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International Relations History of Diplomacy
by
David Atkinson

Introduction

Diplomacy encompasses the myriad processes of formal and informal communication between and among states. While evidence of protodiplomatic practices exists from the ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman worlds (especially through envoys), the antecedents of modern diplomatic practices can more properly be traced to medieval and early modern Europe. The emerging states of Europe slowly began to institutionalize formal diplomatic customs and conventions in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, forced as they were to engage with one another for political, geographic, economic, religious, and strategic reasons. Traditionally (and especially since the Renaissance), diplomacy has been conducted by ambassadors and consuls, professional diplomats who function as resident agents of their respective governments in foreign states. Since the early 19th century, the leaders and foreign ministers of the major powers have increasingly opted to conduct direct diplomacy through congresses, conferences, and summits, in addition to dispatching permanent representatives to act on their behalf. There is a vast literature on the history of diplomacy. Much of it is historically oriented, although scholars in international relations and political science have also contributed much to our understanding of diplomacy’s evolving role in the international system. Most of the literature is concerned with delineating and analyzing the major innovations in diplomatic practice from the ancient to the contemporary period. For the most part, the literature is stimulating and coherent. New researchers and novice undergraduates will find it accessible, comprehensible, and easily digestible, and experienced scholars will find much to augment, challenge, and enrich their ongoing research agendas.

General Overviews

General overviews of the history of diplomacy, not surprisingly, tend to be historically oriented, although a number of studies especially recommend themselves to students of international relations. Undergraduates and graduate students, as well as veteran scholars, will find a wealth of ideas, insights, and possible research topics in these surveys. De Souza and France 2008 is an excellent starting point for new students in ancient and medieval diplomacy. Eleven well-written, wide-ranging, and accessible essays provide a solid grounding in the period, while also highlighting the many parallels and divergences between ancient and modern diplomacy. Designed primarily for undergraduates, Anderson 1993 is an excellent chronological and thematic introduction to early modern and modern diplomacy. Hamilton and Langhorne 1995 takes a similar approach, outlining the evolution of modern diplomatic practice from the ancient period to the modern, primarily for an undergraduate audience. Berridge, et al. 2001 adopts a similar chronology, but focuses instead on the major diplomatic theorists from Machiavelli to Kissinger. For an introduction to 19th- and 20th-century diplomacy, Kissinger 1994 is a lucid place to begin, combining a solid grasp of history with the author’s own personal experiences. Keylor 2005 is another excellent overview of 20th-century international relations that expertly introduces the student to every important diplomatic event of the period. Those seeking a more theoretical approach to the subject will find Lauren 1979 and Barston 2006 easily accessible, expansive, and stimulating introductory readers.

  • Anderson, Matthew S. The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450–1919. New York: Longman, 1993.

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    Broad and well-written collection of thematic and chronological chapters on history of early modern and modern diplomacy. Aimed at undergraduates. Topics range from ancien régime diplomacy to aspirations of international peace to balance of power diplomacy. Very helpful survey for beginning researchers; useful insights for veteran researchers. Valuable bibliographical essay.

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  • Barston, Ronald P. Modern Diplomacy. 3d ed. New York: Longman, 2006.

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    Essential theoretical introduction to development of diplomatic practice and diplomatic institutions. Informative and cogent chapters on negotiation, diplomacy and finance, commerce and diplomacy, mediation, treaties, and terrorism. Useful case studies. Especially noteworthy for occasional inclusion of pertinent diplomatic correspondence. Particularly suitable for undergraduates and beginning graduate students.

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  • Berridge, G. R., Maurice Keens-Soper, and T. G. Otte. Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

    DOI: 10.1057/9780230508309Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Nine very useful essays on key diplomatic theorists from the Renaissance to the modern era. Includes lucid and thoughtful essays on Machiavelli, Grotius, Richelieu, Satow, Nicolson, and Kissinger. Historians and international-relations scholars of all periods and experience will find much to appreciate here.

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  • De Souza, Philip, and John France, eds. War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Engaging introduction to diplomacy in the ancient and medieval periods. Collection of eleven lucid essays covering Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, and Anglo-Saxon diplomacy. Focus on treaties, peacemaking, and war. Also useful for historians of modern diplomacy. Suitable for undergraduates, with new insights for graduate students and experienced researchers.

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  • Hamilton, Keith, and Richard Langhorne. The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory and Administration. New York: Routledge, 1995.

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    Short, solid introduction to development of diplomatic practice. Especially suitable for international-relations undergraduates and survey courses. Overly brief treatment of ancient, medieval, and Renaissance diplomacy. Non-European examples also require more attention. Stronger on 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.

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  • Keylor, William R. The Twentieth Century World and Beyond: An International History Since 1900. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    Excellent, reliable, and comprehensive overview of 20th-century international relations. Unusually lucid and cogent introductory text that covers every important diplomatic event of the period. Undergraduates and graduate students in particular will find it stimulating and coherent, and will benefit from its broad and wide-ranging approach.

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  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

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    Classic study of modern diplomacy, with particular emphasis on the 20th century. Especially interesting, albeit often opinionated, insights from the author’s own experience. Focuses almost exclusively on geopolitics. Eminently readable, characteristically provocative and authoritative. Important starting point for both international-relations scholars and historians of all levels.

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  • Lauren, Paul Gordon, ed. Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy. New York: Free Press, 1979.

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    Slightly dated but nevertheless important attempt to bridge historical and theoretical studies of diplomacy. Concerned partly with improving interdisciplinary communication and partly with the uses of history in policy making. Essays consider quantitative approaches, crisis decision making, bureaucratic politics, coercive diplomacy, and alliances.

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Journals

Academic journals are an excellent source of material on the history of diplomacy for historians and political scientists alike. Diplomacy and Statecraft is the best starting point for historically oriented researchers of all levels. Its articles are particularly relevant to those international-relations scholars who seek historical perspective. The International History Review also bridges the divide between history and political science, and its wide-ranging articles will prove fruitful for undergraduates, graduate students, and experienced researchers. For those particularly interested in historical approaches to the subject, Diplomatic History is required reading for all scholars of American diplomatic history. Its valuable back catalog charts over three decades of often cutting-edge research, and recent volumes in particular exhibit the innovation that currently characterizes the field. For those with a particular interest in international relations scholarship, International Organization and International Politics are especially important journals that engage with a wide array of topics and methodologies. The latter has become especially quantitative in recent years, while the former publishes articles from across the methodological spectrum. Finally, two new additions to the field—the Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations and the Hague Journal of Diplomacy—will be of particular interest to researchers of contemporary diplomatic issues. Both promise to become required reading in the field, and will likely become excellent sources of material for future historians of diplomacy.

  • Diplomacy and Statecraft.

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    Essential regular reading for students of diplomacy. Emphasis on historical developments in diplomatic practice, especially in the 20th century. Heavy, but not exclusive, transatlantic and western European focus. Wide-ranging peer-reviewed articles. Esteemed editorial board. Useful book and archive reviews. Published triannually since 1990 and quarterly since 2001.

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  • Diplomatic History.

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    Journal of record for US diplomatic history, published quarterly on behalf of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. Peer-reviewed articles reflect various methodological approaches. Early volumes privilege political, economic, and strategic perspectives. Later volumes increasingly consider gender, culture, ethnicity, and ideology. Especially innovative in recent years.

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  • Hague Journal of Diplomacy.

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    Recently established triannual interdisciplinary journal. International scope, with distinguished international editorial board. Primarily focused on contemporary issues, particularly the theory and practice of diplomacy. Scholars of modern diplomacy will find it especially useful, and its relevance to historians will increase with time.

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  • International History Review.

