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International Relations Diplomacy
by
Christopher Seely

Introduction

States use diplomacy to resolve disputes, form alliances, negotiate treaties, strengthen economic relations, promote cultural and military exchanges, and for a variety of other purposes. Diplomacy encapsulates a broad arrangement of shifting rules, etiquette, goals, procedures, and agreements. There are international laws that govern some aspects of diplomacy, while other elements are based on tradition, pragmatism, and expediency. Nonstate actors—including but not limited to nongovernmental organizations and multinational corporations—play an increasingly important role in diplomatic relations as the tides of globalization shift the international landscape. Yet, no matter how much the international arena changes, diplomacy will always play a central role in dictating how states and other entities interact. The literature on diplomacy is broad and varied, but most of it is accessible to students of all levels, including undergraduates and experts alike. However, some of the more specialized works may require that students read an introductory textbook first in order to help them understand some of the terms and concepts.

General Overviews

In addition to textbooks, authors and practitioners have also generated a great deal of literature on the topic of diplomacy. These overviews range from reference books to historical studies, as well as a variety of other broad topics within the field of diplomacy. All of these works are written for general audiences and are accessible to students and experts alike. Berridge and James 2001 and Freeman 1997 are both reference books with dictionary-style definitions of diplomatic terms. Cahill 1996 offers an overview of various diplomatic methods and means of preventing conflicts. Calvet 1988 provides a broad analysis and critique of the strengths and weaknesses of diplomacy generally. Craig and George 1983 offers a broad analysis of the historical relationship between force and diplomacy over the past several centuries. Kissinger 1994 also offers a broad historical analysis of diplomacy, but the author focuses more narrowly on just the 20th century. Riordan 2003 and Copeland 2009 examine the recent global developments that have changed the role and style of diplomacy over the past decade.

  • Berridge, G. R., and Alan James. A Dictionary of Diplomacy. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2001.

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    Well-received reference book with definitions and brief explanations of diplomatic terms, concepts, figures, and events written by two highly regarded scholars in the field.

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  • Cahill, Kevin M., ed. Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars before They Start. New York: Basic Books, 1996.

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    Examines the challenges, benefits, and obstacles to preventive diplomacy; includes discussions of the role of nongovernmental organizations, peacekeepers, economic sanctions, and the media, as well as health and humanitarian concerns in averting international crises by observing problems early on and resolving them diplomatically.

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  • Calvet De Magalhães, José. The Pure Concept of Diplomacy. Translated by Bernardo Futscher Pereira. New York: Greenwood, 1988.

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    Broad overview of the topic; includes discussions of its historical evolution, diplomatic morphology and pathology, and criticisms of diplomacy.

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  • Copeland, Daryl. Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International Relations. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.

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    Innovative and well-received reevaluation of diplomacy in the age of globalization; historical, technical, and meta-analysis of post–Cold War international developments from a seasoned diplomat; emphasizes the importance of diplomacy and its need to evolve in order to remain relevant.

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  • Craig, Gordon A., and Alexander L. George. Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

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    Broad historical overview of the international system since the 17th century; emphasizes the need for a viable international community to minimize international violence and promote diplomacy; also analyzes the linkage between force and legitimacy as the strength of the international community ebbs and flows.

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  • Freeman, Chas. W., Jr. Arts of Power: Statecraft and Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997.

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    Brief overview of diplomatic concepts; dictionary format with explanatory definitions; emphasizes the importance of diplomacy in preserving peace, but suggests how diplomacy and the application of force may sometimes be most effective when used in conjunction.

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  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

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    Well-received overview of major 20th-century diplomatic moments by a respected practitioner; analyzes the role diplomacy has played in an ever-changing international atmosphere; written from a historical perspective.

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  • Riordan, Shaun. The New Diplomacy. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2003.

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    Insightful overview of the past, present, and future of diplomacy by an experienced British diplomat; challenges traditional views of diplomacy and emphasizes the changing nature of politics in an evolving international arena.

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Textbooks

A variety of textbooks have been published on the broad topic of diplomacy. Some of these works are more comprehensive, while others tend to focus more narrowly on specific aspects of diplomacy. All of these works are written for general audiences and are accessible to students and experts alike. Berridge 2005 is usually cited as the standard textbook on diplomacy because it examines various aspects of theory, concepts, history, and case studies. Starkey, et al. 2005 is an introductory-level textbook explaining basic concepts of diplomacy. Barston 2006 offers a similar introduction, but this textbook emphasizes case studies to examine the evolution of modern diplomacy over time. Hamilton and Langhorne 1995 also looks at changes in diplomacy over time, but puts more emphasis on broad historical developments rather than case studies. Feltham 2004 is a general overview that emphasizes issues relating to diplomatic protocol and procedures. Cohen 1997 explains how general ideas of diplomacy relate to cultural issues. Bayne and Woolcock 2003 offers a similar overview of the intersection between economics and diplomacy. Snow and Taylor 2008 provides a textbook account of recent innovations in public diplomacy and efforts to target international public opinion as a tool of diplomacy.

  • Barston, R. P. Modern Diplomacy. 3d ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman, 2006.

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    Comprehensive exploration of the evolution and concepts of modern diplomacy; uses case studies to explore topics including the nature of diplomacy, methods and negotiation, natural disasters, and international conflicts.

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  • Bayne, Nicholas, and Stephen Woolcock. The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision-Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003.

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    Comprehensive overview of economic diplomacy; includes discussion of theory, historical and contemporary case studies, and analysis of multilevel economic negotiation.

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  • Berridge, G. R. Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. 3d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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    Widely recognized as the standard textbook on the subject; comprehensive look at subjects such as negotiation, embassies, summits, and “diplomacy without diplomatic relations.”

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  • Cohen, Raymond. Negotiating Across Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997.

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    Innovative and well-received textbook emphasizing effects of culture in international diplomacy; analyzes differences between “low context” and “high context” cultures and the effect of these differences in negotiation and communication styles.

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  • Feltham, R. G. Diplomatic Handbook. 8th ed. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004.

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    Broad and comprehensive introduction to diplomatic issues; explains issues relating to protocol, diplomatic privileges, international law and organizations, conference procedure, information and media, and several other basic diplomatic concepts.

