Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Atlantic History Portuguese Atlantic World
by
John M. Monteiro

Introduction

The development of Portuguese navigation, trade, colonization, and intercultural exchange played a key role in the shaping of an Atlantic world. Beginning in the first half of the 15th century, small streams of merchants, migrants, and missionaries issued from the small kingdom at the extreme southwestern edge of Christendom, establishing footholds among native peoples along the Atlantic coast of Africa and settling several previously uninhabited islands. By the mid-17th century, the rapid expansion of sugar production along the Atlantic coast of Brazil and the corresponding growth of the transoceanic slave trade laid the foundations of a South Atlantic system, binding together South America and parts of Central and Southern Africa in an ongoing circulation of peoples, objects, plants, styles, religious practices, and forms of knowledge. At the close of the 17th century, the discovery of gold in Brazil sent new waves of migrants across the Atlantic, both voluntary (from Portugal) and forced (from Africa). In 1808 Napoleon invaded Portugal and the Portuguese monarchy set sail for Rio de Janeiro, shifting the center of the Lusophone Atlantic to South America. Following Brazilian independence in 1822, in spite of the force of Abolitionism throughout the Atlantic, the slave trade between Portuguese Africa (especially Angola and Mozambique) and Brazil reached alarming levels before finally coming to an end, shortly after the Eusébio de Queiroz Law of 1850. In this sense, while much of the current bibliography emphasizes transatlantic connections, interaction, and exchange, it should be remembered that a large part of Portuguese Atlantic history involves brutal processes of separation, exploitation, and destruction. After all, Portuguese overseas activities and policies contributed directly to two of the greatest demographic catastrophes in human history: the vertiginous decline of Amerindian populations and the mass deportation of millions of slaves from Africa to a new world. Nonetheless, as scholars of Portuguese expansion to Africa, Asia, and America have shown, the history of the Lusophone world is also that of diverse peoples and polities who engaged the Portuguese as allies, enemies, and colonial masters. They, too, contributed in significant ways to shaping the Portuguese Atlantic world, which rarely resulted in the form prescribed or even imagined by the Portuguese themselves.

General Overviews

The Portuguese Atlantic world often is treated as part of a broader construct: the Portuguese overseas empire, extending in spatial terms from the Maghreb to the Moluccas (in Charles Boxer’s memorable phrase), and in chronology from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the cession of Macau to China in 1999. A long colonialist tradition (which reached its heights under Salazar in the mid-20th century) emphasized the spread of a Portuguese cultural and institutional matrix to Africa, Asia, and America, but this approach lost a great deal of its appeal with the tragic debacle of Portuguese colonialism in Africa and Asia in the 1970s. More recent scholarship has underscored the discontinuous and informal character of Portuguese overseas activities. In this literature, the objectified “other” has become a conscious agent of social action; commercial monopolies have been displaced by networks of diaspora traders; the triumphant view of spiritual conquests has been replaced by manifestations of native Christianity; centralized royal policy has given way to a decentered focus on local and regional elites. In effect, scholars of Portuguese expansion increasingly have adopted a view from the shore rather than from the ship. The cumulative effect of these critical studies appears especially in Newitt 2005 and Disney 2009, both of which offer important suggestions for the Atlantic world from their respective authors’ experiences as researchers in the Lusophone Indian Ocean. Boxer 1969 remains useful as a sweeping introductory overview, while Russell-Wood 1998 also provides a readable single-volume study, with an original thesis on spatial and social mobility. Bethencourt and Curto 2007 includes a solid sampling of recent Portuguese and Brazilian scholarship in translation. Finally, the encyclopedic contributions (in Portuguese) Serrão and Marques 1986–2006 and Bethencourt and Chaudhuri 1998–2000 interweave more traditional institutional approaches with recent scholarship on informal aspects of Portuguese expansion.

  • Bethencourt, Francisco, and Kirti Chaudhuri, eds. História da Expansão Portuguesa. 5 vols. Lisbon: Círculo dos Leitores, 1998–2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Launched between the quincentennial celebration of Vasco da Gama’s journey and the cession of Portugal’s last colonial holding to China, this collection draws together top colonial scholars from Portugal, Brazil, and the United States in a comprehensive coverage of Portuguese imperial expansion. Atlantic history receives greater attention in Volumes 1, 2, and 3, from the early settlement of uninhabited islands to the full development of a South Atlantic system.

    Find this resource:

  • Bethencourt, Francisco, and Diogo Ramada Curto, eds. Portuguese Oceanic Expansion, 1400–1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent set of essays by leading specialists in Portuguese expansion studies, covering a broad gamut of themes in a comparative scope, placing the Atlantic in a broader context.

    Find this resource:

  • Boxer, Charles Ralph. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415–1815. The History of Human Society Series. New York: Knopf, 1969.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Classic overview of Portuguese overseas expansion to Africa, Asia, and America, written with an eye for biographical detail, picturesque anecdotes, and sweeping conclusions. Although superseded in many respects by subsequent research and theoretical approaches to colonialism, Boxer includes useful insights to race relations, colonial administration, religion, and several other themes fleshed out in other works. This book was reissued by the Gulbenkian Foundation in 1991.

    Find this resource:

  • Disney, A. R. A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire. 2 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written by a leading specialist in Portuguese India, an informative, well-organized, and readable synthesis of the literature covering Portugal from the early hunter-gatherers to 1807, and its empire from the taking of Ceuta (1415) to the early 19th century, with several chapters on the Atlantic.