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    Prestigious quarterly journal oriented toward connecting history, political science, and international relations scholars. Publishes on a broad range of topics, from international conflict to international thought. Important source of books reviews and review essays.

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  • International Organization.

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    Longstanding and influential international relations journal. Broadly focused. Notable articles on international political economy, international institutions, foreign policy, and security policy. Has become increasingly quantitative in orientation; undergraduates may find it difficult to penetrate. Essential reading for experienced scholars. Published annually from 1947 to 1989 and quarterly since 1990.

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  • International Politics.

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    Previously published as Co-Existence until 1996. Resolutely interdisciplinary and methodologically broad. Embraces a wide range of methodological and political perspectives, including historical approaches. Broad international and transnational focus. Recently has begun to publish special issues on thematic questions. Published six times per year.

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  • Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations.

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    Recently established journal published by Seton Hall University’s John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations. Volumes take a thematic approach to pressing international problems, such as energy, development, and the changing nature of diplomacy. Contributors include international leaders, diplomats, and prominent scholars.

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Primary Sources and Document Collections

Scholars of international diplomacy are well served by both online and traditionally published collections of primary source documents. Yale University Law School’s Avalon Project is an excellent place to start searching online for primary-source documents on almost every aspect of diplomacy since the ancient period (although it tends to focus on post-16th-century events). Students of American diplomacy are especially well served by the State Department’s Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) series. The University of Wisconsin has posted the contents of every published volume from 1861 to 1960 on its library website. The State Department’s Office of the Historian regularly updates its own website, with volumes currently available for the period 1961 to 1976. These volumes are also available in printed form. Edel 1991–1992 offers a fascinating study of the State Department’s methodology in compiling its popular FRUS volumes which highlights the sometimes highly selective process of selection and exclusion. Students of diplomacy and foreign policy during the Cold War will find a wealth of available sources on the internet. The Cold War International History Project maintains an excellent website featuring documents from across the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. The National Security Archive performs a similar service, although it has traditionally placed far more emphasis on obtaining the declassification of previously secret American documents. Students of 20th-century British diplomacy will benefit from three document collections published by the British Foreign Office since the 1930s. British Foreign Office Documents will guide researchers through the major concerns of British diplomacy throughout the last one hundred years. Finally, the H-DIPLO Discussion Network can be a very helpful resource for those seeking answers to questions on a whole range of topics.

  • Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy.

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    Remarkable online collection of primary source materials pertaining to international diplomacy and law from antiquity to the present, with particular emphasis on documents from the 17th to the 21st centuries. Full translations of all documents. Easily accessible user interface, and well-maintained website. Hosted by Yale Law School.

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    • British Foreign Office Documents, 1898–. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1926–.

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      Three separate collections of documents published by British Foreign Office since 1926. Includes British Documents on the Origins of the War 1898–1914, Documents on British Foreign Policy 1918–1939, and Documents on British Policy Overseas, which begins with the Potsdam Conference. Continues to be published. Extremely useful collection on British diplomacy.

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    • Cold War International History Project.

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      Fascinating and frequently updated online repository of Cold War documents from around the world. Includes English translations of documents from all sides of the Cold War, with particular emphasis on former Soviet Union, its Eastern European satellites, China, and Cuba. Unparalleled source of primary sources for this period.

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      • Edel, Wilbur. “Diplomatic History—State Department Style.” Political Science Quarterly 106.4 (1991–1992): 695–712.

        DOI: 10.2307/2151800Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Interesting if occasionally overwrought assessment of State Department’s selective process in producing FRUS volumes. Uses the 1954 overthrow of Guatamalan President Jacobo Árbenz to demonstrate their shortcomings. Users of FRUS volumes will want to take his claims seriously, although it shouldn’t deter scholars from using them judiciously.

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      • Foreign Relations of the United States, 1861–1960.

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        Invaluable source of primary materials for students of US diplomacy. Fully searchable online collection of the Department of State’s printed volumes, covering the period 1861–1960. Contains memorandums, meeting minutes, cables, and major presidential addresses from sources including the Department of State, the National Security Agency (after 1947), the Defense Department (after 1947), embassies, and consulates.

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        • Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1976.

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          The Department of State’s Office of the Historian’s official website, responsible for Foreign Relations of the United States volumes. Website features online access to volumes covering US diplomacy and foreign policy from 1961 to 1976. Frequently updated once new volumes become available. Invaluable source of primary materials for researchers of modern US diplomacy.

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          • H-DIPLO Discussion Network.

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            Interactive online listserv focused on all aspects of diplomacy, with particular emphasis on history. Excellent source of book reviews and article reviews. Users can subscribe and post queries to other subscribers.

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          • National Security Archive.

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            Independent and highly recommended archive focused on US diplomacy and foreign policy during and after the Cold War. Also contains a growing number of documents from the Soviet side. Unrelenting commitment to obtaining previously classified documents through Freedom of Information Act requests. Often publishes dramatic findings, especially vis-à-vis US policy toward Latin America.

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            Ancient Period

            The scholarship on diplomacy in the ancient world is rich and fascinating, although ancient diplomacy looked very different from its modern form. Indeed, few of the practices and institutions that characterize modern diplomacy find exact analogs in the ancient world. Nevertheless, scholars of ancient diplomatic practice identify some recognizable elements that will intrigue researchers of modern diplomacy. Raaflaub 2007 and de Souza and France 2008 provide excellent introductions to the subject, assembling many absorbing articles that explore aspects of war and peace throughout the ancient world, ranging from the Mediterranean, to Asia, to the Americas. Cohen and Westbrook 2000 analyzes one of the earliest known diplomatic correspondences, ancient Egyptian tablets known as the Amarna Letters. Adcock and Mosley 1975 offers a mainly narrative account of diplomacy in ancient Greece, while Eilers 2009 provides a collection of essays exploring various aspects of Roman diplomacy. Diplomacy between the late Western Roman Empire and the Germanic kingdoms that assailed it is the subject of Gillett 2003, which provides insights into developing diplomatic practices during late antiquity. For those researchers interested in Asian diplomacy during the ancient period, Zhenping 1994 is a convenient entry point to Chinese practices, while Boesche 2002 discusses the ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, Arthashastra.

            • Adcock, Frank, and D. J. Mosley. Diplomacy in Ancient Greece. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.

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              Mainly narrative account of ancient Greek diplomacy. Large amount of material makes it useful for historical reference but analysis is limited. Detail is often uneven, with little context or explanation for some events, and too much for others. Nevertheless, necessary reading given a lack of alternatives.

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            • Boesche, Roger. The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2002.

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              Analysis of Kautilya’s Arthaśāstra, whose author is often described as “India’s Machiavelli.” Early expression of political realism in the ancient world written c. 300 BCE amid Chandragupta Maurya’s conquest of the Indian subcontinent. Discusses Kautilya’s insights on statecraft, diplomacy, treaties, alliances, war, religion, and assassinations. A must-read for scholars of early South Asian diplomacy.

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            • Cohen, Raymond, and Raymond Westbrook, eds. Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

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              Fascinating collection of essays exploring ancient Egyptian diplomacy, imperial policy, and foreign policy. Based on the Amarna documents, dating from the reign of Akhenaten in the mid–14th century BCE. Will especially intrigue and benefit scholars of ancient diplomacy, but also scholars of international politics and international relations more generally.

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            • De Souza, Philip, and John France, eds. War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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              Engaging introduction to diplomacy in the ancient and medieval periods. Collection of eleven well-written and clear essays covering Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, and Anglo-Saxon diplomacy. Focus on treaties, peacemaking, and war. Also useful for historians of modern diplomacy. Suitable for undergraduates, with new insights for graduate students and experienced researchers.

