Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

International Relations Conflict Management
by
Benita Sumita

Introduction

Any attempt to define conflict management is not an easy feat. It is a dynamic concept with blurry boundaries. In its most simple form, as Dennis Sandole says, conflict management is about ways in which parties try to deal with conflict. The simplistic view of conflict management obscures its processual and power dynamisms. Conflict management is not only about dealing with the conflict; it denotes the management of conflict in violent or competitive and nonviolent or cooperative ways. Today the field is burgeoning with institutions, organizations—private, multilateral—and individual consultants who specialize in managing conflicts. Literature on conflict management covers a wide territory. Means and measures of how to deal with conflict date back to the biblical days. However, moving out of a religious framework, conflict management also has roots spanning from interpersonal skills to organizational measures, and industrial to international relations. This bibliography will focus on conflict management limited to international relations. This introduction would be incomplete if the tension between conflict resolution, conflict transformation, and conflict management is not addressed. There is constant tension and debate about the thin line that separates the three concepts. Peace and conflict studies scholars (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse and Miall, and others) prefer conflict resolution as a more comprehensive, encompassing conflict management. Advocates of conflict resolution criticize conflict management as a top-down interventionist mechanism that seeks to control a conflict more than address its root causes. Conflict resolution indicates a more reconciliatory approach involving the “joint participation of the [conflicting] parties in reaching the outcome” (Laue) by addressing the roots of the conflict. On the other hand, some literature use the terms interchangeably. Meanwhile, conflict transformation is a newer concept in the field that seeks to address the conflict over time as a process (Miall). It is difficult to draw boundaries around each of these concepts. There are areas that might overlap, such as mechanisms used. However, due to limitations of space, the conceptual debate will have to be cut short. This bibliography will primarily focus on the literature on conflict management.

Journals

Anyone interested in conflict and peace studies has to be informed about the emerging ideas and developing research in the quite vast expanses of the field(s). The following journals are a good starting point. The Journal of Conflict Resolution and Journal of Peace Research are must-reads for students, scholars, and practitioners and policy makers in government and foreign affairs. These journals give a wider view through their interdisciplinary approach. Articles with scientific approaches can be found in journals such as Conflict Resolution Quarterly and Conflict Management and Peace Science. Journals focusing on specific conflict management techniques are also available, including the Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Negotiation Journal, and International Studies Quarterly. Taking more diverse approaches to conflict management through teaching notes, simulations, research notes, and more is the International Journal of Conflict Management.

Handbooks

Handbooks in the field of conflict management are aimed at primarily practitioners and policy makers. The books provide a guide to those on the field in the areas of peacebuilding, mediation, diplomacy, and more. Lederach and Jenner 2002 provides an academic’s guide to building peace in ongoing conflict situations. The dynamics of culture and power are explored in the models provided by Pammer and Killian 2003 as significant elements in managing conflicts. Herrmann 2006 is an excellent contribution to understanding mediation from a three-pronged approach: scholars, practitioners, and researchers. A career in diplomacy can be made easy with a good grasp of “diplomacy-speak.” Berridge and James 2004 is an ideal guide for this. Students of peacebuilding can familiarize themselves with the extensive jargon in the field with the Chetail 2009 lexicon on postconflict peacebuilding. Sisk 2001 has pulled together a useful and unique guide on democracy as conflict management mechanism at the local level.

  • Berridge, Geoff, and Alan James. A Dictionary of Diplomacy. 2d ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A useful book on “diplomacy-speak.” It would be appealing to students of diplomatic studies and history and those considering a career in diplomacy.

    Find this resource:

  • Chetail, Vincent, ed. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: A Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The essays are instructive in providing an initial familiarization with the terminologies in the conflict, post-conflict, and peacebuilding literature.

    Find this resource:

  • Herrmann, Margaret S., ed. The Blackwell Handbook of Mediation: Bridging Theory, Research and Practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited volume brings together academics, practitioners, and researchers in the field of mediation. It understands mediation as involving both internal and external dynamics that need to be taken into consideration in theory and practice. The various models and frameworks set out in the book will be useful to students and practitioners alike. Available online to subscribers.

    Find this resource:

  • Lederach, J. P., and Janice Moomaw Jenner, eds. A Handbook of International Peacebuilding: Into the Eye of the Storm. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This handbook is aimed at practitioners, foreign affairs officials, and civil servants in conflict-affected countries. Lederach and Jenner have assembled an experienced array of scholars to provide an instructive guide to conflict resolution and peacebuilding.

    Find this resource:

  • Pammer, William J., Jr., and Jerri Killian, eds. Handbook of Conflict Management. Public Administration and Public Policy 104. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Going beyond violent intra- and interstate conflicts, this handbook encompasses strategic models and situational contexts that deal with organizational and community conflicts. It explores dimensions of culture and power in mediation and conflict management. This is a handbook that can add to one’s existing knowledge of the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Sisk, Timothy D., ed. Democracy at the Local Level: The International IDEA Handbook on Participation, Representation, Conflict Management and Governance. Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    With contributions from several global experts, this handbook focuses on the strengths, challenges, and impact of democracy at the local level as a conflict management mechanism with practical and policy recommendations.