    Find this resource:

  • Newitt, M. D. D. A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400–1668. London: Routledge, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sweeping overview by a specialist in the history of Mozambique, with an excellent focus on informal aspects of Portuguese expansion, which include mestiço communities, trade diasporas, and other phenomena beyond the reach of formal empire.

    Find this resource:

  • Russell-Wood, A. J. R. The Portuguese Empire, 1414–1808: A World on the Move. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Paperback edition with a new preface. In this ambitious overview, Brazil and the Atlantic are projected into the wider context of Portuguese overseas expansion. Includes insightful chapters on the circulation of people, commodities, plants, styles, and ideas.

    Find this resource:

  • Serrão, Joel, and A. H., de Oliveira Marques, eds. Nova História da Expansão Portuguesa. 12 vols. Lisbon: Editorial Estampa, 1986–2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Organized chronologically, geographically, and thematically, this collection includes broad syntheses by leading (mostly Portuguese) scholars. Volume 3 (recently published) covers the Atlantic Islands from the 15th to the 20th century, Volumes 6, 7, and 8 treat the “Luso-Brazilian Empire” from 1500 to 1822, and Volume 10 covers the Portuguese in Africa during the 19th century. Curiously, Volume 1 (presumably an overview) and Volume 9 (Africa before the 1825) have not appeared yet.

    Find this resource:

Comparative Atlantic Studies

No book-length overview exists for the Portuguese Atlantic world. Important precursors to this conceptual framework include Charles Boxer’s Salvador de Sá and the Struggle for Brazil and Angola (1952) and Frédéric Mauro’s Le Portugal et l’Atlantique au 17e Siècle (1960). The first focuses on imperial political and naval actions, the second on transatlantic commerce. More recent formulations include Alencastro 1991 and Maxwell 1993 on the articulation of a Portuguese South Atlantic system, along with Russell-Wood 2009, an up-to-date, cogent overview. In addition to the special issues of the Luso-Brazilian Review and the Portuguese Studies Review (see Journals), several thematic essay collections have been issued, on sugar (Schwartz 2004), creole societies (Havik and Newitt 2007), urban history (Brockey 2008), and homoerotic relations (Johnson and Dutra 2007).

  • Alencastro, Luiz Felipe de. “The Apprenticeship of Colonization.” In Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System. Edited by Barbara Solow, 151–176. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    English-language, preliminary version of a chapter in Alencastro’s O Trato dos Viventes (2000), examining the development and significance of the South Atlantic system, in which the transoceanic slave trade played a critical role. Emphasizes the importance of a bilateral exchange between Rio de Janeiro and Luanda, in which local interests often stood at odds with imperial dictates from Lisbon. A broader synthesis of this important work can be found in the author’s essay in Bethencourt and Curto 2007 (see General Overviews).

    Find this resource:

  • Brockey, Liam Matthew, ed. Portuguese Colonial Cities in the Modern World. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focusing on religious, commercial, and political aspects, ten essays by leading colonial scholars underscore both common and disparate features of these “nodes of empire” in America, Africa, and Asia. Three cities on the Atlantic receive special attention: Salvador (in essays by Charlotte Castelnau-L’Estoile and Stuart B. Schwartz), Rio de Janeiro (Kirsten Schultz), and Luanda (Catarina Madeira Santos).

    Find this resource:

  • Coates, Timothy J. Exiles and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550–1755. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Covering the entire Portuguese empire, this book presents abundant evidence on the use of penal exile and the expatriation of orphan girls as colonizing methods. The Atlantic Islands, Angola, and Brazil were important Atlantic destinations for exiles throughout the period.

    Find this resource:

  • Havik, Philip, and Malyn Newitt, eds. Creole Societies in the Portuguese Colonial Empire. Lusophone Studies 6. Bristol, UK: University of Bristol, 2007

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of fascinating essays in honor of C. R. Boxer (b. 1904–d. 2000), dean of Portuguese expansion studies, focusing on societies and social groups that emerged from colonial encounters throughout Portuguese Africa, America, and Asia. Of particular interest to Atlantic studies are the essays on Luso-African families and peoples in West and West-Central Africa, along with a provocative study on the Angolares of São Tomé Island, usually thought to be a runaway slave community.

    Find this resource:

  • Johnson, Harold, and Francis Dutra, eds. Pelo Vaso Traseiro: Sodomy and Sodomites in Luso-Brazilian History. Tucson: Fenestra Books, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Pioneer book on the history of homosexuality in the Portuguese-speaking world, with several studies on different parts of the Atlantic, from the 15th to the 20th centuries.

    Find this resource:

  • Maxwell, Kenneth. “The Atlantic in the Eighteenth Century: A Southern Perspective on the Need to Return to the ‘Big Picture.’” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 3 (1993): 209–236.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Think piece by a top specialist in Portuguese and Brazilian history, which recommends placing the South Atlantic system at the center of discussions on the Atlantic world in the Age of Revolution.

    Find this resource:

  • Naro, Nancy Priscilla, Roger Sansi-Roca, and David Treece, eds. Cultures of the Lusophone Black Atlantic. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent collection of essays by leading specialists on different dimensions of the Portuguese Atlantic world, covering sexuality, religion, slavery, and migration.