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            • Eilers, Claude, ed. Diplomats and Diplomacy in the Roman World. Boston: E. J. Brill, 2009.

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              Collection of essays exploring various aspects of Roman imperial diplomacy. Excellent introductory essay will orient novice researchers in the issues. Includes essays on Roman interpretations of Greek diplomacy, public opinion, kinship, religious identity. Clear and up-to-date entry point to the subject.

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            • Gillett, Andrew. Envoys and Political Communication in the Late Antique West, 411–533. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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              Important study of embassies and envoys during the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire and emergence of early medieval European kingdoms. Draws a useful distinction between political communication in the ancient world and diplomacy in the modern context. Analyzes contemporary accounts. Best suited for graduate students and experienced researchers, although skilled undergraduates will also benefit.

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            • Raaflaub, Kurt A., ed. War and Peace in the Ancient World. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

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              Valuable and interesting collection for all researchers. Contains articles on ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Egypt, Persia, Israel, Greece, Rome, and the Americas. Excellent entry point into various aspects of ancient diplomacy, broadly conceived. Easily accessible for undergraduates and graduate students. Researchers of modern topics will also benefit.

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            • Zhenping, Wang. “Speaking with a Forked Tongue: Diplomatic Correspondence between China and Japan, 238–608 A.D.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 114.1 (January–March 1994): 23–32.

              DOI: 10.2307/604949Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              Short but enlightening article on ancient Chinese diplomacy in Asia. Suggests the overwhelming importance of Chinese language and diplomatic practices for ancient Asian diplomacy. Detailed overviews of Chinese procedures and customs will provide fertile ground for comparative studies or further research on diplomacy in ancient Asia.

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            Medieval Period

            There is a relative dearth of scholarship on medieval diplomacy compared to other periods, in part because of the paucity and complexity of the source material. The literature that explicitly addresses diplomacy tends to be directed toward medieval historians and is often oriented toward other questions, such as political authority and early state formation. Nevertheless, two pioneering historians—George P. Cuttino and Pierre Chaplais—have done much to advance our understanding of medieval diplomacy, especially in the context of Anglo-French relations. Cuttino 1971 and Chaplais 1981 are important studies of early English diplomacy. Both contributions untangle the administrative webs of protodiplomatic practices in medieval England. Similarly, Cuttino 1985 and Chaplais 2003 provide further insights into the development of English diplomatic practices, again with particular focus on Anglo-French relations. Huffman 2000 goes a long way toward expanding our understanding of medieval diplomacy, breaking the traditional intellectual fetters of administrative histories of Anglo-French diplomacy in favor of a social and dynastic analysis of Anglo-German relations. Beyond the confines of western Europe, see Wright 2006 for a broad, lively, and eminently readable account of early ambassadors and their experiences across the globe. Similarly, Rossabi 1983 and Luttwak 2009 look to Asia and the Byzantine Empire, respectively, in their studies of diplomacy in the medieval period.

            • Chaplais, Pierre. English Diplomatic Practice in the Middle Ages. New York: Hambledon, 2003.

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              Essential introduction to medieval English diplomatic practices. Especially useful discussion of protocol, ritual, and document interpretation. New scholars in particular will benefit from close reading; all scholars will benefit from Chaplais’s contributions. Companion to two earlier volumes, published in 1975 and 1982, respectively.

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            • Chaplais, Pierre. Essays in Medieval Diplomacy and Administration. London: Hambledon, 1981.

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              Important collection of essays by an eminent figure in the field. Contains twenty-two articles, many in French. Focuses mainly on Anglo-French diplomacy from the 10th to 14th centuries. Contains transcriptions and reproductions of some key primary sources. Important source, especially for experienced scholars of medieval diplomacy.

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            • Cuttino, George Peddy. English Diplomatic Administration, 1259–1339. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

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              Important and pioneering study of medieval English diplomacy, first published in 1940. Primary focus on England’s relations with France. Outlines organization and administration of royal diplomacy, including the role of administrative clerks, registers, and envoys. May seem outdated to undergraduates, but important reading for scholars of English and French medieval diplomacy.

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            • Cuttino, George Peddy. English Medieval Diplomacy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

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              Notable study of English diplomacy vis-à-vis their claims in France from the Anglo-Saxon to the Tudor period. Special focus on the Norman conquest of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Henry V. Traces developments in early English diplomatic practices and provides narrative of Anglo-French relations.

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            • Huffman, Joseph P. The Social Politics of Medieval Diplomacy: Anglo-German Relations (1066–1307). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

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              Well-written diplomatic history of Anglo-German relations. Laudable attempt to overcome traditional emphasis on Anglo-French relations. Emphasizes personal and dynastic ties, with particular focus on Cologne as hub of Anglo-German diplomacy. Very useful bibliography. Will especially interest researchers who see the significance of social and dynastic influences on diplomacy.

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            • Luttwak, Edward N. The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

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              Absorbing study of Byzantine statecraft. Part military/strategic history, part diplomatic history. Stresses importance of nonmilitary strategies in the maintenance of empire, especially diplomacy and intelligence. Especially useful chapters on envoys, religion, and dynastic marriages. Excellent introduction to Byzantine diplomacy for new researchers and students.

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            • Rossabi, Morris, ed. China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

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              Constructive and broad collection of essays. Challenges long-held notions of Chinese diplomatic narrow-mindedness and insularity. Dispels the simplicity of the tributary model of Chinese diplomacy, at least during Sung, Liao, Chin, and Yuan dynasties. All students of East Asian diplomacy in general, and early Chinese diplomacy in particular, will benefit.

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            • Wright, Jonathan. The Ambassadors: From Ancient Greece to Renaissance Europe, the Men Who Introduced the World to Itself. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2006.

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              Engaging account of ambassadors from the ancient to the early modern period. Includes five chapters on medieval diplomacy, from Charlemagne to Tamerlane. Its nonacademic tone and presentation will appeal to all readers, although scholarly researchers will want more rigorous and detailed citations and an expanded bibliography.

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            The Renaissance

            The Renaissance was a period of diplomatic innovation, thanks in large part to the Italian city-states, where a combination of multiplicity, small size, relative military weakness, and powerful neighbors combined to encourage the development of increasingly sophisticated diplomatic practices and institutions. Renaissance diplomacy was characterized by the emergence of permanent embassies and resident ambassadors, whose presence demanded the establishment of clear diplomatic rules, customs, and conventions. Mattingly 1988 is the necessary entry point for scholars of Renaissance diplomacy, and every researcher will benefit from this work. Nicolson 1954 is another short but rewarding place to begin exploring the innovations and influence of the Italian city states and their novel diplomatic initiatives. For new researchers and undergraduates, Hamilton and Langhorne 1995 provides a succinct and easily accessible introduction to Renaissance diplomacy and the increasing importance of resident ambassadors. New scholars will find Berridge, et al. 2001 similarly rewarding, especially with regard to the often complex political philosophies that helped spawn Renaissance diplomatic innovations. Berridge’s chapters on Machiavelli, Guicciardini, and Grotius are essential reading. Joycelyne Russell was one of the most dedicated students of Renaissance diplomacy, and Russell 1986 and Russell 1992 offer detailed accounts and case studies of how the diplomatic developments of the period manifested themselves in practice. Though much older, Adair 1929 is a detailed introduction to the theory and practice of diplomatic immunity and extraterritoriality, concepts that were honed during the Renaissance.

            • Adair, E. R. The Extraterritoriality of Ambassadors in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. New York: Longmans, Green, 1929.

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              Dated but indispensable introduction to an important diplomatic development. Uses numerous case studies, theoretical tracts, and precedents to trace development of extraterritoriality and diplomatic immunity during the Renaissance. Especially important for scholars interested in the role of ambassadors and their protections, as well as international law in general.

