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International Relations International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution
by
Hall Gardner

Introduction

International negotiation is often a process of power-based dialogue intended to achieve certain goals or ends, and which may or may not thoroughly resolve a particular dispute or disputes to the satisfaction of all parties. The goals of this bibliography are to familiarize the reader with books that seek to explore different forms of negotiation that aim at conflict management, conflict transformation, or else conflict resolution. International negotiation can be bilateral or multilateral, public or secret, and can involve differing forms of negotiation among states and non-state civilian actors, as well as with anti-state actors, such as individual terrorists and terrorist organizations. In addition, differing cultures may engage in negotiations with differing styles and for differing purposes, with differing expectations. Negotiation aimed at conflict management seeks to limit or minimize tensions and disputes as much as possible, without necessarily changing the status quo or the relations of power, values, and interests between the disputing parties. Negotiation aimed at conflict transformation seeks to go beyond the status quo to transform relations of disputed power, values, and interests in a more “positive” and less controversial direction although largely expecting a number of disputes and differences to remain. Conflict resolution is generally seen as an even longer-term process that attempts to find a common and complete agreement among the differing parties despite their differing values, interests, and power relationships.

General Overviews

A number of texts offer a broad and practical introduction to the subject of negotiation, both in the sense of “how to” negotiate but also how to engage in negotiations in very differing contexts. These works can be helpful in conflict management, transformation, or resolution between states, whether in terms of bilateral or multilateral negotiations. They can also be helpful in dealing with conflicting groups within a society. One can also not overlook the importance of maintaining appropriate interpersonal relationships among those who are actually engaging in the negotiating process. Asal, et al. 2005 offers a number of insights as to how to mediate during international crises. Berridge 2002 is one of the few books on traditional diplomacy that explores the negotiation process. Crocker, et al. 2004 discusses diplomatic bargaining strategies with respect to “forgotten” and “intractable” conflicts in arguing that such conflicts may be difficult or stubborn, but are not impossible to resolve or manage. Fischer and Ury 1991 is a classic “how-to” text explaining how to reach agreements. Fischer, et al. 1997 is a how-to book on problem-solving and conflict-management skills for diplomats and heads of state. Mnookin 2010 looks at ways in which negotiators have dealt with “rogue” leaderships in the past and in recent times. Mnookin and Susskind 1999 offers a framework for understanding the complexity and effects of negotiating on behalf of others. Watkins and Rosegrant 2001 identifies the four core tasks in which negotiators need to engage to achieve a “breakthrough.” Zartman and Berman 1992 draws on both theory and practice to present a model of the international negotiation process.

  • Asal, Victor, David Quinn, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, and Kathleen Young. Mediating International Crises. Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics 34. London: Routledge, 2005.

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    International crises can be destabilizing not only for the actors directly involved but also for an entire region, if not the whole international system. Identifies mechanisms for crisis prevention, management, and resolution and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of mediation by third parties. The latter involve facilitation communication between parties, formulation of possible agreements, and manipulation of the parties through sanctions or rewards. Analyzes instances of mediation in 20th-century international crises, supplemented with data derived from simulated negotiation settings.

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  • Berridge, G. R. Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. 2d ed. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

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    Examines traditional diplomacy as the conduct of relations between sovereign states through the medium of officials based at home or abroad. Examines the processes and procedures of diplomacy as an art and draws on evidence and examples from across the world. One of the few general textbooks on diplomacy that places a major emphasis on negotiation (the most important function of diplomats); also contains a key chapter on unconventional diplomatic methods.

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  • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela R. Aall. Taming Intractable Conflicts: Mediation in the Hardest Cases. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.

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    A clearly written, excellent text that shows ways to build a negotiating strategy so as to deal with “intractable” conflicts. Part I discusses the conflict context and mediator’s environment. Part II shows ways to use diplomatic leverage in order to build a negotiating strategy; it provides a number of recipes to secure a negotiated settlement and make it last.

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  • Fisher, Roger, and William L. Ury. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In. 2d ed. New York: Penguin, 1991.

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    A classic text that offers a concise, step-by-step strategy for arriving at mutually acceptable agreements in differing kinds of disputes and conflicts—from those between parents and children to those between diplomats. Explains how to focus on interests, not positions; how to work together to invent options that will satisfy both parties; and how to negotiate successfully with people who are more powerful or who refuse to play by the rules or who resort to dirty tricks.

