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International Relations Global Governance
by
Peter Hägel

Introduction

“Governance is the sum of many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs. It is a continuing process through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and co-operative action taken. It includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangements that people and institutions either have agreed to or perceive to be in their interest” (Commission on Global Governance 1995; see Monographs). This widely used definition from a key document of the global governance debate makes two things clear: global governance affects an enormous variety of actors and policies, and it is a vague concept. The second sentence and the first half of the third sentence within this definition reveal that a large part of the concept deals with questions that have always been at the core of international relations (IR): studying international cooperation and institutions. The terms individuals, private, informal, and people, however, indicate that an equal amount of attention is paid to nongovernmental actors and noninstitutionalized practices—which is why the term governance is preferred over government. Much global governance research studies whether and how nonstate influences are growing in importance vis-à-vis states. The key phrase, though, is right at the beginning: “the sum of many ways.” It indicates an understanding of world politics as an integrated system, a shift from international relations as politics among states to the global governance of an interdependent world, as political actors try to deal with the transnational consequences of globalization. Some researchers working on global governance share this holistic assumption, while others question and examine it. But much research simply continues to study some part of world politics, be it trade regulation at the World Trade Organization (WTO) or the transnational coordination of protests against it by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and then subsumes it into the great global governance discourse. The almost limitless scope of global governance influences the logic of this article: A large part is organized around ways in which IR theories study global governance, because this helps to bring analytical order into an often-confusing discussion. It would be next to impossible to provide a thematic overview of policy areas subject to global governance processes—even the most important ones (security, economy, human rights, migration, environment, health, energy, etc.) would imply too many references. For the same reason, the variety of international institutions (IAEA, WHO, ILO, OECD, etc.) cannot be dealt with here, and thus only the most important, truly global ones are covered: the United Nations (UN), International Criminal Court (ICC), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank (see International Financial Architecture), WTO, and the (less global) “summitology” of the G7/8/20. Nongovernmental actors are only being examined in very broad categories (see Transnational Business, Transnational Civil Society, and Contestation and Resistance. Most of the publications selected are books, because too many important journal articles exist, making a selection difficult—but several readers in Reference Works provide excellent collections of seminal journal articles.

General Overviews

To a large extent, global governance research builds on prior IR research. The most relevant precursors are regime theory, (neo-)functionalism, and thinking about world government. The Monographs subsection contains mostly works that have been influential in advancing international relations’ (IR’s) understanding of global governance. Some of them are by proponents of global governance as a new framework for analysis, and some situate the discussion within broader IR debates about international cooperation and rule making. Within the Edited Volumes subsection, the publications gather a variety of different theoretical perspectives on key global governance issues, including international organization, the regulation of the global economy, and the role of nonstate actors; all provide excellent overviews of their topic.

Precursors

Thinking about the issues of “global governance” started long before that term gained prominence on international relations (IR) research agendas. Aksu 2008 is a very useful and well-edited collection of classic Enlightenment thinking about how to arrange an international order of “perpetual peace.” In the wake of devastating international wars, the idea of world government received serious support during the 20th century. Weiss 2009, a fine article for students, reviews the idea’s intellectual history and explains why it has been replaced by “global governance,” whereas Wendt 2003 develops a challenging structural argument about reasons why world government remains inevitable in the long run. A key theory on international organization was functionalism, seminally developed by Mitrany 1966 and critically revised into neofunctionalism by Haas 2008. Both texts remain widely cited and continue to influence studies of international organization and regional integration, but the broader and less deterministic approach of regime theory supplanted (neo-)functionalism during the 1980s. Krasner 1983 is the landmark publication of regime theory, something like the stepmother of much contemporary global governance research, and thus a must-read. Kratochwil and Ruggie 1986 reviews IR thinking about international organization, including regime theory, and pushes the research agenda toward what would later become constructivism. Ruggie 1993 examines multilateralism, a principle that is at the heart of global governance, yet never achieved similar importance in academic discourses.

  • Aksu, Esref. Early Notions of Global Governance: Selected Eighteenth-Century Proposals for “Perpetual Peace”; with Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant Unabridged. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008.

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    Excellent collection of original Enlightenment texts on international order and peace, placing the influential ideas of Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant into their intellectual context (seven other texts) and relating them, via the introductory texts, to current discussions of global governance.