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            • Berridge, G. R. “Machiavelli,” “Guicciardini,” and “Grotius.” In Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger. Edited by G. R. Berridge, Maurice Keens-Soper, and T. G. Otte, 1–70. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

              DOI: 10.1057/9780230508309Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              Three essays on key Renaissance diplomatic theorists by an esteemed scholar of diplomacy. Outlines and analyzes the main contributions of Niccolò Machiavelli, Francesco Guicciardini, and Hugo Grotius to diplomatic theory. Each essay successfully distills each thinker’s philosophy, making it accessible to scholars of all levels.

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            • Hamilton, Keith, and Richard Langhorne. “The Diplomacy of the Renaissance and the Resident Ambassador.” In The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory and Administration. By Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, 29–54. New York: Routledge, 1995.

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              Succinct and comprehensible introduction to subject. Will orient undergraduates and new researchers to major innovations of Italian Renaissance diplomacy: permanent diplomacy, resident ambassadors, development of diplomatic immunity, ceremonial practices, diplomatic routines, and diplomatic security.

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            • Mattingly, Garrett. Renaissance Diplomacy. New York: Dover, 1988.

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              Classic introduction to European diplomacy from the 15th and 16th centuries, first published in 1955. Traces the spread of permanent diplomacy through resident embassies, with particular emphasis on Spanish, French, and Habsburg appropriation of this Italian innovation. Important insights into the development of sovereignty also make it useful reading for students of modern diplomacy.

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            • Nicolson, Harold. “The Italian System.” In The Evolution of Diplomatic Method. By Harold Nicolson, 39–66. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

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              Concise, learned, and erudite introduction to Italian Renaissance diplomatic method. Part of a larger lecture series including discussions of ancient and early modern diplomacy. Traces development of diplomacy in Renaissance Italian city-states. Especially useful on Renaissance diplomacy’s shortcomings. Undergraduates may find it arcane and archaic, but it remains a rewarding read.

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            • Russell, Joycelyne. Diplomats at Work: Three Renaissance Studies. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1992.

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              Three useful case studies exploring the endeavors of western European diplomats in the 15th and 16th centuries. One deals with vernacular-language skills in Renaissance diplomacy; the second deals with Pope Pius II and religious and political issues surrounding crusade diplomacy; and the third deals with female diplomats and the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai.

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            • Russell, Joycelyne. Peacemaking in the Renaissance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

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              Study of European Renaissance diplomacy by one of its best students. Somewhat disjointed but nonetheless detailed account of developments in European diplomatic theory and practice. Outlines and analyzes contemporary theoretical literature, different mechanics of peacemaking, pacts, and alliances, and emergence of permanent ambassadors. Includes detailed case studies.

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            Early Modern Europe

            The 16th and 17th centuries were ones of upheaval in Europe. The French Wars of Religion and the Thirty Years War ravaged the continent and helped facilitate the further institutionalization of the Renaissance’s diplomatic innovations in relations among Europe’s powers. Roosen 1976 is an excellent starting point for new scholars interested in the mechanics of this process as it transpired in early modern period. This detailed narrative and analysis of evolving diplomatic practices will also benefit scholars of modern diplomatic practice. Nicolson 1954 offers a brief but informative overview of the so-called French system in the 17th and early 18th centuries, with particular emphasis on the contributions of Cardinal Richelieu and François de Callières. Jensen 1964 provides an important case study of Spanish diplomatic intrigues in 16th-century France. Indeed, Jensen’s considerable influence on early modern European diplomatic scholarship is recognized in Thorp and Slavin 1994, a series of essays that includes a number of useful articles on early modern Italian, French, German, and English diplomacy. The seminal Peace of Westphalia, which formally ended the Thirty and Eighty Years wars, is the subject of Croxton and Tischer 2002. This is an especially important reference work given the absence of an extended scholarly monograph on the Westphalian Peace. Finally, Hampton 2009 presents an intriguing and original analysis of the language and literature of early modern diplomacy that will open new avenues of research to all scholars in this field.

            • Berridge, G. R., and Maurice Keens-Soper. In Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger. “Richelieu” and “Callières.” Edited by G. R. Berridge, Maurice Keens-Soper, and T. G. Otte, 71–87; 106–124. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

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              Short but extremely useful introduction to Richelieu’s and Callières’s contributions to diplomatic thought. Provides a succinct overview of their writings on diplomacy, especially Richelieu’s concept of “continuous negotiation” and Callières’s The Art of Diplomacy. Helpful bibliography follows each essay, which will orient new researchers.

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            • Croxton, Derek, and Anuschka Tischer. The Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002.

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              Helpful reference work on this seminal peace congress. Especially useful in the absence of a dedicated scholarly monograph on the subject. Exhaustive, with more than three hundred entries covering historical context, battles, people, places, and concepts. Undergraduates and graduate students will find it especially illuminating and functional. Numerous bibliographies and an index will help orient new researchers.

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            • Hampton, Timothy. Fictions of Embassy: Literature and Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.

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              Intriguing and valuable study on cultural implications of early modern diplomacy. Focuses on literary representations and interpretations of diplomatic engagements, and ways in which diplomats used literary devices to create and understand a new language of diplomacy. Equally engaging treatments of Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Grotius, Shakespeare, Racine, and Montaigne.

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            • Jensen, De Lamar. Diplomacy and Dogmatism: Bernardino de Mendoza and the French Catholic League. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964.

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              Study of Catholic Spanish diplomacy in France during the late 16th-century Wars of Religion, by a prominent scholar of early modern Europe. Based largely on Mendoza’s dispatches and papers, produced while he was serving as Philip II’s ambassador to France. Interesting to students of diplomacy for its insights into diplomatic interference in domestic affairs.

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            • Nicolson, Harold. “The French System.” In The Evolution of Diplomatic Method. By Harold Nicolson, 69–96. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

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              Concise, learned, and erudite introduction to French diplomatic method. Part of a larger lecture series including discussions of ancient and early modern diplomacy. Traces the development of diplomacy in French philosophical and political thought. Especially focused on Richelieu and Callières. Undergraduates may find it arcane and archaic, but it remains a rewarding read.

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            • Roosen, W. J. The Age of Louis XIV: The Rise of Modern Diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1976.

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              Indispensible study of early modern diplomacy in 17th-century Europe, from which new and experienced scholars alike will profit. Focuses on how diplomacy was devised and conducted; particular emphasis on role of ambassadors, envoys, consuls, and embassies. Interesting insights into intelligence and cryptography. Wide-ranging examples from across the continent.

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            • Thorp, Malcolm R., and Arthur J. Slavin, eds. Politics, Religion, and Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of De Lamar Jensen. Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies 27. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal Publications, 1994.

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              Collection of essays on a wide range of topics. Particularly useful essays on late 15th-century Milanese diplomacy in France, diplomacy in the Holy Roman Empire, Philip II, changes in Elizabethan diplomacy, and Spanish diplomacy in early 17th-century England. Will appeal to all scholars of early modern diplomacy.