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  • Fischer, Roger, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Elizabeth Borgwardt, and Brian Ganson. Coping with International Conflict: A Systematic Approach to Influence in International Negotiation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

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    This introductory text combines the clear, concise, proven principles and practice of conflict management with the newest problem-solving approaches to international relations. The book seeks to teach problem-solving and conflict management skills to diplomats and heads of state involved in contentious international disputes based on the authors’ international consulting work.

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  • Mnookin, Robert. Bargaining with the Devil: When to Negotiate, When to Fight. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010.

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    Examines differing types of conflicts, including Winston Churchill’s decision to reject negotiations with Adolf Hitler and Nelson Mandela’s decision to initiate discussions with South Africa’s apartheid government. Suggests four general guidelines for determining the best course of action: systematically compare the cost-benefit ratios of negotiating or fighting, collect advice from others, tip the scales in favor of negotiation before fully committing, and do not permit moral intuition to override pragmatic assessment.

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  • Mnookin, Robert H., and Lawrence Susskind, eds. Negotiating on Behalf of Others: Advice to Lawyers, Business Executives, Sports Agents, Diplomats, Politicians, and Everybody Else. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1999.

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    Offers a framework for understanding the complexity and effects of negotiating on behalf of others and explores how current negotiation theory can be modified to account for negotiation agents. Five major negotiation arenas are examined: labor-management relations, international diplomacy, professional sports, legislative process, and agency law. Concludes with suggestions for future research and specific advice for practitioners. Negotiation agents are broadly defined to include legislators, diplomats, salespersons, sports agents, and committee chairs—anyone who represents others in a negotiation.

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  • Watkins, Michael, and Susan Rosegrant. Breakthrough International Negotiation: How Great Negotiators Transformed the World’s Toughest Post–Cold War Conflicts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

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    Identifies four core tasks in “breakthrough negotiations”: to diagnose the structure of the conflict; to identify barriers to resolution; to manage conflicts that arise within the process; and to build momentum with creative deal making. Four 20th-century conflicts help the authors illustrate the application of these tasks: US negotiations with North Korea over their nuclear armament, the ongoing Middle East crisis, the recent strife in Bosnia, and conflict in Iraq.

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  • Zartman, I. William, and M. Berman. The Practical Negotiator. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

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    This text focuses primarily on international negotiations. The authors’ research has drawn upon three sources of data: the historical record, theories and experiments on bargaining behavior, and interviews with diplomats and UN ambassadors. Historical, experimental, and personal cases are used throughout the text to illustrate their theoretical model.

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Journals

A number of journals cover a wide range of issues and approaches to negotiation and conflict management/ transformation and conflict resolution. Conflict Resolution Center International Gateway provides links to one hundred online journals dealing with negotiation and conflict resolution of all forms. Cooperation & Conflict promotes research on and understanding of international relations without representing any specific tradition. International Journal of Conflict Management publishes research in conflict management including original theoretical and empirical articles. International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice explores the theoretical foundations of the negotiation process and promotes its practical application. Negotiation Journal seeks to find innovative strategies for resolving differences through the give-and-take process of negotiation. Program on Negotiation (PON) provides an extensive list of online materials for all forms of education related to negotiation. The Journal of Conflict Resolution is an interdisciplinary journal of social scientific research and theory on human conflict, focusing largely on international conflict, but also exploring a variety of national, intergroup, and interpersonal conflicts.

Practical Negotiation

A number of works, often written by practitioners, explain how to engage in negotiation from a pragmatic or realistic standpoint. Arrow, et al. 1995 critiques the barriers to successful negotiation in such areas as civil litigation, family law, arms control, labor-management disputes, environmental treaty making, and politics. Bazerman and Neale 1992 examines rational thinking in negotiation, common mistakes in negotiation, ways to frame and simplify complex negotiations, and how to negotiate rationally in an irrational world. Fisher, et al. 1996 offers tools and guidelines to help individuals respond effectively to conflict in a purposive, forward-looking manner while proposing ways to change the way a number of international conflicts are currently handled. Malhotra and Bazerman 2007 explains how to identify negotiation opportunities, disclose the actual truth, and negotiate successfully from a position of weakness. Mnookin and Susskind 1999 offers a framework for understanding the effects of negotiating on behalf of others and explores how current negotiation theory can be modified to account for negotiation agents. Raiffa 1985 represents a sophisticated self-help book that is directed to the lawyer, labor arbitrator, business executive, college dean, and diplomat. Susskind, et al. 1999 argues that consensus building provides a winning alternative to top-down decision making—and even to parliamentary procedure. Ury 1993 explains how to turn adversaries, who keep saying no, into negotiating partners.

