Atlantic History Nineteenth-Century France
by
Quentin Deluermoz
  • LAST MODIFIED: 23 August 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0089

Introduction

While not as powerful as Great Britain, France nonetheless remained the second imperial and economic world power for a large part of the 19th century. Molded by a kind of republican tradition, historians have long focused on the French Revolution’s legacy and the construction of a seemingly republican regime, as well as on the ascent of industrial modernity, with its new social stratifications and class struggles, and the French cultural influence. This was, after all, the century of the French Revolution, Napoleon’s First Empire, and the Third Republic, as well as of Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables and Manet’s artistic avant-garde. Over recent decades, however, scholars have tended to move in new directions. They now place greater emphasis on the multiple social, cultural, and political paths not taken in 19th-century France. They underline the richness of political experimentation and the construction of citizenship throughout the entire period. They also explore the changes in the social categories and perceptions that shaped the century. Last but not least, they have begun to link the history of metropolitan France to its colonial, imperial, and global dimensions, suggesting that new narratives and interpretations of this imperial nation-state should be made. This work is, however, still underway. As such, it cannot be said that “Atlantic history” today constitutes a delimited field. First, the French global outlook, at this time, was turned toward several areas, including Asia and the Mediterranean. Second, ways of approaching this perspective vary greatly: France in Atlantic history supposes transnational, colonial, and imperial dimensions, as well as asymmetrical mutual influences. It also supposes a revised chronology between the “early modern” and “modern” periods, as it is necessary to explore whether or not, and how, the study of France in Atlantic history contributes to the crystallization of specific societies around the Atlantic. For these reasons, the present contribution proposes both classic and influential works on French history, as well as works addressing Atlantic history for 19th-century France, to show the specificity, the interest, and the potential of such a perspective.

General Overviews

There are many very good books on French history, in both French and English. Démier 2000 presents one of the most complete empirical overviews of the century. Jarrige and Fureix 2015 offers an excellent presentation of the recent historiographical stakes and trends. A number of essays and textbooks have begun to include the Atlantic dimension, among other things, in the French narrative, as can be seen, albeit in different ways, in Chapoutot 2012–2014 and Stovall 2015. Osterhammel 2014 and Vidal 2008 are also useful, the first for a broader perspective on global history, the second for an analysis of the academic field of “Atlantic history” in France.

  • Chapoutot, Johann, ed. Histoire de la France contemporaine. Paris: Seuil, 2012–2014.

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    This multivolume collection replaces the famous Nouvelle Histoire de la France Contemporaine. Each volume proposes new analysis of its given period, using both classic and recent works on a social and political level. The whole presents an interesting synthesis of the process of “politicization” of French peoples throughout the century, encompassing imperial, colonial, and, in particular, Atlantic perspectives. For the 19th century, see the following: Lignereux, Aurélien, L’Empire des Français (1799–1815), 2012; Goujon, Bertrand, Monarchies postrévolutionnaires (1814–1848), 2012; Deluermoz, Quentin, Le crépuscule des révolutions (1848–1871), 2012; Houte, Arnaud, le triomphe de la République (1871–1914), 2014.

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    • Démier, Francis. La France au XIXe siècle: 1814–1914. Paris: Seuil, 2000.

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      A complete textbook on the history of France, from the end of the Napoleonic empire to the First World War. It shows the complexity of the century and contains very good chapters on constitutional monarchies, economy, social history, and the history of representations.

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      • Jarrige, François, and Emmanuel Fureix. La Modernité désenchantée: Relire l’histoire du XIXe siècle français. Paris: La Découverte, 2015.

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        This book synthesizes all recent historiographical trends in 19th-century French history, including new historical fields, such as environmental history, colonial, and global perspectives. Very useful for familiarizing readers with the current problematics and debate in 19th-century French history.

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        • Osterhammel, Jürgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014.

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          English translation of Die Verwandlung der Welt: Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts, first published in 2009. A major book for all 19th-century history. It shows both the multiple dynamics existing around the world and the growing importance of Europe. France’s unquestionable key role clearly appears here, without any national centrism. Thanks to a rigorous chapter organization, it is easy for readers to navigate through this voluminous work.

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          • Stovall, Tyler. Transnational France: The Modern History of a Universal Nation. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2015.

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            One of the rare attempts to propose a transnationalized history of France in the 19th and 20th centuries. The chapter on the global dimension of Paris and the discussion concerning the notion of “Universal Republic” from the French Revolution to the Third Republic are particularly interesting.

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            • Vidal, Cécile. “La nouvelle histoire atlantique en France: Ignorance, réticence et reconnaissance tardive.” Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos (24 September 2008).

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              A state-of-the-art publication on French Atlantic history, which proposes a clear definition of the field and explores both its promises and the resistance of French historians.

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              Atlas

              There exist many atlases on the history of contemporary France that, generally speaking, cover the 19th and 20th centuries. Pécout 2007 is a good example.

              • Pécout, Gilles. Atlas de l’histoire de France, XIXe–XXIe siècle: La France contemporaine. Paris: Autrement, 2007.

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                A very clear atlas. Maps cover the social, political, economic, and cultural aspects pertaining to the history of France in the 19th through the early 21st centuries. There is not very much on the Atlantic perspective.

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                Bibliographies

                Many bibliographies address the various aspects of the history of contemporary France. Bibliographie annuelle de l’histoire de France is one of the most complete. Napoléon provides a good example of what exists on specific subjects, eras, and regimes, in this case the First and Second Empires.

                Primary Sources

                Numerous works compile primary sources pertaining to the history of 19th-century France, and an increasing number of institutional and academic websites, such as Gallica, offer free access to printed, handwritten, and iconographic source collections. France in America deals more specifically with Atlantic history.

                • France in America.

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                  A bilingual digital library of the Library of Congress, created in partnership with the Bibliothèque nationale de France. It houses numerous documents (manuscripts, images, maps) illustrating the French presence in North America from the first decades of the 16th century to the end of the 19th century.

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                  • Gallica.

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                    Vast collection of documents digitalized by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF), containing, in particular, novels, newspapers, and a variety of iconographic documents.

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                    Journals

                    A number of journals written in English are specifically devoted to French history, such as French History and French Historical Studies. French journals, such as Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine and Annales HSS, consider more general topics, periods, and areas. Revue d’histoire du XIXe siècle offers numerous articles on 19th-century France.