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            Eighteenth-Century Diplomacy

            Studies of 18th-century diplomacy emphasize the continued institutionalization of early modern diplomatic innovations and tend to be preoccupied with the coming collapse of the old regime in France. Nathan 2002 provides a lucid and comprehensible overview of the century’s diplomacy from 1648 to the French Revolution. Its presentist approach will particularly appeal to scholars of modern international relations seeking lessons and patterns in past experience. Sorel 1964 is a classic account of 18th-century diplomacy that is much more historical in its approach, even as it hurls the reader toward the climax of the French Revolution. Murphy 1982 and Murphy 1998 adopt a similar approach, exploring various aspects of prerevolutionary French diplomacy during the old regime. While much of the literature is focused on France, two case studies of 18th-century central European diplomacy recommend themselves. Lodge 1970 and Temperley 1968 are two old but nevertheless rewarding studies of diplomacy during the War of Austrian Succession and diplomacy among the German states and their antagonists, respectively. The coming of the American Revolution and its impact on European diplomacy has also preoccupied diplomatic history scholars, and Bemis 1935 is an excellent place to start, despite its age. Bemis offers a detailed and multi-archival history of early American diplomacy during the Revolutionary War. For a provocative and engaging treatment of John Adams’s exploits in Europe during the Revolutionary era, see Hutson 1980.

            • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Diplomacy of the American Revolution. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935.

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              Classic history of early American diplomacy, by one of its most accomplished and influential students. Based on American, British, French, and Spanish sources. Sees European diplomacy as central to the success of the Revolution, from war to peace. Remains essential reading for all scholars of Revolutionary-era American diplomacy.

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            • Hutson, James H. John Adams and the Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980.

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              Provocative account of Adams’s diplomatic service during the Revolution. Sees Adams as mistrustful and paranoid practitioner of balance-of-power politics. Interesting and engaging insights into Adams’s personality and its impact on his diplomatic encounters with France, the Netherlands, and his American colleagues. Especially useful for scholars of early American diplomacy.

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            • Lodge, Richard. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Diplomacy, 1740–1748. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1970.

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              Extremely detailed account of European diplomacy during the War of Austrian Succession, first published in 1930. Emphasizes the Treaty of Hanau (1743), the Treaty of Worms (1743), and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Clearly but densely written. Undergraduates may find it outdated and difficult. Experienced scholars will find it exhaustive and rewarding.

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            • Murphy, Orville Theodore. Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes: French Diplomacy in the Age of Revolution, 1719–1787. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982.

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              Long, detailed, and plodding biography of Louis XVI’s foreign minister seen through the lens of diplomatic history. Will disappoint scholars of old-regime social and cultural history, but scholars of diplomacy will find something to interest them regarding late 18th-century French diplomacy. Students of French involvement in America’s revolution will also profit.

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            • Murphy, Orville Theodore. The Diplomatic Retreat of France and Public Opinion on the Eve of the French Revolution, 1783–1789. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

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              Short study of French diplomacy in the old regime’s last decade. Sees failure of French diplomacy and inability to assuage public opinion as factors contributing to revolution. Will especially appeal to scholars of pre- and postrevolutionary French diplomacy.

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            • Nathan, James A. Soldiers, Statecraft, and History: Coercive Diplomacy and International Order. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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              Provides a coherent and easily accessible overview of 18th-century diplomacy. Includes chapters on influence of the Peace of Westphalia, Louis XIV, Frederick the Great, and the French Revolution. Written from a modern perspective with a view toward understanding current policy dilemmas. International relations scholars will therefore find it especially useful.

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            • Sorel, Albert. Europe under the Old Regime. Translated by Francis H. Herrick. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

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              Translation of the first chapter of Sorel’s eight-volume Europe and the French Revolution. Classic introduction to 18th-century diplomacy from Louis XIV to French Revolution. Every student of old-regime diplomacy should read this account, as well as scholars of revolutionary and Napoleonic France.

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            • Temperley, Harold William Vazeille. Frederic the Great and Kaiser Joseph: An Episode of War and Diplomacy in the Eighteenth Century. 2d ed. London: Frank Cass, 1968.

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              Old but enduring history of Austrian, Prussian, Bavarian, and Russian diplomacy in the 18th century, by a master diplomatic historian. Analyzes both strategic and commercial interests of central European diplomacy. Written in an unusually lively and energetic style. Essential text for all students of 18th-century German diplomacy.

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            Nineteenth-Century European Diplomacy

            The early 19th century witnessed one of the most important diplomatic initiatives of the modern era—the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815)—and it necessarily looms large in studies of 19th-century European diplomacy. As the first major international diplomatic conference in modern international history, the congress established a precedent for major international summits and conferences that would dominate Western diplomacy into the 21st century. For an expert narrative history of the major diplomatic procedures and agreements adopted in Vienna, see Nicolson 1974. Two more recent studies also provide an excellent starting point for new scholars wishing to explore the Vienna Congress: Zamoyski 2008 and King 2008 will orient beginning researchers in the major issues, protocols, and accords addressed by the congress’s participants. King is especially enthralling in his discussion of the social aspects of the Vienna Congress, which critics have long argued often took precedence over substantive negotiations. Of particular interest to international relations scholars, Gulick 1955, Kissinger 1973, and Schroeder 1994 offer myriad insights and interpretations of the congress’s significance, especially for great power politics and the balance of power in Europe. Taylor 1992 charts the challenges to the European balance of power established in Vienna with characteristic dynamism, from the revolutions of 1848 to the 1917 Communist revolution in Russia. Finally, Waller 1974 presents an important assessment of Bismarck’s diplomacy in the 19th century’s final decades.

            • Gulick, Edward Vose. Europe’s Classical Balance of Power: A Case History of the Theory and Practice of One of the Great Concepts of European Statecraft. New York: Norton, 1955.

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              Important case study of the balance-of-power concept in international relations. Adopts a theoretical and historical approach, exploring theory and application of balance-of-power principles through the lens of the Vienna Congress. Well organized, well documented, and accessible to all students of diplomacy and statecraft.

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            • King, David. Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna. New York: Harmony, 2008.

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              Vivid, engrossing, well-researched, and somewhat salacious account of the Congress of Vienna. Deftly captures the informality of this seminal congress. Strong on personalities of major participants, especially in the context of the many social gatherings that accompanied the congress. Recommended to all researchers, and especially those interested in social aspects of diplomatic conferences.

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            • Kissinger, Henry. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22. Sentry Edition 79. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.

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              Illuminating study of European diplomacy in the last years of the Napoleonic Wars and immediate postwar period, originally published in 1957. Particular focus on the Austrian chancellor, Prince Metternich, and the British foreign secretary, Viscount Castlereagh. Overly enamored of Metternich, but nevertheless contains many interesting observations on the nature of international relations and diplomacy.

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            • Nicolson, Harold. The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity, 1812–1822. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.

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              Classic exposition of the Congress of Vienna, originally published in 1946. Begins with a brief but valuable overview of Napoleon’s waning military campaigns. Efficient but sufficiently detailed chapters on major questions facing congress, including Poland, and German and Italian states. Fascinating chapter on procedures and protocols. Recommended to all researchers.

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            • Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

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              Well-received analysis of the rise of the great powers; an insightful, well-argued, and innovative attempt to make international relations central to the study of this period; shows how developments like the Congress of Vienna helped to forge alliances among great powers.

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            • Taylor, Alan J. P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848–1918. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

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              Provocative study of modern European diplomatic history, first published in 1954. Primary focus on European balance of power, bookmarked by the revolutions of 1848 and the Russian Revolution of 1918. Densely written, and undergraduates may find it somewhat abstruse, but it remains a necessary read for scholars of 19th-century diplomacy.

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            • Waller, Bruce. Bismarck at the Crossroads: The Reorientation of German Foreign Policy after the Congress of Berlin, 1878–1880. London: Athlone, 1974.

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              Valuable and in-depth study of Bismarck’s motivations behind his Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperors’ League) policy, an alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia; also analyzes Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary.

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            • Zamoyski, Adam. Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna. London: Harper Perennial, 2008.

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              Elegant and well-documented narrative history of the Congress of Vienna. Suitable for undergraduates seeking a well-written and reliable overview of proceedings. Helpful bibliography, including international archival and printed sources, will particularly benefit graduate students and experienced scholars.