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  • Hamilton, Keith, and Richard Langhorne. The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory, and Administration. London: Routledge, 1995.

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    Broad overview of historical and theoretical developments in diplomatic practice; emphasizes the transition from the “old diplomacy” of the 19th century toward a “new diplomacy” developing in the early 20th century, followed by the concept of “total diplomacy.”

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  • Snow, Nancy, and Philip M. Taylor. Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    Comprehensive overview of national image and perception management; analyzes case studies like campaigns during the Cold War and efforts to sway attitudes in the Muslim world after 9/11; examines how public relations, soft power, and marketing can shift international diplomacy; criticized for too much emphasis on American and British case studies.

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  • Starkey, Brigid, Mark A. Boyer, and Jonathan Wilkenfeld. Negotiating a Complex World: An Introduction to International Negotiation. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 2005.

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    Written primarily for undergraduates; explains concepts including the role of culture in communication, the impact of domestic-level politics on international negotiations, and the intensity of crisis situations; uses case studies to understand why negotiations succeed and fail.

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Classical Works

Diplomacy is hardly a modern invention; however, the study and practice of international diplomatic affairs changed dramatically with the birth of the modern nation-state. Several early modern diplomats published works that offered practical advice and analysis regarding modern diplomacy. Guicciardini 1965 is a treatise on the corruption in diplomatic affairs written by a famous Renaissance diplomat. Machiavelli 1985 is a similar treatise by another Renaissance diplomat. Vera y Figueroa 1620 was a prominent diplomatic advice book by a 17th-century Spanish diplomat. Pecquet 2004 and Wicquefort 2009 are manuals offering diplomatic advice emphasizing strategy and method over moral rectitude. Bacon 1985 contains diplomatic advice from a 17th-century British enlightenment figure. Richelieu 1961 and Callières 2002 offer explanations of the “French method” of diplomacy developed during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

  • Bacon, Francis. “Of Negotiating.” In The Essayes or Counsels, Civil and Morall. By Francis Bacon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

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    Brief but influential essay of an admired enlightenment figure on the topic of diplomacy and negotiation. Available online.

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  • Callières, François de. De la manière de négocier avec les souverains. Geneva, Switzerland: Librairie Droz, 2002.

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    Text explaining the “French method” authored by a disciple of Cardinal Richelieu; recognizes the importance of diplomacy as a modern institution; explains the importance of having professional ambassadors reside in assigned posts for a fixed number of years.

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  • Guicciardini, Francesco. Maxims and Reflections of a Renaissance Statesman (Ricordi). Translated by Mario Domandi. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

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    Treatise by a famous Renaissance diplomat who articulates a political philosophy filled with cynical despair, lacking faith in human goodness; analyzes the sources of corruption in human affairs, especially in the art of diplomacy.

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  • Machiavelli, Niccolò. The Prince. Translated by Harvey C. Mansfield Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

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    Highly influential and innovative renaissance work on political science, diplomacy, and power; articulates a realist perspective with an emphasis on hard power, manipulation, and amoral political calculation.

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  • Pecquet, Antoine. Discourse on the Art of Negotiation. Translated by Aleksandra Gruzinska and Murray D. Sirkis. New York: Lang, 2004.

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    Manual that presents diplomacy as a specialized skill; holds that general maxims may be clearly expressed and imparted to be of practical use in the science of diplomatic negotiation.

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  • Richelieu, Armand Jen du Plessis. The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu. Translated by Henry Bertram Hill. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.

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    Seventeenth-century political and diplomatic advice from the principal adviser to Louis XIII, who helped centralize the French state and played a major role in negotiating the Treaty of Westphalia.

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  • Vera y Figueroa, Juan Antonio de. El Enbaxador. Seville, Spain: Francisco de Lyra, 1620.

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    Well-known and often-read 17th-century advice book for diplomats of the period; his work describes the “perfect ambassador” as being noble born, wealthy, handsome, well educated, fluent in many languages, and above all he emphasized the importance of moral rectitude.

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  • Wicquefort, Abraham de. L’Ambassadeur et ses fonctions. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2009.

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    Innovative work that analyzed the growing cadre of professional diplomats; rejects the traditional emphasis on moral standards and instead examines the specific skills, strategies, and methods that proved successful in diplomatic exchanges. Available online.

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Journals

Several academic publications focus a great deal of attention on the topic of diplomacy. Diplomatic History examines diplomatic issues from a historical perspective. Journals like Diplomacy and Statecraft, International Organization, and International Studies Review publish articles and reviews that focus on different innovations in research, analysis, and practices regarding diplomacy. These publications analyze the topic of diplomacy through both historical examples and current events. The American Journal of International Law contains articles and reviews that focus on issues within international law, including the subfield of diplomatic law. Journals such as Foreign Affairs, Monde Diplomatique, and World Affairs all publish articles and reviews that focus primarily on contemporary issues and developments within the field of diplomacy.

Diplomatic Theory

As with many fields within political and international studies, the subdiscipline of diplomacy has a theoretical component to it. The different theories include ideas as varied as realism, game theory, nascent diplomatic theory, innovative diplomatic theory, and prospect theory. Berridge, et al. 2001 offers a good introduction into the variations among these theoretical outlooks by analyzing the historical evolution of diplomatic theory. Kennan 1984 also looks at how history and theory interact by focusing on changes in American diplomacy. Sharp 2009 explains how diplomatic theory relates to larger questions in the study of international relations. Snidal 1985 looks at how game theory can apply to diplomacy. Clinton 2009 and Levy 1992 examine the strengths and weaknesses of different diplomatic theories. Murray 2006 proposes potential new directions for diplomatic theory.

Diplomatic Strategy

Diplomacy can take many forms, and practitioners of diplomacy may initiate different diplomatic strategies depending on their goals in order to attain the desired results. Several of these works are specialized and would require an introductory textbook before using them for research. Freedman 1998 and George 1991 look at various methods and drawbacks relating to coercive diplomacy. Schelling 2008 expands on ideas of coercion theory by examining military power and other variables involved. McGillivray and Stam 2004 empirically assesses the success of economic sanctions as diplomatic strategy. Muldoon 1999 examines strategies of multilateral diplomacy. Riordan 2004 and Crossley and Roberts 2004 analyze the value and methods of public-diplomacy strategy. Kahler 2000 looks at case studies of legal and economic diplomatic strategies.

