda metà del secolo XVI e nella prima del secolo XVII. Rome: Paravia, 1876.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Bruno’s principal 19th-century Italian biographer (see Early Biographies) concedes ample space to Bruno’s Copernicanism in Sections XIV to XVI of his history of Copernicanism in Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Koyré, Alexandre. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1957.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This classic study dedicates serious attention to Bruno’s Copernicanism and his infinite cosmology, furthering his reputation as a major if unorthodox player in the so-called “scientific revolution.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kuhn, Thomas. The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A by-now classic volume by one of the most prestigious modern historians of science. Kuhn dedicates a whole section to Bruno’s cosmology and atomism: the infinitely large and infinitely small.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lovejoy, Arthur O. The Great Chain of Being: A Study in the History of an Idea. New York: HarperTorch, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in 1936, this much acclaimed, if much discussed, volume by the inventor of the history of ideas considers Bruno’s cosmology to have constituted an essential moment in the development of the traditional idea of the universe as a Great Chain of Being.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Michel, Paul Henri. The Cosmology of Giordano Bruno. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Originally published in French in 1962, this volume develops the previous discussion of Bruno’s Copernicanism, offering a detailed analysis of his principal astronomical and cosmological ideas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Whewell, William. History of the Inductive Sciences from the Earliest to the Present Times. 3 vols. London: W. Parker, 1837.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The serious attention dedicated to Bruno’s Copernicanism in Volume 1, section 2 of this frequently republished history of science underpinned Bruno’s 19th-century reputation as a precursor of the new science of Galileo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The Later Cosmological Discussion

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yates 2002 (originally 1964; cited under Single-Volume Studies, 1889–1968) defined Bruno’s Copernicanism in magical terms as an icon of no scientific value. All succeeding studies of the subject have had to come to terms with this influential definition, either to agree with or to repudiate it. Westman 1977, followed by Mendoza 1995, are strongly critical of Yates, while Knox 1999 and Tessicini 2007 are more sympathetic, although without denying Bruno’s cosmology all scientific value. Gatti 2002 reclaims Bruno as a major player in the so-called scientific revolution. Westman 2011 concedes ample space to Bruno’s cosmology in his vast panorama of the post-Copernican astronomical discussion. Omodeo 2014 furthers investigation into the Renaissance discussion of the Copernican theory, dedicating considerable attention to Bruno’s cosmological works and ideas.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gatti, Hilary. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A volume that reclaims Bruno as a central figure in the history of the new science, placing a particular emphasis on his post-Copernican, infinite cosmology as one of the founding moments of a modern view of the universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Knox, Dilwyn. “Ficino, Copernicus and Bruno on the Motion of the Earth.” Bruniana e Campanelliana 5.2 (1999): 333–366.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Although Ficino’s neo-Platonic universe was pre-Copernican and geocentric, the article argues that his concept of natural, circular elemental motion influenced both Copernicus and Bruno. (See also Journal and Encyclopedia.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mendoza, Ramon G. The Acentric Labyrinth: Giordano Bruno’s Prelude to Contemporary Cosmology. Brisbane, UK: Element, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Makes an audacious claim for Bruno’s infinite cosmology, based on an infinitely large universe filled by infinitely small atoms, as a prelude to the quantistic physics of modern times.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Omodeo, Pietro Daniel. Copernicus in the Cultural Debates of the Renaissance: Reception, Legacy, Transformation. Boston: Brill, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Offers an extensive panorama of the Renaissance discussion of the new Copernican cosmology, dedicating most of the second half of his text to Bruno’s cosmological works.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tessicini, Dario. I Dintorni dell’Infinito: Giordano Bruno e l’Astronomia del Cinquecento. Rome: Fabrizio Serra Editore, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Places Bruno in the context of the astronomical theories of his times underlining in particular the neo-Pythagorean aspects of Bruno’s cosmological thought.