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            Non-Western Diplomacy, 1850–1945

            The study of non-Western diplomacy during the 19th and early 20th centuries is less well developed than that of Western diplomacy during the same period. Nevertheless, students and scholars will find a wealth of material on this subject. Researchers of Japanese (and, to a lesser extent, Chinese) diplomacy are especially well served. Iriye 1992 is an excellent place to start. This short but penetrating survey of Sino-Japanese relations provides a concise and accessible introduction that will inspire further research. Nish 2002 is another brief but incisive study that focuses on Japanese diplomacy and its relationship to other Asian and European powers during the interwar years. Iriye 1987 adroitly surveys the imperatives of Japanese politics and diplomacy during the 1930s, especially vis-à-vis Japanese policy toward the United States during those fateful years. Kayaoğlu 2010 is a complex but rewarding theoretical and empirical study of European extraterritoriality in Japan, China, and the Ottoman Empire that also raises important questions for American diplomacy. Scholars new to Ottoman diplomacy will find Yurdusev 2004 an ideal starting place for exploring the genealogy of that empire’s diplomatic practice, as well as similarities and differences between Ottoman traditions and procedures and European ones. Scholars of the modern Middle East will want to read Fromkin 1989. This lucid and detailed study of the Ottoman Empire’s collapse and the emergence of Middle Eastern successor states demands to be closely read. Scholars of African diplomacy are less well served, but Pakenham 1991 is a comprehensive and wide-ranging study of that continent’s colonization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Scholars of Latin American diplomacy will find Mecham 1961 to be an extraordinarily meticulous introduction to Latin American diplomacy in the same period, especially vis-à-vis the republics’ often fraught relations with the United States.

            • Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York: Henry Holt, 1989.

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              Meticulously researched, well-written, and detailed account of European diplomacy and nascent Arab diplomacy in wake of Ottoman Empire’s collapse following World War I, with particular emphasis on Great Britain. Undergraduates and experienced scholars alike will profit from this popular and well-regarded study.

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            • Iriye, Akira. China and Japan in the Global Setting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

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              Fascinating short interpretive of study of Chinese-Japanese relations, the based on author’s lectures. Presents three interpretive frameworks that characterize their relations in three distinct periods: power (1880s–1914), culture (1919–1937), and economics (1945–present). Superb study that both novice and experienced international relations scholars will find immensely satisfying.

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            • Iriye, Akira. The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific. New York: Longman, 1987.

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              Short and compelling introductory survey of Japanese politics and diplomacy during the interwar years. Charts Japanese policies toward China, the United States, Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain. All scholars of East Asian diplomacy will benefit enormously from Iriye’s unmatched expertise in this area. Useful bibliography will orient new researchers.

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            • Kayaoğlu, Turan. Legal Imperialism: Sovereignty and Extraterritoriality in Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and China. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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              Impressive comparative study of Western extraterritoriality in Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and China. Compares British legal imperialism and extraterritoriality with American legal imperialism and extraterritoriality in the contemporary world. Theoretical and empirical study that sheds new light on Chinese, Japanese, and Ottoman diplomacy vis-à-vis European and American imperialism.

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            • Mecham, J. Lloyd. The United States and Inter-American Security, 1889–1960. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961.

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              Older but exceptionally detailed study of inter-American diplomacy during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pays close attention to every conference, meeting, and agreement among Latin American republics and United States during this fertile period. Recommended to all students of Latin American diplomacy.

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            • Nish, Ian Hill. Japanese Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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              Brief but impressive analysis of Japan’s diplomacy during interwar years, by one of its best students. Argues that Japan pursued its own interests during this period, and was not overly conditioned by actions of other powers. Includes chapters on the Paris Peace Conference, the Washington Conference, China, the Great Depression, and the Sino-Japanese War. Highly recommended.

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            • Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876–1912. New York: Avon, 1991.

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              Remarkably in-depth account of European imperialism in Africa during late 19th century “scramble” for African colonies. Level of detail may overwhelm new undergraduate students, but those seeking insights and details on this complex outburst of European imperialism will benefit enormously from this study.

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            • Yurdusev, A. Nuri, ed. Ottoman Diplomacy: Conventional or Unconventional? New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

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              Collection of essays on aspects of Ottoman diplomacy from the early period to the end of the empire. Includes chapters on Ottoman diplomatic approaches, relations with Europe, Anglo-Ottoman diplomacy, and Ottoman ambassadors and embassies. Useful final chapter on sources. Essential reading for students of Ottoman diplomacy.

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            Twentieth-Century Western Diplomacy, 1900–1945

            The literature on diplomacy in the first half of the 20th century is unsurprisingly vast. It was a period of intense diplomatic activity, thanks largely to the two world wars that dominate the period. It was a period in which summits, conferences, and congresses became dominant features of the diplomatic landscape. Indeed, even before the outbreak of war in 1914, Czar Nicholas II convened a major international peace conference in 1899 at The Hague, which was especially significant for its (failed) attempts to secure international disarmament. Eyffinger 1999 is an exceptionally detailed and well-illustrated centennial publication that surveys the conference delegates, the work of the conference commissions, and the conference’s social milieu. The two world wars spawned a number of significant international conferences and summits that continue to enthrall students of modern diplomacy. Stevenson 1991 is an excellent starting point for those interested in diplomacy before, during, and after World War I. Stevenson deftly untangles the complicated international politics of the period, and undergraduates in particular will benefit from his erudition and analysis. The Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I is the subject of MacMillan 2002. Its exceptionally cogent and lucid style will attract all researchers, and the study’s global reach expertly portrays the international complexity of the diplomatic morass facing the peace-conference delegates, as well as the issues surrounding the League of Nations’ formation. The interwar years are well served by Marks 2002. This study of Europe’s waning diplomatic dominance and its descent into war is particularly notable for its incorporation of non-European actors, especially Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. For scholars of German and Soviet diplomacy, Read and Fisher 1988 focuses on the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939 and also provides insights into British and French diplomacy in the months before Hitler’s attack on Poland. The often contentious nature of Anglo-American-Soviet wartime diplomacy is related by Edmonds 1991. This study surveys the many collaborations, tensions, and objectives that animated the wartime grand alliance from 1941 to Roosevelt’s death in the wake of the Yalta Conference in 1945. Finally, Feis 1960 orients the reader in the issues facing Truman, Churchill and Atlee, and Stalin during the final major international summit of the war, the Potsdam Conference.

            • Edmonds, Robin. The Big Three: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin in Peace and War. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991.

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              Indispensible study of grand-alliance diplomacy among Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin during World War II. Well documented, with sources from the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia, France, and Germany. Detailed overviews of major disputes. Good summaries of the Tehran and Yalta conferences. Undergraduates will profit from its clarity, and experienced researchers will appreciate its depth.

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            • Eyffinger, Arthur. The First Hague Peace Conference of 1899:“The Parliament of Man, the Federation of the World.” The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

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              Remarkably detailed and comprehensive overview of this often overlooked conference. Includes details of every delegate, commission, achievement, and failure. Lavishly illustrated. This impressive work will benefit every researcher interested in 20th-century conference diplomacy, as well as scholars of pacifism, technology, and international law.

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            • Feis, Herbert. Between War and Peace: The Potsdam Conference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960.

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              Old but reliable and well-balanced account of grand-alliance diplomacy at the Potsdam Conference. Includes valuable chapters on rising inter-alliance tensions and preconference preparations. Will likely be rendered obsolete by future studies based on Soviet archives, but until that time it remains necessary reading for all scholars of immediate postwar diplomacy.

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            • MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2002.