    Find this resource:

  • Russell-Wood, A. J. R. “The Portuguese Atlantic, 1415–1808.” In Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal. Edited by Jack P. Greene and Philip D. Morgan, 81–109. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written by a leading specialist, this excellent overview proposes a decentered approach, in an effort to understand Portuguese Atlantic history from the vantage point of individual social actors operating at the margins of formal colonial institutions. The author includes useful bibliographical comments in the endnotes.

    Find this resource:

  • Schwartz, Stuart B., ed. Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450–1680. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Nine comparative studies on the origins and development of sugar economies and their relation to Atlantic slavery and European markets. Essays on Madeira, Brazil, the slave trade, and the sugar market treat aspects of the Portuguese Atlantic.

    Find this resource:

Reference Works

The E-cyclopaedia of Portuguese Expansion is a good place to start for basic information on diverse aspects of Portuguese expansion, although it is stronger on Asia than on Africa and America. Historical maps and illustrations covering the Portuguese Atlantic can be found in Brazil’s Biblioteca Nacional Digital (on a wide gamut of topics) and in the University of Virginia’s visual record of the Atlantic slave trade (specifically on slavery). The Dutch Portuguese Colonial History website and Memórias da África provide useful online bibliographies, while Miller 1999 is a valuable resource for slavery in the Portuguese Atlantic.

  • Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Organized by Jerome Handler and Michael Tuite Jr. at the University of Virginia, the site features a searchable database of over twelve hundred maps and illustrations from different periods of the slave trade, with a good selection on Portuguese America. An excellent teaching resource for Atlantic history.

    Find this resource:

    • Biblioteca Nacional Digital.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This website is available only in Portuguese, but it is worth accessing to peruse precious iconographic and cartographic materials. Of special interest are the drawings of flora, fauna, and indigenous peoples from Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira’s scientific expedition (1783–1792); the maps in the historical cartography link, many on the Atlantic; and the images (including photographs) in the slave trade section. Note: the site requires plug-ins to show the images.

      Find this resource:

      • Dutch Portuguese Colonial History.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Available online since 1998 and constantly updated, includes useful information, photographs, and bibliography on Portuguese and Dutch colonial forts and settlements in America, Africa, and Asia.

        Find this resource:

        • E-cyclopaedia of Portuguese Expansion.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Created by the Centro de História de Além-Mar (Center for Overseas History) at the New University of Lisbon, this site includes brief and informative articles by specialists, chronologies, lists of colonial administrators, maps, illustrations, and other useful information on the history of Portuguese overseas expansion. Part of the site is available in English, with plans for translation of all the material.

          Find this resource:

          • Memórias da África.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Developed at the University of Aveiro (Portugal) for the Fundação Portugal-África, this portal includes a large digital library and extensive bibliographical information on colonial and postcolonial Lusophone Africa. Includes translation into English.

            Find this resource:

            • Miller, Joseph C. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography. 2 vols. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This important research tool incorporates the annual bibliographies of published and unpublished works on slavery that appeared originally in Slavery & Abolition. Organized chronologically, geographically, and thematically, includes important works on the Iberian Atlantic. Slavery & Abolition continues to print annual updates.

              Find this resource:

            • Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database.

              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This site provides an excellent resource for understanding the dimension and complexity of the Atlantic slave trade. Nearly 35,000 voyages are documented, many of which involved Portuguese trade and navigation.

              Find this resource:

              Journals

              The following reviews include articles and occasional thematic issues on the Portuguese Atlantic. Both the Luso-Brazilian Review and the Portuguese Studies Review cover history and literature in the Portuguese-speaking world, with increasing attention to Atlantic studies. The Portuguese Atlantic world appears with frequency in both Itinerario, which focuses on European expansion in general, and Slavery and Abolition, which treats all aspects of slavery.

              Primary Sources

              This section includes a small sampling of printed primary sources, ranging from document collections, to shipwreck narratives, to descriptions of African and Amerindian peoples. On early exchanges between African peoples and the Portuguese, Brásio 1952–1988, Brásio 1958–2004 and Albuquerque, et al. 1993–2002 provide a wealth of material for specialists. Nonspecialists may find some of the excerpts in Koschorke, et al. 2007 useful. On navigation and exploration, Cortesão and Teixeira da Mota 1987 includes a basic guide to Portuguese maps and mapping, while Boxer and Blackmore 2001 includes a readable selection of shipwreck narratives. Staden 2008 is a narrative account whose recent translation provides an exemplary model for a critical edition. Many additional primary sources in Portuguese, too numerous to list here, were republished by the National Commission for the Celebration of the Portuguese Discoveries (CNCDP) in Lisbon from the late 1980s to 2001, in both printed and electronic media. The publisher Michel Chandeigne issued several printed sources on Portuguese expansion in French translations during this same period.

              • Albuquerque, Luís de, Maria Emília Madeira Santos, and Maria Luísa Oliveira Esteves, eds. Portugaliae Monumenta Africana. 5 vols. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1993–2002.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Transcription of manuscript documents from Iberian archives on the relations between Europeans and Africans, covering mainly the 15th and early 16th centuries. The documents are mostly in Portuguese and Latin, with summaries in English and French. For specialists, although lacking indices and explanatory notes. Volume 4 has not yet been published.

