Renaissance and Reformation Paul Oskar Kristeller
by
Rocco Rubini
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 September 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195399301-0309

Introduction

Paul Oskar Kristeller (b. 1905–d. 1999) was a German-Jewish historian of philosophy and one of the most influential Renaissance scholars of the 20th century. Together with a short list of colleagues, Kristeller redefined Renaissance studies after the Second World War, at a time when the so-called problem of the Renaissance and its viability as historiographical category and autonomy as historical period, was acutely felt within what was then a much narrower field of specialists. He is best known for his attempts to dignify and distinguish historical “humanism.” He formally accepted the critiques of the medievalists who denied an enlightened break in the 15th and 16th centuries, and he proceeded to formulate and publish in 1946 a theory that was controversial at the time: that “humanism” was not the dawn of the new philosophy of man but a mostly academic and scholarly movement formally tied to the medieval traditions of ars dictandi and ars arengandi. Taken together, the studia humanitatis (whose focus was on grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and, to an extent, moral philosophy) amounted to an educational reform and, thus, to a reorientation of the medieval subdivision of the liberal arts into the Trivium and Quadrivium. Kristeller’s interpretation of humanism, which strongly emphasized a distinction between rhetoric and philosophy, was influenced by his intellectual formation in Germany and, later, Italy. Kristeller’s notably hard-nosed approach to scholarship was first honed at the Mommsen-Gymnasium in Berlin, were he met Ernst Hoffmann (his teacher of Greek), whom he followed to Heidelberg for his university career. Here he studied with Heinrich Rickert, a prominent neo-Kantian whose methodology in historiographical research Kristeller embraced, and Karl Jaspers, who introduced him to existentialism. Both influences are at play in Kristeller’s dissertation on Plotinus, published in 1929. Having received what he perceived as a less-than- excellent assessment of his dissertation, Kristeller moved to Berlin and trained to become a schoolteacher of Greek and Latin (with no less than Werner Jaeger, Eduard Norden, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, and Richard Walzer). He subsequently returned his attention to philosophy and chose Marsilio Ficino as the topic of a Habilitationschrift advised by Martin Heidegger, whom he had met during a short stint in Marburg in 1926. Because of anti-Semitic laws enacted in Germany, Kristeller moved to Italy in 1934 and became the protégé of Giovanni Gentile, securing positions as lecturer of German at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and at the University of Pisa. In 1939, Kristeller was again forced to emigrate, this time to the United States, where he found a home at Columbia University in New York.

General Overviews

It has been a hallmark of Renaissance scholarship on humanism in the new century, a transition that coincided with the death of an older generation of scholars, to reappraise, in an act of soul-searching, past interpretive paradigms. In this context, the bio-bibliographical profile of German-Jewish émigré Kristeller is seemingly tailor-made to attract the attention of intellectual historians. While a comprehensive intellectual biography of Kristeller is still needed, recent research on his life and work (itself indebted to the publication of Bibliographia Kristelleriana, a complete bibliography of Kristeller’s work) is beginning to further our knowledge of the German and Italian academic communities in the 1920s and 1930s and the aspirations of a generation of émigré intellectuals raised in the interwar period. Monfasani 2006 is particularly useful in recovering Kristeller’s early ambitions as a “philosopher” and the biases and concerns present in his work on Plotinus and, especially, Marsilio Ficino, the subjects of his two book-length studies. Gli studi umanistici e l’opera di Paul Oskar Kristeller offers a detailed account of Kristeller’s philological training at a time in which he was considering different career options. Monfasani 2006 and Boutcher 2006, furthermore, detail the course of Kristeller’s intellectual pilgrimage from Germany to Italy and, from there, to the United States. Archival materials (especially correspondences) will become increasingly important in our historical contextualization of 20th-century intellectual life, and Tedeschi 2002, which comprises the annotated correspondence between Delio Cantimori and Roland H. Bainton (two scholars instrumental in Kristeller’s relocation to the United States), offers a model for future publication of archival materials (some editions of Kristeller’s papers are underway as of this writing). As for contextualizing and assessing Kristeller’s guiding research principles and ethos—in sum, the idea that Renaissance humanism was not a philosophical movement—Hankins 2001, Celenza 2004, and Rubini 2014 have found it useful to compare Kristeller to his foremost competitor in the field, Italian scholar Eugenio Garin (b. 1909–d. 2004), who held the opposite view (that Renaissance humanism was indeed “philosophical”) and who engaged Kristeller in a lifelong debate on the topic. Hankins 2001 and Celenza 2004 posit Kristeller and Garin at opposite ends of the spectrum of attitudes available to the intellectual historian of the Renaissance. If Celenza 2004 sees Garin and Kristeller exemplifying a “diachronic” and “synchronic” approach, respectively, Hankins 2001 sees Garin as an exemplary “lumper” (someone inclined to interpret the Renaissance in light of future epochs’ achievements) and Kristeller as a decisive “splitter” (someone who insists on taking the Renaissance strictly on its own terms). Meanwhile, Rubini 2014 traces Kristeller’s principles in Renaissance scholarship to the influence of neo-Kantian Wertphilosophie, a philosophy espoused and developed by Kristeller’s teacher, Heinrich Rickert, and he compares Kristeller and Garin on the grounds of their different approaches to the German tradition of Historismus (Droysen, Dilthey, etc.), a movement countered by Rickert and his school.