  • Arrow, Kenneth J., Robert H. Mnookin, Lee Ross, Robert Wilson, and Amos Tversky. Barriers to Conflict Resolution. New York, Norton, 1995.

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    Drawing on such diverse disciplines as economics, cognitive psychology, statistics, and game and decision-making theory, the work considers the barriers to successful negotiation in such areas as civil litigation, family law, arms control, labor-management disputes, environmental treaty making, and politics. When does it pay for parties to dispute and when to compete? How can third-party negotiators further resolutions and avoid the pitfalls that deepen the divisions between antagonists? End product of a conference held at Stanford University in February 1991.

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  • Bazerman, Max H., and Margaret A. Neale. Negotiating Rationally. New York: Free Press, 1992.

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    Brings together negotiation analysis and social and cognitive psychology for the manager and executive.

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  • Fisher, Roger, Elizabeth Kopelman, Andrea Kupfer Schneider. Beyond Machiavelli: Tools for Coping with Conflict. New York: Penguin, 1996.

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    Provides techniques to help the individual understand the opponent’s perceptions. Describes how to formulate productive proposals and the mechanisms for conflict resolution itself. Proposes ways to change the way in which international conflicts (from the Middle East, to Central Europe to Japan among other disputes) are currently handled.

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  • Malhotra, Deepak, and Max Bazerman. Negotiation Genius: How to Overcome Obstacles and Achieve Brilliant Results at the Bargaining Table and Beyond. New York: Bantam Dell, 2007.

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    Explains how to identify negotiation opportunities, disclose the truth even when the other side wants to conceal it; negotiate successfully from a position of weakness; defuse threats, ultimatums, lies, and other hardball tactics; overcome resistance and “sell” proposals using proven influence tactics; negotiate ethically and create trusting relationships along with great deals; and recognize when the best move is to walk away.

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  • Mnookin, Robert H., and Lawrence E. Susskind. Negotiating on Behalf of Others: Advice to Lawyers, Business Executives, Sports Agents, Diplomats, Politicians, and Everybody Else. Sage Series on Negotiation and Dispute Resolution. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1999.

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    Five major negotiation arenas are examined: labor-management relations, international diplomacy, sports, legislative process, and agency law. The book concludes with suggestions for future research and specific advice for practitioners.

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  • Raiffa, Howard. The Art and Science of Negotiation: How to Resolve Conflicts and Get the Best Out of Bargaining. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

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    Offers a wide choice of specific cases, such as Panama Canal, Camp David, and Law of the Sea negotiations, plus environmental conflict resolution, among many others. Drawing upon game theory and decision analysis, it elucidates the processes of negotiation combined with practical guidelines to help negotiators and “intervenors.”

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  • Susskind, Lawrence E., Sarah McKearnen, and Jennifer Thomas-Lamar. The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1999.

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    By learning to build consensus, stakeholders come to understand and respect one another’s perspectives. The consensus building process allows participants to forge agreements that meet everyone’s needs and provides a meaningful basis for effective, long-range implementation of decisions. Also helps national and international negotiators to understand local community concerns, which further aids the consensus-building process.

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  • Ury, William. Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Confrontation to Cooperation. New York: Bantam, 1993.

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    A general practical text on daily forms of negotiation, it explains how to turn adversaries, who keep saying no, into negotiating partners: how can you negotiate successfully with a stubborn boss, an irate customer, or a deceitful coworker? It likewise tells how to stay in control under pressure, defuse anger and hostility, find out what the other side really wants, counter dirty tricks, use power to bring the other side back to the table, and reach agreements that satisfy both sides’ needs.