                Find this resource:

              • Boxer, C. R., and Josiah Blackmore, eds. The Tragic History of the Sea. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Shipwreck narratives constituted a significant oral and written literary genre in 16th- and 17th-century Portugal. This edition includes a selection of the accounts compiled by Bernardo Gomes de Brito in 1735–1736, with a vivid translation by a great specialist in Portuguese seafaring. Expanded version of texts edited by Boxer in 1959.

                Find this resource:

              • Brásio, António, ed. Monumenta Missionaria Africana: África Ocidental (1st series). 15 vols. Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1952–1988.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A massive collection of narrative accounts, missionary reports, and other documents, including letters from African leaders to Iberian authorities. The first series covers Central Africa and Lower Guinea from the 15th to the 17th centuries. Documents are primarily in Portuguese but also some appear in Latin, Spanish, and Italian. Indispensable resource for African and Atlantic world history.

                Find this resource:

              • Brásio, António, ed. Monumenta Missionaria Africana: África Ocidental (2d series). 7 vols. Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1958–2004.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A continuation of Brásio 1952–1988. This second series focuses on Senegambia and Upper Guinea, with documents spanning the 14th to the 17th centuries.

                Find this resource:

              • Cortesão, Armando, and Avelino Teixeira da Mota. Portugaliae Monumenta Cartographica. 6 vols. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1987.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                First published during the Henrician quincentennial in 1960, this collection includes studies, bibliographies, and reproductions of maps related to Portuguese navigation and overseas expansion. Retrieved from archives and libraries in five continents, the cartographic material represents an extraordinary resource for Atlantic history. Available in many research libraries.

                Find this resource:

              • Koschorke, Klaus, Frieder Ludwig and Mariano Delgado, eds. A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450–1990: A Documentary Sourcebook. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Offers brief but useful excerpts from a broad sampling of primary sources, many of which cover the Portuguese missionary enterprise throughout the world, including interesting information on “native Christianity.”

                Find this resource:

              • Staden, Hans. Hans Staden’s True History: An Account of Cannibal Captivity in Brazil. Edited by Neil Whitehead, translated by Michael Harbsmeier. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Excellent critical edition and new translation of one of the most fascinating 16th-century accounts of indigenous societies in Brazil, first published in German in 1557.

                Find this resource:

              Navigation and Exploration

              There is an extensive bibliography on Portuguese navigation science and technology, ranging from technical studies on shipbuilding, coastal navigation, charts, and other aspects of maritime navigation. This selection focuses on broader issues of knowledge, policy, and representations. Seed 1995 includes a chapter on the symbolic and ceremonial dimensions of Portuguese seafaring, while the essays in Bleichmar, et al. 2009 focus on colonial scientific knowledge and practice. Fonseca 1999 provides an overview of early Atlantic navigation. Elbl 1991, Russell 1995, and Russell 2000 shed new light on the patronage of Prince Henry. Finally, Blackmore 2002 provides a literary analysis of early narrative genres, contrasting imperial chronicles with shipwreck narratives.

              • Blackmore, Josiah. Manifest Perdition: Shipwreck Narrative and the Disruption of Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Establishes a counterpoint to official Portuguese imperial writings through the analysis of shipwreck narratives, which depict a contrasting world of disorder. Based on the narratives compiled by Bernardo Gomes de Brito in the 18th century.

                Find this resource:

              • Bleichmar, Daniela, Paula De Vos, Kristin Huffine, and Kevin Sheehan, eds. Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500–1800. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Collection of fifteen studies on colonial science, with four on different aspects of Portuguese overseas expansion: a historiographical overview, a study of the interaction between experimentation and theory in Portuguese maritime discoveries, an examination of the “imaginary geography” of gold discoveries, and an investigation of the circulation of medical knowledge.

                Find this resource:

              • Elbl, Ivana. “Man of his Time (and Peers): A New Look at Henry the Navigator.” Luso-Brazilian Review 28.2 (1991): 73–99.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Interesting revision seeking to understand the broader social context of early Portuguese expansion, usually attributed to the visionary quest of a single man, Prince Henry.

                Find this resource:

              • Fonseca, Luís Adão da. The Discoveries and the Formation of the Atlantic Ocean, 14th–16th Century. Translated by the British Council. Lisbon: CNCDP, 1999.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Brief introduction to early Atlantic navigation and settlement by a leading specialist in maritime history.

                Find this resource:

              • Russell, Sir Peter E. Portugal, Spain, and the African Atlantic, 1343–1490: Chivalry and Crusade from John of Gaunt to Henry the Navigator. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1995.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Essays on Anglo-Portuguese relations, on chronicles covering African voyages, and on the early expansion to Atlantic islands and the coast of Guinea emphasize the medieval framework of this initial stage of Portuguese oceanic expansion. Two studies focusing on Africans in Portugal during the late 15th century are of special interest to Atlantic studies, as they draw out issues of language, translation, and racial attitudes in Portuguese expansion.

                Find this resource:

              • Russell, Sir Peter E. Prince Henry “The Navigator”: A Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Thoroughly researched and highly readable biography of Prince Henry. Although he was not a navigator, Henry played a key role in early Portuguese exploration of Africa’s Atlantic coast.

                Find this resource:

              • Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World, 1492–1640, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Comparative focus on Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English ceremonial practices in establishes possession over New World lands. The Portuguese section focuses on knowledge and rituals linked to oceanic navigation.