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  • Haas, Ernst B. Beyond the Nation State: Functionalism and International Organization. Colchester, UK: ECPR, 2008.

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    Seminal study, a comprehensive outline of “neofunctionalism,” the theory that uses transnational functional necessities, technical expertise, and spillovers to explain the dynamics of international organizations and integration. A long theory chapter precedes an elaborate case study of the International Labor Organization. The introduction helps to link the book, originally published in 1964, to current IR studies. This edition has a new introduction by Peter M. Haas, John G. Ruggie, Philippe Schmitter, and Antje Wiener.

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  • Krasner, Stephen D., ed. International Regimes. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

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    Landmark publication. Thirteen articles by major IR scholars like Keohane, Ruggie, Jervis, Strange, and others on how to think about international regimes, presenting different theoretical perspectives, case studies, and also critiques of the “regime” concept. Includes several seminal texts. Originally published as a special issue of International Organization 36.2 (1982).

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  • Kratochwil, Friedrich, and John Gerard Ruggie. “International Organization: A State of the Art on the Art of the State.” International Organization 40.4 (1986): 753–775.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0020818300027363Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Influential literature review of research on international organizations and regimes (mostly published in International Organization), arguing that future research should pay more attention to what would become the constructivist research agenda: the role of ideas, norms, and socialization within institutions.

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  • Mitrany, David. A Working Peace System. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1966.

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    Gathers the essays of one of the main proponents of functionalism in IR, especially his highly influential 1943 paper “A Working Peace System,” which argued against world federation and for cooperation within and through functional international organizations. Introduction by Hans Morgenthau. Remains widely cited. Out of print and hard to find, but major research libraries should have copies.

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  • Ruggie, John G., ed. Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of an Institutional Form. New Directions in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

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    One of the rare attempts to come to grips with what multilateralism means, trying to specify it as distinct from international regimes and organizations. Quite theoretical; most contributions were published in International Organization, volumes 46 and 47 (1992/1993).

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  • Weiss, Thomas G. “What Happened to the Idea of World Government?” International Studies Quarterly 53.2 (2009): 253–271.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00533.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Concise review of the idea of “world government,” why and how it had significant support in the past up until the 1940s, and why and how it has been replaced by the notion of “global governance” today. Well written, presidential address of the 50th convention of the International Studies Association, ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

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  • Wendt, Alexander. “Why a World State Is Inevitable.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (2003): 491–542.

    DOI: 10.1177/135406610394001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Revives the idea of world government, arguing that structural dynamics—a struggle for recognition and the consequences of the logic of anarchy—will eventually lead to the formation of a world state. Innovative and insightful, but very theoretical and challenging to read, only for advanced IR students/scholars.

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Monographs

Commission on Global Governance 1995 and Rosenau 1995 are two key texts that influenced much of the early debate about global governance as a new concept for world politics. Murphy 1994 is important, because the author’s historical materialist account of the growth of international organization develops arguments that remain at the heart of many critiques of global governance as a neoliberal project. A more social-democratic version of such concerns is Stiglitz 2002, a widely discussed analysis. These four publications are all very accessible and are fine for undergraduate students. For a comprehensive introduction to the topic, Karns and Mingst 2009 is the best textbook. Research more oriented toward international relations (IR) theory comes from Keohane 2002, a serious liberal examination of global governance, and Drezner 2007, a methodical realist explanation of why global governance emerges. Whitman 2009 is a careful attempt to distill the essence of the global governance; it is useful in its sweeping review of the literature, though quite laborious. Latham 1999 (cited under Critical Approaches) is highly recommended as a concise and insightful critique of the global governance discourse.

  • Commission on Global Governance. Our Global Neighborhood. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    Agenda-setting report by twenty-eight public figures on how to reform the UN system so that it can respond better to global challenges. Influential in advancing the concept of global governance, and widely cited. Two chapters assess the changing global environment and the new values it requires, and two policy-oriented chapters discuss international security and economic cooperation.

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  • Drezner, Daniel W. All Politics Is Global: Explaining International Regulatory Regimes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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    Theoretically rigorous study of how global governance works, based on game theory without being formalistic. Emphasizes the interests of great powers in coordinating policy internationally. Case studies of Internet governance and the regulation of finance, and genetically modified organisms and intellectual property rights in public health. Major work, well written and argued.