    Find this resource:

General Overviews

At an overarching level, the literature on conflict management can be divided into two broad categories: theory and practice. The theory of conflict management originates in the business (organizational) and industrial relations literature. Borrowing from here, theoretical frameworks have been developed in conflict and peace studies and other disciplines within the social sciences. Some of the seminal books on conflict management have been written by Paul Wehr, who not only provides a historical view of the various techniques of managing conflicts, but also cites cases from across the globe including the “the Gandhian style.” The thick literature on the practice of conflict management includes a wide variety of mechanisms—international, regional, national, and indigenous processes and lessons learned.

Theory of Conflict Management

Much of the theory of conflict management begins with addressing some of the definitional blurriness of the concept. Conflict management is also closely associated with conflict regulation and conflict resolution and used interchangeably with the two latter terms. The seminal book on conflict management/regulation is Wehr 1979. Another must-read in the conflict management literature is human needs theory by Burton 1990. Sandole and Sandole-Staroste 1987 covers a panoply of conflict management theory by addressing varied contexts from family to community and even terrorist negotiations. Crocker, et al. 1996; Crocker, et al. 2001; and Crocker, et al. 2007 is a series on conflict management and a must-read for students of international relations and those interested in the field of conflict and peace studies. Lepgold and Weiss 1998 and Powelson 1972 question some of the comfortable assumptions in the theory of conflict management, which provides ideas for further research. Said, et al. 2001 brings in some fresh ideas with a collection of essays about managing and resolving conflicts in Islam.

  • Burton, John W., ed. Conflict: Human Needs Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Conflict arises from unsatisfied basic human needs. On the basis of this thesis, Burton propagated the idea that conflict management and resolution should aim to satisfy these needs. Here needs are not limited to food, clothing, and shelter but also include non-physical needs that enable a holistic development.

    Find this resource:

  • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Olson Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds. Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace Press, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited volume is extremely useful for teaching the theory and practice of conflict management. The tome, which is divided into four sections—sources of conflicts, intervention dilemmas, range of actors in conflict management, and impact assessment of peace processes—would be a good grounding for students and a reliable guide for teachers.

    Find this resource:

  • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Olson Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds. Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington DC: United States Institute for Peace Press, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shaking up the comfortable and optimistic field of conflict management, this edited volume, a follow-up to Crocker, et al. 1996, questions the concept and examines its frailty and vulnerability. The essays in the book are not all pessimistic, but the authors raise interesting issues and highlight some of the impacts of conflict management.

    Find this resource:

  • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is Crocker, et al.’s third volume in the conflict management series. It takes a renewed look at US foreign policy strategy in the post-9/11 world. The new security environment that was created by the al-Qaeda attack on the United States and the retaliatory “war on terror” is the context of this volume, which makes it a must-read for students of conflict studies and international relations.

    Find this resource:

  • Lepgold, Joseph, and Thomas G. Weiss, eds. Collective Conflict Management and Changing World Politics. SUNY Series in Global Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Lepgold and Weiss have hit on a crucial, yet contentious, issue in this book: is collective security possible or is it not? In answering this question, the essays explore the conditions that make it possible, especially in the post–Cold War era. This in turn leads to exploring the conditions and possibilities of collective conflict management in the domestic and international spheres.

    Find this resource:

  • Powelson, John P. Institutions of Economic Growth: A Theory of Conflict Management in Developing Countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Powelson’s book is essential reading for those have lingering doubts about the effectiveness of institutional conflict management and also for those who are all for it. The author questions the efficacy of exclusively using economic institutional approaches in managing conflicts in developing countries.

    Find this resource:

  • Said, Abdul Aziz, Nathan C. Funk, and S. Ayse Kadayifci, eds. Peace and Conflict Resolution in Islam: Precept and Practice. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An insightful collection of essays that broadens the scope of the field of conflict management and resolution. The papers in this book cover the wide-ranging Muslim views of peace and the processes of conflict resolution.

    Find this resource:

  • Sandole, Dennis, and Ingrid Sandole-Staroste, eds. Conflict Management and Problem Solving: Interpersonal to International Applications. London: Frances Pinter, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An edited volume, the book covers a wide-ranging theoretical landscape from family mediation, dispute resolution in communities, to terrorist negotiations and realpolitik and finally offers a rethinking of the theory of conflict management.

    Find this resource:

  • Wehr, Paul. Conflict Regulation. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1979.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Wehr puts forward several models of conflict regulation that cover nonviolent methods through law, negotiation, bargaining, and deterrence. The book spans the gamut from the Gandhian style to the Norwegian approach during World War II. This is an instructive book for teachers as it includes classroom exercises.