                    France, the Cradle of Revolution

                    For both the inhabitants of France and foreigners, France appears as the heart of revolution in the 19th century. There were as many as four revolutions in metropolitan France (1789, 1830, 1848, 1871), together with numerous insurrections that did not lead to political change. They were generally an occasion for deep reflection, the creation of hopes and utopias, and disputes over the meaning of words (such as “liberty,” which in 1830 did not have the same meaning for workers, women, or men of the middle classes). In the same way as the global echoes of the French Revolution, they usually had an impact in the Atlantic world, in both French and non-French colonies, as well as in the states covering the American continents from north to south. It has been known, however, through works on “Atlantic revolutions” and “the revolution era” from 1770 to 1820, that France is rarely the only epicenter. Such movements usually developed from former local or regional struggles. This was particularly the case in the colonies, marked moreover by multiple reverberations among themselves, as can be seen in some works presented in the section on Abolition and Colonization. Finally, France was not indifferent to democratic revolutions and democratic civil wars, which occurred across the Atlantic, including the American Civil War.

                    1789–1830

                    The French and Haitian Revolutions are probably the most studied of all revolutions of the 19th century. For a presentation of the stakes (including a discussion of “Atlantic revolutions”), see also the Oxford Bibliographies articles “The French Revolution” and “The Haitian Revolution.” Martin 2012 presents several perspectives, both empirical and historiographical, on the French Revolution. Desan, et al. 2013 provides useful tools for a global perspective on the event, while Spieler 2013 does the same for the Atlantic world. Dubois 2004 provides an effective way to discover and understand the Haitian Revolution. Finally, Bell 2014 questions the pertinence of global approaches in the study of the French Revolution.

                    • Bell, David A. “Questioning the Global Turn: The Case of the French Revolution.” French Historical Studies 37.1 (2014): 1–24.

                      DOI: 10.1215/00161071-2376501Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Encourages critical discussion of the global or Atlantic turn taken in the study of the French Revolution.

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                      • Desan, Suzanne, Lynn Hunt, and William Max Nelson, eds. The French Revolution in Global Perspective. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013.

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                        One of the many global history works on the French Revolution.

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                        • Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2004.

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                          A very good synthesis concerning the Haitian Revolution.

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                          • Martin, Jean-Clément. Nouvelle histoire de la Révolution française. Paris: Perrin, 2012.

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                            One of the most recent updated syntheses of available works. It addresses a wide variety of aspects while highlighting the complexity of how the string of events unfolded.

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                            • Spieler, Miranda. “France and the Atlantic World.” In A Companion to the French Revolution. Edited by Peter McPhee, 57–72. Wiley-Blackwell Companions to European History. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

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                              A review of works on the French Revolution in the Atlantic world. It especially shows the importance of Caribbean dynamics.

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                              1830–1865

                              Although less widely studied from an Atlantic or global perspective than revolutions occurring during the period 1770–1820, the two revolutions of 1830 and 1848 were no less decisive, being characterized by nationalism, liberalism, and the beginnings of early-19th-century socialist thought. Aprile, et al. 2013 underlines the upheaval caused by the 1830 revolutions, while Aprile, et al. 1998 enables the reader to take full measure of the European “springtime of the peoples” and the particularity of its revolutions in France in February and June 1848. The latter had repercussions in several Latin American countries, including Chile, which is studied by Gazmuri 1999, as well as in the United States, as suggested by Roberts 2009. France was likewise open to revolutionary experiences coming from elsewhere, as seen by French attention during the American Civil War, and by French volunteerism, respectively studied in Sainlaude 2011 and Ameur 2016.

                              • Ameur, Farid. Les Français dans la Guerre de Sécession, 1861–1865. Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.

                                DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.42428Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Taken from a thesis, this research is the first to study French volunteers who signed up to fight in the American Civil War, sometimes on the side of the South, but more usually for the North.

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                                • Aprile, Sylvie, Jean-Claude Caron, and Emmanuel Fureix, eds. La liberté guidant les peuples: Les révolutions de 1830 en Europe. Seyssel, France: Éditions Champ Vallon, 2013.

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                                  This collective work provides a synthesis of the latest works on this lesser-known but just as important revolution. More specifically, it develops a very interesting reflection on the relation to time during revolution in general, and during these revolutions in particular. It represents, moreover, an attempt to move toward a transnational history of the 1830 revolutions in Europe. There are fewer elements concerning the Atlantic sphere.

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                                  • Aprile, Sylvie, Raymond Huard, Pierre Lévêque, and Jean-Yves Mollier, eds. La Révolution de 1848 en France et en Europe. Paris: Éditions Sociales, 1998.

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                                    Among the many works on the 1848 Revolution, this one has the merit of covering both France and Europe. It highlights the specificities of 1848 in France (more social and republican, with national issues being of lesser importance), while recalling the polycentrism of the “springtime of the peoples.” It provides a good introduction to this revolution, even if non-European perspectives are given less attention.

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                                    • Gazmuri, Cristián. El48chileno: Igualitarios, refonnistas radicales, masones y bomberos. 2d ed. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria, 1999.

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                                      Shows the Latin American version of the 1848 Revolution, which had major repercussions in Chile. While avoiding any diffusionism, the author particularly demonstrates the influence of events and French socialist thought in the democratic and socialist organizations of Chile’s artisans.

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                                      • Roberts, Timothy Mason. Distant Revolutions: 1848 and the Challenge to American Exceptionalism. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

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                                        This original book shows the impact of the 1848 European revolutions on both American popular culture and American religious thought. It suggests, at times summarily, that these events were the occasion for the United States to redefine feelings of closeness and difference toward Europe. They likewise enabled various players—politicians, abolitionists, slave owners—to reflect more widely on the escalating crisis over slavery.

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                                        • Sainlaude, Stève. Le gouvernement impérial et la Guerre de Sécession (1861–1865): L’action diplomatique. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2011.

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                                          The book deals with diplomatic policy during the American Civil War. It shows how Napoleon III endeavored, under the cloak of neutrality, to support the Confederate states, as a result of the effect of the cotton crisis and in an attempt to preserve his freedom of action in Mexico.

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                                          1871–1914

                                          The last major revolution of 19th-century France, the Commune, has its own particularities: linked to the defeat by Prussia and the 1870 Proclamation of the Republic, the revolution was more Parisian in character, as well as more social and more deeply marked by the worlds of labor, according to Tombs 1999 and Rougerie 2009. Despite failing to cause a revolutionary tide, there were Communes in other French cities and it nonetheless brought about major repercussions, in particular in the Atlantic world. Katz 1998 suggests, along with others, that it played a significant role in American Reconstruction debates, while Bosteels 2013 reveals echoes of the Parisian insurrection in Mexican conflicts studied over a long period of time. Revolutionary struggles continued after the defeat of the Commune, as shown by the social struggles of the 1900s, and by anarchist bomb attacks, studied in Merriman 2009.

                                          • Bosteels, Bruno. “The Mexican Commune.” In Communism in the 21st Century. Vol. 2. Edited by Shannon Brincat, 161–189. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2013.

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                                            Shows the echoes of the Paris Commune in Mexico’s social and political struggles. While the article covers a lengthy period of time, it does, however, particularly address the time between 1871 and 1919.

