This critical review covers most of the leading ports of Iberia. It considers literature referring to the processes that contributed to many aspects of human-built and physical Iberian port architecture. From the early 16th century to 1778, some Iberian ports were subjected to very specific political economies applied with varying amounts of force over a lengthy period. These policies were translated into monopolies facilitating the emergence of a series of privileged ports designated as metropoles and a descending chain of tiers of ports barred from direct trading connections with overseas colonial hubs. Iberian metropoles at the time were only permitted to trade with a series of colonial metropoles, such as Havana, Vera Cruz, Cartagena de Indias, and Goa. The history of these policies has not been written as of the mid-2010s. In this way, Lisbon, Seville, and Cadiz served as kingpins for Atlantic and Pacific commercial activities. These ports are central to this article as are major ports within each of Iberia’s chief regions. Literature is available such as O’Flanagan 2008 dealing with the outcomes from the derogation of the monopoly of the ports in Spain after 1778. Related literature is abundant for a series of interconnected issues such as urban growth and form, ethnic and residential patterns, and port hinterland and foreland relations. Coverage is weak on social issues, religion, and political contexts.
Coverage of Iberian ports is extremely uneven, both in time and space. Few studies deal with ports of both countries. Individual Spanish Atlantic ports have received superior coverage. The Spanish government’s Ministry of Development (Fomento) and Ministry of Public Works (Obras Públicas) have published some excellent volumes such as Alemany Llovera 1991 and the edited volume Centro de Estudios Históricos de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo 1994. Ringrose 1983 deals with the vicissitudes of the entire Spanish urban hierarchy. A few of the outline studies covering the leading urban centers in both states are Guàrdia, et al. 1994; O’Flanagan 2008; and O’Flanagan 2011. The gaps are most notable on most aspects of architecture; cultural, domestic, and religious aspects of ports and their changing social contents; the role of port authorities; and port cosmopolitanism.
Alemany Llovera, Joan. Los puertos españoles en el siglo XIX. Madrid: Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente, 1991.
An admirable thematic analysis of Spain’s major ports during the 19th century. It furnishes a solid and comprehensive introduction to port change, with special emphasis on technical aspects of their management and the impact of the age of steam on ports. In addition, there is an excellent outline summary of port evolution over the 18th and 19th centuries.
Blázquez, Antonio. “Descripción de las costas y puertos de España [y Portugal] de Pedro Teixeira Albernas (Albernaz) [c. 1634].” Boletín de la Real Sociedad Geográfica 52 (1910): 36–233.
A classic outline of the leading cultural, demographic, economic, and topographic features of the entire Iberian coastline including Portugal, prepared in the early 17th century. It is a transliteration of Pedro Teixeira’s written treatise and is effectively an early gazetteer of the Iberian coastline and its leading ports.
Butel, Pierre. The Atlantic. London: Routledge, 1999.
French enterprise in the Atlantic and connections with the Spanish Atlantic is carefully scrutinized in this excellent piece of scholarship. Butel begins by exploring the early relationships between Europe and the Atlantic starting with what he terms the Mediterranean Atlantic. He also deals with the development of connections between such ports as Bordeaux, Nantes, and Saint-Malo with the Caribbean.
Capel Sáez, Horacio. Capitalismo y morfología urbana en España. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores, 1990.
This is a classic geography work exploring relationships between capitalism and urbanism and its contribution to shaping urban form in Spain. The role of ports, port commerce, and merchants is understated in this endeavor. First published in the mid-1970s, with several later various editions, it is a standard work on urban change in Spain.
Centro de Estudios Históricos de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo. Puertos españoles en la historia. Madrid: Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente, 1994.
This is an excellent multi-authored review of port development in Spain. It is a compendium of studies focused on different aspects of the history of port change. Divided into three parts: first, a series of thematic studies; next, chapters detailing shipbuilding evolution and the technical construction of ports; finally, a short and easily assimilable biography of all of Spain’s leading ports. For the student of port cities, this book is a critical starting point.
Guàrdia, Manuel, Francisco Javier Monclús, and José Luis Oyón, eds. Atlas histórico de ciudades europeas. Vol. 1, La Península Ibérica. Barcelona: Salvat, 1994.
This is the only one of a major series of projected European urban atlases that was actually published. Each city’s physical evolution is addressed by one or more scholars. Emphasis is placed on expansion based on changing urban morphology. Some outstanding thematic maps of urban morphology have been produced, utilizing original sources. The fact that many of these were exceptional port cities is not given due emphasis.
Mauro, Frédéric. Le Portugal et l’Atlantique au XVII siècle, 1570–1670: Étude economique. Paris: SEVPEN, 1960.
Mauro’s work, although dated, remains a classic for understanding Portuguese engagement with the Atlantic through its ports. The author mentions the role of many Portuguese ports, even some minor ones, and he also addresses aspects of the voyages and the nature of seaborne commerce from many of Brazil’s major ports, such as Belém, Recife, and Salvador.
O’Flanagan, Patrick. Port Cities of Atlantic Iberia, c. 1500–1900. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.
The study is focused on the fortunes of Iberia’s Atlantic port cities over the years of the monopoly and beyond. It remains the only attempt to evaluate the impact of a discrete political economy over the entire Iberian urban hierarchy, especially its ports.
O’Flanagan, Patrick. “Port Cities, Engines of Growth in an Emerging Atlantic System.” In Port Cities: Dynamic Landscapes and Global Networks. Edited by Carola Hein, 29–42. London: Routledge, 2011.