    Find this resource:

Practice of Conflict Management

If the theory of conflict management is complex, then the practice of conflict management is even more diverse. Literature on the practice of conflict management includes case studies, theoretical frameworks of the techniques, and mechanisms and their strengths and weaknesses. This bibliography is not exhaustive; it lists some of the more prominent techniques—peacebuilding and peacekeeping, diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, intervention, and sanctions—as subsections of International Mechanisms of Conflict Management. Before moving on to specific techniques, this section lists a few important books on the practice of conflict management. Butler 2009 addresses the merits and limitations of a few of the techniques used in international conflict management, which provides an up-to-date guide for students. More teaching tools are provided by Burton and Dukes 1990 and Fisher, et al. 1994. For an on-the-field approach, Zartman and Rasmussen 1997 is the book to read within the contemporary context. Carment and James 1998 is an interesting addition to the literature, with its specific focus on ethnic conflicts.

  • Burton, John, and Frank Dukes, eds. Conflict: Practices in Management, Settlement and Resolution. Conflict Series 4. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The fourth in the Conflict Series, this volume focuses on conflict management techniques and approaches that are suitable for specific conflict situations, making it an ideal learning and teaching tool.

    Find this resource:

  • Butler, Michael J. International Conflict Management. New York: Routledge, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focusing on a handful of conflict management techniques—traditional peacekeeping, peace enforcement and support operations, negotiation and bargaining, mediation and adjudication—this book provides the pros and cons of each approach in the current security environment. It would be a good preliminary guide for students of conflict studies and international relations.

    Find this resource:

  • Carment, David, and Patrick James. Peace in the Midst of Wars: Preventing and Managing International Ethnic Conflicts. Studies in International Relations. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    To the field of conflict management, this is an invaluable addition because of its focus on ethnic conflicts that have preoccupied scholars in the post–Cold War era. This book not only looks at national and international factors that enable the ethnic conflict but also studies the available conflict management mechanisms and provides recommendations for improvements.

    Find this resource:

  • Fisher, Roger, Elizabeth Kopelman, and Andrea Kupfer Schneider. Beyond Machiavelli: Tools for Coping with Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book gives the reader a six-step program (through six chapters) for coping with conflict. The authors are clear from the beginning that the objective is not to find a quick-fix solution or to resolve a conflict once and for all. The idea behind the book is to approach the conflict as a process and to think of fresh ideas.

    Find this resource:

  • Zartman, I. William, and J. Lewis Rasmussen, eds. Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques. Washington, DC: United States Institute of PeacePress, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    As the name of the book suggests, the collection of papers focuses on contemporary approaches to peacemaking in the international society. Divided into four sections, the first maps the practical field of peacemaking in the 21st century. After the second section discusses some of the approaches in depth, the third part provides the practitioners’ outlook. The final section focuses on training in the field.

    Find this resource:

International Mechanisms of Conflict Management

This section of the bibliography focuses on select conflict-management mechanisms: peacebuilding and peacekeeping, diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, intervention, and sanctions.

Peacebuilding and Peacekeeping

Curle 1971 answers questions of how to build peace by looking at transforming relationships in a book that is considered seminal in the peace studies literature. Peacebuilding is a complex concept and a dynamic mechanism that might require an inductive reading first. For this purpose, Sandole 2010 will be useful. For a more theoretical understanding of peacebuilding, Richmond 2010 provides a critical analysis. Lederach, et al. 2007 provides a more practical guide to peacebuilding by adding the significance of reflection into the practice. Who are the peacekeepers, asks Bellamy, et al. 2010. Providing an analytical assessment of peacekeeping and peace operations is the goal of Adebajo and Sriram 2006. To get a holistic picture, Fortna 2008 is a must-read.

  • Adebajo, Adekeye, and Chandra Lekha Sriram, eds. Managing Armed Conflicts in the 21st Century. Cass Series on Peacekeeping 9. London: Frank Cass, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Adebajo and Sriram have brought together an interesting collection of case studies on conflict management, peacekeeping, and peace operations. Peacekeeping has been broadened to include truth commissions as well. Most interesting, the cases are set against the essay following the introduction by David Keen. Keen explores the difference between war and peace as a continuum and a transitional process.

    Find this resource:

  • Bellamy, Alex J., Paul Williams, and Stuart Griffin. Understanding Peacekeeping. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Bellamy, Williams, and Griffin focus on peacekeeping and peace operations in this book. It starts with a theoretical exploration of who the peacekeepers are, followed by a historical overview of the early peacekeepers and development of peace operations. Perhaps this book would be useful to students and practitioners alike, because of its additional focus on the types of peace operations and their contemporary challenges.

    Find this resource:

  • Curle, Adam. Making Peace. London: Tavistock, 1971.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    It is only natural to begin the section on peacebuilding and peacekeeping with the pioneer peacemaker, Adam Curle. In defining peace and conflict, Curle explains that making peace is about “making changes to relationships so that they may be brought to a point where development can occur” (p. 15).

    Find this resource:

  • Fortna, Virginia P. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices after Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Fortna raises a pertinent question in this book in the context of the rising number of peace operations across the globe. With this question, she does not attempt to dismiss the enterprise of peacekeeping but explores its functioning and impact. The argument is that peacekeeping is an effective tool that is demonstrated through a causal investigation in this book.