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  • Karns, Margaret P., and Karen A. Mingst. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. 2d ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.

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    Very good textbook for undergraduate students, well written, illustrated, and organized, as well as comprehensive, covering theory, international and regional organizations, nonstate actors and key policy areas (security, development, human rights, environment). Not very discussion-oriented, though.

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  • Keohane, Robert O. Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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    Collection of previously published articles and book chapters by one of the foremost liberal theorists of IR. Covers international cooperation, institutions, and law, and relates these to global governance. Chapters 9–11 are particularly relevant.

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  • Murphy, Craig N. International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance since 1850. Europe and the International Order. Cambridge, MA: Polity, 1994.

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    Empirically sweeping, forcefully argued, reductionist explanation of the role of international organizations. From a Marxist/Gramscian perspective, global governance is seen as the framework that keeps transnational capitalism functioning. Accessible, important study.

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  • Rosenau, James N. “Governance in the Twenty-First Century.” Global Governance 1 (1995): 13–43.

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    Seminal article opening the first issue of Global Governance, arguing that the classical interstate world will be increasingly rivaled, though not replaced, by a multicentric world of various nongovernmental actors. Widely cited.

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  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: Norton, 2002.

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    Influential assessment of economic globalization and the shortcomings of the institutions that govern it, criticizing the “Washington Consensus.” Draws on the author’s experience as a senior Clinton advisor, World Bank chief economist, and Nobel Prize winner. Focuses on the East Asian financial crisis and transformations in Russia as case studies. Well written and argued, for the broader public.

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  • Whitman, Jim. The Fundamentals of Global Governance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

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    Reviews the existing literature, trying to establish a consensus of what global governance means in practice. Written for students, presenting and weighing arguments from different perspectives, but often quite laborious and “professorial.” Useful as a balanced overview.

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Edited Volumes

One can look at global governance either through the lenses of the main international relations (IR) theories, or via developing it as a new analytical concept distinct from traditional thinking about states cooperating in international institutions and regimes. Rosenau and Czempiel 1992 and Hewson and Sinclair 1999 are innovative and important volumes that pursue the latter path, influencing later reflections on what global governance is all about. Whitman 2009 is the latest careful attempt to bring order and sense into research employing the concept. McGrew and Held 2002 and Ba and Hoffmann 2005 are fine volumes that provide both, with different IR theories’ take on global governance, and chapters analyzing the concept’s meaning. Koremenos, et al. 2003 is an ambitious attempt to explain international organization with rational choice. Diehl and Frederking 2010 is a very good textbook on international organization, though despite its “global governance” title, it neglects nongovernmental actors. Kahler and Lake 2003 pays more attention to the broader meaning of governance. Like Mattli and Woods 2009, it gathers state-of-the-art, theory-based IR/international political economy (IPE) research on how global governance emerges and functions, studying mostly the regulation of the global economy.

  • Ba, Alice D., and Matthew J. Hoffmann, eds. Contending Perspectives on Global Governance: Coherence, Contestation, and World Order. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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    Fine overview of different theoretical approaches to global governance. Fourteen chapters, six examining key IR theories’ perspectives (realism, historical materialism, Gramscian, English School, regime theory, constructivism—liberalism is conspicuously missing), six new analytical approaches like global civil society and private authority. Well edited.

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  • Diehl, Paul F., and Brian Frederking, eds. The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2010.

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    Best textbook on international organizations for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Nineteen chapters, many by leading IR scholars; key focus on the UN, but also other international organizations within the sections on the issue areas of security, economy, and social/humanitarian affairs. Neglects private business and civil society actors.

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  • Hewson, Martin, and Timothy J. Sinclair, eds. Approaches to Global Governance Theory. SUNY Series in Global Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

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    Important early reflection on how to think about global governance theory. Dominated by critical IPE scholarship, thirteen contributions, mostly quite abstract but full of stimulating and challenging ideas, especially chapters 1–3 (by Hewson and Sinclair, Latham, and Palan) and 13 (by Rosenau).

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  • Kahler, Miles, and David Lake, eds. Governance in a Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

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    Excellent collection of first-rate research on international governance in the economic/financial realm. Sixteen chapters, nine studying the links between globalization and governance beyond the state, four examining the question of national convergence, and three looking at problems of democracy and accountability.