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Westman, Robert. “Magical Reform and Astronomical Reform: The Yates Thesis Reconsidered.” In Hermeticism and the Scientific Revolution. By Robert S. Westman, J. E. McGuire. Los Angeles: University of California, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Makes a strong claim for the scientific seriousness of Bruno’s astronomical writings, developing a systematic challenge to Yates 2002 (cited under Single-Volume Studies, 1889–1968).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Westman, Robert S. The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520254817.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          A vast panorama of the post-Copernican cosmological debate, underlining the link between astronomy and astrology in the early modern world. Westman concedes generous space to Bruno’s works, confirming his earlier thesis that Bruno’s realist reading of Copernicus represents an original if unorthodox contribution to the early modern scientific discussion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mathematics

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Athough Bruno’s post-Copernican astronomy lacks a specific mathematical foundation, and in spite of his strong criticism of the ever more abstract classical mathematics of his time, Bruno’s mathematical ideas, based on the Pythagorean natural numbers and on the minimum point in its extensions into lines and surfaces, has attracted considerable recent attention. Atanassievitch 1972 (originally 1923) was a first attempt to come to terms with the close links forged by Bruno between geometrical doctrine and metaphysical speculation; Vedrine 1976 and Aquilecchia 1993 attempt to face up to the same problem by considering Bruno’s mathematics within the philosophical and mathematical doctrines of his times; Aquilecchia 1991 and Mulsow 1992 offer important insights into Bruno’s unorthodox geometrical speculation, while Bönker-Vallon 1995 is concerned with the links between mathematics and metaphysics in Bruno. De Bernart 2002 concludes in a substantial volume that Bruno’s mathematics are based on a concept of probability rather than certainty, while Pompeo Faracovi 2012 contains contributions by various authors relating specifically to Bruno’s geometry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. “Bruno’s Mathematical Dilemma in his Poem ‘De minimo’.” Renaissance Studies 5 (1991): 315–326.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-4658.1991.tb00244.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            An essential essay explaining the apparent contradictions that lead Bruno at times to attack contemporary mathematical developments, such as those in trigonometry, and at times to accept and further them.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Aquilecchia, Giovanni. “Bruno e la matematica a lui contemporanea.” In Schede bruniane. By Giovanni Aquilecchia, 311–317. Manziana, Italy: Vechiarelli, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              A detailed examination of the mathematical discussion of Bruno’s times, linked to a careful analysis of Bruno’s own mathematical texts, starting from his dialogues on the proportional compass invented by Fabrizio Mordente.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Atanassievitch, Xénia. The Metaphysical and Geometrical Doctrine of Bruno as Given in his Work “De triplici minimo.” St. Louis, MO: Warren H. Green, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Originally published in French in 1923, this pioneering volume underlines Bruno’s acceptance of the Pythagorean idea of the discontinuous. Bruno presents a doctrine of the minimum measure, or point (which finds its physical counterpart in the minimum body, or atom) as the basis of everything.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bönker-Vallon, Angelika. Metaphysik und Mathematik bei Giordano Bruno. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A full-length monograph analyzing the connections between Bruno’s mathematics and his metaphysical concepts of nature and of God.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • De Bernart, Luciana. Numerus Quodammodo infinitus: Per un approccio storico-teorico al “Dilemma matematico” nella filosofia di Giordano Bruno. Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A densely argued volume that relates Bruno to the mathematical discussion of both antiquity and his own times, underlining his critical attitude toward mathematical exactitude. The author concludes that Bruno dreamed of a new mathematics that, within an infinite universe, would recognize its truth value as one of approximation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mulsow, Martin. “La geometria applicata nell’opera di Bruno.” In Giordano Bruno: Gli anni napoletani e la “peregrination” europea. Edited by Eurgenio Canone, 146–152. Cassino, Italy: Università degli Studi, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A brief but original contribution that explains Bruno’s evident lack of interest in a pure mathematical logic by underlining his preference for techniques of practical construction