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                                            • Katz, Philipp M. From Appomattox to Montmartre, Americans and the Paris Commune. Harvard Historical Studies 131. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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                                              This book studies the way the Commune event generated interest in both American political debates and commercial culture. It defends the idea that the Commune was the first real national American event, given its strong reverberations throughout the United States. Characterized by concern over the outcome of the US Civil War, the debates on the Parisian revolt may be considered as a step in the distinction occurring in the United States between Republic and Revolution.

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                                              • Merriman, John. The Dynamite Club: How a Bombing in Fin-de-Siècle Paris Ignited the Age of Modern Terror. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009.

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                                                A complete analysis of anarchist Emile Henry’s trajectory, showing the impulse of French anarchism in late-19th-century France, and produced by one of the greatest specialists in 19th-century France’s social and political history.

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                                                • Rougerie, Jacques. La Commune de 1871. 4th ed. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2009.

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                                                  A major reference work on the Paris Commune. The author extricates the various aspects of the event—military, social, political, cultural—and provides some strong analysis of links between the Commune and the 1848 democratic and social Republic, as well as a redefinition of Jacobinism, which, in the 19th century, was not centralizing. A useful synthesis on province Communes and the Bloody Week.

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                                                  • Tombs, Robert. The Paris Commune. London: Routledge, 1999.

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                                                    One of the major syntheses existing on the Paris Commune. The author presents a nuanced and close-up vision of players in the event. Excellent sections on the National Guard and the festive element of the event in particular. The French version, Paris Bivouac des révolutions (2014) contains useful updates on women, the Bloody Week, and memory.

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                                                    A Former Nation-State Linked to the Atlantic World

                                                    Alongside Great Britain, France shares the particularity, in a European and Atlantic context, of having a long-established state with unchanged territory, despite various territorial additions and reductions (the most famous being the loss of Alsace Lorraine in 1871). Yet the 19th century also witnessed major nationalization in French society. Works have focused on the social, cultural, political, and judicial processes that “made” the French people and which appeared to be inseparable from the parallel appearance of the Republic in its liberal form. Indeed, the Third Republic at the end of the century seemingly succeeded in achieving what has been called a “republican synthesis”: a merging of nation, state, and republic, which may explain its long life. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of nonrepublican regimes in such transformations; it has likewise addressed the politicization phenomena whereby peoples also proved to be actors in this political history. Finally, it has revealed that these transformations were most often linked to wider movements, especially within the Atlantic world, even if they were subsequently adapted to France’s specificities. In the same vein, and as shown by the section on the Boomerang Effects on Metropolitan France, construction of the Republican nation-state tends increasingly to be considered in its imperial dimension, making it necessary to review a certain number of taken-for-granted interpretations.

                                                    State and Citizenship

                                                    Rosanvallon 2007 highlights the rich history of the 19th-century state and democracy, going beyond a simple theory of the “modernization” of societies. The modern state established itself slowly in France via multiple administrative adjustments and channels, such as the army and school, as studied by Chanet 1996, and the exercise of voting rights, as shown by Garrigou 2002. The development was inseparably linked to the parallel constitution of Frenchmen and women: Weill 2002 analyzes it at judicial level, and Weber 1976 looks at it from a more anthropological perspective, through a study of the peasants. The treatment of foreigners is developed in Noiriel 1996, cited under Migration. Thiesse 1999 shows, however, that the construction of national identities cannot remain focused solely on the national framework concerned.

                                                    • Chanet, Jean-François. L’école républicaine et les petites patries. Paris: Aubier, 1996.

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                                                      In this work, now considered a classic, the author shows how the republican school was able to establish itself in France by adjusting to each region’s cultural and historical differences. It contests the idea of the republican state’s top-down imposition over the population.

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                                                      • Garrigou, Alain. Histoire sociale du suffrage universel en France, 1848–2000. Paris: Seuil, 2002.

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                                                        The book argues that the declaration of universal suffrage was not enough to automatically create voters. Learning how to use the right to vote involved processes that were social and political (organization of parties and electoral competition), as well as cultural (literacy teaching, party organization, accepting majority rule). As a result, it was inseparable from the emergence of the modern state.

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                                                        • Rosanvallon, Pierre. Demands of Liberty: Civil Society in France since the Revolution. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

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                                                          English translation of Le modèle politique français, la société civile contre le jacobinisme de 1789 à nos jours, first published in 2004. Rosanvallon’s works are essential in studying the state and democracy in the 19th century. This book presents a number of his key ideas: democracy as a historical process, intellectual debates on liberalism and illiberalism, and confronting centralization with demands for self-government. Comparisons with the United States are outlined.

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                                                          • Thiesse, Anne-Marie. La création des identités nationales. Paris: Seuil, 1999.

                                                            DOI: 10.14375/NP.9782020342476Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            The book demonstrates how national identity is, above all, the result of transnational construction. It follows the circulation of what Thiesse calls the nation idea “kit” (language, history, symbols, feeling, etc.) and the way in which it progressively becomes rooted among populations, albeit not without debate and an ongoing defining process.

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                                                            • Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976.

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                                                              An important piece of work on the debate surrounding the making of “Frenchmen” in the 19th century. The author maintains that peasants only considered themselves as such at the end of the 19th century, when industrialization and the revolution of transport and educational policy, of compulsory military service and republican pedagogy, impacted peasant life. Although this work has been strongly disputed, it remains a reference.

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                                                              • Weill, Patrick. Qu’est-ce qu’un Français ? Histoire de la nationalité française depuis la Révolution. Paris: Grasset, 2002.

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                                                                An essential read to understand the debate surrounding the construction of nationality in the 19th and 20th centuries. A very good analysis of the exclusion from the right to vote of both women and colonial natives (following the dissociation between nationality and citizenship). Legal clarification is very helpful.

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                                                                Contested Paths to the Republic

                                                                Nineteenth-century history has long been extended to include the Third Republic. Agulhon 1993 shows how this regime effectively established itself from 1879 on, along with its own historical account of its foundation, although the latter was not completely tension-free. It was the fruit of a long process characterized by conflict between different generations and political groups, as shown by Gildea 2008. It likewise resulted from intellectual and cultural changes during other regimes, both monarchist and Bonapartist, as underlined by Hazareesingh 1998. Moss 1976 points out that they should not, however, obscure the strength of worker contestation and the diversity of socialist thought throughout the century. Finally, Conklin 1997 demonstrates how far the republican idea was in fact inseparable from that of empire at the end of the century. For Saada 2014, the colonial perspective implies not only taking into account the “imperial republic,” but also going beyond the hypothesis of “colonial contradiction” to reexamine, in another way, the constitution of the republican nation-state at different levels.