  • Boutcher, Warren. “From Germany to Italy to America: The Migratory Significance of Kristeller’s Ficino in the 1930s.” In Weltoffener Humanismus: Philosophie, Philologie und Geschichte in der deutsch-jüdischen Emigration. Edited by Gerald Hartung and Kay Schiller, 133–153. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript, 2006.

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    A useful account of Kristeller’s life and intellectual vicissitudes while composing his influential (and only) monograph, Kristeller 1964 (cited under Monographs).

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  • Celenza, Christopher S. The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanists, Historians and Latin’s Legacy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

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    This book investigates the 21st-century predicaments of Renaissance studies and dedicates a whole chapter (“Italian Renaissance Humanism in the Twentieth Century: Eugenio Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller,” pp. 16–57) to a comparative contextualization of the works of Kristeller and his primary rival in the field of Renaissance humanism, Eugenio Garin.

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  • Gilbhard, Thomas, ed. Bibliographia Kristelleriana: A Bibliography of the Publications of Paul Oskar Kristeller (1929–1999). Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2006.

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    Indispensable tool for orienting oneself in the vast sea of Kristeller’s 700 or so publications in a career that spanned over seventy years. It includes a list of Festschriften (Appendix 1) and cites assessments and studies of Kristeller until 2002 (Appendix 2).

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  • Gli studi umanistici e l’opera di Paul Oskar Kristeller. Milan: Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, 2003.

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    Collects proceedings from a conference dedicated to Kristeller in 2000, including important contributions on Kristeller’s formation as a classicist in Berlin (1928–1931) and on his work in textual bibliography.

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  • Hankins, James. “Two Twentieth-Century Interpreters of Renaissance Humanism: Eugenio Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller.” Comparative Literature 23 (2001): 3–19.

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    A pioneering comparative assessment of Kristeller’s and Garin’s stances on Renaissance humanism.

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  • Monfasani, John, ed. Kristeller Reconsidered: Essays on His Life and Scholarship. New York: Italica, 2006.

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    The first and most comprehensive attempt yet to survey Kristeller’s life and scholarship. Includes contributions on Kristeller’s formative years in Germany and Italy, assessments of his contributions to distinct subfields in Renaissance scholarship (Renaissance Platonism, Renaissance universities, reception of ancient philosophies, etc.), and accounts of Kristeller’s tireless labors in the realm of textual bibliography.

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  • Rubini, Rocco. The Other Renaissance: Italian Humanism between Hegel and Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

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    Describes the role the Renaissance played in 19th- and 20th-century Italian intellectual life, devotes a chapter (“A Philosopher’s Humanism: Paul Oskar Kristeller,” pp. 293–354) to recovering the modern philosophical sources informing Kristeller’s assessment of Renaissance humanism.