of geometrical entities that maintain a symbolic relation to the world of the senses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pompeo Faracovi, Ornella, ed. Aspetti della geometria nell’opera di Giordano Bruno. Lugano, Switzerland: Agorà, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Includes an introductory letter by Imre Toth. Bruno’s geometry appears here as a discourse of multifaceted complexity, including challenges to Euclid’s Elements as the unique geometry of space, preludes to an infinite calculus, geometrical figures as symbols of memory and magic, and geometry as mediating between astrology and astronomy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vedrine, Hélène. “L’obstacle réaliste en mathematique chez deux philosophes du XVIe siècle: Bruno et Patrizi.” In Platon et Aristotle à la renaissance. Edited by Jean-Claude Margolin and Maurice de Gandillac, 239–248. Paris: Vrin, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approaches Bruno’s mathematical ideas through a consideration of the ways in which both the renaissance Platonic and the renaissance Aristotelian traditions created realist obstacles for the development of a mature mathematical logic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lullism and the Art of Memory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Critical of the mathematics of his time, Bruno’s doctrine of knowledge frequently turned to the more traditional arts of memory and the pictorial logic of Raymond Lull. A number of scholars have attempted to investigate the ways in which Bruno gave a modern twist to these ancient and medieval arts. As well as the ample comments in the Adelphi edition of Bruno’s mnemonic and Lullian works, Rossi 2000 (originally published 1960) and Yates 1978 (originally 1966) provide the classic studies of (respectively) the logical and magical aspects of Bruno’s art of memory. Sturlese 1991 and Cambi 2002 opened up a new field by underlining the technical-functional dimension of Bruno’s art of memory and Lullism, respectively. Clucas 2011 attempts to tie these various strands together, linking them to Bruno’s philosophy of nature. Matteoli 2015 offers an original contribution that links memory places and images to Bruno’s critical reading of Aristotle’s Physics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cambi, Maurizio. La machina del discorso: Lullismo e retorica negli scritti latini di Giordano Bruno. Naples, Italy: Liguori, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This first full-length volume dedicated to Bruno’s Lullian works considers them as part of a rhetorical rather than a magical discourse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clucas, Stephen. Magic, Memory and Natural Philosophy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In three of the contributions included in this book of collected essays (Chapters 4–6) Clucas considers various aspects of Bruno’s art of memory in a detailed, and at times critical, discussion of Yates’s magical interpretation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Matteoli, Marco. “La Figuratio Aristotelici Physici Auditus di Giordano Bruno: Luoghi e immagini per una ‘nuova’ Fisica di Aristotele.” Rinascimento 2, ser. 55 (2015): 331–362.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Discusses the use of memory places and images in a work that aims at a fundamental re-interpretation of Aristotle’s Physics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rossi, Paolo. Logic and the Art of Memory: The Search for a Universal Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Translated by Stephen Clucas from a second edition of Rossi’s groundbreaking study, originally published in 1960. Rossi dedicates ample space to Bruno’s Lullism and art of memory, seen as a desire to bring about an infinite increase in man’s intellectual capacities and his dominion over nature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sturlese, Rita. "Introduction". In Giordano Bruno: De umbris idearum. By Giordano Bruno, ix–lxxxiv. Florence: Olschki, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Underlines the technical-functional structure of the five memory wheels presented by Bruno in this work, considering them not as magical icons but as combinatory systems of syllables, or mnemonic mechanisms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Yates, Frances A. The Art of Memory. London: Penguin, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Originally published in 1966, Yates’s devotes the entire central section (chapters 9–14) of her celebrated study of the art of memory to Bruno’s art in its various manifestations, interpreting it primarily as a magical art aimed at penetrating the hidden secrets of an infinite cosmos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Religion and Magic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The exact nature of Bruno’s definition of the divine principle that unifies and animates his infinite universe has always been a subject of attention of his commentators. Some texts have been centered specifically on this subject. Ingegno 1987 is the culminating point of a long meditation by the author on Bruno’s