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Analysis of International Negotiation

This section features books that are more closely concerned with the analytical nature of the international negotiation process. Avenhaus and Zartman 2007 seeks to explain how abstract concepts of rational choice theorists can be made more understandable and plausible to political and social scientists not trained to work with formal models. Berton, et al. 1999 examines the nature of the actors involved in multilateral negotiations, the role culture plays, and the role of organizations themselves. Kremenyuk 2002 offers differing perspectives for understanding negotiation dynamics, case studies on negotiations in arms control, regional conflicts, and environmental and trade issues. Nikolaev 2008 offers a new communication-oriented and educational approach toward the issue of ways in which domestic politics affects the process of international negotiations and shows the linkage between international negotiations and domestic politics. Singh 2008 discusses the importance of diplomacy and examines the ways in which diplomacy is evolving in the global commercial arena. Spangle and Isenhart 2003 looks at the negotiation process as it applies to interpersonal relations, the workplace, shopping and other consumer settings, community relations, and international affairs. Young 2001 emphasizes how negotiation can play a central role in modern business, diplomacy, politics, and the law. Zartman and Berman 1982 draws on both theory and practice to present a model of the international negotiation process.

  • Avenhaus, Rudolf, and I. William Zartman, eds. Diplomacy Games: Formal Models and International Negotiations. Berlin: Springer, 2007.

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    Seeks to answer three questions: How can abstract concepts of rational choice theorists be made more understandable and plausible to political and social scientists not trained to work with formal models? What can be done to encourage practitioners to use not only simple but also mathematically advanced approaches in their analysis of real-world negotiation problems? How can practitioners (e.g., politicians and diplomats) apply formal models to their more important problems?

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  • Berton, Peter, Hiroshi Kimura, and I. William Zartman. International Negotiation: Actors, Structure/Process, Values. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

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    Negotiation exhibits both universal patterns determined by the finite possibilities of its nature and local variations determined by cultural practices. The possibility of cultural clashes grows as more individuals meet at the negotiating table. With a significant focus on Japan, the work examines differing cultural influences on negotiation by Japanese, Russian, Chinese, and European negotiators. The theoretical section deals with the question of justice and negotiation.

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  • Kremenyuk Victor A., ed. International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues. 2d ed. Processes of International Negotiation Project. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

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    Contains contributions from some of the world’s leading experts in international negotiation, who offer a synthesis of contemporary negotiation theory, perspectives for understanding negotiation dynamics, case studies on negotiations in arms control, regional conflicts, and environmental and trade issues and provides techniques for engaging in negotiations and strategies for producing mutually satisfactory agreements.

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  • Nikolaev, Alexander G. International Negotiations: Theory, Practice, and the Connection with Domestic Politics. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2008.

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    Combines three main elements: a comprehensive overview of all the main theoretical perspectives on the process of international negotiations; levels of analysis such as strategy of negotiations; and issues such as arms control and regional conflict resolution. A number of case studies are included.

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  • Singh, J. P. Negotiation and the Global Information Economy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Argues that where there is a diffusion or decentralization of power among global actors, diplomacy can be effective in allowing the adjustment of positions so that mutual gains will result. In contrast, when there is a concentration of power, outcomes tend to benefit the strong and there will be little change in perception of interests. Suggests that there are possibilities for transformational problem-solving through multilateral diplomacy.

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  • Spangle, Michael L., and Myra Warren Isenhart. Negotiation: Communication for Diverse Settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2003.

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    Discusses the moral and ethical dilemmas of negotiation and offers details about international negotiations, arguing that the form of negotiation is determined largely by the context in which the negotiation process takes place.

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  • Young, H. Peyton, ed. Negotiation Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

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    Using techniques and examples drawn from fields including game theory, decision theory, economics, and experimental psychology, emphasizes how negotiation can play a central role in modern business, diplomacy, politics, and the law. The major topics are the design of incentives for communicating information, the uses of third parties, the role of fairness arguments in bargaining, the analysis of trade-offs, the effects of cognitive biases, the dangers of escalation, and the dynamics of coalition formation.

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  • Zartman, I. William, and M. Berman. The Practical Negotiator. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982.