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  • Tedeschi, John, ed. The Correspondence of Roland H. Bainton and Delio Cantimori (1932–1966): An Enduring Transatlantic Friendship between Two Historians of Religious Toleration. Florence: Olschki, 2002.

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    Delio Cantimori, especially, and Roland H. Bainton were two scholars close to Kristeller who facilitated his coming to the United States. Tedeschi’s thorough introduction, notes, and appendix (which contains letters written by Kristeller) help contextualize Kristeller’s life in the 1930s.

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Monographs

It is not surprising that Kristeller, a scholar given to minute, painstaking research, large-scale bibliographic projects, and a fierce opponent of universalizing generalizations on the complicated and varied culture of the so-called Renaissance, produced only two monograph. He produced just enough to launch his academic career, beginning with the publication (in a series directed by his teachers Ernst Hoffmann and Heinrich Rickert), in 1929, of a radically revised version of his doctoral dissertation, Der Begriff der Seele in der Ethik des Plotin (see Kristeller 1929). In Kristeller’s own account, his subsequent interest in Marsilio Ficino was dictated by his interest in tracing the history of Neoplatonism to future epochs. Kristeller began studying Ficino for his Habilitation under the direction of Martin Heidegger, after being turned down by Hoffmann, who had been his teacher and mentor since his years at the Gymnasium. Hoffmann turned him down because at the time (the 1930s) he did not feel that he could mentor more than one Jewish student: a fact that makes Kristeller’s association with Heidegger rather ironic. (One might also note in passing that Heidegger obviously lacked the knowledge of Renaissance culture necessary for the task.) As it happened, Heidegger had little time to provide mentorship, as Kristeller rushed to complete a portion of his manuscript by 1934, at which time, fleeing anti-Semitic laws in Germany, he emigrated. In Italy, again ironically, Kristeller’s career flourished for a while under the protection of Giovanni Gentile. Gentile was Italy’s preeminent philosopher, a onetime minister in Mussolini’s regime, and an unwavering supporter of fascism. By the time he completed Kristeller 1972, which was translated into Italian as Il pensiero filosofico di Marsilio Ficino and accepted for publication in 1938, Italian anti-Semitic laws forced Kristeller to emigrate again, this time to America, where he arrived in 1939. Once ensconced at Columbia University in New York he prepared an English translation, Kristeller 1943. Kristeller understood the various language versions of his manuscript as different editions of the same work, each marking a turning point in his intellectual life. Cited here are the three editions alongside two revised collections of lectures, one introducing Renaissance thinkers, Kristeller 1964, and another on ancient thinkers, Kristeller 1993; Kristeller lectured on these topics at Columbia University.

  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Der Begriff der Seele in der Ethik des Plotin. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. Mohr, 1929.

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    Kristeller’s first book, a revision of his dissertation. Offers an existentialist reading of Plotinus’s Enneads, influenced by Karl Jaspers and perhaps Heidegger.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. The Philosophy of Marsilio Ficino. Translated by Virginia Conant. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

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    The English translation (possibly his least favorite among the various editions) of Kristeller’s only true monograph, Die Philosophie des Marsilio Ficino.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Il pensiero filosofico di Marsilio Ficino. Florence: Sansoni, 1953.

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    The Italian translation of Die Philosophie des Marsilio Ficino, accepted for publication as early as 1938, was Kristeller’s favorite, as it retained citations of sources in Latin. Dedicated to his parents and to the victims of Nazism.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Eight Philosophers of the Italian Renaissance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964.

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    Based on a series of lectures delivered in 1961, this book presents a series of portraits of thinkers “to some extent representative” (p. vii) of the Renaissance (Petrarch, Valla, Ficino, Pico, Pomponazzi, Telesio, Patrizi, Bruno), intended for the general public.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Die Philosophie des Marsilio Ficino. Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1972.

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    The original version, completed in 1937, of Kristeller’s planned Habilitationschrift along with a preface (pp. vii–xi) detailing the vicissitudes of the book’s various drafts, translations, and editions.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Greek Philosophers of the Hellenistic Age. Translated by Gregory Woods. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

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    Published version of a series of lectures on Hellenistic philosophy (a subject frequently taught by Kristeller at Columbia University) delivered in 1989 at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.