                                                                • Agulhon, Maurice. The French Republic, 1879–1992. Translated by Antonia Nevill. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

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                                                                  English translation of La République, de 1880 à nos jours, first published in 1990 and an essential read for analysis of the republican phenomenon in France. Agulhon shows particularly well how the Third Republic succeeded in establishing itself in the French political sphere. Analysis of the major events of the time, such as the Dreyfus Affair and the parallel emergence of a “republican reflex,” is very clear.

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                                                                  • Conklin, Alice. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

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                                                                    By focusing on governors-general of French West Africa, the author shows the link between the Third Republic and the “civilizing mission” (simultaneously republican, modern, and racist).

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                                                                    • Gildea, Robert. Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799–1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

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                                                                      A very good synthesis concerning 19th-century France, based in particular on the notion of “generation.” This makes it possible to address political conflicts between monarchists, liberals, Bonapartists, and republicans, as well as adaptations of the movements over the period.

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                                                                      • Hazareesingh, Sudhir. From Subject to Citizen: The Second Empire and the Emergence of Modern French Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

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                                                                        One of the works concerned with demonstrating the importance of political transformations occurring outside republican regimes. This study of the Second Empire provides very good analysis of decentralization debates in the 1850–1860s and shows how an essential stage in the advent of democracy in France developed under and partially against the regime of Napoleon III.

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                                                                        • Moss, Bernard H. The Origins of the French Labor Movement, 1830–1914: The Socialism of Skilled Workers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

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                                                                          Although Moss’s analysis has been criticized in terms of ideology, the book remains one of the rare works to offer an overview of republican and socialist movements throughout the whole century. It highlights the role of skilled professions in the various socialist currents of the first two-thirds of the 19th century.

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                                                                          • Saada, Emmanuelle. “More Than a Turn? The ‘Colonial’ in French Studies.” French Politics, Culture & Society 32.2 (2014): 34–35.

                                                                            DOI: 10.3167/fpcs.2014.320205Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            This short article offers a synthesis of various works on France’s colonial history and invites the reader to go beyond the analysis in terms of only “imperial republic.”

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                                                                            Atlantic Influences on Administration and Thought

                                                                            The creation of administrative and intellectual tools for the state and field of political action was not closed to the outside world. Galeano and Ferrari 2011 demonstrates how Parisian police techniques were exported to Argentina. As for the transnational study of income tax modalities between France and the United States conducted by Delalande 2012, it points to both countries’ openness to foreign experiences, and Rodgers 1998 confirms that this was also the case, on a wider scale, for social reform. Needle 2006, for its part, refers to François Guizot’s thought reaching Brazil at the beginning of the century, while Sawyer and Novak 2013 highlights the extent to which French liberal and republican thought in the 1860s was marked by the American Civil War experience.

                                                                            • Delalande, Nicolas. “Reforming the Tax State: Taxation and Democracy in a Transatlantic Perspective, France-USA (1880s-1930s).” The Tocqueville Review/La Revue Tocqueville 33.2 (2012): 71–85.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1353/toc.2012.0020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Offers a transnational and comparative study of taxation in France and the United States. Comparing the situations allows a questioning of the usual opposition between a “strong” French state and a “weak” American state.

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                                                                              • Galeano, Diego, and Mercedes García Ferrari. “The Bertillonage in the South American Atlantic World.” Criminocorpus (19 May 2011).

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                                                                                Invented at police headquarters to help identify criminals, the French Bertillon system was imported by South America, in particular Argentina, before being replaced by fingerprinting. Police and gendarme methods and organizations are prime examples of these transatlantic movements.

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                                                                                • Needle, Jeffrey D. The Party of Order: The Conservatives, the State, and Slavery in the Brazilian Monarchy, 1831–1871. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804753692.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Among other subjects of interest, this work reveals the influence of François Guizot’s thought among 19th-century Brazilian conservatives.

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                                                                                  • Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                    This study of social reform during the Progressive Era shows the links existing between the United States and Great Britain, and more particularly between Germany and France. The book opens with the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris.

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                                                                                    • Sawyer, Steve, and William Novak. “Emancipation and the Creation of Modern Liberal States in America and France.” Journal of the Civil War Era 3.4 (2013): 467–500.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1353/cwe.2013.0073Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      The article demonstrates how Lincoln’s presidency and the American Civil War helped to conceive a liberal state in France, especially in the minds of people like comparative legislation professor Edouard Laboulaye—in other words, a state that was strong enough to resist against revolutions and civil wars (as in June 1848) while still conforming to the constitution and respecting civil liberties.

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                                                                                      Industrialization: Both Local and Global

                                                                                      France displayed particular economic and social features in the 19th century. It was one of the rare lands of European immigration, which explains why it received more foreigners than elsewhere. It was likewise a land of political asylum, with a high number of refugees. Migration also flowed, however, from France to the United States and South American countries, for both economic and political reasons, including the creation of utopian societies on the “new continent.” Such movements were facilitated by the transport revolution and industrialization. France’s trajectory was partially based on small-scale industry and gave rise to many comparative history debates. The latter particularly made it possible to contest the “British industrial revolution” model in favor of a plurality of “paths to industrialization.” French industrialization was, in fact, completely in keeping with the organization of labor and international trade in the 1860s, in which the Atlantic world played an effective part. It likewise benefited from its colonial possessions, albeit less than was believed. Last but not least, society was modified by these “modern” changes, as they are often called. While the 19th century saw the rise of industrialists, the middle class, and worker milieus, these groups were essentially heterogeneous, and peasant small holdings remained particularly strong in France. As for women, scientific discourse and political changes, such as universal male suffrage, caused them to be further confined to the sidelines, even as they contested it. Finally, the Atlantic perspective serves to raise the issue of race and skin color, which is generally forgotten in French social history.

                                                                                      Migration

                                                                                      Rygiel 2010 provides an understanding of French specificities in the field of 19th-century migration. Diaz 2014 remembers Paris’s role in receiving political refugees at the turn of the century, while Noiriel 1996 shows how the “issue” of non-national foreigners gradually materialized at the end of it. Cordillot 2013, Fouckrier 1999, Vidal 2014, and Villerbu 2014 address the diverse flow of French people to the American continent, both North and South. Long-term effects of migration should not be forgotten, as underlined by Scott and Hébrard 2012, which follows a family over three continents and five generations. Such circulations were naturally facilitated by the new means of exchange and transportation, discussed in Headrick 1988.

                                                                                      • Cordillot, Michel. Utopistes et exilés du Nouveau Monde: Des Français aux États-Unis de 1848 à la Commune. Chroniques. Paris: Vendémiaire, 2013.

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                                                                                        Cordillot demonstrates the diversity of political migration from France to the United States, as well as how well the people concerned were able to integrate (or not) into American society. The precision of the information provided on biographical trajectories makes it an interesting read.