                Find this resource:

              Imperial Portugal

              Portuguese expansion had a profound impact on the political, social, economic, and religious structures and institutions of metropolitan Portugal. The following selection highlights religion (Alden 1996 on the Jesuits and Bethencourt 2009 on the Inquisition), society (Saunders 1982 on Africans in Portugal and Dutra 2006 on military orders), politics (Maxwell 1995 on Pombal), and culture (Levenson 1993 on art and architecture).

              • Alden, Dauril. The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, Its Empire, and Beyond, 1540–1750. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                More than a synthesis, this book includes impressive archival research, offering an overarching account of Jesuit religious, political, and economic activities, which played a crucial role in Portuguese expansion. The Atlantic dimension of this story focuses mainly on Portugal and Portuguese America, with important insights on missions, plantations, and slavery.

                Find this resource:

              • Bethencourt, Francisco. The Inquisition: A Global History, 1487–1834. Translated by Jean Birrel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Updated and revised version of the original French edition (1995), this book explores the institutional, social, and cultural history of the Inquisition in Rome, Spain, and Portugal, along with the courts in overseas Iberian colonies (Goa, Mexico, and Lima).

                Find this resource:

              • Dutra, Francis A. Military Orders in the Early Modern Portuguese World: The Orders of Christ, Santiago and Avis. Burlington, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Collected essays on patronage and social mobility in Portugal and its colonial sphere.

                Find this resource:

              • Levenson, Jay, ed. The Age of the Baroque in Portugal. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Catalogue from an exhibition at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. Includes original articles by specialists on politics, society, art, and architecture in 18th-century Portugal. Richly illustrated.

                Find this resource:

              • Maxwell, Kenneth. Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Much more than a political biography of the leading statesman of 18th-century Portugal, this book covers the Portuguese Atlantic system over the entire century, when Brazil became the focal point of imperial policy and commerce.

                Find this resource:

              • Pedreira, Jorge M. “‘To Have and Have Not’: The Economic Consequences of Empire. Portugal, 1415–1822.” Revista de Historia Económica 16.1 (1998): 93–122.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Brief survey of the economic consequences of Portuguese expansion.

                Find this resource:

              • Saunders, A. C. de C. M. A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441–1555. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Practically the only study on slavery in metropolitan Portugal, this book shows that Lisbon was one of the main destinations for African slaves during the first century of the trade.

                Find this resource:

              Atlantic Islands

              During the 15th century, the Portuguese settled four major island groups off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Over time, each of these islands developed distinctive cultural and linguistic characteristics, and served as launching points for colonial institutional and agricultural models, from hereditary captaincies to slave-based plantations. For an introductory overview in English, the chapter in Disney 2009 (see General Overviews) is a good place to start. Duncan 1972 places the islands in the Atlantic trade circuit, while the other selections provide detailed studies of specific islands or archipelagoes. Carreira 1982 fleshes out the main issues in the history of the Cape Verde Islands, while Lobban 1998 and Lobban and Saucier 2007 provide introductory overview. Halter 1993 brings Portuguese Atlantic history well into the 20th century, covering transoceanic migrations from the Cape Verde Islands in the period following the extinction of the slave trade. Hodges and Newitt 1988 offers a cogent introduction to the long-term history of São Tomé and Príncipe, while Garfield 1992 and Souza 2008 present dense social histories of São Tomé during the period dominated by slavery and the slave trade.

              • Carreira, António. The People of the Cape Verde Islands: Exploitation and Emigration. Edited and translated by Christopher Fyfe. London: Archon, 1982.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Abridged translation of one of the most prolific writers on the Portuguese Atlantic. Carreira examines some of the larger themes in Cape Verde history, including slavery, famine, and emigration, from the 15th to the 20th centuries.

                Find this resource:

              • Duncan, T. Bentley. Atlantic Islands: Madeira, the Azores, and the Cape Verdes in Seventeenth-Century Commerce and Navigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Pioneer study of the strategic role of the islands in colonial trade circuits, with detailed information on the circulation of people and commodities in the Portuguese Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Garfield, Robert. A History of São Tomé Island, 1470–1655: The Key to Guinea. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Publication of the author’s dissertation, focusing on the settlement of this previously uninhabited island and the development of a richly varied slave society.

                Find this resource:

              • Halter, Marilyn. Between Race and Ethnicity: Cape Verdean American Immigrants, 1860–1965. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on oral histories and shipping records, this study examines the development of a Cape Verdean community in the United States, which originated from voluntary migrations in the post–slave trade era.

                Find this resource:

              • Hodges, Tony, and Malyn Newitt. São Tomé and Príncipe: From Plantation Colony to Microstate. Nations of Contemporary Africa Series. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Informative overview of five hundred years of São Tomé’s history, from the initial settlement in 1470 to the aftermath of Independence. The authors include insights into slavery, the slave trade, and the development of creole communities on the islands.

                Find this resource:

              • Lobban, Richard A. Cape Verde: Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                The strength of this book is in its contemporary ethnographic view of the islands, but it also includes an efficient overview of over five centuries of colonial history.

                Find this resource:

              • Lobban, Richard A., and Paul Khalil Saucier. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2007.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Although focused on contemporary issues, the introduction provides an overview of Cape Verdean history and several entries offer information and insights in reference to the colonial past. Includes an extensive bibliography, a glossary of Portuguese and creole terms, and a useful chronology.