    Find this resource:

  • Lederach, John P., Reina Neufeldt, and Hal Culbertson. Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring, and Learning Toolkit. Notre Dame, IN: Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Developed by some of the leading scholars in the field of peace and conflict studies, this toolkit is a combination of techniques and reflection in the practice of peacebuilding. It guides students, teachers, and practitioners on how to design and develop transformative change on a temporal scale.

    Find this resource:

  • Richmond, Oliver, ed. Palgrave Advances in Peacebuilding: Critical Developments and Approaches. Palgrave Advances. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Oliver Richmond criticizes the liberal peacebuilding theory in this recent edited volume. Contributions in this volume question the coziness of the liberal agenda of peacebuilding that does not transcend the everyday social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions. This is an interesting book for those interested in a postliberal theory of peacebuilding.

    Find this resource:

  • Sandole, Dennis J. D. Peace Building. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is ideal for readers with no background in peace or conflict studies to learn the basic concepts—conflict prevention, management, settlement, resolution, and transformation—and the differences between them. Peacebuilding is explored in each circumstance together with lessons learned from a wide variety of case studies of violent conflicts.

    Find this resource:

Diplomacy

Diplomacy is an art and a science that dates back to ancient times, as Mattingly 1988, Watson 2002, and Burton 1968 demonstrate. For the most recent update on the study of diplomacy, Berridge 2010 offers a comprehensive overview of the nature and characteristics of the field.

  • Berridge, Geoff .Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. 4th ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A recent addition to the literature on diplomacy, this book is Berridge’s fourth edition on the issue. The previous editions were published in 2005 and 1995. It provides a holistic introduction to the many facets of diplomacy, its characteristics, tools, and theoretical frameworks. It is not a book for advanced students but a must-read for beginners.

    Find this resource:

  • Burton, John. Systems, States, Diplomacy, and Rules. London: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Criticizing the traditional science of diplomacy as inadequate, Burton puts forward a systems approach in this book. The systems approach is based on the understanding that the United States is merely a part of the world society; and, seen in this context, diplomacy takes on a new meaning.

    Find this resource:

  • Mattingly, Garrett. Renaissance Diplomacy. New York: Dover, 1988

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Mattingly’s scholarly finesse as a historian is evident in this book, which is a discovery of Western diplomacy through its roots in Italian, French, and Spanish beginnings. This is a classic work that must be on every student’s reading list. First published in 1955 (New York: Cosimo).

    Find this resource:

  • Watson, Adam. Diplomacy: The Dialogue between States. London: Routledge, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a must-read for students of diplomacy. Watson provides a historical view of diplomacy from ancient times by focusing on Europe. The argument put forth is that as the world has gotten more interconnected, the significance of diplomacy has increased.

    Find this resource:

Mediation

Bringing in some fresh ideas and approaches to mediation, Bercovitch 2009, authored by one of the well-known scholars of the field, (also see Bercovitch and Rubin 1992 and others) criticizes the traditional approaches and introduces a new empirical framework to explain the dynamism of mediation. For more advanced reading, Bush, et al. 1994 and Domenici and Littlejohn 2001 explore the dimension of empowerment in the practice of mediation. For a more holistic understanding of this field, it may help to adopt an interdisciplinary reading. Organizational and business studies are good disciplines to explore for conflict management. Bühring-Uhle, et al. 2006 provides some of the mediation techniques used in a business context.

  • Bercovitch, Jacob, and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, eds. Mediation in International Relations: Multiple Approaches to Conflict Management. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited book approaches mediation from an international perspective. It explores the role of international and transnational organizations and their contribution toward international peace and security.

    Find this resource:

  • Bercovitch, Jacob, and Scott Sigmund Gartner, eds. International Conflict Mediation: New Approaches and Findings. Security and Conflict Management 3. London: Routledge, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Arguing that the traditional approaches of mediation are futile, this book explores the various dynamics of international mediation within a new empirical framework. The primary question being answered is why seemingly similar mediation strategies deliver different outcomes. In answering this and many other questions, the authors draw on prescriptive, normative, and descriptive literatures of conflict management.

    Find this resource:

  • Bühring-Uhle, Christian, Lars Kirchhoff, and Gabriele Scherer. Arbitration and Mediation in International Business: Designing Procedures for Effective Conflict Management. 2d ed. International Arbitration Law Library. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Conflict management has its roots in organizational theory, which makes it essential to read some of the literature in international business. It would provide a broader view of the techniques as applied in business.

    Find this resource:

  • Bush, Robert A. Baruch, and Joseph Folger. The Promise of Mediation: Responding to Conflict through Empowerment and Recognition. Jossey-Bass Conflict Resolution Series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is significant to the literature on and field of mediation. It questions the basic assumptions of the practice of mediation. The authors bring in the dimension of reflexivity that, if not considered, can be detrimental to the practice and practitioner. It is a must-read for students at advanced levels with an already-good grasp of the basics.