anti-Christian polemic; Granada 1994 discusses his repudiation of a traditional dogma concerning the divine creation, while De Leon Jones 1997 underlines the link in Bruno’s works between religion, magic, and Kaballah. Celenza 2000 investigates the ancient heritage of religious, magical, and cosmological thought present in Bruno’s works. Ordine 2007 is concerned with Bruno’s repudiation of dogmatic religious extremism. Knox 2013 demonstrates how Pythagorean, Hermetic, Aristotelian, and Stoic influences modify a Platonic or neo-Platonic transcendentalism in Bruno’s definition of a World Soul and Universal Intellect. Martinez 2016 discusses the heretical implications of Bruno’s belief in many worlds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Celenza, Christopher. “Giordano Bruno, the Pre-Socratic Tradition, and the Late Ancient Heritage.” Accademia 2 (2000): 43–62.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses ancient pre-Socratic elements present in Bruno’s thought, claiming that his work can be characterized as a pre-Socratic Renaissance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • De Leon Jones, Karen. Giordano Bruno and the Kaballah: Prophets, Magicians and Rabbis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Influenced by Yates’s view of Bruno as a mystic Hermetic Magus (see Single-Volume Studies, 1889–1968), this author claims that his references to the Hebrew Kabbalah reveal him as a practicing believer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Granada, Miguel, A. “Il rifiuto della distinzione fra potentia absoluta e potentia ordinata di Dio e l’affermazione dell’universo infinito in Giordano Bruno.” Rivista di storia della filosofia 49.3 (1994): 495–532.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An important essay that investigates one of the central aspects of Bruno’s anti-Christian concept of the divine principle animating his infinite universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ingegno, Alfonso. Regia pazzia: Bruno lettore di Calvino. Urbino, Italy: Quattro venti, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Demonstrates how Calvin’s critique of the Catholic mass constituted an essential step in Bruno’s final repudiation of the Christian religion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Knox, Dilwyn. “Bruno: Immanence and Transcendence in De la causa, principio et uno, Dialogue II.” Bruniana e campanelliana 19.2 (2013): 463–482.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A substantial contribution to the discussion of Bruno’s metaphysics, indicating the multiple philosophical sources that underlie his definition of a Universal Intellect as both immanent and extrinsic to the universe. (See also Journal and Encyclopedia.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Martinez, Alberto. “Giordano Bruno and the Heresy of Many Worlds.” Annals of Science (May 2016): 1–30.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines numerous treatises on theology and canon law that demonstrate the heretical status of Bruno’s belief in many worlds or multiple solar systems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ordine, Nuccio. Contro il Vangelo armato: Giordano Bruno, Ronsard e la religione. Milan: Raffaello Cortina, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A book-length study of the influence on Bruno’s religion of the French culture that he encountered in Paris and particularly of the anti-Protestant stand adopted by the poet Ronsard.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Writer and Poet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bruno’s status as a Renaissance philosopher has not always been favorable to a sufficient appreciation of his standing as a writer and poet. Some commentators, however, have paid special attention to the literary aspect of his works, its relation to his philosophy, and his fascination with the power of both language and the image.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Between Philosophy and Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ordine 2003, Sabbatino 2003, and Bassi 2004 are all concerned with defining the links between Bruno’s philosophy and his wider literary and artistic interests. Saiber 2005 and Ellero 2005 provide detailed discussions of Bruno’s concern with language and rhetoric, while Puliafito Bleuel 2007 contains a substantial study of Bruno’s only literary text, his renaissance comedy Candelaio.