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                                                                                        • Diaz, Delphine. Un asile pour tous les peuples? Exilés et réfugiés étrangers en France au cours du premier XIXe?siècle. Paris: Armand Colin, 2014.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.3917/arco.diaz.2014.01Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Studies the flows and behaviors of essentially European political refugees in Paris under the Restoration and the July Monarchy.

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                                                                                          • Fouckrier, Annick. Le rêve californien: Migrants français sur la côte Pacifique (XVIIIe-XXe siècles). Cultures Américaines. Paris: Belin, 1999.

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                                                                                            The book underlines the importance, greater than originally believed, of French migration to the United States, and in particular California, as well as the wide range of reasons for this migration. The significance of the Gold Rush in the middle of the century is to be noted.

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                                                                                            • Headrick, Daniel. The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1940. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                              Provides a large perspective on the revolution of transports and communications in the 19th century, in particular ships, railway, and telegraph. Useful to situate the French case and its insertion in broader transformations.

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                                                                                              • Noiriel, Gérard. The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. Translated by Geoffroy de Laforcade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                English translation of Le Creuset français: Histoire de l’immigration, XIXe–XXe siècle, first published in 1988. A major book for both the history of immigration and that of the state. The author highlights the emergence of the non-national foreigner figure at the end of the 19th century, and links it to changes in thought, administration, and French society.

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                                                                                                • Rygiel, Philippe. Le temps des migrations blanches: Migrer en Occident du milieu du XIXe siècle au milieu du XXe siècle. Paris: Publibook, 2010.

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                                                                                                  A very clear synthesis of the migration question. The author clearly shows French specificity concerning immigration and migrants’ role in nationality debates, in both Europe and the United States. It also points to the effectiveness of migration policies, as indicated by the example of the Chinese Immigration Act in Canada, which stimulated a European influx.

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                                                                                                  • Scott, Rebecca J., and Jean M. Hébrard. Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674065161Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    A very good example of Atlantic links through several generations. The book follows the path of a woman taken from Senegambia to Santo Domingo in the late 18th century, and then traces what happens to her descendants. The story goes from the West Indies to the United States, via France. It includes the Haitian Revolution, February 1848 in France, and the American Civil War.

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                                                                                                    • Vidal, Laurent. Ils ont rêvé d’un autre monde. Paris: Flammarion, 2014.

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                                                                                                      Studies the founding of a community in South Brazil by French artisans and workers inspired by Fourierism. The account of the situations on both sides of the Atlantic is particularly well done.

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                                                                                                      • Villerbu, Tangi. Les missions du Minnesota: Catholicisme et colonisation dans l’Ouest américain, 1830–1860. Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.42629Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        This detailed and lively analysis shows how the Catholic Church, and its predominantly French players in this case, attempted to establish itself in the new society of Minnesota.

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                                                                                                        Industrialization and Trade

                                                                                                        Levy-Leboyer and Bourguignon 1985 provides a good overview of the French economy in the 19th century, and Jarrige 2008 is a useful review of the debates on French industrialization in comparative history. Among many other examples, Chassagne 1991 focuses on cotton as a major industry of the century, and Smith 2006 shows the importance of big business in the French path to industrialization. Verley 1997 and Pétré-Grenouilleau 1997 enable the reader to incorporate consideration of France’s industry and trade into wider perspectives, in particular colonial and Atlantic areas. Finally, Flandreau 2004 points out the importance of France in the international monetary system prior to 1873.

                                                                                                        • Chassagne, Serge. Le coton et ses patrons, France, 1760–1840. Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1991.

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                                                                                                          A classic study of a decisive industrial sector in the 19th century. Most of its key figures are covered. The sociological analysis of the industry’s bosses is particularly interesting. The effects of Atlantic revolutions on the industry are analyzed.

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                                                                                                          • Flandreau, Marc. The Glitter of Gold: France, Bimetallism and the Emergence of the International Gold Standard, 1848–1873. Translated by Owen Leeming. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/0199257868.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            English translation of L’or du monde: La France et la stabilité du système monétaire international, 1848–1873, first published in 1995. It highlights the importance of French bimetallism in the international monetary system before the introduction of the international gold standard in 1873.

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                                                                                                            • Jarrige, François. “A Singular Path? French Industrialization as Seen by American Historians.” Revue d’histoire du XIXe siècle 36.1 (2008): 149–161.

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                                                                                                              English translation of “Un chemin singulier? L’industrialisation française vue par les historiens américains.” The author analyzes the way in which French industrialization has been studied in recent American works. An interesting comparative history debate, which also reminds the reader that it is difficult to speak about “French industrialization” before the end of the century.

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                                                                                                              • Levy-Leboyer, Maurice, and François Bourguignon. L’économie française au XIXe siècle: Analyse macro-économique. Paris: Éditions Économica, 1985.

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                                                                                                                One of a number of high-quality summaries, providing a helpful synthesis, in particular because of the plethora of data it provides.

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                                                                                                                • Pétré-Grenouilleau, Olivier. Les négoces maritimes français, XVIIIe-XXe siècle. Paris: Éditions Belin, 1997.

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                                                                                                                  Offers a broad study of the history of French maritime trade. Interesting sections on the revolutionary period and relations with the Atlantic world (from Cuba to Senegal, via the West Indies).

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                                                                                                                  • Smith, Michael Stephen. The Emergence of Modern Business Enterprise in France, 1800–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                    A well-documented book on the French industrialization. Discusses the interpretations proposed in a comparative perspective, and reminds the reader of the importance of big business in this history. The differences between France and Germany or the United States appears then in degree rather than in kind.

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                                                                                                                    • Verley, Patrick. L’Échelle du monde: Essai sur l’industrialisation de l’Occident. NFR Essais. Paris: Gallimard-Gaumont, 1997.

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                                                                                                                      The author repositions the analysis of industrialization in its many perspectives, including regional, national, and international. Very useful for situating France’s industrial development and linking it to both the condition of its domestic market and the world trade system, particularly in the Atlantic.

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                                                                                                                      Social Orders

                                                                                                                      Although addressed from the perspective of the archaism-modernity confrontation for a long time, the study of 19th-century French society places greater emphasis on the diversity of situations and the complexity of the changes underway. Charle 1994 is a witness to this, as is Corbin 2001 and Dewerpe 1989, the former for peasants, the latter for workers. In a debated analysis, Mayer 1981 suggests that as far as social domination was concerned, inertia remained strong. Joutard 1991, meanwhile, provides a useful overview of the religious situation and debates the phenomenon of secularization that spanned the century, while Roberts 2002 depicts the strength of women’s political and social contesting against the dominant norms at the end of the century. Cuchet 2012 and Green 1997 offer more Atlantic comparative or connected perspectives of the history of religion and work, while Sue and Stovall 2003 encourages the reader to take into account the role of racial markers in French society, both metropolitan and in the colonies.