    Find this resource:

  • Domenici, Kathy, and Stephen W. Littlejohn. Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management. 2d ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Encouraged by Bush and Folger 1994, Domenici and Littlejohn further the dimension of empowerment in the field of mediation. Their theoretical framework emphasizes the importance of transformatory aspects of mediation without abandoning its stage model.

    Find this resource:

Negotiation

Though mediation and negotiation draw from a common pool of skills, there are significant differences between them. Third-party involvement distinguishes mediation from negotiation, which only involves the parties in dispute. One of the earlier theoretical works was Bartos 1974. More recently, Zartman 2007 provides a political science theory to the field. For books on the art and practice of negotiating, Fisher, et al. 1981, Zartman 2001, and Starkey, et al. 2005 are useful resources. Fisher, et al. 1997 provides additional resources in the form of exercises for students in the art of negotiations.

  • Bartos, Otomar J. Process and Outcome of Negotiations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Bartos provided one of the earlier attempts to theorize the concept of negotiations in conflict management. He did not believe that the scientific and social scientific approaches were antithetical, but rather that they could be used complementarily. In his book, the author tests various models with a large sample and comes to the conclusion that more complex models were required that can integrate the views of the negotiator.

    Find this resource:

  • Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. Getting to YES: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Fisher, Ury, and Patton give a step-by-step guide to a successful negotiating process. One of the most important principles the authors promote is the best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA). This, they say, will help the negotiators understand that the outcome should ideally lead something better than the alternative.

    Find this resource:

  • Fisher, Roger, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Elizabeth Borgwardt, and Brian Ganson. Coping with International Conflict: A Systematic Approach to Influence in International Negotiation. NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume is a useful resource for students of international relations as an introduction to the field of negotiations. It also provides exercises for students in the art of negotiation.

    Find this resource:

  • Starkey, Brigid, Mark A Boyer, and Jonathan Wilkenfeld. Negotiating a Complex World: An Introduction to International Negotiation. 2d ed. New Millennium Books in International Studies. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    By means of learning techniques, tools, exercises, and case studies, the authors have provided a comprehensive study resource for the field of negotiation.

    Find this resource:

  • Zartman, I. William. Preventive Negotiation: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict series. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Negotiation is treated as central to preventive diplomacy in this book. Most uniquely, Zartman approaches negotiation within the context of specific issues. Some of the issues addressed in this book are territorial claims, ethnic conflict, state disintegration, cooperative disputes, trade wars, transboundary environmental disputes, global natural disasters, and global security conflicts.

    Find this resource:

  • Zartman, I. William. Negotiation, and Conflict Management: Essays on Theory and Practice. Security and Conflict Management 1. London: Routledge, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Rooting the concept of negotiation in political science, Zartman develops a theoretical and analytical conceptualization of negotiation. This conceptual framework is tested on various types of conflicts, civil wars, and also regime building.

    Find this resource:

Interventions

Intervention is a highly contentious field both academically and in practice. One of the most recent bones of contention was the concept and idea of “responsibility to protect” or R2P, as it is popularly known. The man behind the idea, Gareth Evans, has put down his idea in Evans 2008. Going deeper into the dynamics and ethics of intervention in its humanitarian form, Weiss 2007 provides an insightful read. Among the critics, Chandler 2006 is a must-read. For an evaluation of interventions that had positive impacts, Nalbandov 2009 is an instructive resource. Chayes and Chayes 1999 is an analytical project on the nature of variance in different international interventions. In a similar vein, Wheeler 2001 delves into the legitimacy of humanitarian interventions.

  • Chandler, David. From Kosovo to Kabul and Beyond: Human Rights and International Intervention. London: Pluto, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chandler lifts the human rights veil that adorns most intervention strategy of the West. He critically questions the shift of focus from the primacy of state sovereignty to individual rights. Chandler tries to understand the political implications of this shift in this book.

    Find this resource:

  • Chayes, Antonia Handler, and Abram Chayes. Planning for Intervention: International Cooperation in Conflict Management. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chayes and Chayes’s volume on intervention is an investigation into not just the degree of variance in various international interventions but also the nature of the variance and why some interventions have succeeded and others failed.

    Find this resource:

  • Evans, Gareth J. The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In the contentious field of international interventions, the idea of “the responsibility to protect” is perhaps the most contentious. The man behind the idea, Gareth Evans, has explored and explained this idea further in this recent book with empirical examples and the emergence of the idea.

    Find this resource:

  • Nalbandov, Robert. Foreign Interventions in Ethnic Conflicts. Global Security in a Changing World. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Nalbandov assesses some of the most effective foreign multilateral interventions in ethnic conflicts. He argues that multilateral interventions are bound to be more successful than unilateral ones. Some of the case studies included focus on Chad, Georgia, Somalia, and Rwanda.

    Find this resource:

  • Weiss, Thomas G. Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action. War and Conflict in the Modern World. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Weiss’s instructive book discusses humanitarian intervention in the light of the report by International Commission on Intervention and Sovereignty, “The Responsibility to Protect.” This means that the author has dug deep into the dynamic complexities of the politics, legalities, and ethics of humanitarianism and interventions today. It is a must-read for students.