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    The text focuses primarily on international negotiations. The authors’ research has drawn upon three sources of data: the historical record, theories, and experiments on bargaining behavior, in addition to interviews with diplomats and UN ambassadors. Historical, experimental, and personal cases are used throughout the text to illustrate their theoretical model.

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International Regimes and Multilateral Negotiation

This section provides books with a specific focus on negotiations in the context of international regions and multilateral diplomacy. Cohen 1997 explores the dilemmas posed in multilateral and bilateral negotiations over NAFTA, China’s most-favored-nation status, the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, and the Okinawa bases, among other issues. Dixon 1996 provides an empirical analysis of the spectrum of third-party procedures used to manage international crises. Hampson 1999 shows how multilateral negotiation can represent a viable alternative to global disorder or imposed regimes. Narlikar 2010 analyzes the causes and consequences of deadlocks in multilateral settings. Spector and Zartman 2003 explores how international regimes can accomplish goals that constantly shift as problems change and the power relationships of member-states shift. Zartman and Touval 1985 analyzes a number of disputes in individual case histories and then discusses problems faced by institutional mediation on the part of the Organization of American States, the Organization of African States, and the International Committee of the Red Cross. Zartman 1994 likewise seeks to extend theory and provide tools for analyzing the complexities of international multilateral negotiations.

  • Cohen, Raymond. Negotiating Across Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World. Rev.ed. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997.

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    A substantially revised edition of the 1991 book. Newly added cases include the negotiations over NAFTA, China’s most-favored-nation status, the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, and the Okinawa bases. Examines both pre-negotiation and negotiation processes as well as “low context” and “high context” models of negotiation and explores how cultural factors have affected US dealings with Japan, China, Egypt, India, and Mexico. Concludes with ten specific recommendations for the intercultural negotiator.

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  • Dixon, William J. “Third-Party Techniques for Preventing Conflict Escalation and Promoting Peaceful Settlement.” International Organization 50.4 (1996): 653–681.

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    An empirical analysis of the spectrum of third-party procedures used to manage international crises. Reveals that two techniques are most effective: mediation efforts and third-party activities to open or maintain lines of communication. The endpoints of preventing escalation and promoting peaceful settlement take into account the notion of conflict as a dynamic evolutionary process, consisting of several phases, which in turn affect the outcome of third-party management. Crises management methods that have proved successful in a bipolar world may be similarly successful in the post–Cold War environment.

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  • Hampson, Fen Osler, and Michael Hart. Multilateral Negotiations: Lessons from Arms Control, Trade, and the Environment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

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    Points out ways for individual leaders, epistemic communities, small countries, and international bureaucrats to manage complex issues through the negotiation process. Discusses multilateral arms control, trade, and environmental negotiations from a theoretical standpoint.

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  • Narlikar, Amrita. Deadlocks in Multilateral Negotiations: Causes and Solutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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    Each chapter studies the theoretical, methodological, or empirical issues involving deadlock and then analyzes the causes and consequences of deadlocks in multilateral settings and the types of strategies that could be used to break them.

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  • Spector, Bertram, and I. William Zartman, eds. Getting It Done: Post-Agreement Negotiation and International Regimes. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2003.

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    Successful evolution depends on a process of continuous negotiation—domestic as well as international—in which norms, principles, and rules are modified as circumstances and interests change. The second part examines four case studies—two regional, two global. The final chapter draws both theoretical and practical lessons for the future.

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  • Zartman, I. William, ed. International Multilateral Negotiation: Approaches to the Management of Complexity. Jossey-Bass Conflict Resolution Series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.

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    The intent of this book is to extend theory and provide tools for analyzing the complexities of international multilateral negotiations while concurrently establishing a foundation for the study of negotiation complexity and its management. The work discusses mediation in theory and then discusses mediation and the US-Iran hostage crisis, the Zimbabwe settlement, the Namibia negotiations, the Indo-Pakistani settlement, and others, along with the role of international regimes as mediators.

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  • Zartman, I. William, and S. Touval. International Mediation in Theory and Practice. Conflict Mnagement Studies/SAIS. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.

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    Analyzes disputes in individual case histories, such as Algeria and the US hostages in Iran, Iraq-Iran disputes, Zimbabwe, Namibia, India-Pakistan mediation by outside states, and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Case studies are supplemented by chapters on institutional mediation by the Organization of American States, the Organization of African States, and the International Committee of the Red Cross.