                                                                                                                      • Charle, Christophe. A Social History of France in the 19th century. Oxford: Berg, 1994.

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                                                                                                                        English translation of Histoire sociale de la France au 19e siècle, first published in 1991. Remains a reference work for the history of French society, its elites and lower classes, and their evolution.

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                                                                                                                        • Corbin, Alain. The Life of an Unknown: The Rediscovered World of a Clog Maker in Nineteenth-Century France. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                          English translation of Le monde retrouvé de Louis-François Pinagot, sur les traces d’un inconnu, 1798–1876, first published in 1998. A surprising survey reconstructing the life of a clog maker from the Orne department. Depicts the intensity of 19th-century rural life and shows how many French people lived at a different pace from that of major Parisian and world events.

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                                                                                                                          • Cuchet, Guillaume. Les Voix d’outre-tombe: Tables tournantes, spiritisme et société au XIXe siècle. Collection L’univers historique. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2012.

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                                                                                                                            An important history of spiritualism that bears witness to the cultural exchanges between France and North America, while providing an in-depth study of changes in French society during the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                            • Dewerpe, Alain. Le monde du travail en France 1800–1950. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1989.

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                                                                                                                              One of the best accounts of the working classes in the 19th century. Shows both their complexity and creativity.

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                                                                                                                              • Green, Nancy. Ready-to-Wear and Ready-to-Work: A Century of Industry and Immigrants in Paris and New York. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1215/9780822382744Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Although it covers simultaneously the 19th and 20th centuries, this work is a rare example of a comparative and social history of France and the United States. Focused on the fashion and manufacturing industries, it also combines input on the history of immigration and on the history of women.

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                                                                                                                                • Joutard, Philippe, ed. Histoire de la France religieuse. Vol. 3, Du Roi très chrétien à la laïcité républicaine, XIXe–XXe siècle. Paris: Seuil, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                  Very helpful in understanding the religious history of 19th-century France in all its dimensions (institutional, theological, social, and cultural).

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                                                                                                                                  • Mayer, Arno. The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War. New York: Pantheon, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                    This provocative and debated book highlights the lasting strength of social and political conservatism in France and Europe throughout the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                    • Peabody Sue, and Tyler Stovall, eds. The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                      Contesting the idea that France and its history might be “color-blind,” this collective work deals with the issues of skin color and racial markers within French colonial and metropolitan life, including in the fields of science and self-representation. Numerous chapters are concerned with the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                      • Roberts, Mary Louise. Disruptive Acts: The New Woman in Fin-de-Siècle France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                        A portrait constellation of “new women” who sought to shake up gender norms and social ideals at the end of the century.

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                                                                                                                                        The Second Imperial Power of the World

                                                                                                                                        After being confined to separate chapters in textbooks over a long period, the imperial dimension of France in the 19th century is today undergoing considerable reassessment. At the time, the country was in fact the second imperial power in the world (with the term including colonial conquests and so-called informal imperialism). While the 19th century was the century of abolitions in which slave revolts played an essential part, it was likewise the century of colonization. The long proclaimed split between the “first colonial empire” and the “second” is being questioned today, in favor of tighter chronologies in which the “scramble for Africa” in the 1880s remains a decisive moment. These perspectives have several consequences. First, the French imperial venture never occurred in isolation; instead, it adjusted to country realities and their dynamics, as well as to the imperial policies of other powers, such as Great Britain, Spain, and, to a lesser extent, the United States. Furthermore, singular societies established themselves in the old and new colonies, which were detached from the mainland although still part of France. Algeria held a unique place in this set-up, as did possessions in Asia and, of course, the Atlantic area. Together, they served as a reminder that French boundaries throughout the century were not limited to those of metropolitan France, and that French space comprised greatly diverse realities. This observation encourages the re-questioning of a number of common ideas concerning the history of France, quite apart from the fact that this imperial reality in turn marked the economy, society, politics, and French perceptions in many ways. This is what makes this section inseparable from the others.

                                                                                                                                        Abolition and Colonization

                                                                                                                                        Davis 2006 reiterates the fact that French abolition of slavery formed part of more global dynamics. Jennings 2000, meanwhile, provides information on the French abolition movement until 1848, while Dorigny 2003 underlines the extent of the essential role played by the slave revolts in the emancipation process. At the same time, the period was also more precisely one of heightened French imperial ventures. Planert 2016 demonstrates the role of the Napoleonic empire in these reorganizations, while Aldrich 1996 studies France’s colonial conquests and the way in which the country exerted its influence over other territories. Todd 2011 demonstrates the continuities that associated the so-called first and second French colonial empires and highlights the coherence of the 1814–1870 imperial period. Pani 2002 shows that even the ventures that failed, as was the case for the 1861–1867 Mexico expedition, are to be considered.

                                                                                                                                        • Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1996.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-24729-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          A reference work on French colonial expansion and imperial policies throughout the world.

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                                                                                                                                          • Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                            A far-reaching study, in both time and space, of slavery and its abolition. Useful in repositioning the French experience in an Atlantic frame that also includes Africa and Brazil.

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                                                                                                                                            • Dorigny, Marcel, ed. The Abolitions of Slavery: From L.F. Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher. 1793, 1794, 1848. New York and Oxford: Berghahn, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                              English translation of Les abolitions de l’esclavage de L. F. Sonthona à V. Schoelcher, 1793–1794–1848, first published in 1995. A complete overview of the abolition of slavery in France between 1793 and 1848. It shows, more particularly, the effect of international debates and underlines the importance of the revolts of slaves themselves in the process. Published jointly with UNESCO Publishing.

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                                                                                                                                              • Jennings, Lawrence C. French Anti-slavery: The Movement for the Abolition of Slavery in France, 1802–1848. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                A useful read to follow metropolitan players in the abolition movement, including the opposition they faced at the beginning of the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                • Pani, Erika. “Dreaming of a Mexican Empire: The Political Projects of the ‘Imperialistas.’” Hispanic American Historical Review 82.1 (2002): 1–32.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/00182168-82-1-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Studies the group of key figures in Mexico who supported the imperial venture of Napoleon III. An original perspective on this important expedition.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Planert, Ute, ed. Napoleon’s Empire, European Politics in Global Perspective. London: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                    A collective work on the Napoleonic venture from a global perspective. Includes a chapter on Latin America, and a good, general clarification proposed by Annie Jourdan.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Todd, David. “A French Imperial Meridian, 1814–1870.” Past and Present (2011): 155–186.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtq063Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Contesting the hypothesis of a break between two French imperialisms, the article demonstrates the importance of France’s imperial dimension in the years 1814–1870. It encourages the reader to reconsider the entire period from this angle.