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bassi, Simonetta. L’arte di Giordano Bruno: Memoria, furore, magia. Florence: Olschki, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays concerned with the connections between Bruno’s works on magic, his art of memory, and his aesthetics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ellero, Maria Pia. Lo specchio della fantasia: Retorica, magia e scrittura in Giordano Bruno. Lucca, Italy: Paccini Fazzi, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A detailed analysis of Bruno’s rhetorical strategies in the light of his doctrine of magic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ordine, Nuccio. La soglia dell’ombra: Letteratura, filosofia e pittura in Giordano Bruno. Venice: Marsilio Editore, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An ambitious literary study of Bruno that attempts to define the links between his philosophy of nature, his drama Candelaio, his poetry of love, and his admiration of painting and painters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Puliafito Bleuel, Anna Laura. Comica pazzia: Vicissitudine e destini umani nel “Candelaio” di Bruno. Florence: Olschki, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A full-length study of Bruno’s only drama, Candelaio, as a borderline text between comedy and tragedy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sabbatino, Pasquale. “A l’infinito m’ergo”: Giordano Bruno e il volo del moderno Ulisse. Florence: Olschki, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Discusses the ways in which Bruno links literature and philosophy in his presentation of himself as a modern Ulysses in flight through an infinite universe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Saiber, Arielle. Giordano Bruno and the Geometry of Language. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of Bruno’s Italian works in the light of formal concepts of literary language as a reflection of geometrical patterns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Images and Emblems

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Some scholars have paid particular attention to Bruno’s use of imagery, to its links with a literary memory, and to his fascination with renaissance emblem literature. Yates 1982 (originally 1943) is a pioneering essay on the imagery of Bruno’s sonnets in relation to the English sonnets of the Elizabethan era. Maggi 2000 and Bolzoni 2002 discuss Bruno’s imagery in the light of his interest in emblem literature and the art of memory. Mann 2003 addresses Aby Warburg’s unpublished notes on Bruno that posit a link between pagan image-based thought and modern symbol-based thought.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bolzoni, Lina. “Images of Literary Memory in the Italian Dialogues: Some Notes on Giordano Bruno and Ludovico Ariosto.” In Giordano Bruno: Philosopher of the Renaissance. Edited by Gatti, Hilary, 121–141. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A study of Bruno’s techniques of literary memory in relation to the complex play of intertextuality in his works and especially to the reminiscences of Ariosto in his Ash Wednesday Supper.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Maggi, Armando. “The Language of the Visible: The Eroici furori and the Renaissance Philosophy of Imprese.” Bruniana e campanelliana 6.1 (2000): 115–144.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Discusses Bruno’s use of renaissance “imprese” as a means of attaining a visualized linguistic idiom that bonds poet and reader in an intuition of infinite truth. (See also Journal and Encyclopedia.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mann, Nicnolas. “Denkenergetische Inversion: Aby Warburg and Giordano Bruno.” Publications of the English Goethe Society 72 (2003): 25–37.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/09593683.2003.11716331Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A discussion of Warburg’s correspondence, going back to July 23, 1915, in the light of its concern with Bruno’s mythological dialogue Spaccio della Bestia Trionfante.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Yates, Francis. “The Emblematic Conceit in Giordano Bruno’s De gli eroici furori and in the Elizabethan Sonnet Sequences.” In Lull and Bruno: Collected Essays. Vol. I. By Frances Yates, 180–209. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        First published in 1943 in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Yates opens a new field of study by demonstrating the importance of Bruno’s poetic imagery in his sonnets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Influence on English Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bruno’s Italian works published in London between 1583 and 1585 testify to a literary skill and creativity in his native language that has at times been an inspiration to some of the major writers of the English literary canon, from his own to modern times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Shakespeare Question

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Of particular interest is the problem of whether Shakespeare knew of, or used, Bruno’s works. Yates 1975 is concerned with the role of magic in both writers; Sacerdoti 1990 and Sacerdoti 2002 with Bruno’s infintism and its possible implications for Shakespeare; Tarantino 2002 and Tarantino 2007 with what would appear to be some knowledge by Shakespeare of Bruno’s Italian dialogues written and published in London, and Gatti 2012 with a possible influence of Bruno’s comedy Candelaio on Shakespearean and Jonsonian comedy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gatti, Hilary. “Giordano Bruno’s Candelaio and Possible Echoes in Shakespeare and Ben Jonson.” Viator 43.2 (2012): 357–376.