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Preventive Negotiation and Diplomacy

The works included in this section emphasize the possibility and need for preventive measures to be taken through negotiations and diplomacy before—and not after—conflict breaks out. Cahill 2000 explores the challenges of preventive diplomacy in stopping wars before they start. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict 1997 examines the principal causes of ethnic, nationalist, and religious conflicts, the circumstances that foster or deter their outbreak, and the role of various international institutions in conflict prevention. Diamond and McDonald 1996 explores the processes of multitrack diplomacy, involving nongovernmental, corporate, and religious actors, as well as peace activists and the media, in addition to government officials. Greenberg, et al. 2000 argues that the international community can creatively address deadly conflict through mediation, arbitration, and the development of international institutions to promote reconciliation. Jentleson 2000 assesses the feasibility of preventive diplomacy by concentrating on ten major post–Cold War cases. Peck 1996 reviews the nature of preventive diplomacy and the effectiveness of the UN’s dispute-settlement mechanisms. Ho-Won Jeong 2010 outlines conflict-management and conflict-resolution theories with reference to specific cases. Zartman 2001 examines the practice of preventive negotiation in the areas of boundary problems, territorial claims, ethnic conflict, divided states, state disintegration, cooperative disputes, trade wars, transboundary environmental disputes, global natural disasters, global security conflicts, and labor disputes.

  • Cahill, Kevin M., ed. Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before They Start. Rev.ed. New York: Routledge and the Center for International Health and Cooperation, 2000.

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    In differing essays, diplomats, physicians, humanitarians, and government officials all explore the challenges of preventive diplomacy in its efforts to stop wars before they start.

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  • Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report with Executive Summary. Washington, DC: CCPDC, 1997.

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    Examines the causes of ethnic, nationalist, and religious conflicts within and between states. The policy-oriented study likewise considers ways in which international organizations might contribute toward developing an effective international system of nonviolent problem solving and for preventing mass violence.

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  • Diamond, Louise, and John McDonald. Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. 3d ed. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian. 1996.

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    A systemic approach to peacemaking and conflict resolution, the work identifies the players and activities that contribute to the peacemaking and peace-building process in a community through multitrack diplomacy, involving nongovernmental, corporate, and religious actors, as well as peace activists and the media, in addition to government officials.

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  • Greenberg, Melanie C., John H. Barton, and Margaret E. McGuinness, eds. Words over War: Mediation and Arbitration to Prevent Deadly Conflict. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

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    Contributors compare third-party intervention in twelve conflicts of the post–Cold War period (war in Abkhazia, Bosnia, the Oslo Accords, Northern Ireland, North Korea nuclear program, South Africa and the transition from Apartheid, among others). They also examine the role of international organizations, such as the UN, international development banks, and international law institutions. They then analyze forms of leverage used in both successful and unsuccessful mediations.

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  • Jentleson, Bruce W., ed. Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized: Preventive Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

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    Assesses the feasibility of preventive diplomacy by concentrating on ten major post–Cold War cases (Chechnya, the Baltics and nuclear proliferation issues after the Soviet collapse; Croatia, Bosnia, and Macedonia after the breakup of Yugoslavia; Somalia, Rwanda, and Congo at the end of the Cold War; and North Korea, among others). These all challenged the preventive-diplomacy capacity of the international community.

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  • Jeong, Ho-Won. Conflict Management and Resolution: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2010.

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    A well-written general text. The work explains how to prevent, manage, and eventually resolve various types of conflict that originate from interstate and inter-groups competition by focusing on concepts of negotiation, mediation facilitation, and reconciliation in detail.

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  • Peck, Connie. The United Nations as a Dispute Settlement System: Improving Mechanisms for the Prevention and Resolution of Conflict. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1996.

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    Reviews the nature of preventive diplomacy and the effectiveness of the UN’s dispute-settlement mechanisms in terms of interest-, rights-, and power-based approaches.

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  • Zartman, I. William, ed. Preventive Negotiation: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

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    Suggests how lessons in preventive negotiation can be transferred from one area to another, if appropriate. Contributors analyze a wide range of preventive negotiations dealing with the natural environment, territorial disputes, ethnic conflict, and global security issues.