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                                                                                                                                                      Imperial Atlantic Societies

                                                                                                                                                      The French Empire presence in these territories produced social spaces with specific features. Flory 2015, Larcher 2014, and Spieler 2012 demonstrate this for the Caribbean world in terms of work, political representation, and the law of nations. For Africa, Cohen 1971 studies the way France thought out taking possession of Senegal and modified the previous power organization, while Jones 2013 traces the path of a Métis community over a long period of time. Finally, Meadows 2000 and Covo 2015 focus on the interactions interlinking the Caribbean, American, and French areas, and suggest moving the center-periphery perspective to assess the full impact of these complex interconnections.

                                                                                                                                                      • Cohen, William B. Rulers of Empire: The French Colonial Service in Africa. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                        A classic study of French colonization in Africa. For the 19th century, it shows in particular both the training of French colonizers and how they used existing structures to impose their domination, thus modifying the social system.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Covo, Manuel. “Baltimore and the French Atlantic: Empires, Commerce, and Identity in a Revolutionary Age.” In The Caribbean and the Atlantic World Economy: Circuits of Trade, Money and Knowledge, 1650–1914. Edited by Adrian Leonard and David Pretel, 87–107. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1057/9781137432728_5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Focusing on the study of Baltimore, this chapter shows the connections linking the United States in the post-revolution period, the Caribbean space, and the French imperial project, and encourages the reader to move away from a center-periphery approach in order to understand the logic and importance of this trading network.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Flory, Céline. De l’esclavage à la Liberté Forcée: Histoire des travailleurs africains engagés dans la Caraïbe française du XIXe siècle. Paris: Karthala, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                            A study of the social history of engagement with African peoples, which began after the abolition of slavery in Guyana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. Shows the adjustments of post-abolitionist colonialism.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Jones, Hillary. The Métis of Senegal: Urban Life and Politics in French West Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                              A social and political history of the Saint Louis Métis community in Senegal.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Larcher, Syliane. L’autre citoyen: L’idéal républicain et les Antilles après l’esclavage. Collection Le temps des idées. Paris: Armand Colin, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                Studies the issues raised for political representation by the abolition of slavery. A very interesting reflection on republican citizenship in the West Indies, and more globally.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Meadows, R. Darrell. “Engineering Exile: Social Networks and the French Atlantic Community, 1789–1809.” French Historical Studies 23 (2000): 67–102.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/00161071-23-1-67Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  The article applies network analysis to emigrant elites from the continent and refugees having left Santo Domingo. It shows how they integrated migratory spaces organized between the United States, France, and the West Indies, and invites the reader to reconsider the links between these three regions.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Spieler, Miranda. Empire and Underworld: Captivity in French Guiana. Harvard Historical Series. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674062870Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The author focuses on the legal situation of convicts, freed slaves, and liberated prisoners in Guiana to show the harshness of living conditions and the contradictions in the law to which they were subjected, both in Guiana and in metropolitan France.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Boomerang Effects on Metropolitan France

                                                                                                                                                                    Imperial domination had effects on metropolitan France. Conklin 1997 (cited under Contested Paths to the Republic) demonstrates these impacts in the political sphere. Bonin, et al. 2008 makes it possible to fully assess the effects in the economic field. A good number of ports—Nantes, Bordeaux, Le Havre, and Marseille, as studied in Daumalin 1992—were directly marked by colonial trade. Sibeud 2002 and Singaravélou 2011 show how the empire permeated human sciences and society, while Chafer and Sackur 2002 offers a wider overview of effects on French culture.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Bonin, Hubert, Catherine Hodeir, and Jean-François Klein, eds. L’esprit économique impérial, 1830–1970: Groupes de pression & réseaux du patronat colonial en France & dans l’empire. Paris: Publications de la SFHOM, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A very useful read in imperial economic history. It shows the influence of the “imperial economic spirit” at the highest level of government—in colonial institutes, chambers of commerce, and regional and Parisian banking organizations.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Chafer, Tony, and Amanda Sackur, eds. Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Visions of Empire in France. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                        This collective work emphasizes the influence of the colonial experience in post-1870 French society and culture, through studies concerning propaganda, nationalism, science, persisting imperial symbols, and other areas. Numerous contributions on the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Daumalin, Xavier. Marseille et l’Ouest africain: L’outre-mer des industriels (1841–1956), Histoire du commerce et de l’industrie de Marseille, XIXe–XXe siècles. Marseille: Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie Marseille-Provence, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Many works exist that address the impact of colonial trade on a specific port or region (e.g., Bordeaux, Nantes, Le Havre). This particular volume demonstrates this in the case of the “oilseeds trade” at the port of Marseille.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Sibeud, Emmanuelle. Une science impériale pour l’Afrique? La construction des savoirs africanistes en France, 1878–1930. Paris: Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The book traces the constitution of Africanism in France, emphasizing its complexity and contradictions.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Singaravélou, Pierre. Professer l’Empire: Lessciences colonialesen France sous la IIIe République. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Demonstrates the intellectual and academic constitution of “colonial sciences” and their influence in a number of social science methods developed in France at the time.

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                                                                                                                                                                              France, a Cultural Reference

                                                                                                                                                                              In Europe and a large part of the world, 19th-century France doubtlessly appears, above all, as a reference in terms of culture. Notre-Dame de Paris by Victor Hugo is one of the most widely translated, imitated, and read novels in the world. Among the major transformations at the time were the mechanization of production methods and the development of consumerism, the latter being partly a result of increased literacy among different populations. At the same time that it stepped into the era of mass culture, France, and Paris in particular, succeeded in remaining a place of artistic attraction and affirmation for all kinds of avant-gardes (such as Impressionism). Moreover, it continued to hold a particular place in the imaginaries. Supported by old and solid institutions and networks, this influence made itself felt all the way into scientific, intellectual, and urbanistic fields. It was particularly visible in Brazil and Canada, following multiple forms of hybridization and selection. Cultural life, however, naturally followed more diverse paths, and this hegemony has been consistently disputed. At the end of the century, France was further influenced by American cultural production—such as dime novels. Shared imaginaries, with their complex movements and internal mechanisms, gradually connected several centers of the Atlantic world, with France retaining an important position at the heart of it all.

                                                                                                                                                                              Entry into Mass Culture

                                                                                                                                                                              The cultural history of 19th-century France, understood in a broad sense, is extremely rich, as shown by Baecque and Mélonio 2005. One of the salient features was undoubtedly entry into mass culture, marked by the emergence of publishing empires, such as Hachette, studied by Mollier 1999, and the “civilisation du journal,” illustrated by Kalifa, et al. 2011. Schwartz 1998 notes that this cultural modernity also transformed the urban experience of the French capital. Charle 2015 provides a useful European perspective in many areas of concern.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Baecque, Antoine de, and Françoise Mélonio. Histoire culturelle de la France. Vol. 3, Lumières et liberté, les XVIIIe et XIXe siècle. Paris: Seuil, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                A very good introduction to the cultural history of France, on a wide variety of topics (press, literature, education, religion, symbolism, urban life, etc.).