    Find this resource:

  • Wheeler, Nicholas J. Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Wheeler presents the history of humanitarian intervention before and after the Cold War. He attempts to understand the factors that make such an intervention legitimate especially, as the author argues, since states want their actions to be viewed as legitimate by the wider international society.

    Find this resource:

Sanctions

Sanctions are one of the techniques of conflict management that can be characterized as punitive. Authors criticize the mechanism for causing more harm than hope for managing or resolving conflicts. Drezner 1999 and Al-Jawaheri 2008 explore the negative impacts that have been caused by sanctions imposed on countries. Wallensteen and Staibano 2005 argue for more safeguards to the implementation of sanctions because of their impact and the mushrooming of new actors in the sanctions regimes. Looking at sanctions as not merely a mechanism, Taylor 2010 explores them as a strategy that not only affects the country that has imposed the sanction but also the wider international network.

  • Drezner, Daniel W. The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 65. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drezner’s well-argued book on economic sanctions questions their frequent use though they are considered one of the most ineffective instruments in international relations. After setting out a model of economic coercion in the second chapter, Drezner studies the cases of Russia and nuclear proliferation in the Korean peninsula.

    Find this resource:

  • al-Jawaheri, Yasmin Husein. Women in Iraq: The Gender Impact of International Sanctions. London: I. B. Tauris, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Setting the scene with a history of the UN sanctions in Iraq and women in Iraq, the author examines the impact of the UN sanctions on women in Iraq. She touches on various dimensions of a woman’s life such as education, labor, and family life and explores how the UN sanctions made these worse.

    Find this resource:

  • Taylor, Brendan. Sanctions as Grand Strategy. Adelphi Papers 411. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Taylor explores the various sanctions strategies of the United States, China, Russia, Japan, and the EU in light of the nuclear crises in Iran and North Korea. In examining these countries’ strategies, the author has been able to understand the simultaneous effect the sanctions have had on the sanctioning states’ international partners.

    Find this resource:

  • Wallensteen, Peter, and Carina Staibano, eds. International Sanctions: Between Words and Wars in the Global System. Cass Series on Peacekeeping 21. London: Frank Cass, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Staibano and Wallensteen question the traditional understanding of international sanctions in the light of developments in the post–Cold War era. Some of the issues addressed in this edited volume are the involvement of new actors in the sanctions regimes and the need for increased safeguards in the implementation of sanctions.

    Find this resource:

Regional Mechanisms

Regional bodies and organizations are in a better position to address conflicts faster and even raise warning bells at the earliest signs. To understand how regional mechanisms have been effective, Diehl and Lepgold 2003 is a must-read for wide-ranging case studies. Specific regional studies have been provided by Swanström 2002 from the Pacific Rim, Hughes 2010 from the EU, and Bercovitch, et al. 2008 from East Asia. Francis 2008, Bujra and Solomon 2004, and Imobighe 2003 assess regional mechanisms and cases from Africa. Exploring conflict management from within the framework of a trade regime (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]), Rode 1990 is an insightful historical and legal guide.

  • Bercovitch, Jacob, Kwei-Bo Huang, and Chung-Chian Teng, eds. Conflict Management, Security and Intervention in East Asia: Third-Party Mediation and Intervention Between China and Taiwan. Asian Security Studies. London: Routledge, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The editors have brought together an analysis of a complex conflict region—East Asia. It examines the role of regional–conflict-management mechanisms, nongovernmental actors, and other third-part mediators in the region’s conflicts.

    Find this resource:

  • Bujra, Abdalla, and Hussein Solomon, eds. Perspectives on the OAU/AU and Conflict Management in Africa. Papers developed at a workshop held in Tripoli in 2003. Tripoli, Libya: African Center for Applied Research and Training in Social Development, Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD), and the Development Policy Management Forum, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailing the complexities of the conflicts in Africa, this book is both a good background read as well as insightful in furthering the Pan-African program in conflict management in the continent.

    Find this resource:

  • Diehl, Paul F., and Joseph Lepgold, eds. Regional Conflict Management. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited volume is a must-read for students and practitioners in the field of conflict management. Through a collection of essays, Diehl and Lepgold have brought to light some very interesting aspects of conflict management at the regional level. Case studies involve Africa, East Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, South Asia, and Europe.

    Find this resource:

  • Francis, David J., ed. Peace and Conflict in Africa. New York: Zed, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Emphasizing the significance of traditional and indigenous conflict management mechanisms, Francis has brought together an impressive array of scholars to contribute to the dynamism and complexity of peace and conflict in Africa.

    Find this resource:

  • Hughes, James, ed. EU Conflict Management. Association for the Study of Nationalities. London: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited volume focuses on case studies of conflict management and foreign relations in the European Union.

    Find this resource:

  • Imobighe, Thomas A. The OAU (AU) and OAS in Regional Conflict Management: A Comparative Assessment. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Imobighe compares the conflict management efforts of the Organization of African Unity and the Organization of American States in respective regional conflicts in this book. The author has used five case studies per intergovernmental organization to provide a comprehensive comparative assessment.