  • Crossley, Nick, and John Michael Roberts, eds. After Habermas: New Perspectives on the Public Sphere. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.

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    Essays continue the debate on theoretical and practical implications of Habermas’s seminal study titled “The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere”; examines topics in public diplomacy; provides a useful summary of Habermas’s ideas and the thinking of his critics.

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  • Freedman, Lawrence. Strategic Coercion: Concepts and Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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    Examines theories relating to coercive diplomacy; uses case studies to analyze coercive strategies in East Asia, the Balkans, and Russia; questions whether nonstate actors, terrorist groups, or drug traffickers would respond to coercive diplomacy.

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  • George, Alexander L. Forceful Persuasion: Coercive Diplomacy as an Alternative to War. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1991.

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    Uses case studies to articulate four variables for coercion: demand, sense of urgency, threatened punishment, and incentives; identifies five types of coercive diplomacy: ultimatum, tacit ultimatum, try and see, gradual turning of the screw, and carrot and stick; contains a lot of jargon.

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  • Kahler, Miles. “Legalization as Strategy: The Asia-Pacific Case.” International Organization 54.3 (2000): 549–571.

    DOI: 10.1162/002081800551325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introduces concept of legalization as a diplomatic strategy focusing on Asia as a case study; examines theories of economic integration, functionalism, and regional stability to understand how increasing international legalization affects diplomatic relations.

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  • McGillivray, Fiona, and Allan C. Stam. “Political Institutions, Coercive Diplomacy, and the Duration of Economic Sanctions.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48.2 (2004): 154–172.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002703262858Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Deep empirical analysis of the effect of economic sanctions; argues that leadership change strongly affects the duration of sanctions only in nondemocratic states; contains a lot of jargon.

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  • Muldoon, James P., Jr., Joann Fagot Aviel, Richard Reitano, and Earl Sullivan, eds. Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Today. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1999.

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    Analyzes various questions regarding diplomatic strategies, including but not limited to multilateral negotiations, the UN, economic components, “citizen diplomacy,” and nongovernmental organizations.

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  • Riordan, Shaun. Dialogue-based Public Diplomacy: A New Foreign Policy Paradigm. Discussion Papers in Diplomacy 95. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael,” November 2004.

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    Examines the centrality of public diplomacy to new thinking about terrorism and other global issues; emphasizes the need for credible nongovernment agents, web-based dialogue, civil-society initiatives, and diplomats willing to listen, network, and debate.

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  • Schelling, Thomas C. Arms and Influence. 2d ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

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    Innovative and well-received explanation of coercion theory; differentiates the active use of military strength as bargaining power in diplomatic coercion from passive military deterrence; uses historical case studies.

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Diplomatic Negotiation

One key to diplomatic success lies in the art of negotiation. Winham 1979 is a broad overview of issues and concepts involved in diplomatic negotiation. Lall 1966 is a manual explaining principles of international negotiation. Wiethoff 1981 offers a modern application of Machiavellian negotiating advice. Druckman 2001 uses case studies to examine diplomatic-negotiation successes and failures. Albin 2001 also uses case studies but focuses on negotiation between state and nonstate actors. Similarly, Maundi, et al. 2006 uses case studies to analyze the role of mediators in negotiation. Singer 1965 examines the benefits and drawbacks to third-party negotiators. Kaufmann 1988 introduces concepts relating to multilateral negotiation techniques.

  • Albin, Cecilia. Justice and Fairness in International Negotiation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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    Innovative examination of four distinct cases: global negotiation over acid rain, GATT, Israel-PLO talks, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; uses these cases in an attempt to analyze deeper questions relating to justice and fairness as they pertain to the process and outcome of the negotiations.

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  • Druckman, Daniel. “Turning Points in International Negotiation: A Comparative Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45.4 (2001): 519–544.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022002701045004006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines thirty-four cases of international negotiations, looking at participants, process, and consequences; three categories of cases: security, political, and economic; finds that each category follows a unique pattern.

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  • Kaufmann, Johan. Conference Diplomacy: An Introductory Analysis. 2d ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.

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    Well-received explanation of international negotiation by an experienced UN diplomat; focuses particularly on multilateral negotiation including formal and informal caucusing groups; good entry-level explanations of basic concepts and terms; see also the companion volume of case studies titled Effective Negotiation: Case Studies in Conference Diplomacy (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989).

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  • Lall, Arthur. Modern International Negotiation: Principles and Practice. New York: Columbia University Press, 1966.

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    Well-received manual written by an experienced and respected practitioner; straightforward and pragmatic presentation of examples articulating basic principles of international negotiation; emphasizes the need for some balance in interest and prospects of the parties involved as necessary preconditions for successful negotiation.

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  • Maundi, Mohammed O., I. William Zartman, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, and Kwaku Nuamah. Getting In: Mediators’ Entry into the Settlement of African Conflicts. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace, 2006.

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    Innovative examination of six cases of conflict resolution in Africa in Burundi, Rwanda, Congo, Sudan, West Africa, and Ethiopia; focuses on the important role early mediators played in achieving resolutions to these violent conflicts.

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  • Singer, J. David. “Negotiation by Proxy: A Proposal.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 9.4 (1965): 538–541.

    DOI: 10.1177/002200276500900411Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Brief and insightful explanation of the benefits of a disinterested third-party negotiator in diplomatic exchanges; emphasizes the political blowback of groups within a nation using diplomatic negotiations as tools to paint opponents as traitors who sold out the country.

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  • Wiethoff, William E. “A Machiavellian Paradigm for Diplomatic Communication.” Journal of Politics 43 (1981): 1090–1104.

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    Brief review of Machiavellian advice as it applies to modern diplomacy; examines the importance of individual agency in the character and style of ambassadors and envoys; analyzes the actions and words of Machiavelli in his diplomatic missions.

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  • Winham, Gilbert R. “Practitioners’ Views of International Negotiation.” World Politics 32.1 (1979): 111–135.

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    Examines reasons behind the dearth of systematic studies of international negotiation; analyzes different aspects of diplomatic negotiation including preconditions, the decision to negotiate, framework, internal versus external negotiation, and social or cultural characteristics of the negotiator.