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              Excellent narrative history of the Paris Peace Conference. Detailed accounts of every major issue addressed by delegates, including conference protocol, major delegations and their desiderata, territorial changes, Germany, Russia, and the League of Nations. Outstanding introduction to post–World War I diplomacy for all scholars and students.

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            • Marks, Sally. The Ebbing of European Ascendancy: An International History of the World, 1914–1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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              Survey of European diplomacy during the interwar period. Covers major diplomatic initiatives of European powers from the Paris Peace Conference to the Munich Conference and World War II’s outbreak. Noteworthy attempt to explain the decline of European dominance, which is especially notable for its treatment of non-European and colonial actors. Especially suitable for undergraduates.

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            • Read, Anthony, and David Fisher. The Deadly Embrace: Hitler, Stalin, and the Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939–1941. New York: W. W. Norton, 1988.

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              Study of Nazi-Soviet diplomacy, Anglo-German diplomacy, and Anglo-Franco-Soviet diplomacy in the months before Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Based on primary and secondary sources, supplemented by revealing interviews. Occasionally dramatic, but necessary reading for scholars and students of prewar European diplomacy.

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            • Stevenson, David. The First World War and International Politics. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.

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              Unparalleled study of international politics, diplomacy, and World War I. Chronological and wide-ranging approach based on primary and secondary sources. Must-read for students of diplomacy interested in the war’s outbreak, prosecution, objectives, and postwar settlement. Inexperienced undergraduates may find it somewhat complicated, but persistence will reward the dedicated student.

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            Twentieth-Century Diplomacy, 1945–1999

            The scope and intensity of diplomacy increased exponentially in the aftermath of World War II. New international institutions emerged from the carnage of global war—most notably the United Nations—and new actors, representing both new states and new nongovernmental organizations, took their place on the diplomatic stage. The first order of business for diplomats in 1945, however, was the creation of a peace settlement. For an exceptionally detailed and broad treatment of the wartime and postwar peace settlement, see Wheeler-Bennett and Nicholls 1972. In addition, the victorious powers sought a new international body to replace the now defunct League of Nations. Kennedy 2007 is an excellent introduction to the origins and development of the United Nations in the second half of the 20th century. For an excellent general introduction to postwar international diplomacy on a global scale, see Keylor 2008. More specifically, Reynolds 2007 is an engaging, lively, and accessible treatment of summit diplomacy in the 20th century. This vivid treatment of the major postwar summits is at once illuminating and immensely readable. It is difficult to capture succinctly the many nuances and details of the literature on postwar diplomacy, but three collections of essays will introduce the new researcher to the period’s diplomatic complexities. Craig and Loewenheim 1994 assembles an esteemed cast of contributors in twenty-three essays that explore a wide array of diplomatic issues from World War II to the end of the 1980s. The nine essays in Dorman and Kennedy 2008 explore the relationship between war and diplomacy throughout the 20th century, while focusing on both major and minor conflicts from World War I to the Iraq War. Melissen 1999 guides readers through the major innovations in 20th-century diplomatic practice. Finally, 20th-century diplomacy was not solely the purview of nation-states and their governments, and Iriye 2002 is a superb introduction to the development of international nongovernmental organizations, both before and after World War II.

            • Craig, Gordon Alexander, and Francis L. Loewenheim, eds. The Diplomats, 1939–1979. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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              Twenty-three wide-ranging essays on various diplomats and statesmen by noted scholars of diplomacy. Includes essays on diplomats during World War II, the Suez crisis, European unity, and postwar Soviet, British, American, Japanese, Chinese, Egyptian, Indian, and Israeli diplomacy. All researchers of 20th-century diplomacy will find something to interest them here.

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            • Dorman, Andrew M., and Greg Kennedy, eds. War and Diplomacy: From World War I to the War on Terrorism. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2008.

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              Helpful introduction to the interaction between diplomacy and war in the 20th century. Includes essays on the origins of World War I, World War II, France and Algeria, Britain and Suez, Vietnam War, the Falklands conflict, Kosovo, and the second Iraq war. Long and valuable bibliography is especially useful. Will especially appeal to undergraduates.

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            • Iriye, Akira. Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002.

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              Exciting study of nongovernmental international organizations’ role in international diplomacy during the 20th century, by a pioneering scholar. Extremely well-written and well-argued work that has important implications for modern scholarship on diplomacy. Will appeal to all undergraduates, graduate students, and experienced scholars.

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            • Kennedy, Paul. The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations. New York: Vintage, 2007.

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              Impressive, concise, and accessible history of United Nations and its evolving functions. Useful introductory chapter on the origins of international governance and UN. Adopts a thematic approach to the UN agencies and structures, including the Security Council, peace and war, economics, human rights, and nongovernmental organizations. An excellent introduction for undergraduates and new researchers.

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            • Keylor, William R. A World of Nations: The International Order since 1945. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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              Excellent, well-written, and comprehensive history of international relations in the Cold War and post–Cold War periods. Focuses on both state and nonstate actors. Combines chronological, thematic, and regional approaches that will orient new researchers in this often complicated era. Ideal introduction for historians and international-relations scholars alike.

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            • Melissen, Jan, ed. Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999.

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              Thirteen essays exploring changes in diplomatic practice since 1945. International contributors and topics, including “catalytic” diplomacy, revolutionary diplomacy, reintegration, unofficial diplomacy, and unorthodox diplomacy, especially in Vietnam, North Korea, and Taiwan. Undergraduates and graduate students will find it particularly useful, but experienced researchers will also benefit from new insights.

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            • Reynolds, David. Summits: Six Meetings That Shaped the Twentieth Century. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

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              Based on a British TV series, written by a noted expert on diplomacy. Includes historical antecedents to this largely 20th-century phenomenon, and chapters on Munich (1938), Yalta (1945), Vienna (1961), Moscow (1972), Camp David (1978), and Geneva (1985). Lively, detailed, and informative overview of major summits and their strengths and weaknesses.

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            • Wheeler-Bennett, John, and Anthony Nicholls. The Semblance of Peace: The Political Settlement after the Second World War. New York: St. Martin’s, 1972.

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              Extremely detailed history of major diplomatic initiatives, conferences, and treaties both during and immediately after World War II. Covers every significant diplomatic agreement and meeting, including the Atlantic Charter, Casablanca, Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam, postwar peace treaties, the Nuremburg trials, and the foundation of the UN. Includes reprints of every major postwar treaty from 1945 through 1956.

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            Non-Western Diplomacy, 1945–2000

            The literature on diplomacy in the non-Western world during the Cold War and beyond has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years, although it still suffers from lack of attention. Scholars interested in the so-called nonaligned nations or Third World during the Cold War have two excellent studies with which to begin their research. Tan and Acharya 2008 is an edited collection of essays that explores the scope and consequences of the 1955 Asian-African Conference (Bandung Conference), which played a major role in the origins of the nonaligned movement. Westad 2007 is an even broader study of the Third World’s role and influence in the Cold War. It is an outstanding place to begin researching non-Western diplomacy during this period. More specifically, Jian 2001 and Lüthi 2008 represent the best new scholarship on Chinese diplomacy during the Cold War, both based on Chinese archival sources. Students interested in Latin American diplomacy after 1945 will find McPherson 2006 an excellent, if somewhat critical, introductory primer. Domínguez 1994 delves more deeply into the economic relationships of the region, both among the Latin American republics and with the United States during the past sixty years and beyond. Hahn 2005 is an ideal place for new students to begin exploring United States diplomacy in the Middle East during the Cold War, while Onslow 2009 will introduce new scholars to the complex political, economic, and military features of southern African diplomacy during the latter half of the 20th century.

            • Domínguez, Jorge I., ed. Latin America’s International Relations and Their Domestic Consequences: War and Peace, Dependence and Autonomy. New York: Garland, 1994.