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Edited Volumes

If it does not surprise us that Kristeller found the essay form more suitable to his research style than the definitive and generalizing form of the monograph, maybe it is surprising that Kristeller did not dedicate more of his career to editing and translating Renaissance sources. In fact, Kristeller dedicated most of his career to large-scale research projects and thus to an even more preliminary and necessary job: the indexing and cataloguing of Renaissance manuscripts. That said, while working on his Ficino monograph, Kristeller did conceive of a companion volume containing some of Ficino’s unpublished works. Some of this material he shared with or received from his German colleague Hans Baron, with whom he was initially collaborating on the edition; other material he independently recovered during trips to Italy in the early 1930s. The materials he collected make up Kristeller 1937, an austere two-volume anthology (annotated and introduced in Latin) published by the Jewish Italian editor, Leo S. Olschki, in Florence. The Supplementum was considered a model for a future generation of scholars and was presented as such by Giovanni Gentile. Many years later, in 1975, Kristeller had the chance to thank Ludwig Bertalot, the scholar who, besides Baron, had helped him most with his early Ficino project and had taught him how to do manuscript research, whose scattered works Kristeller edited in two volumes (Bertalot 1975). But Kristeller’s crowning achievements, as anticipated, were Kristeller 1963–1997 and Krämer 1993, which provide lists of previously uncatalogued Renaissance manuscripts he compiled from notes he began taking in the early 1930s during his first trips to Italy in search of unpublished works by Ficino. He first articulated a plan to publish these notes during an encounter in 1945 with Fritz Saxl, who directed the Warburg Institute and promised his support. But Kristeller did not work solely for specialists. Although Kristeller’s actual involvement in Kristeller, et al. 1948 may have been limited, this remains the handiest anthology available for introducing undergraduate students to early Renaissance thought. Also cited here is Kristeller’s uncredited edition of Kracauer 1969, an important work that was published posthumously and draws on conversations with Kristeller. The book points to Kristeller’s engagement with colleagues and works formally outside his field of specialization.

  • Bertalot, Ludwig. Studien zum italienischen und deutschen Humanismus. 2 vols. Edited by Paul Oskar Kristeller. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1975.

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    Collects Bertalot’s important works on early Renaissance culture, including his scathing critiques (excised by Kristeller) of Hans Baron’s earlier work on Leonardo Bruni.

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  • Kracauer, Siegfried. History: The Last Things Before the Last. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

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    Upon the death of Kracauer in 1966, Kristeller (as he explains in the foreword and in an editorial note) took on the task of correcting, polishing, and translating the parts of this manuscript that remained unorganized and in need of revision.

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  • Krämer, Sigrid. Latin Manuscript Books Before 1600: A List of the Printed Catalogues and Unpublished Inventories of Extant Collections. 4th rev. ed. Munich: Monumenta Germaniae Historica, 1993.

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    This is another work that facilitates a comprehensive, worldwide search for manuscript texts on the basis of printed catalogues and unprinted inventories.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar, ed. Supplementum Ficinianum. Marsilii Ficini Florentini Philosophi Platonici Opuscula Inedita et Dispersa. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 1937.

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    A collection of previously unpublished works by Marsilio Ficino intended to supplement the flawed Basel edition of Ficino’s Opera Omnia (1576). Originally meant to be a collaboration with Hans Baron, this book eventually secured Kristeller’s position in the Italian academy when it was published by Olschki in 1937.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar, Ernst Cassirer, and John H. Randall Jr., eds. The Renaissance Philosophy of Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.

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    This is the most useful survey of Renaissance thought for undergraduate students, introducing and translating seminal texts by Francesco Petrarca, Lorenzo Valla, Marsilio Ficino, Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola (introduced by Kristeller), Pietro Pomponazzi, and Juan Luis Vives.

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  • Kristeller, Paul, ed. Iter Italicum. A Finding List of Uncatalogued or Incompletely Catalogued Humanistic Manuscripts of the Renaissance in Italian and Other Libraries. 7 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1963–1997.