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Diplomatic Law

In order to ensure an international environment that is conducive to the practice of diplomacy, modern nation-states have agreed to various laws guaranteeing the opportunity for diplomatic exchanges. Several of these works have specialized language regarding international law. Çali 2010 offers a good introduction to and broad overview of international and diplomatic law. Hardy 1968 provides a more specific overview of diplomatic law. Papacostas 1976 looks at the historical evolution of diplomatic laws. Denza 1998 is a more focused examination of diplomatic law laid out in the Vienna Convention. Ustor 1965 is also focused on the Vienna Convention from a Hungarian point of view. Lillich 1975 examines diplomatic and international law as it relates to private wealth.

  • Çali, Basak, ed. International Law for International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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    Comprehensive introduction to international law; explains different approaches to legal topics; analyzes key sources of international law, organizations, and cases.

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  • Denza, Eileen. Diplomatic Law: A Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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    Exhaustive examination of each article of the Vienna Convention; uses legal case studies to show how these laws and articles have been interpreted and applied historically.

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  • Hardy, Michael. Modern Diplomatic Law. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1968.

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    Well-received overview of concepts in diplomatic law; examines the legal status and importance of multilateral conventions, diplomatic privilege, jurisdictional immunity, and the 1964 Vienna Convention.

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  • Lillich, R. B. “The Diplomatic Protection of Nationals Abroad: An Elementary Principle of International Law Under Attack.” American Journal of International Law 69.2 (1975): 359–365.

    DOI: 10.2307/2200272Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines ways countries try to get around international law; analyzes concepts embedded in the Calvo Doctrine and national sovereignty as challenges to international diplomatic law; focuses on issues of private-wealth deprivation of foreign-owned companies by national governments.

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  • Papacostas, Basile N. The Law of Diplomatic Relations. Vol. 1, Introduction: The Diplomatic Mission. Athens, Greece: 1976.

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    Examines the development of diplomatic laws through historical evolution; emphasizes the importance of economic and social changes that have led to diplomatic legal innovation from antiquity to the present.

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  • Ustor Endre. A Diplomáciai Kapcsolatok Joga. Budapest: Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó, 1965.

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    (The law of diplomatic relations.) In Hungarian; well-received annotated commentary on the Vienna Convention. Four main topics are general rules of diplomatic relations, immunities and privileges of the mission, personal immunities and privileges, and termination of diplomatic mission. Criticized for uneven treatment of Western and Communist countries.

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Documents on Diplomatic Law

Many diplomatic laws have been codified into international conventions and agreements. These documents are available for review and analysis, but it would be helpful to have read some background information before studying these documents directly. The Hague Convention of 1899, formally known as Convention (1) for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, was an early attempt at codification of diplomatic law. The Havana Convention on Diplomatic Officers of 1928 and the Havana Convention on Consular Agents of 1928 were conventions on diplomatic privileges adopted by the American states. The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations were later and more comprehensive attempts to codify diplomatic laws.

Diplomatic Privilege and Immunity

One of the most important components of diplomatic law is the sanctity and privilege afforded to diplomats visiting foreign countries and conducting official state business. Barker 1996 offers a good introduction and a broad analysis of issues relating to diplomatic privilege. Frey 1999 provides a historical overview of diplomatic immunity. Parry 1967 also looks at historical cases relating to British diplomatic laws and immunity. Ogdon 1937 goes even farther back, looking at ancient historical origins of immunity. Wilson 1967 shows the increased scope of immunity since World War II. Gross 1962 looks at specific documents relating to immunity for United Nations personnel. McClanahan 1989 offers an analysis of the positive and negative aspects of immunity.

  • Barker, J. Craig. The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: A Necessary Evil? Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth, 1996.

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    Examines the arguments for and against reducing diplomatic privileges and immunities; contextualizes both the historical origins of diplomatic immunities and the contemporary challenges such privileges currently face; analyzes national and international measures to address problems of abuse of privilege.

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  • Frey, Linda S., and Marsha L. Frey. The History of Diplomatic Immunity. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999.

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    Well-received overview; traces the historical evolution of diplomatic immunity from ancient times to the present in various cultures; examines the practical, cultural, and contextual reasons for practices; analyzes cases of violation of immunity.

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  • Gross, Leo. “Immunities and Privileges of Delegations to the United Nations.” International Organization 16 (1962): 483–520.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0020818300011279Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the various international legal documents guaranteeing UN diplomatic privileges; also explains national, state, and city laws of New York and the United States that further guarantee these privileges and immunities.

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  • McClanahan, Grant V. Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems. New York: St. Martin’s, 1989.

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    Well-received overview of post–Cold War challenges facing the issues of immunity; examines complexities in the use of diplomatic status for foreign scientists, aid workers, and technical experts; also emphasizes the responsibilities that accompany this important privilege.

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  • Ogdon, Montell. “The Growth of Purpose in the Law of Diplomatic Immunity.” American Journal of International Law 31.3 (1937): 449–465.

    DOI: 10.2307/2190456Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines ancient laws pertaining to issues of diplomatic immunity, particularly those of Rome; compares the function of immunity in the past to the changing functions emerging in the modern era.

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  • Parry, Clive, ed. British International Law Cases. Vol. 6, Diplomatic and Consular Agents; Treaties; Addendum. London: Stevens, 1967.

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    Well-received and in-depth examination of British cases relating to diplomatic law, privilege, and immunity; includes twenty-eight cases dating from 1724 to 1833; criticized for not including contemporary cases, explanatory notes, or definitions of ancient legal terms.

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  • Wilson, Clifton E. Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1967.

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    Emphasizes the increase in scope and importance of diplomatic privileges and immunities since 1945; views the Vienna Convention as a realistic reflection of modern state practice; examines the importance of these guarantees to facilitate interstate communication.

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International Mediation and Arbitration

Another important component of diplomatic law is the growing reliance on meditation and arbitration for settling disputes between states or between a state and a nonstate actor. Several of these works contain specialized language and would require an introduction. Posner 2005 provides a good introduction and a broad overview of issues relating to various forums for arbitration. Akhavan 1998 looks specifically at the UN as a forum for international arbitration. Caron 2000 examines the creation of the International Court of Justice. Moore 1966 shows how the World Bank Convention created a model for arbitration. Mattli 2001 compares private arbitration practices for dispute resolution. Park 1999 examines the complexities in states accepting arbitration decisions. Similarly, Schwebel 1987 looks at issues of state jurisdiction, sovereignty, and compliance with decisions. Sacriste 2007 looks at how lawyers in the 1920s encouraged global moves toward arbitration.