    Find this resource:

  • Rode, Reinhard, ed. GATT and Conflict Management: A Transatlantic Strategy for a Stronger Regime. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The collection of essays in this book is a criticism of the GATT system and its ineffectiveness. It provides an instructive historical and legal guide to international trade and economy. This makes it a useful book for students and teachers.

    Find this resource:

  • Swanström, Niklas. Regional Cooperation and Conflict Management: Lessons from the Pacific Rim. Report 64. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using the process-tracing approach, this report develops a theoretical model to explain the dynamics of regional cooperation and conflict management mechanisms. This may be instructive in advancing research in the field of conflict management.

    Find this resource:

National and Traditional Mechanisms

It is important for students of conflict and peace studies and conflict management to focus enough attention on national and local ideas of conflict and peace and localized mechanisms for managing conflicts. Chen and Ma 2002 provides a cultural approach to the Chinese way of conflict management. Merton 1965 brings together a selected collection of Gandhi’s writings on nonviolence. Clark 2010 and Huyse and Salter 2008 have an instructive compilation of case studies from Africa. Reynolds 2002 raises the pertinent question of whether democracy can be designed as a national measure to bring together divided societies. Putnam 1993, on how democracies can work on trust, is essential in understanding what forms the cohesive fabric of society. Some of Africa’s traditions of conflict management are brought together by Huyse and Salter 2008.

  • Chen, Guo-Ming, and Ringo Ma, eds. Chinese Conflict Management and Resolution. Advances in Communication and Culture. Westport, CT: Ablex, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Chen provides a thorough cultural background for the Chinese method of conflict management. On the basis of this introduction, the author examines the Chinese way of managing conflict in various contexts, such as interpersonal and group, organizational and political.

    Find this resource:

  • Clark, Phil. The Gacaca Courts, Post-Genocide Justice, and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Justice Without Lawyers. Cambridge Studies in Law and Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Justice and reconciliation are an important aspect of conflict management, especially in postconflict societies and communities. The Gacaca process in Rwanda is an interesting instance of a traditional method of reconciliation and conflict management. This book provides the results of comprehensive research on the Rwandan process.

    Find this resource:

  • Huyse, Luc, and Mark Salter, eds. Traditional Justice and Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences. Stockholm, Sweden: International IDEA, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Understanding the strength and complementarities of traditional conflict management mechanisms is essential for any student of the field. This book brings together an interesting array of case studies from Africa, including Rwanda, Mozambique, northern Uganda, Sierra Leone, and Burundi.

    Find this resource:

  • Merton, Thomas, ed. Gandhi on Non-Violence: Selected Texts from Mohandas K. Gandhi’s “Non-Violence in Peace and War.” New York: New Directions, 1965.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Ahimsa, or nonviolence was an idea that shook the world and one of the forces that brought the British Empire to her knees in India. The man behind the idea—Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi—has written several articles and papers about his philosophy of nonviolence as an answer to conflict and a way to peace. This edited volume brings together a selection of Gandhi’s writings.

    Find this resource:

  • Putnam, Robert, with Robert Leonardi and Raffaella Y. Nanetti. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The principal question of Putnam’s thesis in this essential reading is why some democracies work and others don’t. Making Democracy Work is a seminal text in several fields of study, including conflict management, that depend on an understanding of the importance of the concept of trust and social capital in maintaining peace and stability in societies.

    Find this resource:

  • Reynolds, Andrew, ed. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Papers presented at a conference held at the University of Notre Dame, 1999. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The key to resolving conflicts in divided societies has been designing democracy or constitutional engineering since the 1990s. The theory and practice of this mantra has been questioned, assessed, and critiqued in this book edited by Reynolds. The case studies focus on Nigeria, India, Eritrea, and Fiji, among others.

    Find this resource:

United Nations and Conflict Management

One cannot speak of conflict management in praxis without referring to the United Nations (UN). The UN employs the whole range of conflict management mechanisms ranging from preventive to punitive. Piiparinen 2010 criticizes the very core of this UN mechanism. The UN’s peacekeeping operations have been in the eye of many storms. Zacarias 1999 explains the dynamisms and shifts in the years of UN peacekeeping with case studies. An in-depth assessment of UN interventions since the Cold War is provided by Berdal and Economides 2007. The use of sanctions by the UN has been contentious, to say the least. Cortright, et al. 2000, Cortright, et al. 2002, and Charron 2010 evaluate the experiences of the regimes that have been sanctioned by the UN. Since the prevention of conflicts is at the core of the UN’s existence, the concept of preventive diplomacy is explored by Ramcharan 2008. Meanwhile, Muldoon, et al. 2005 explores the UN’s diplomatic system in the post-9/11 context.

  • Berdal, Mats, and Spyros Economides, eds. United Nations Interventionism, 1991–2004. LSE Monographs in International Studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511491221Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book provides a detailed and in-depth assessment of the UN interventions since the Cold War. The eight cases focus on Cambodia, the former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda, Haiti, East Timor, Kosovo, and Sierra Leone.