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    The largest and most comprehensive finding list of previously uncatalogued or incompletely catalogued Renaissance manuscripts in libraries over the world. Indispensable working tool for Renaissance scholars and certainly Kristeller’s greatest achievement. Available online.

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Collected Essays

Kristeller was at his best in the essay form, which allowed him to edit, contextualize, and gloss each of his findings and to contribute, often seminally, to virtually every aspect of early Renaissance scholarly and philosophical culture. Early on, Giuseppe De Luca, founder and chief editor of the Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, realized that Kristeller’s research was accumulating and needed collecting. Eventually Kristeller himself selected and collected more than one hundred pieces in four volumes: Kristeller 1956 brings together studies published between 1936 and 1950; Kristeller 1985 collects some of Kristeller’s publications between 1952 and 1982; and Kristeller 1993 makes available in a single volume essays previously published between 1951 and 1979; the last volume, Kristeller 1996, appeared in 1996, just three years before the scholar’s death. As Kristeller writes in the introductions to the volumes, he made no effort to “produce an apparent or artificial unity” (Volume 1: p. x). Instead, a dynamic unity is visible in his areas of interest as subsumed under general headings such as “Marsilio Ficino and His Circle” (Volume 2, pp. 35–257), “From the Middle Ages to the Renaissance” (Volume 1, pp. 473–583; and Volume 3, pp. 395–537), “From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment” (Volume 3, pp. 541–643), “Humanism and Renaissance” (Volume 2, pp. 3–205), “Individual Humanists” (Volume 2, pp. 209–489), “Platonism” (Volume 3, pp. 3–337), “Aristotelianism” (Volume 3, pp. 341–392), among others. Moreover, Kristeller insisted repeatedly throughout his career that his essays not be searched for answers to the so-called problem of the Renaissance but rather for specific answers to specific questions intended to eradicate inveterate falsehoods. Kristeller said, “I hope that these studies may stimulate some readers to participate in the slow but rewarding work of finding, editing and interpreting the sources. It is on this basic research, not on facile generalizations, that the further progress in our much neglected field will depend (Volume 1, p. xiii). If Kristeller never felt tempted to write a definitive book, his students were more impatient. Kristeller 1979, edited by Michael Mooney, is a successful attempt to create such a book from a combination of Kristeller’s lectures and papers.

  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters. Vol. 1. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1956.

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    A collection of twenty-five essays published between 1936 and 1950 on the cultural and philosophical life of Quattrocento Florence. Notable essays include “The Philosophical Significance of the History of Thought” (pp. 3–9) (an early attempt by Kristeller to define his field from the perspective of a historian of philosophy), various seminal studies on “Marsilio Ficino and his Circle” (pp. 35–257), and Kristeller’s 1946 manifesto “Humanism and Scholasticism in the Italian Renaissance” (pp. 553–583).

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought and Its Sources. Edited by Michael Mooney. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

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    Collects revised versions of some of Kristeller’s public lectures, divided into five sections: “Renaissance Thought and Classical Antiquity” (pp. 15–81), “Renaissance Thought and the Middle Ages” (pp. 83–133), “Renaissance Thought and Byzantine Learning” (pp. 135–163), “Renaissance Concepts of Man” (pp. 165–210) and “Philosophy and Rhetoric from Antiquity to the Renaissance” (pp. 211–259). Aims to provide a comprehensive “Kristellerian” survey of Renaissance thought and sources.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters. Vol. 2. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1985.

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    Collects twenty-seven essays published between 1952 and 1981 on general aspects of Renaissance humanism and on individual humanists. It includes the bibliographical essay, “Changing Views of the Intellectual History of the Renaissance since Jacob Burchkardt” (pp. 3–23) written on the 100th anniversary of Burckhardt’s publication of The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, and contributions on Petrarch (pp. 209–238), Bartolomeo Facio (pp. 265–280), Pier Candido Decembrio (pp. 282–300), Erasmus (pp. 443–472) and Thomas More (pp. 473–489), among others.

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters. Vol. 3. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1993.