  • Akhavan, Payam. “Justice in The Hague, Peace in the Former Yugoslavia? A Commentary on the United Nations War Crimes Tribunal.” Human Rights Quarterly 20.4 (1998): 737–816.

    DOI: 10.1353/hrq.1998.0034Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In-depth essay analyzing the diplomatic, political, legal, and ethnic aspects of the UN War Crimes Tribunal; examines issues of prosecutorial discretion, tribunal as theater, “soft” and “hard” options for punishment, and use of economic aid as an incentive for cooperation.

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  • Caron, David D. “War and International Adjudication: Reflections on the 1899 Peace Conference.” American Journal of International Law 94.1 (2000): 4–20.

    DOI: 10.2307/2555228Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examination of the historical developments surrounding the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which evolved into the International Court of Justice; addresses the social and political international atmosphere that caused many to believe such institutions would prevent future wars.

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  • Mattli, Walter. “Private Justice in a Global Economy: From Litigation to Arbitration.” International Organization 55.4 (2001): 919–947.

    DOI: 10.1162/002081801317193646Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explains the various arbitration options for international commercial dispute resolution for private parties; examines alternative dispute-resolution techniques such as conciliation and mediation; distinguishes private arbitration cases from the legal formalities and framework of courts.

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  • Moore, Michael M. “International Arbitration between States and Foreign Investors: The World Bank Convention.” Stanford Law Review 18.7 (1966): 1359–1380.

    DOI: 10.2307/1227175Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explains how the lack of confidence and stability in underdeveloped nations limits foreign investment; the World Bank Convention created a model for arbitration to increase investor confidence and encourage third-party arbitration of international economic disputes.

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  • Park, William W. “Duty and Discretion in International Arbitration.” American Journal of International Law 93.4 (1999): 805–823.

    DOI: 10.2307/2555345Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the tensions between accepting private third-party arbitration decisions and respecting a court’s authority to step in and overrule arbitration outcomes; analyzes the interaction of three overlapping legal orders: national statutes, international law, and privatized dispute resolution.

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  • Posner, Eric A. and John C. Yoo. “Judicial Independence in International Tribunals.” California Law Review 93.1 (2005): 1–74.

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    General overview of international dispute resolution; examines types and roles of international tribunals, arbitrators, and adjudicators; analyzes why states use these options; explains the International Court of Justice, Inter-American Court on Human Rights, GATT, WTO, European Court of Justice, and International Criminal Court.

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  • Sacriste, Guillaume, and Antoine Vauchez. “The Force of International Law: Lawyers’ Diplomacy on the International Scene in the 1920s.” Law and Social Inquiry 32 (2007): 83–107.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2007.00051.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Case study of the professional structure of the international legal community during the 1920s; examines lawyers’ influence on the rise of multilateralism; argues the heteronomy of international lawyers helps explain the autonomization of international law.

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  • Schwebel, Stephen M. International Arbitration: Three Salient Problems. Cambridge, UK: Grotius, 1987.

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    In-depth analysis of three issues. The first problem is the arbitrator’s right to decide his or her own jurisdiction. The second is the ability of a state to repudiate an arbitration decision with which it disagrees. The third involves a state withdrawing from arbitration before a decision is rendered.

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Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomats

In order to facilitate diplomatic exchanges, states establish embassies and consulates in other countries. These institutions are governed by laws and serve many different purposes. Gamboa 1967 is a reference handbook explaining diplomatic procedure and law. Barker 2006 examines legal cases relating to the rights of embassy personnel. Puente 1930 provides a historical overview of the changing function of consulates. Reychler 1979 examines the role diplomats play in policy formation generally. Similarly, Harr 1969 analyzes the role of embassies in US policy formation. Hocking 1999 explains how embassies are becoming more—not less—important.

  • Barker, J. Craig. The Protection of Diplomatic Personnel. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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    Examination of cases relating to the protection, privilege, and violation of diplomatic personnel; includes a brief historical overview of issues relating to protecting diplomats; case studies examine policies of the United States, East African nations, Britain, and the UN.

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  • Gamboa, Melquiades J. Elements of Diplomatic and Consular Practice. New York: Oceana, 1967.

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    Well-received practical diplomatic procedural and legal advice; arranged alphabetically by keyword with short and precise answers; often includes text from treaties, the Vienna Convention, or other legal documents; criticized for lacking expansive bibliographical guide.

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  • Harr, John E. The Professional Diplomat. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969.

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    In-depth examination of the State Department’s role of policy formation and implementation; analyzes differences in diplomat’s status in Washington or abroad, presidential efforts to retain policymaking authority, and overlap between the State Department and other government agencies with overseas concerns.

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  • Hocking, Brian, ed. Foreign Ministries: Change and Adaptation. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999.

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    Challenges the “decline thesis,” which asserts that growing international interdependence and blurring foreign and domestic policy has crippled and sidelined foreign ministries; argues that this image of decline distorts reality; claims foreign ministries are adapting; uses case studies from around the world.

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  • Puente, Julius I. “The Nature of the Consular Establishment.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American Law Register 78.3 (1930): 321–345.

    DOI: 10.2307/3307331Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Broad overview of the origins, history, functionality, and value of the consulate; examines how changing notions of sovereignty, international law, and economic integration resulted in innovations in the role and function of the consulate.

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  • Reychler, Luc. Patterns of Diplomatic Thinking: A Cross-National Study of Structural and Social-Psychological Determinants. New York: Praeger, 1979.

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    Examines the role of diplomats in relation to four variables: perception of international environment, view of world order, style of analysis, and approach to strategy; criticized for not addressing how important individual diplomats are in policy formation.