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Negotiating in International Crises and Negotiating with Terrorists

This final section explores the difficulties and complications involved in trying to engage in diplomacy or in negotiation in times of interstate crisis or with leaders of rogue states or with terrorist groups. Allison and Zelikow 1999 is a revised version of the classic text that analyzes American intra-bureaucratic and US-Soviet interstate bargaining with respect to the Cuban missile crisis. Crocker, et al. 2004 develops a bargaining strategy using diplomatic leverage to deal with “forgotten” and “intractable” conflicts. Faure and Zartman 2010 deals with the theory and quantifiable data produced from analysis of hostage situations and explores several high-profile case studies. Icklé 1964 is a classic text on Cold War negotiation. Mnookin 2010 examines differing types of conflicts, including Winston Churchill’s decision to reject negotiations with Adolf Hitler, and Nelson Mandela’s decision to initiate discussions with South Africa’s apartheid government. Zartman 2006 argues that it is possible to negotiate with terrorists within limits depending on the nature of the terrorist group and leadership. Zartman 2008 examines negotiations with respect to ethnic conflicts, civil wars, and regime building.

  • Allison, G., and P. Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2d ed. New York: Longman, 1999.

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    Revised version of the classic work that analyzes American intra-bureaucratic and US-Soviet interstate bargaining with respect to the Cuban missile crisis. Defines three conceptual models that can be used to analyze policy actions: The Rational Actor, Organizational Behavior, and Governmental Politics models. It then applies these three models to the Cuban Missile Crisis to explain how each illuminates different aspects of the key decisions made by both the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis.

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  • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela R. Aall. Taming Intractable Conflicts: Mediation in the Hardest Cases. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.

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    A clearly written, excellent text that shows ways to build a negotiating strategy so as to deal with “intractable” conflicts. Part I discusses the conflict context and mediator’s environment. Part II shows ways to use diplomatic leverage in order to build a negotiating strategy; it provides a number of recipes to secure a negotiated settlement and make it last.

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  • Faure, Guy Olivier, and I. William Zartman. Negotiating with Terrorists: Strategy, Tactics, and Politics. Cass Series on Political Violence. London: Routledge, 2010.

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    Part 1 deals with the theory and quantifiable data produced from analysis of hostage situations. Part 2 explores high-profile case studies. On the one hand, authorities see hostage taking as representing unacceptable demands made by unacceptable means. On the other, terrorists generally view their actions as justified, on moral and/or religious grounds. Shows the need to understand both the terrorist culture and the profile of the hostage takers in addition to the values of authorities and their way of framing of the dilemmas presented by the taking of hostages. Offers recommendations for ways to achieve best possible results.

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  • Icklé, Fred Charles. How Nations Negotiate. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

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    Argues that interstate negotiation has five objectives: agreements involving extension (of previous agreements), normalization, redistribution of present relations, and innovation (setting up new relationships), plus the creation of external effects that do not necessarily concern the negotiation.

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  • Mnookin, Robert. Bargaining with the Devil: When to Negotiate, When to Fight. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010.

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    Suggests four general guidelines for determining the best course of action: systematically compare the cost-benefit ratios of negotiating or fighting; collect advice from others; tip the scales in favor of negotiation before fully committing; and do not permit moral intuition to override pragmatic assessment.

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  • Zartman, I. William. Negotiating with Terrorists. International Negotiation Series 1. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006.

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    Makes distinctions between absolute terrorists who refuse negotiation and contingent terrorists with whom it might be possible to negotiate. It then makes distinctions between revolutionary and conditional absolutes and between barricaders, kidnappers, and hijackers in the contingent category. The official negotiator is faced with the dilemma of giving a little to get the terrorist to give a lot.

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  • Zartman, I. William. Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays on Theory and Practice. Routledge Studies in Security and Conflict Management 1. New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    Develops an analytical framework and specific concepts required for the study of the negotiation process and conflict management, such as formula, ripeness, pre-negotiation, mediation, power, process, intractability, escalation, and order. Also develops typologies and strategies of mediation, dealing with such aspects as leverage, bias, interest, and roles.

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LAST MODIFIED: 08/26/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0006

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