    Find this resource:

  • Charron, Andrea. UN Sanctions and Conflict: Responding to Peace and Security Threats. Routledge Studies in Security and Conflict Management. New York: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book brings together the experiences of the UN and its use of sanctions since the Cold War.

    Find this resource:

  • Cortright, David, and George A. Lopez, with Richard W. Conroy, Jaleh Dashti-Gibson, and Julia Wagler. The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A must-read for any student interested in the history of the UN and its role in conflict management. It provides an instructive historical view of regimes penalized with UN sanctions in the 1990s.

    Find this resource:

  • Cortright, David, and George A. Lopez, with Linda Gerber. Sanctions and the Search for Security: Challenges to UN Action. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Following in the footsteps of their highly acclaimed book, The Sanctions Decade (Cortright, et al. 2000), which examined the history of UN sanctions in the 1990s, the authors examine the changing nature of UN sanctions in this book.

    Find this resource:

  • Muldoon, James P., Jr., Earl Sullivan, JoAnn Fagot Aviel, and Richard Reitano, eds. Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Today. 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: Westview, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book is suitable for students who want to understand the workings of the UN system of operationalizing diplomacy. The second edition brings the book up to date on the role of UN diplomacy in the post-9/11 environment.

    Find this resource:

  • Piiparinen, Touko. The Transformation of UN Conflict Management: Producing Images of Genocide from Rwanda to Darfur and Beyond. Routledge Research on International Organisations. London: Routledge, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Setting the stage with a criticism of the four pillars of UN conflict management—early warning; bureaucratic rationalization; organizational learning; and Western normalization—the author assesses the failures of this mechanism. The book also provides an analysis of the transformative shift in this UN system from Rwanda to Darfur.

    Find this resource:

  • Ramcharan, Bertrand G. Preventive Diplomacy at the UN. United Nations Intellectual History Project Series 10. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Coming from a former UN civil servant, this book is instructive in the history and evolution of the UN’s fundamental conflict management instrument—preventive diplomacy. The author also explores its relevance and efficacy in the age of genocide and terrorism.

    Find this resource:

  • Zacarias, Agostinho. The United Nations and International Peacekeeping. London: I. B. Tauris, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Zacarias’s book explains the theory and operational mechanism of peacekeeping in the United Nations. The book offers an assessment of some of the UN peacekeeping operations, including UNAVEM II, UNTAC, ONUMOZ. A few chapters have also been dedicated to understanding the shifts in UN peacekeeping and its role in the future.

    Find this resource:

Issue-Based Conflict Management

The field of conflict management can also be narrowly applied on specific issue-based conflicts such as environmental disputes and land disputes. Access to natural resources and their management and sustainability have caused several conflicts. Pethig 1992 approaches the issues of managing environmental resources through the game theory model. Bringing together several more models of natural resource management, Buckles 1999 provides a more comprehensive overview. Moran and Russell 2009 addresses the growing concern of energy security and managing energy resources. Land rights are a major concern, especially in postconflict situations, an issue that is explored in Unruh and Williams 2010. Water disputes and the ways in which the international community deals with them are the subjects of Just and Netanyahu 1998.

  • Buckles, Daniel. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management. Ottawa, ON, Canada: International Development Research Centre, 1999.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Appealing to wide-ranging audience, including development practitioners, students, researchers, and others, this book examines case studies from across the globe in managing conflicts that involve natural resources. It covers issues from community-based management to coastal conservation, forest management to participatory planning and policy implications.

    Find this resource:

  • Just, Richard E., and Sinaia Netanyahu, eds. Conflict and Cooperation on Trans-Boundary Water Resources. New York: Springer, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The editors of this book have brought together an interesting collection of papers on conflicts over common sources of water at inter- and intrastate levels. The issues concern not only the quantity of water but also the quality of water—another source of conflict discussed here. Case studies come from the United States, Latin America, Middle East, and Australia.

    Find this resource:

  • Moran, Daniel, and James A. Russell, eds. Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management. Routledge Global Security Studies. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Energy security is a controversial game in international relations. The editors of this book have focused on a crucial aspect of the management of energy security: its militarization. According to the authors, the uncertainty of energy security could drive producers and consumers to secure energy resources with force.

    Find this resource:

  • Pethig, Rüdiger, ed. Conflicts and Cooperation in Managing Environmental Resources. Microeconomic Studies. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    How does the international community share global environmental resources? Pethig has provided a comprehensive answer through the game-theory model. After the international dimensions of shared environmental resources have been discussed, the second section of the book deals with the enforcement of international agreements concerning these resources. This would be an interesting read for those who desire a varied and broader understanding of conflict management.

    Find this resource:

  • Unruh, Jon, and Rhodri Williams, eds. Land and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Peacebuilding and Natural Resources series. London: Earthscan, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book addresses a significant issue in resource management—land—especially in the aftermath of an armed conflict. The book covers a wide range of land rights cases in various postconflict situations, making it a must-read for practitioners, students, and researchers.

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0004

back to top

Article

Up

Down