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Diplomatic Recognition

In order for states to establish formal diplomatic relations, they must recognize each other. Although this simple step of recognition may appear obvious, the process of diplomatic recognition is more complex that it may seem. Talmon 1998 provides a broad overview of issues relating to diplomatic recognition. Bahcheli, et al. 2004 looks at case studies of newly emerging states trying to gain diplomatic recognition. Similarly, Dunsdorfs 1975 examines the specific case of Australia recognizing the Baltic states, and White 1988 examines issues of recognition relating to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Warbrick, et al. 1986 looks at British refusal to recognize certain states. Weeks 2001 examines US policies of de facto recognition. Article 25: Effect of Severance of Diplomatic Relations examines what happens to treaty agreements when states sever diplomatic relations.

  • “Article 25: Effect of Severance of Diplomatic Relations.” American Journal of International Law 29 (1935): 1055–1066.

    DOI: 10.2307/2213692Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examination of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties; analyzes what happens to treaty agreements if relations are severed; distinguishes between complete termination and temporary suspension of relations; emphasizes that severance of relations can be a means of retaliation, manifestation of resentment, or preliminary step toward war.

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  • Bahcheli, Tozun, Barry Bartmann, and Henry Srebrnik. De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. London: Routledge, 2004.

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    Examines cases of newly emerging states and their fight for international recognition; examples include Chechnya, Abkhazia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Republika Srpska, Transnistria, Palestine, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Somaliland, and Bougainville.

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  • Dunsdorfs, Edgars. The Baltic Dilemma: The Case of the De Jure Recognition by Australia of the Incorporation of the Baltic States into the Soviet Union. New York: Robert Speller, 1975.

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    In-depth analysis showing the complications, motivations, and political calculations of Australia’s diplomatic recognition of the Soviet incorporation of the Baltic states.

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  • Talmon, Stefan. Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.

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    In-depth overview of diplomatic recognition; examines the difference between de jure and de facto recognition; analyzes considerations for recognition, privilege and immunity issues, and governments in exile.

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  • Warbrick, Robin Churchill, Robin White, J. C. Woodliffe, and Brian Yeomans. “Recognition of States and Diplomatic Relations, Law of the Sea, Air and Space Law: Some Recent Developments.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 35.4 (1986): 975–990.

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    Examines the British refusal to recognize independent South African “Bantustans” such as Bophuthatswana and Transkei, not considered genuinely independent states; also analyzes why Britain has refused to recognize North Korea and Taiwan.

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  • Weeks, Gregory. “Almost Jeffersonian: U.S. Recognition Policy toward Latin America.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 31.3 (2001): 490–504.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0360-4918.2001.00183.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes changes from Jefferson’s de facto principle of recognition to avoid judgment toward judgment-based recognition of Latin American governments; argues US policy is returning to Jeffersonian de facto recognition.

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  • White, Robin. “Recognition of States and Diplomatic Relations.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 37.4 (1988): 983–988.

    DOI: 10.1093/iclqaj/37.4.983Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines issues of diplomatic recognition through the example of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus of the 1980s; analyzes British reluctance to recognize the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, although the United Kingdom did allow diplomatic dialogue with officials representing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

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Etiquette and Protocol

The unwritten rules of diplomacy are just as important as the codified international laws that govern it. All of these works are written for general audiences and would be accessible to undergraduates and experts alike. State visits, diplomatic summits, treaty negotiations, and other formal exchanges must be carried out according to strict protocol and guidelines in order to convey proper respect for everyone involved. French 2010 and McCaffree, et al. 2002 offer in-depth explanations of diplomatic protocol and etiquette. Roberts 2009 is a reference book offering advice and explanations of protocol issues. Roosen 1980 examines the history behind procedures of early modern diplomats. Slater 2008 also looks at historical changes in diplomatic behavior since 1950.

  • French, Mary Mel. United States Protocol: The Guide to Official Diplomatic Etiquette. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.

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    In-depth handbook explaining various aspects of diplomatic protocol and etiquette by an experienced US State Department official.

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  • McCaffree, Mary Jane, Pauline Innis, and Richard M. Sand. Protocol: The Complete Handbook of Diplomatic, Official, and Social Usage. 25th anniv. ed. Dallas, TX: Durban House, 2002.

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    Highly respected manual about diplomatic etiquette and protocol; defines order of precedence and ranking, use of titles and forms of address in written and oral communication, seating arrangements, and flag etiquette.

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  • Roberts, Ivor, ed. Satow’s Diplomatic Practice. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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    First published in 1917; well-respected reference book on the nuts and bolts of diplomatic activity; traditional advice mixed with updated explanations of the changes in diplomacy; emphasis on the importance of diplomacy because of the flaws in human nature.

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  • Roosen, William. “Early Modern Diplomatic Ceremonial: A Systems Approach.” Journal of Modern History 52.3 (1980): 452–476.

    DOI: 10.1086/242147Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Historical examination of procedures, traditions, and rights that governed behavior of European diplomats and rulers during early modern period; innovative in showing how historians have ignored the significance embedded in these ceremonial behaviors.

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  • Slater, Candida. Good Manners and Bad Behaviour: The Unofficial Rules of Diplomacy. Leicester, UK: Troubador, 2008.

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    Analyzes the changing role and expectations of diplomats in the British foreign service from 1950 to present; examines advice and protocol laid out by the British Foreign Office in booklets about “How to Behave Abroad.”

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Espionage

Embassies serve as centers for gathering intelligence on allies and enemies alike. Kish 1995 provides a general overview of espionage. Marenches and Andelman 1992 offers a memoir of diplomatic espionage. Lilley and Lilley 2004 is a firsthand account of the interaction between diplomacy and espionage. Vagts 1967 explains the intelligence-gathering role of military attachés. Similarly, Hofmann 1998 looks at the specific diplomatic role of military observers during the Spanish civil war.

  • Hofmann, George F. “The Tactical and Strategic Use of Attaché Intelligence: The Spanish Civil War and the U.S. Army’s Misguided Quest for a Modern Tank Doctrine.” Journal of Military History 62.1 (1998): 101–134.

    DOI: 10.2307/120397Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Historical case study of how military attachés gather and analyze intelligence; explains how observers searched for broad lessons in the successes and failures of the fighting during Spanish civil war.

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  • Kish, John. International Law and Espionage. Edited by David Turns. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1995.

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    Overview of various aspects of international espionage; includes an entire chapter on diplomacy and espionage; also examines espionage in relation to war, information, human rights, and geography.