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1484/J.VIATOR.1.102717Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Proposes Bruno’s only dramatic text, the renaissance comedy Candelaio, as providing possible source material for central aspects of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sacerdoti, Gilberto. Nuovo cielo, nuova terra: La rivelazione copernicana di Antonio e Cleopatra di Shakespeare. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Connects the Egyptian Hermeticism of Bruno’s post-Copernican infinitism to the Egyptian setting of Shakespeare’s tragedy and especially to the idea of a universe of vital forces involved in a perpetual process of creation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sacerdoti, Gilberto. Sovranità e sacrificio: Teologia e politica nell’Europa di Shakespeare e Bruno. Torino, Italy: Einaudi, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Taking as its starting point the deer hunt in Shakespeare’s Love’s Labour’s Lost, this densely argued volume proposes Bruno as a major player in the European struggle for supremacy between theology and philosophy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tarantino, Elisabetta. “Ultima Thule: Constrasting Empires in Bruno’s Ash Wednesday Supper and Shakespeare’s Tempest.” In Giordano Bruno: Philosopher of the Renaissance. Edited by Hilary Gatti, 210–225. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An essay comparing the ideas of empire in Shakespeare’s Tempest with Bruno’s ideas of empire in his first dialogue in Italian to be written and published in London.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tarantino, Elisabetta. “The Eroici furori and Shakespeare.” In The Alchemy of Extremes. Edited by Eugenio Canone and Rowland Ingrid, 143–155. Rome: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Proposes multiple possible Bruno–Shakespeare connections, noting in particular similar treatments of the theme of blindness in the Heroic Frenzies and in Shakespeare’s King Lear.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yates, Frances. Shakespeare’s Last Plays: A New Approach. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Proposes an influence on Shakespeare’s last plays of Bruno’s announcement of a magical-religious reform based on a search for the divine within the world of nature.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    From Christopher Marlowe to James Joyce

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Other major English-language writers show clear signs of a knowledge of Bruno’s works, from a contemporary such as Marlowe to a modern such as Joyce. Camerlingo 1999 dedicates a whole volume to the Marlowe question. Tarantino 2015 furthers investigation into echoes of Bruno’s comedy, Candelaio, not only in Shakespeare but also in Ben Jonson. Wilder 1963, Voelker 1976, and Gareth 2003 discuss different aspects of Joyce’s documented interest in Bruno and his works.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Camerlingo, Rosanna. Teatro e teologia: Marlowe, Bruno e i Puritani. Naples, Italy: Liguori, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A detailed discussion of the works of Christopher Marlowe in the light of Bruno’s philosophy and in particular of his critique of religious dogma and extremism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gareth, Joseph Downes. “The Heretical Auctoritas of Giordano Bruno: The Significance of the Brunonian Presence in James Joyce’s The Day of the Rabblement and Stephen Hero.” Joyce Studies Annual 14 (2003): 37–73.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/joy.2004.0003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses the influence of Bruno (“the heresiarch martyr of Nola”) on Joyce’s youthful critique of the Catholic religion in an early student essay and in his first autobiographical novel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tarantino, Elisabetta. “Bruno’s Candelaio, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson.” In Authority, Innovation and Early Modern Epistemology. Edited by Martin McLaughlin and Elisabetta Tarantino, 118–136. Oxford: Legenda, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enlarges the investigation into echoes in Shakespeare and Ben Jonson of Bruno’s comedy Candelaio to a consideration of the social and political reasons behind their brunian allusions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Voelker, Joseph C. “Nature It Is: The Influence of Giordano Bruno on James Joyce’s Molly Bloom.” James Joyce Quarterly 14 (1976): 39–48.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses the importance of Bruno’s concept of nature “where all modes come into being” as an inspiration for Joyce’s portrait of Molly Bloom in his major novel Ulysses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wilder, Thornton. “Giordano Bruno’s Last Meal in Finnegan’s Wake.” Hudson Review 16.1 (1963): 74–79.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/3848596Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This groundbreaking article by the distinguished American novelist and playwright brings to light the multiple references to Bruno (the Nolan) in a major episode of James Joyce’s final novel Finnegan’s Wake.

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