The author illustrates how a number of major ports, especially Iberian ports, laid the foundation for the emergence of an Atlantic system.
Pinheiro Blot, Maria Luisa. Os portos na origem dos centros urbanos: Contributo para a arqueologia das cidades marítimas e flúvio-marítimas em Portugal. Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Português de Arqueologia, 2003.
This is a valuable introduction to the study of the origins of maritime and river ports in Portugal.
Ringrose, David R. Madrid and the Spanish Economy, 1560–1850. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1983.
Although this book does not deal specifically with Spain’s ports, it addresses the causes and consequences of the growth of Madrid and the impact of Madrid’s explosive expansion on Spain’s urban hierarchy, its regional development, and overland links with its ports.
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- Abolitionism and Africa
- Africa and the Atlantic World
- African American Religions
- African Religion and Culture
- America, Pre-Contact
- American Revolution, The
- Army, British
- Atlantic Creoles
- Atlantic Migration
- Atlantic Trade and the British Economy
- Atlantic Trade and the European Economy
- Bacon's Rebellion
- Baltic Sea
- Black Atlantic in the Age of Revolutions, The
- Britain and Empire, 1685-1730
- British Atlantic Architectures
- British Atlantic World
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- Captivity in North America
- Caribbean, The
- Cartier, Jacques
- Central Europe and the Atlantic World
- Chartered Companies, British and Dutch
- Class and Social Structure
- Colonial Governance in Spanish America
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- Communications in the Atlantic World
- Comparative Indigenous History of the Americas
- Continental America
- Cook, Captain James
- Credit and Debt
- Criminal Transportation in the Atlantic World
- Crowds in the Atlantic World
- Death in the Atlantic World
- Demography of the Atlantic World
- Diaspora, Jewish
- Diaspora, The Acadian
- Disease in the Atlantic World
- Domestic Production and Consumption in the Atlantic World
- Domestic Slave Trades in the Americas
- Dreams and Dreaming
- Dutch Atlantic World
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- Early Modern France
- Economy and Consumption
- Economy of British America, The
- Edwards, Jonathan
- Empire and State Formation
- Enlightenment, The
- Environment and the Natural World
- Europe and Africa
- Europe and the Atlantic World, Northern
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- Evangelicalism and Conversion
- Fiscal-Military State
- Forts, Fortresses, and Fortifications
- France and Empire
- Free People of Color
- French Atlantic World
- French Emancipation
- French Revolution, The
- Gender in North America
- Gender in the Caribbean
- George Montagu Dunk, Second Earl of Halifax
- Germans in the Atlantic World
- Glorious Revolution
- Godparents and Godparenting
- Great Awakening
- Guianas, The
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Hanoverian Britain
- Iberian Atlantic World, 1600-1800
- Iberian Empires, 1600-1800
- Idea of Atlantic History, The
- Indentured Servitude
- Indentured Servitude in the Atlantic World, Indian
- India, The Atlantic Ocean and
- Ireland and the Atlantic World
- Jefferson, Thomas
- Jews and Blacks
- Labor Systems
- Language, State, and Empire
- Languages, Caribbean Creole
- Latin American Independence
- Law and Slavery
- Legal Culture
- Letters and Letter Writing
- Literature and Culture
- Literature of the British Caribbean
- Literature, Slavery and Colonization
- Louverture, Toussaint
- Maroons and Marronage
- Marriage and Family
- Material Culture in the Atlantic World
- Material Culture of Slavery in the British Atlantic
- Medicine in the Atlantic World
- Mental Disorder in the Atlantic World
- Merchants' Networks
- Migrations and Diasporas
- Mining, Gold, and Silver
- Missionaries, Native American
- Monroe, James
- Music and Music Making
- Nation, Nationhood, and Nationalism
- Native American Histories in North America
- Native American Religions
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- Native Americans in Europe
- Native North American Women
- Natural History
- Networks for Migrations and Mobility
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- New France and Louisiana
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- Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World
- Nineteenth-Century France
- Novel in the Age of Revolution, The
- Oceanic History
- Pacific, The
- Paine, Thomas
- Papacy and the Atlantic World
- Political Participation in the Nineteenth Century Atlantic...
- Polygamy and Bigamy
- Port Cities, British
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- Ports, African
- Portugal, Early Modern
- Portuguese Atlantic World
- Poverty in the Early Modern English Atlantic
- Print Culture in the British Atlantic
- Proprietary Colonies
- Quebec and the Atlantic World, 1760–1867
- Race and Racism
- Race, The Idea of
- Refugees, Saint-Domingue
- Religion in the British Civil Wars
- Religious Border-Crossing
- Religious Networks
- Representations of Slavery
- Rio de Janeiro
- Scandinavian Chartered Companies
- Science, History of
- Scotland and the Atlantic World
- Settlement and Region in British America, 1607-1763
- Seven Years' War, The
- Sex and Sexuality
- Shakespeare and the Atlantic World
- Ships and Shipping
- Slave Codes
- Slave Owners In The British Atlantic
- Slave Rebellions
- Slave Trade and Natural Science, The
- Slave Trade, The Atlantic
- Slavery, Abolition of
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- Slavery, Atlantic
- Slavery, Health, and Medicine
- Slavery in Africa
- Slavery in British America
- Slavery in British and American Literature
- Slavery in Danish America
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- Slavery in North America, The Growth and Decline of
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- Slavery, Native American
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- Spain, Early Modern
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- Subjecthood in the Atlantic World
- Texts, Printing, and the Book
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- West Indian Economic Decline
- Whitefield, George
- Whiteness in the Atlantic World
- Women Prophets