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  • Lilley, James, and Jeffrey Lilley. China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage, and Diplomacy in Asia. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.

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    Firsthand historical narrative; examines how diplomacy and espionage interact with, complement, or complicate one another in episodes such as the Korean and Vietnam wars, Kissinger’s secret trip to China, and China’s market revolution and opening to Western capitalism.

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  • Marenches, Alexander de, and David A. Andelman. The Fourth World War: Diplomacy and Espionage in the Age of Terrorism. New York: Morrow, 1992.

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    Semiautobiographical recounting of espionage by de Marenches, a French former diplomat; using his experiences, he predicted the problems of terrorism that would surface after the Cold War and how important espionage would become in fighting terrorist groups.

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  • Vagts, Alfred. The Military Attaché. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.

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    Examines the secretive intelligence-gathering activities of military attachés and their role in assessing information about military technology, troop strength, and deployment in foreign counties; emphasizes the practicality of this institution in its historical evolution.

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Economic Diplomacy

International diplomatic exchanges have as much to do with promoting trade as they do with avoiding war. The subfield of economic diplomacy offers insights into how states and nonstate actors negotiate terms of trade and foster economic exchanges. Bayne and Woolcock 2003 provides a broad overview of theory, history, and case studies relating to economic diplomacy. Biel 2003 examines the dominance of capitalist powers over the international economic system. Haass 1998 analyzes the use of economic sanctions as diplomatic tools. Huntington 1978 looks at the changing nature of the relationship between diplomacy and economics during the 1970s. Nester 1995 emphasizes the economic component of US-Japanese relations. Similarly, Wang 1993 explores the role of economics in the diplomatic exchanges between China and Japan. Stulberg 2007 looks at Russia’s use of natural resources for diplomatic leverage. Similarly, Venn 1986 examines the specific role of oil in diplomatic exchanges.

  • Bayne, Nicholas, and Stephen Woolcock, eds. The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision-making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003.

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    Innovative in its textbook-style approach; includes examination of theory, historical developments, and case studies; criticized for lacking theoretical innovation and advancing the Washington Consensus and neoliberal views on free trade.

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  • Biel, Robert. “Imperialism and International Governance: The Case of U.S. Policy towards Africa.” Review of African Political Economy 30 (2003): 77–88.

    DOI: 10.1080/03056240308368Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the relationship between capitalism, country-level governance, and the international system; argues that capitalist powers cooperate to form collective structures of dominance on the international level.

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  • Haass, Richard N., ed. Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1998.

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    Edited volume evaluating the efficacy of American use of economic sanctions; contains eight case studies of countries—China, Cuba, Haiti, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, and the former Yugoslavia; highlights failures and unintended consequences of sanctions.

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  • Huntington, Samuel P. “Trade, Technology, and Leverage: Economic Diplomacy.” Foreign Policy 32 (1978): 63–106.

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    Emphasizes the changing relationship between international relations, economics, trade, and technology; argues that détente added to this shift and allowed for both competition and cooperation in areas of foreign policy; advocates a policy of conditioned flexibility; insightful but outdated.

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  • Nester, William. “Rules of Engagement: Psychological and Diplomatic Dynamics of American-Japanese Relations.” Asian Survey 35.4 (1995): 323–335.

    DOI: 10.1525/as.1995.35.4.01p0010vSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Insightful case study of the effects of Japan’s rising economic power on their relationship with the United States; examines how US security guarantees, international sponsorship, and open markets allowed Japan’s economic success but strained relations.

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  • Stulberg, Adam N. Well-Oiled Diplomacy: Strategic Manipulation and Russia’s Energy Statecraft in Eurasia. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

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    Innovative examination of Russia’s use of economic resources for diplomatic leverage with neighboring countries; includes examination of oil, natural gas, pipelines, and nuclear energy as strategic resources Russia uses to influence regional and global politics.

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  • Venn, Fiona. Oil Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century. New York: St. Martin’s, 1986.

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    Insightful analysis of oil in international relations; explains how early military and strategic concerns over oil evolved into broader economic and trade issues; examines early US oil wealth, imperial Japan’s drive for oil, OPEC, and Western powers in the Middle East.

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  • Wang, Qingxin Ken. “Recent Japanese Economic Diplomacy in China: Political Alignment in a Changing World Order.” Asian Survey 33.6 (1993): 625–641.

    DOI: 10.1525/as.1993.33.6.00p02915Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores the changing diplomatic relationship between Japan and China by focusing on areas of economic competition and cooperation; emphasizes the background of multiple political layers involving relations with the United States and other economic and political powers in the region.

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Cultural Diplomacy

Diplomacy is not always just about military leverage or trade policy. Cultural exchanges often help to grease the wheels of international diplomacy in ways that other types of exchanges cannot. Chay 1990 provides a broad overview of cultural diplomacy using case studies. Leng and Regan 2003 examines how cultural similarities between diplomats increases possibilities of successful negotiation. Mirroring this perspective, Mishal and Morag 2002 looks at how different cultural backgrounds create different diplomatic styles. In specific examples of cultural diplomacy, Maack 2001 analyzes the diplomatic motivation and success of cultural centers in Africa during the cold war, Belanger 1999 looks at how culture became the third pillar of Canadian foreign policy, and Ninkovich 1981 examines the early historical rise of cultural diplomacy in American policies. Nye 2004 examines how common cultural values expressed in media serve as diplomatic tools to build on shared ideals.

  • Belanger, Louis. “Redefining Cultural Diplomacy: Cultural Security and Foreign Policy in Canada.” Political Psychology 20.4 (1999): 677–699.

    DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00164Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Canadian policy-review process examined how culture became officially constituted as the third pillar of Canadian foreign policy; analysis showed significant differences in modes of legitimization.

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  • Chay, Jongsuk, ed. Culture and International Relations. New York: Praeger, 1990.

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    Broad look at the role of culture in diplomacy and international relations; uses case studies in the United States, Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East to examine connections between culture and foreign relations.

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  • Leng, Russell J., and Patrick M. Regan. “Social and Political Cultural Effects on the Outcomes of Mediation in Militarized Interstate Disputes.” International Studies Quarterly 47.3 (2003): 431–452.