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              Collection of useful essays by noted international relations scholars of Latin American economics, history, and politics. Focus is on economic relationships and diplomacy in the 20th century. Experienced undergraduates will find it helpful, as will experienced scholars.

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            • Hahn, Peter L. Crisis and Crossfire: The United States and the Middle East since 1945. Dulles, VA: Potomac, 2005.

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              Excellent introductory primer to US policy toward the Middle East during the Cold War and beyond. Especially suitable for undergraduate students. Includes selection of key primary documents. Concise, effective discussions of topics from the Arab-Israeli conflict to the War on Terror.

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            • Jian, Chen. Mao’s China and the Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

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              Excellent study of Mao’s diplomacy and strategy during the Cold War, particularly 1945–1972. Based on Chinese archival material not previously seen in Western scholarship. Focuses on Mao’s twin strategies of “perpetual revolution” and exploitation of the Chinese sense of victimhood. All students of Cold War and Chinese diplomacy will profit.

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            • Lüthi, Lorenz M. The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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              Extremely well-researched study of Sino-Soviet relations in 1950s and 1960s. Based on a remarkable range of archival and documentary sources, including from China and the former Soviet Union. Provides new insight into Sino-Soviet diplomacy and its impact on the Cold War, the Vietnam War, and intrasocialist relations. Recommended to all 20th-century-diplomacy scholars.

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            • McPherson, Alan L. Intimate Ties, Bitter Struggles: The United States and Latin America Since 1945. Dulles, VA: Potomac, 2006.

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              Good overview of US–Latin American relations in the postwar era. Especially suitable for undergraduate students. Includes a selection of key primary documents. Critical of US policy toward the southern republics but careful to present both dependency and diffusion viewpoints.

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            • Onslow, Sue, ed. Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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              Collection of insightful and often enthralling essays on diplomacy, intervention, and resistance in Cold War southern Africa. Includes essays on South Africa, Rhodesia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Scholars of US and Soviet diplomacy and intervention in Africa during the Cold War will find this collection especially useful.

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            • Tan, See Seng, and Amitav Acharya, eds. Bandung Revisited: The Legacy of the 1955 Asian-African Conference for International Order. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2008.

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              Nine essays on various aspects of the 1955 Bandung Conference and its consequences. Emphasizes the continued resonance of Bandung for Asian diplomacy. Includes chapters on Southeast Asia, Afro-Asian relations, China, and India. Students of nonalignment and diplomacy during the Cold War will find it especially useful.

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            • Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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              Superb study of the Third World’s role in the Cold War, which illuminates the present as much as the past. Focuses on American and Soviet Cold War strategies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Angola, Ethiopia, Cuba, Nicaragua, Iran, and Afghanistan. Extremely important study that reframes our understanding of Cold War diplomacy and its effects.

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            Twenty-First-Century Diplomacy

            At the beginning of the 21st century, scholars began to tackle the actual and potential diplomatic innovations, issues, and challenges of the contemporary period. Some trends are clear. The literature widely assumes that the traditional primacy of the major Western powers is or will be challenged by states once considered to be on the periphery, especially China, India, and Brazil. Moreover, the primacy of the state is also being challenged by nonstate actors. The increasing influence of international nongovernmental organizations and transnational advocacy organizations promises to undermine traditional notions of diplomatic practice in the years ahead. Nye 2004, for example, presents an important argument against the use of coercion and military power. Instead, Nye contends, the United States ought to rely on “soft power” to endear the nation to allies, friends, and enemies alike. For the emerging significance of the so-called Second World in contemporary international politics, see Khanna 2009. This exceptionally broad survey of the world’s “transitional” states raises important questions for diplomacy scholars. Similarly, Gill 2010 presents a measured study of China’s role in the world, which students of American and Chinese foreign policy and diplomacy will need to address. Indeed, it is widely assumed in the latest literature that Asian powers will be a major factor in 21st-century diplomacy, and Rana 2008 provides unusually penetrating insights into the foreign ministries and diplomatic corps of China, India, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. East and Robertson 2005 presents a more theoretical study of the challenges and opportunities faced by developing nations, including Brazil, China, Egypt, Ghana, and Malaysia. The status of America’s Cold War alliance system is the subject of Menon 2008, which makes a forceful case for the obsolescence of the United States’ Cold War security pacts. This study has important implications for the continuing relevance of alliances in the contemporary period. Keck and Sikkink 1998 provides a theoretical and historical overview of the role of nonstate actors in international diplomacy, a topic that has become increasingly important in the modern era. Finally, Plummer 2005 offers an important and instructive literature review of modern diplomatic history that highlights recent changes in the field’s orientation, makeup, and methodology.

            • East, Maurice A., and Justin Robertson, eds. Diplomacy and Developing Nations: Post-Cold War Foreign Policy-Making Structures and Processes. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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              Useful collection of essays. Includes theoretical essays and case studies on Brazil, China, the Caribbean, Egypt, Ghana, and Malaysia. Interesting insights into economic aspects of diplomacy, globalization, and non-state actors. Does a good job of eschewing outdated models and assumptions. Suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and experts alike.

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            • Gill, Bates. Rising Star: China’s New Security Diplomacy. Rev. ed. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 2010.

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              Impressive study of China’s evolving diplomacy. Emphasizes challenges and opportunities for the United States. Focuses on China’s regional security initiatives, nonproliferation and arms control, and its attitude toward sovereignty and intervention (especially in Taiwan). Students of US diplomacy toward China will want to engage with Gill’s findings and policy prescriptions.

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            • Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

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              Interesting primer on transnational advocacy networks in the modern international system. Helpful theoretical and historical overviews. Considers human rights advocacy in Latin America, environmental advocacy, and advocacy in opposition to violence against women. All will have to grapple with implications of transnational actors for modern diplomatic practice and the primacy of state actors.

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            • Khanna, Parag. The Second World: How Emerging Powers Are Redefining Global Competition in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Random House, 2009.

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              Well-received and wide-ranging survey of the 21st century’s diplomatic challenges. Emphasis on growing importance of transitional states. Suggests likely competition for hegemony and influence among Europe, the United States, and China in emerging states such as Brazil, Egypt, and Malaysia. A lively and important study, valuable to all researchers of contemporary diplomacy.

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            • Menon, Rajan. The End of Alliances. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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              Powerful and important argument against the continuation of the US Cold War alliance structure, including NATO, which the author sees as obsolete and irrelevant. Good overview of historical context for current US alliances. Especially useful for those interested in contemporary and historical alliance diplomacy and modern American diplomacy in general.

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            • Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.

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              Pioneering and influential study of alternative sources of power in international relations. Questions traditional primacy and over reliance on coercion and military strength. Posits importance of “attractiveness” of cultural products, policies, and political ideals. All students and practitioners of diplomacy have to grapple with its clearly elucidated theory and implications.

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            • Plummer, Brenda Gayle. “The Changing Face of Diplomatic History: A Literature Review.” History Teacher 38.3 (May 2005): 385–400.

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              Engaging and useful survey of recent trends in the study of diplomatic history. Highlights the importance of diversity, the end of the Cold War, the “cultural turn,” and increasing interdisciplinary approaches. Excellent introduction to an increasingly invigorating and dynamic field of research that will benefit new undergraduates and graduate students in particular.

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            • Rana, Kishan S. Asian Diplomacy: The Foreign Ministries of China, India, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

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              Stimulating and well-documented survey of the evolution and structure of foreign ministries and diplomatic corps in China, India, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. Based on more than a hundred interviews with Asian diplomats. Will especially intrigue those interested in Asia’s emerging diplomatic influence, globalization, and modern diplomatic service in general.

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            LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

            DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0013

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