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Charle, Christophe. La dérégulation culturelle: Essai d’histoire des cultures en Europe au XIXe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  An extensive social history of cultures in Europe, addressing a great number of fields (literature, painting, theatre, opera, etc.) from a transnational and comparative perspective and broadly dealing with the other countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kalifa, Domnique, Philippe Régnier, Marie-Ève Thérenty, and Alain Vaillant, eds. La civilisation du journal: Histoire culturelle et littéraire de la presse française au XIXe siècle. Paris: Nouveau Monde Éditions, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A broad portrayal of various aspects of “civilisation du journal” in the 19th century (semiotic, literary, social, and cultural techniques). Includes an interesting analysis of relations to the nation and otherness by Sylvain Venayre.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mollier, Jean-Yves. Louis Hachette (1800–1864): Le fondateur d’un empire. Paris: Fayard, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A biography of a major actor in the world of French publishing, who created the “Bibliothèque des chemins de fer” and played an important role in the translation of foreign authors in France.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schwartz, Vanessa. Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-de-Siecle Paris. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        A study of the development of the spectacularization of everyday Parisian life, based on overviews of the press, the city’s grands boulevards, and wax museums. It proved to be a fully fledged element of urban modernity, which was asserting itself at the time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        France, Cultural Reference in the World

                                                                                                                                                                                        With its rich symbolic legacy, France held a dominant position in the cultural field throughout the 19th century, particularly in literature, as pointed out by Casanova 2007. In a more qualitative way, Colombi 2008 highlights the attraction and influence vis-à-vis Latin American writers, Long 2007 looks at the attraction for American museums, and Kury 2003 examines the influence on scientific conceptions in Brazil. Berenson 2012 underlines the importance of the French in the construction of the American Statue of Liberty in 1886. Paris played a decisive part in this symbolic power, to the extent that Benjamin 2002 describes it as the “capital of the 19th century.” Finally, Kalifa 2013 demonstrates, among other things, the importance of French production in the construction of a global social imaginary of the “underworlds,” which crystallized in the 19th century.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benjamin, Walter. “Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century.” In Selected Writings. Vol. 3, 1935–1938. By Walter Benjamin. Edited by Howard Eiland and Michael Jennings, 32–49. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          English translation of a text written in the 1920s and 1930s. A classic text on the significance of Paris in the 19th century and a reflection on the notion of “modernity” and “utopia.” A good introduction, moreover, to the thought of Walter Benjamin.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Berenson, Edward. The Statue of Liberty: A Transatlantic Story. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Shows the non-official French driving force behind the Statue of Liberty, inaugurated in 1886, and the path it had to follow before becoming the icon of American liberty (thanks to the diversity of the symbolic investments it received).

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Casanova, Pascale. The World Republic of Letters. Translated by M. B. DeBevoise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              English translation of La République mondiale des lettres, first published in 1999. It analyzes the global structuring of the field of literature. Also shows the central position of France, and particularly Paris, throughout the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Colombi, Beatriz. “Camino a la Meca: Escritores hispanoamericanos en París (1900–1920).” In Historia de los intelectuales en América Latina. Vol. 1, De la conquista al modernismo. Edited by Jorge Myers, 544–566. Buenos Aires: Katz, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Demonstrates the attractiveness of Paris for Latin American writers in the years 1900–1910.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kalifa, Dominique. Les bas fonds: Histoire d’un imaginaire social. Paris: Seuil, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.14375/NP.9782020967624Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A long-term study of a social imaginary of global dimensions, especially transatlantic (Europe, North America, Latin America), that crystallized in the 19th century. Very interesting analysis concerning the diffusion model of the “mysteries of Paris” at this level.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kury, Lorelai. “Nation, races et fétichisme: La religion de l’humanité au Brésil.” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences Humaines 8.1 (2003): 125–137.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.3917/rhsh.008.0125Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Debates Auguste Comte’s appropriation of positivism in Brazil in the late 19th century, and its effects on reflection concerning, for instance, slavery and the status of Indian peoples.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Long, Veronique. Mécènes des deux mondes: Les collectionneurs donateurs du Louvre et de l’Art Institute de Chicago, 1879–1940. Collection Art & Société. Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes,2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Highlights, among other things, the role of the Louvre, in its embodiment of high culture, as a model for American museums at the end of the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Contested Hegemony and Cultural Polycentrism

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cultural hegemony in France has never been complete, and any diffusionism should be avoided. Gobat 2013, for example, demonstrates how, contrary to what is believed, the expression “Latin America” is not a pure French invention, but was also the work of the continent’s anti-imperial elites. Joyeux-Prunel and Marcel 2016 invites the reader to break with an approach focusing on the domination of Paris, and then New York, as artistic centers, in order to bring to light more complex exchange and influence patterns. Pinson 2016 notes, moreover, that French influence weakened at the end of the century, even within the Francophone world. Finally, Letourneux 2014 illustrates how mass-market culture was also marked at the end of the century by the growing influence of American commercial culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gobat, Michael. “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race.” American Historical Review 118 (2013): 1345–1375.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/ahr/118.5.1345Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Countering the idea that the term “Latin America” was invented by France to justify the invasion of Mexico, the author shows how the expression—and along with it that of “Latin race”—was the result of an anti-imperialist movement among Latin American elites. It was also grounded by a selective borrowing game, in which French, Spanish and US elaborations of the notion has its place.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Joyeux-Prunel, Béatrice, and Olivier Marcel. “Exhibition Catalogues in the Globalization of Art. A Source for Social and Spatial Art History.” Artl@s Bulletin 4.2 (2016): Article 8.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Shows how the global and quantitative history of exhibition catalogues between 1850 and 1950 can go beyond the Paris-New York success story to reveal a more polycentric art space, including Dublin, Prague, and Mexico.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Letourneux, Matthieu. “La mondialisation à l’ère de la culture sérielle.” Romantisme 163.1 (2014): 79–88.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.3917/rom.163.0079Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyzes the globalization of mass-circulation serialized productions. Shows how the genre of the “mysteries of Paris” spread from France to the rest of the Western world, and the dime novel from the United States to Europe and France, in the late 19th century. An interesting discussion on the links between globalization and national imaginaries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pinson, Guillaume. La culture médiatique francophone en Europe et en Amérique du Nord: De 1760 à la veille de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Cultures québécoises. Montreal: Presses de l’Université Laval, 2016.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on the first French-language newspapers to appear on the American continent, this work studies the first Francophone globalization movement between Paris, Brussels, Geneva, Montreal, and New Orleans. While Paris was its unquestionable center throughout the 19th century, Montreal began to replace it in the 1900s.

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