    DOI: 10.1111/1468-2478.4703007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Investigates the relationship of cultural similarities among diplomats and successful outcomes of diplomatic negotiations; finds that mediation is more likely to succeed when parties are from similar social and political cultures.

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  • Maack, Mary Niles. “Books and Libraries as Instruments of Cultural Diplomacy in Francophone Africa during the Cold War.” Libraries and Culture 36.1 (2001): 58–86.

    DOI: 10.1353/lac.2001.0012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines how Britain, France, and the United States sponsored language instruction and set up cultural centers reflecting their national heritage; compares different book programs in each country in Africa; argues that strategies varied because of different underlying ideas about cultural diplomacy.

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  • Mishal, Shaul, and Nadav Morag. “Political Expectations and Cultural Perceptions in the Arab-Israeli Peace Negotiations.” Political Psychology 23.2 (2002): 325–353.

    DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00284Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the different political and cultural aspects of peace negotiators; argues that Israeli political culture leans toward a hierarchical order, whereas Arab politicians are more networked; each side also has different levels of expectation regarding the fulfillment of negotiated obligations.

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  • Ninkovich, Frank A. The Diplomacy of Ideas: U.S. Foreign Policy and Cultural Relations, 1938–1950. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

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    Innovative examination of the development of cultural policy as an instrument of American diplomacy; shows how the State Department’s Division of Cultural Relations, created in 1938, provided improved relations with the world.

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  • Nye, Joseph S., Jr. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.

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    Examines soft power and its role in diplomacy; focuses on national values and styles of behavior transmitted through cultural productions like movies and music; emphasizes that these values are shared by many people globally and can be used to find common ground and encourage positive diplomatic exchanges.

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Military Diplomacy

Some of the oldest and most basic forms of diplomatic exchange are those of military alliances, peace negotiations, and declarations of war. However, military diplomacy is much more than this. Both Glaser 1992 and Cimbala 1992 examine the relationship between military force and international diplomacy. Nathan 2002 looks at historical case studies that highlight the changing role of military men and their role in diplomatic exchanges. Similarly, Craig 1949 shows how German military officers took on increasingly important diplomatic roles in the 19th century. Art and Cronin 2003 examines the risks and effectiveness of coercive diplomacy and threats of military force in changing state behavior.

  • Art, Robert J., and Patrick M. Cronin, eds. The United States and Coercive Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2003.

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    Edited volume studying the limits of coercive diplomacy; examines the risks and effectiveness of using threats of force to change state behavior; uses eight post–Cold War case studies including Somalia, Serbia, and Iraq; accessible to both undergraduate students and experts.

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  • Cimbala, Stephen J. Force and Diplomacy in the Future. New York: Praeger, 1992.

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    Examines the relationship between the threat of force and diplomacy; includes analysis of military deterrence and escalation in case studies of NATO attempts to limit nuclear proliferation and the Gulf Crisis of 1991.

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  • Craig, Gordon A. “Military Diplomats in the Prussian and German Service: The Attachés, 1816–1914.” Political Science Quarterly 64.1 (1949): 65–94.

    DOI: 10.2307/2144182Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines how military officers in Prussia, and later Germany, took on many of the diplomatic roles that other countries reserved for civilians; uses this to argue that the German army acted as a state within the state.

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  • Glaser, Charles L. “Political Consequences of Military Strategy: Expanding and Refining the Spiral and Deterrence Models.” World Politics 44.4 (1992): 497–538.

    DOI: 10.2307/2010486Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes which military policies yield positive political consequences and under what circumstances such results occur; examines different military approaches, including offensive and defensive, or unilateral and bilateral; draws heavily on examples of US-Soviet relations during the Cold War.

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  • Nathan, James A. Soldiers, Statecraft, and History: Coercive Diplomacy and International Order. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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    Analysis of military diplomacy through historical case studies from Westphalia to the present; includes examination of policies of Louis XIV and Frederick the Great, the French Revolution, the Paris Peace Conference, appeasement, and American coercion.

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Nonstate Diplomacy

Nonstate actors play an increasingly important role in international diplomacy. Talbott 1997 offers a general overview on how globalization has allowed nonstate actors to play a bigger role in diplomatic exchanges. Iriye 2002 examines the historical rise and importance of international nongovernmental organizations. Charnovitz 2006 looks at the role of nongovernmental organizations in international diplomacy. Similarly, Woods 1993 examines the intersection of economics, diplomacy, and international nongovernmental organizations by examining the case of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Movement. Melissen 1999 focuses on innovative uses of media for diplomatic purposes and negotiating with nongovernmental organizations.

  • Charnovitz, Steve. “Nongovernmental Organizations and International Law.” American Journal of International Law 100.2 (2006): 348–372.

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    Analyzes how nongovernmental organizations help promote diplomatic exchanges and innovations in international law; also examines the strengths and limitations on nongovernmental-organization diplomacy and its role in the international sphere; contains legal jargon.

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  • Iriye, Akira. Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

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    Studies the rise of international nongovernmental organizations from a historical perspective; examines how these groups encourage cultural exchange, factor into political calculations, and help shape diplomatic debates regarding human rights, the environment, peace, disarmament, and development; accessible to all readers.

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  • Melissen, Jan, ed. Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999.

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    Edited volume examining new challenges and tactics in diplomacy; contains broad overviews of themes including multilateral diplomacy, summitry, coalitions, nongovernmental organizations, mediating ethno-nationalist conflicts, media, and nonverbal communication; somewhat specialized, but accessible to undergrads.

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  • Talbott, Strobe. “Globalization and Diplomacy: A Practitioner’s Perspective.” Foreign Policy 108 (1997): 68–83.

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    Broad overview of the effects globalization has on different aspects of diplomatic issues; examines how economic, environmental, media, political, and cultural transmissions across borders affect the way leaders and citizens think about their diplomatic relations with other countries.

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  • Woods, Lawrence T. Asia-Pacific Diplomacy: Nongovernmental Organizations and International Relations. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1993.

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    Examines international nongovernmental organizations in their unofficial approach to international diplomatic objectives; offers case studies of groups involved in the Pacific Economic Cooperation Movement; examines the Institute of Pacific Relations, the Pacific Trade and Development Conference, the Pacific Basin Economic Council, and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council.

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LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0012

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