                Find this resource:

              • Souza, Izequiel Batista de. São Tomé et Príncipe de 1485 à 1755, une Société Coloniale: Du Blanc au Noir. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Using colonial documentary sources, this book examines the transformation of a Portuguese settler colony into a plantation zone and slave-trading entrepôt.

                Find this resource:

              West Africa

              Portuguese interaction with African societies on the Upper Guinea Coast, Senegambia, and on the Gold Coast has been the subject of numerous studies, many focusing on the Luso-African communities that emerged as intermediaries in the early slave trade. Blackmore 2009 covers early Portuguese imperial writings on West Africa, while Hair 1997 includes numerous studies on early narrative descriptions of African peoples. On the role of Luso-Africans within the context of African societies who began to face the impact of European trade, the influential study Rodney 1970 opened the way for Boulègue 1989 on the consolidation of the Luso-Africans in Senegambia, Mark 2002 on architecture and identity, Brooks 2003 on commerce and religion, and Hawthorne 2003 on local responses and long-term effects in Guinea-Bissau.

              • Ballong-Wen-Mewuda, J. Bato’ora. São Jorge da Mina, 1482–1637: La Vie d’un Comptoir Portugais en Afrique Occidentale. 2 vols. Lisbon: Fundação Gulbenkian, 1993.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Well-researched, detailed study of the commercial activities at São Jorge da Mina, a fortified trading post in what is now Ghana, from its foundation to the Dutch takeover.

                Find this resource:

              • Blackmore, Josiah. Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Analysis of early Portuguese writings on Africa and the Africans, establishing concepts and myths that were to prove foundational to Western imperial discourse.

                Find this resource:

              • Boulègue, Jean. Les Luso-Africains de Senegambie, XVIe–XIXe Siècles. Lisbon: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, 1989.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Using a wide array of European sources, this book focuses on the consolidation of Luso-Africans as a distinct social group in West Africa.

                Find this resource:

              • Brooks, George E. Eurafricans in Western Africa: Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and Religious Observance from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2003.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English accounts as well as on a close reading of the secondary literature, the book offers an informative discussion of the influential role played by Luso-Africans, who established patterns that were followed by other groups of mixed origin.

                Find this resource:

              • Hair, P. E. H. Africa Encountered: European Contacts and Evidence, 1450–1700. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1997.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Draws together articles by a leading specialist in colonial documents on African peoples, including Portuguese accounts of the Upper Guinea Coast. Includes translated excerpts.

                Find this resource:

              • Hawthorne, Walter. Planting Rice, Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400–1900. London: Heineman, 2003.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on archival and ethnographic sources, this excellent study examines the response of local societies (especially the Balanta) to the presence of Portuguese and Luso-African traders, as well as the growth of the Atlantic slave trade and its long term implications.

                Find this resource:

              • Mark, Peter. “Portuguese” Style and Luso-African Identity: Precolonial Senegambia, Sixteenth-Nineteenth Centuries. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2002.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Creative and innovative, this book provides a fascinating account of the transformation of domestic architectural styles in West Africa, with the rise of Luso-African traders who claimed Portuguese identity.

                Find this resource:

              • Rodney, Walter. A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545–1800. Oxford: Clarendon, 1970.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Although dated, this classic study was one of the first to examine Portuguese-African relations from the perspective of West African peoples, with important insights on the long-term impact of the small numbers of Portuguese and mestiço traders on the region’s history.

                Find this resource:

              Central and Southern Africa

              The Portuguese slave trade in the South Atlantic tapped heavily into the human resources of central and southern Africa, with lasting impacts on societies in both Africa and the Americas. The early conversion of the Congo monarchy to Christianity provides an important set of issues for Africanist studies, discussed in Hastings 1994 and detailed in Thornton 1998, who focuses on a fascinating prophetic movement. The most lasting Portuguese influence in Atlantic Africa took hold in Angola, one of the keys to the South Atlantic system, which is treated in an innovative way by Alencastro 2001. The following selection focuses on the impact of Portuguese trade on local societies and their response to the challenges posed by the growing Atlantic slave trade. Thornton 1999 discusses the impact of the trade on internecine warfare, while Curto 2004 studies the role of cane liquor in the slave trade. The most comprehensive treatment of the slave trade from Angola remains Miller 1988.

              • Alencastro, Luiz Felipe de. O Trato dos Viventes: Formação do Brasil no Atlântico Sul. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2001.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Although focused primarily on Brazil and the slave trade, this fresh interpretation of the South Atlantic system includes important research and insights into Portuguese-African relations in Angola during the seventeenth-century and beyond. A useful summary in English can be found in Bethencourt and Curto 2007 (cited under General Overviews).

                Find this resource:

              • Curto, José C. Enslaving Spirits: The Portuguese-Brazilian Alcohol Trade at Luanda and its Hinterland, c. 1550–1830. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2004.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Outstanding study exploring the intimate link between the supply of alcoholic beverages from Brazil and the slave export trade in west-central Africa.

                Find this resource:

              • Hastings, Adrian. The Church in Africa, 1450–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Includes a broad survey of missionary activities under the auspices of the Portuguese, as well as discussions of Portuguese relations with African Christians in Kongo and other parts of the continent.

                Find this resource:

              • Miller, Joseph C. Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1850. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Richly documented study of the Portuguese South Atlantic slave trade within the context of the rise of merchant capitalism, showing the effects of commercialization on local populations on both sides of the Atlantic, with special emphasis on Angola.

