In This Article Cotton

  • Introduction
  • Introductory Works

Atlantic History Cotton
by
Beverly Lemire
  • LAST REVIEWED: 11 December 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 July 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0158

Introduction

Cotton is one of the catalyst commodities in world history. This fiber was at the center of manufacturing and international trade in pre-modern times, and it became the first industrialized commodity by the early 1800s, with factories spreading from Britain to America and then to all parts of the world by the 20th century. Cotton factories and cotton clothing came to epitomize modernizing societies. This singular history sparked intensive study, yielding a wealth of scholarship on different regions and themes. The Indian subcontinent was the birthplace of the first important cotton culture. Unique Indian technologies of spinning, weaving, dyeing, and printing were developed, resulting in myriad varieties of cloth suited to markets around the world from ancient times onwards. These fabrics became an important medium for design, with products devised for many cultures, animating a dynamic international trading system. After 1500, following European direct contact with India, cotton textiles became increasingly accepted in Western regions, growing in popularity over the 1600s. Dutch and English trading companies followed Portuguese merch ants into Asia after 1600, and growing cargoes of cottons returned to European ports. Western consumers of almost every rank embraced the fashion and utility of these fabrics, and designs were modified in India to suit European tastes. By 1700, however, tensions arose because of the success of these imports. These textiles were well suited to express plebeian fashions, and many European nations banned Indian cottons outright, in part for this reason. Most of Europe still lived under regimes of sumptuary regulation that legislated non-elite consumer behavior. Indian textiles disrupted old cultural systems and challenged local textile industries. However, even as legislators moved to ban Indian textiles, European artisans worked to replicate Indian fabrics and claim home and international markets for themselves. Manufacturers in many locales recognized the profits to be gained by producing their own cotton textiles, based on Indian models. Demand for this fabric rose. The introduction of new cotton spinning technologies in Britain after the 1760s, followed by water- and then steam-powered spinning mills shortly after, launched a new era of industrial production. The spread of power looms in the 1800s consolidated the new systems of manufacturing and also fed rising levels of consumption, both unmatched in human history. The ramifications were widespread, including the increasing number of cotton plantations (and the growth of slavery) in the Americas. New systems of factory labor and the widespread diffusion of factory technology transformed diverse regions of the world, introducing men, women, and children to new patterns of labor and new patterns of consumption. Cotton now epitomized the modern world.

Introductory Works

The history of cotton can be approached from a wide variety of perspectives and a diverse range of societal contexts. However, it is indisputable that India stands at the center of the global history of this fiber. Chaudhuri 1978 explores this dynamic trade history, looking in particular at the English East India Company, one of the largest importers of cotton textiles to the West. Chaudhuri’s cogent political and statistical analysis set a new benchmark for subsequent studies. The complex material evidence of commerce with India is also assessed by curators in works such as Crill 2006, adding an invaluable perspective to statistical evidence of this global exchange (see also Material Culture: Evidence of Historical Transformation). Britain’s 18th-century rise in cotton manufacturing has been studied exhaustively by generations of historians, with each new cohort of scholars bringing new priorities to the subject. Wadsworth and Mann 1931 sets the bar high, producing a richly comparative examination of the regional growth of the cotton trade in England and employing a wide range of primary sources. This classic study notes that “if the first thought of European manufacturers had been prohibition [of Indian cottons], the second was imitation” (p. 118). France was another regions that experimented with cotton production, as both politicians and entrepreneurs were loath to see the advantage go to British manufacturers (Chassagne 1991). Indian cottons were a catalyst for change in many regions of the world, a subject that has inspired further comparative research in recent years (Farnie and Jeremy 2004, Riello and Roy 2009, Lemire 2011). The spread of cotton plantations and cotton manufacturing played a decisive role in many regions of the world, including in America. In the newly founded United States of America the spread of cotton plantations and growth of cotton mills resulted in an entity that came to be called “King Cotton,” defining critical economic, social, and political priorities in the new republic (Woodman 1968, Schoen 2009). In sum, the history of cotton opens a window on commercial interaction, technological transformation, and societal change affecting the lives of generations across the globe.

  • Chassagne, Serge. Le Coton et ses Patrons: France, 1760–1840. Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1991.

    E-mail Citation »

    A classic study of the development of the French cotton industry and the role of regional entrepreneurs, by a noted scholar on this subject.

  • Chaudhuri, K. N. The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660–1760. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511563263E-mail Citation »

    This is a classic history of the English East India Company, based on detailed quantitative analysis of Company records. Part of the success of this book rests on the author’s capacity to elucidate a large and complex subject while still keeping contact with historical actors, giving great color to this history.

  • Crill, Rosemary, ed. Textiles from India: The Global Trade. Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2006.

    E-mail Citation »

    A lavishly illustrated volume, arising from a 2003 conference in Kolkata on the same topic. The editor is Curator of East Indian Textiles at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London; and under her direction this volume explores the broad and complex trade networks into which Indian cottons flowed. The principal emphasis is on commerce in Asia and Africa.

  • Farnie, Douglas A., and David J. Jeremy, eds. The Fibre that Changed the World: The Cotton Industry in International Perspective, 1600–1990s. Pasold Studies in Textile History 14. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

    E-mail Citation »

    This volume provides wide-ranging assessments of the impact of cotton manufacturing in various regions of the world, being especially strong in Asian examples of this process, while including many chapters on European and American topics.

  • Lemire, Beverly. Cotton. Textiles that Changed the World. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2011.

    E-mail Citation »

    Positions the rise of Western cotton industry within the context of the long development of the Indian trade that preceded it. The development of the cotton trade in the West is explored through popular fashion and consumerism. The impact of industrial production is also considered, including its effects on the expansion of slavery.

  • Riello, Giorgio, and Tirthankar Roy, eds. How India Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850. Global Economic History Series 4. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009.

    E-mail Citation »

    This collection of essays explores the scope of the Indian trade and industry in cotton, focusing on its diverse characteristics and the broad impact of the trade.

  • Schoen, Brian. The Fragile Fabric of Union: Cotton, Federal Politics, and the Global Origins of the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

    E-mail Citation »

    The author contributes to the dynamic rethinking of the Civil War, positioning events within the powerful global demand for cotton in the wider Atlantic world, thereby repositioning political interpretations of the Lower South and US policy generally.

  • Wadsworth, Alfred P., and Julia de Lacy Mann. The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600–1780. Publications of the University of Manchester, Economic History Series 7. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1931.

    E-mail Citation »

    This classic text outlines the context in which cotton textile production took hold in this northwest region of England, which became the center of the British cotton industry. The emphasis is on England, but the authors present a wide-ranging perspective that, despite its age, still repays close reading.

  • Woodman, Harold D. King Cotton & His Retainers; Financing & Marketing the Cotton Crop of the South, 1800–1925. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1968.

    E-mail Citation »

    A classic treatment of the changes in the financing and marketing of cotton in the American South.

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