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    Collects twenty-six essays published between 1951 and 1979, divided into four sections: “Platonism” (pp. 3–337) (dedicated to defining the Platonic movement from humanism), “Aristotelianism” (pp. 341–392) “From the Middle Ages to the Renaissance” (pp. 395–537), and “From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment” (pp. 541–643) (including the widely cited article, “The Modern System of the Arts: A Study in the History of Aesthetics” [pp. 555–611] and other forays out of the Renaissance period).

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  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters. Vol. 4. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Lettertura, 1996.

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    Collects thirty-one miscellaneous articles published by Kristeller late in his career. The volume is perhaps most valuable for its autobiographical material, including nine articles reflecting Kristeller’s “experiences as an explorer and student of manuscripts” (p. ix), thirty-one tributes and obituaries to friends, colleagues, patrons, and mentors (pp. 483–563), and “A Life of Learning” (pp. 567–583) an autobiographical lecture detailing the scholar’s background and upbringing.

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Noteworthy Uncollected Essays

As Kristeller’s scholarship acquires the status of primary literature (i.e., as it begins to be read not only for an understanding of the Renaissance but for an understanding of Kristeller himself and his era) it seems appropriate to list some of the useful articles published by Kristeller (but not collected in Kristeller 1956, Kristeller 1985, Kristeller 1993, and Kristeller 1996 [all cited under Collected Essays]). These essays help qualify and describe Kristeller’s distinctive approach; furthermore they identify many of the philosophical inspirations behind his approach and analyze how it developed over time. For example, in Kristeller and Randall 1941, Kristeller and Reis 1943, and Kristeller 1961. Kristeller reviews and criticizes previous Renaissance scholarship and mainly German and Italian approaches to historiography. Kristeller provides suggestions for changes in Kristeller 1981 and in Kristeller 1983. In any case, personally and perennially torn between past and present, Kristeller knew that his scholarship would also eventually be put to the test of history. To future scholars, he offers advice on how to handle his legacy in Kristeller 1991 and in Kristeller 1996.

Festschriften and Influence

With Kristeller 1963–1997 (cited under Edited Volumes), his scholarly essays, and his mentorship, Kristeller’s career was devoted to tilling and cultivating the field of Renaissance studies in the United States. The attention directed to his life and work in the late 20th and early 21st century is a testament to his role as beacon and guide for several generations of scholars who have furthered the work he began. In view of this scholarly respect and affection it seems apt to mention here at least three of the seven Festschriften devoted to Kristeller: Oberman and Brady 1975, a volume largely dedicated to tracing the influence of Italian humanistic culture in Europe; Mahoney 1976, which contains contributions from the first generation of scholars influenced by Kristeller’s work; and Hankins, et al. 1987, which collects essays from a second generation of scholars indebted to Kristeller. Though not a Festschrift, Rabil 1988 is a rich multivolume work aiming at a comprehensive and self-consciously Kristellerian definition and contextualization of humanism.

  • Hankins, James, John Monfasani, and Frederick Purnell Jr., eds. Supplementum Festivum. Studies in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1987.

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    Presented to Kristeller on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, this contains twenty-three essays authored by a second generation of distinguished scholars influenced by him.

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  • Mahoney, Edward P., ed. Philosophy and Humanism: Renaissance Essays in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1976.

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    One of three Festschriften presented to Kristeller on his seventieth birthday. Brings together thirty-two colleagues and members of Kristeller’s Columbia University seminar on the Renaissance. Contains the first attempt at a bibliography of Kristeller’s work.

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  • Oberman, Heiko A., and Thomas A. Brady Jr., eds. Itinerarium Italicum. The Profile of the Italian Renaissance in the Mirror of Its European Transformations. Dedicated to Paul Oskar Kristeller on the Occasion of His 70th birthday. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1975.

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    Collects seven important essays by leading scholars on the spread of humanistic culture in northern Europe, specifically Germany, France, the Low Countries, and England.

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  • Rabil, Albert, Jr., ed. Renaissance Humanism: Foundations, Forms, and Legacy. 3 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.

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    Possibly the most comprehensive, self-consciously Kristellerian introduction to Renaissance humanism.

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