                Find this resource:

              • Thornton, John K. The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                This study details the prophetic movement led by a Kongolese woman in the early 18th century, against the backdrop of Christianity in Central Africa, the impact of the slave trade, and the dynastic disputes fueled by this broader context. Excellent example of “Afrocentric” history writing based on European sources.

                Find this resource:

              • Thornton, John K. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500–1800. London: Routledge, 1999. Warfare and History Series.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Informative overview of the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on warfare among African societies, covering Senegambia, the Gold Coast, Benin, and Angola, with a final chapter on slave soldiers throughout the Atlantic world.

                Find this resource:

              America

              This section highlights a few works that place Brazilian themes explicitly within the context of an Atlantic construct, from early settlement (Metcalf 2005 on go-betweens and Dean 1997 on the Atlantic forest), to the sugar revolution (Schwartz 1985), to the transplantation of a North African fortress and its people to the Amazon (Vidal 2005), to independence (Adelman 2006 and Schultz 2001), to the history of African martial arts in postcolonial Brazil (Assunção 2005). Also included is a study of the Portuguese beyond the bounds of Brazil (Studnicki-Gizbert 2007 on the Portuguese and New Christian trade diaspora in Spanish America).

              • Adelman, Jeremy. Sovereignty and Revolution in the Iberian Atlantic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Placing South American independence movements within their Atlantic context, the author focuses on the issue of sovereignty, presenting Brazil as a counterpoint to the Spanish American experience. The book includes a discussion of slavery in the articulation of a South Atlantic system and its role in Brazilian independence.

                Find this resource:

              • Assunção, Matthias Röhrig. Capoeira: The History of an Afro-Brazilian Martial Art. London: Routledge, 2005.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Overview of the history of capoeira, tracing its Atlantic roots and discussing controversies in the prevailing literature on the subject. Includes a chapter on slave capoeira in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1850.

                Find this resource:

              • Dean, Warren. With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on an impressive quantity of documentary and secondary sources, and informed by other fields of knowledge, Dean presents a sweeping, ambitious history of Brazil from an environmental perspective. His focus on the Atlantic forest affords an understanding of the relationship between different human populations with the forest, as the environment became more deeply enmeshed in the Atlantic economy.

                Find this resource:

              • Metcalf, Alida C. Go-Betweens and the Colonization of Brazil, 1500–1600. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Covering the first century of Portuguese America, the author studies the role and structure of cultural mediation in the colonial process, placing coastal Brazil within the context of similar processes throughout the Portuguese Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Schultz, Kirsten. Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1821. New York: Routledge, 2001.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on extensive research, the book examines the processes set off by the establishment of the Portuguese monarchy in Rio de Janeiro, arguing that “the politics of representative government and national citizenship displaced the politics of absolute monarchy and vassalage.”

                Find this resource:

              • Schwartz, Stuart B. Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Covering nearly three hundred years of Atlantic history, the book introduces many new perspectives on land, labor, patterns of slaveholding, and the active role of African and creole slaves and freedmen in plantation societies.

                Find this resource:

              • Studnicki-Gizbert, Daviken. A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal’s Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492–1640. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Focuses on the network of Portuguese merchants operating in Atlantic commerce from various points in Spain and Spanish America.

                Find this resource:

              • Vidal, Laurent. Mazagão, la Ville que Traversa l’Atlantique du Maroc à l’Amazonie, 1769–1783. Paris: Aubier, 2005.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Solidly based on primary sources, this book provides a fascinating account of the transplantation of a fortress and its inhabitants from North Africa to the Amazon.

                Find this resource:

              Slave Trade and Slavery

              From the early Portuguese exploration of the Upper Guinea Coast in the mid-15th century to the suppression of the Brazilian trade in 1850, slavery and the slave trade played a crucial role in the articulation of a Portuguese Atlantic world, as Portuguese merchants and ship captains were the first—and among the last—to traffic in human chattel. The study of slavery and the slave trade has grown by leaps and bounds over the past three decades, as documented in Miller 1999 (cited under Reference Works). For a more general approach, a useful starting point is Klein 1999, while Hall 2005 explores the meaning of African ethnic names in the Americas. The essay collections listed here offer a solid sampling of current scholarship on the impact of the slave trade on local societies on both sides of the Atlantic (especially Curto and Lovejoy 2004 and Curto and Soulodre-LaFrance 2005). On the numbers of the slave trade, the essays in Eltis and Richardson 2008 show both the potential and limitations of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Database. On the Portuguese slave trade to Spanish America, Newson and Minchon 2007 introduces fresh research and insights. On the impact of the slave trade to Brazil, more specifically Rio de Janeiro, Karasch 1987 remains an indispensable account. On the role of the Portuguese in the abolition (as well as persistence) of the transatlantic trade, Marques 2006 and Horne 2007 present extensive new evidence.

              • Curto, José C., and Renée Soulodre-LaFrance, eds. Africa and the Americas: Interconnections during the Slave Trade. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Excellent set of essays by leading specialists, covering aspects of labor, ritual, religion, culture, and resistance in Central and Southern Africa and in the Americas, with a pronounced focus on the Portuguese Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Curto, José C., and Paul E. Lovejoy, ed. Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil during the Era of Slavery. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2004.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Excellent set of essays on the Luso-Brazilian slave trade, the impact of western Africa on Brazil, and the impact of Brazil upon western Africa.

                Find this resource:

              • Eltis, David, and David Richardson, eds. Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Exploring the database compiled over the last ten years, covering nearly 35,000 voyages, the essays in this volume include original studies by specialists on Portugal, the Upper Guinea Coast, Angola, and Brazil, from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

                Find this resource:

              • Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Focuses on the persistence of African ethnic identities following the Atlantic crossing. Includes important insights into the Portuguese Atlantic circuit of peoples and identities.

                Find this resource:

              • Horne, Gerald. The Deepest South: The United States, Brazil, and the African Slave Trade. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Extensively researched, the book explores the involvement of US interests in the illegal slave trade to Brazil and Cuba in the mid-19th century. Includes information on the participation of Portuguese ships and ship captains in the clandestine trade.

                Find this resource:

              • Karasch, Mary. Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1850. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Exhaustively researched, classic study of the multiple characteristics and activities involved in urban slavery in Rio de Janeiro during the peak years of the African slave trade. Includes detailed information on African ethnic identities in the New World.

                Find this resource:

              • Klein, Herbert S. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Well-organized and highly readable overview of the transatlantic trade, with important information and insights on the Portuguese Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Marques, João Pedro. The Sounds of Silence: Nineteenth-Century Portugal and the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Translated by Richard Wall. New York: Berghahn, 2006.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on detailed research in Portuguese and British sources, this book examines the problem of abolition from the late 18th century to the extinction of the trade around 1860. Includes a discussion of internal political debates as well as the international context, showing the impact that the loss of Brazil had on slavery in the African colonies.

                Find this resource:

              • Newson, Linda, and Susan Minchon. From Capture to Sale: The Portuguese Slave Trade to Spanish South America in the Early Seventeenth Century. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2007.

                DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004156791.i-373Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Well-researched and innovative study based on private papers, focusing on the trade conducted by Portuguese merchants who held asiento contracts to supply Spanish American markets with slaves. Includes rare information on the diet and health of slaves transported across the Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              Atlantic Diasporas and Transoceanic Identities

              An important segment within Atlantic studies traces the development and dynamics of diasporas, beginning with the far-flung network of Portuguese peoples throughout the early modern world. While studies of the Portuguese diaspora tend to focus on postcolonial migrations, the Portuguese Atlantic world included the circulation of peoples and identities, many of them intimately connected to the slave-trade circuit. On the circulation of African cultures and identities, Thornton 1998 offers an excellent place to start, while Heywood and Thornton 2007 as well as Sweet 2003 develop this approach from the perspective of forced migrants from Central Africa. Essay collections on African diasporas in the Portuguese Atlantic include Naro, et al. 2007 (cited under Comparative Atlantic Studies) and Sansone, et al. 2008, while Falola and Childs 2004 includes studies on Yoruba religion and identity in the Portuguese Atlantic and beyond. The Jewish and New Christian diaspora is the subject of Kagan and Morgan 2009, which also appears in part of Schwartz 2008, a study on religious tolerance in the Iberian Atlantic.

              • Falola, Toyin, and Matt D. Childs, eds. The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Collected essays by specialists, including several studies on religion and ethnic identities in the Portuguese Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Heywood, Linda M., and John K. Thornton. Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585–1660. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Original approach to the development of creole slave cultures in the Americas, within the contexts of the transatlantic slave trade, colonial rivalries, and African agency. Focuses on Central African cultural continuities in Portuguese, Dutch, and English colonies.

                Find this resource:

              • Heywood, Linda M., ed. Central Africans and Cultural Transformations in the American Diaspora. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Includes original essays by leading scholars, focusing on the presence and influence of central African cultural elements, especially from the Kongo-Angola regions, within colonial slave societies in the Americas. Several essays deal with the Portuguese slave trade and with different areas of Portuguese America.

                Find this resource:

              • Kagan, Richard, and Philip Morgan, eds. Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500–1800. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Includes essays on Portuguese Jews and New Christians in Spanish America, Dutch Brazil, and West Africa.

                Find this resource:

              • Sansone, Livio, Elisée Soumonni, and Boubacar Barry, eds. Africa, Brazil, and the Construction of Trans-Atlantic Black Identities. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2008.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Outstanding set of conference papers covering a wide range of topics on language, religion, culture, identity, and memory, with a special focus on the Lusophone Atlantic.

                Find this resource:

              • Schwartz, Stuart B. All Can Be Saved: Religious Tolerance and Salvation in the Iberian Atlantic World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Challenges conventional wisdom about the intolerant character of Catholic orthodoxy in the Iberian world by exploring the attitudes and beliefs of common people who defied religious orthodoxy by defending ideas about freedom of conscience.

                Find this resource:

              • Sweet, James H. Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African-Portuguese World, 1441–1770. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Based on extensive research, this engaging study accompanies the movement of social and religious practices from central Africa to the slave communities around the Portuguese Atlantic diaspora. Adds new insights to the study of African religions in Brazil.

                Find this resource:

              • Thornton, John K. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800, 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Popular college text with introductory insights to Atlantic history from the perspective of African peoples. The Portuguese Atlantic plays a prominent role in this account.

                Find this resource:

              LAST MODIFIED: 04/14/2011

              DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199730414-0044

              back to top

              Article

              Up

              Down