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  • Koremenos, Barbara, Charles Lipson, and Duncan Snidal, eds. The Rational Design of International Institutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511512209Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Ambitious attempt to explain the design (membership, scope, centralization, control, and flexibility) of international institutions with rational choice methods. Eleven chapters, case studies of NATO, trade regimes, arbitration, law of war, and aviation, and one critical chapter by Wendt. Originally published as a special issue of International Organization 55.4 (2001).

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  • Mattli, Walter, and Ngaire Woods, eds. The Politics of Global Regulation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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    State-of-the-art research, examining the questions of when, why, and how global regulation emerges, and to whose benefit. Coherently tied together by a sharp analytical framework, developed in chapters 1 and 2, followed by five empirical chapters, mostly concerning economic issues, but also one chapter by Sikkink on human rights violations.

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  • McGrew, Anthony, and David Held, eds. Governing Globalization: Power, Authority, and Global Governance. Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2002.

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    Fine collection, broad coverage. Sixteen chapters, many by renowned scholars like Gilpin, Held, Keohane, and Rosenau—especially helpful for its theory sections (chapters 1–4 and 11–16) that look at global governance through the lenses of the main IR theories. Used to be an excellent textbook for advanced students, but unfortunately no updated edition has been published as of 2010.

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  • Rosenau, James N., and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds. Governance Without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 20. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511521775Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Pathbreaking volume, one of the first to examine the idea of global governance as distinct from traditional international cooperation among states. The focus is on the questions why and how states (governments) are not the only key actors anymore in providing world order. Ten chapters by renowned IR scholars.

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  • Whitman, Jim, ed. Palgrave Advances in Global Governance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

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    Nine chapters, refining the understanding of global governance as an analytical concept. Distinguishing different actors/arenas, state/nonstate activity, policy networks, and sector-specific and comprehensive aspects.

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Reference Works

Within the Readers and Book Series subsection, readers will find great collections of publications and data on global governance. The Research Resources subsection contains yearbooks, data collections and major research centers on global governance, including several websites with significant amounts of freely available content. The Journals section, meanwhile, gathers the most relevant periodicals concentrating on global governance scholarship.

Readers and Book Series

The Routledge Global Institutions Series (Weiss and Wilkinson 2005–) contains many good empirical introductions to the key institutions of global governance, especially the principal international organizations. Kratochwil and Mansfield 2006 is a great reader for undergraduate and gradutate courses. Martin and Simmons 2001 and Martin 2008 (smaller), as well as Goldstein and Steinberg 2010 (huge), are fine collections of more traditional research on global governance, gathering much (but not only) liberal analysis of international cooperation and institutions. Sinclair 2004 is a less state- and liberalism-centric collection of (mostly) seminal journal articles relevant for global governance research.

  • Goldstein, Judith L., and Richard Steinberg, eds. International Institutions. 4 vols. SAGE Library of International Relations. London: SAGE, 2010.

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    Representative and expensive collection of fifty-three seminal (previously published) IR/IPE journal articles. Volume 1 covers the causes of international institutions; Volume 2, their consequences; Volume 3, more specifically security and economic institutions; and Volume 4, different types (environment, human rights, international courts, multilateralism, regionalism). Concentrates on rationalist (plus some constructivist) approaches.

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  • Kratochwil, Friedrich V., and Edward D. Mansfield, eds. International Organization and Global Governance: A Reader. 2d ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2006.

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    Twenty-six abridged texts; an excellent collection of many seminal IR articles, though most focus more on traditional international cooperation/organization rather than “global governance” as something distinct, reflecting the fact that most articles were published before 2000. Privileges liberal institutionalist and constructivist approaches.

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  • Martin, Lisa L., ed. Global Governance. Library of Essays in International Relations. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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    Great (if overpriced) collection of twenty-one previously published journal articles, mostly seminal works, forming a broad overview: conceptual issues, security, economy, law, global governance and domestic politics, and norms and accountability. Very useful as a reading list, but privileges rationalist (mostly liberal) approaches and neglects realist, critical, and Marxist ones.

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  • Martin, Lisa L., and Beth A. Simmons, eds. International Institutions: An International Organization Reader. International Organization Readers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

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    Fourteen chapters; a fine collection of many seminal articles on international institutions, all previously published in International Organization. Sections on theories, empirical studies, compliance, and critiques. No special focus on “global governance,” but a useful overview of first-rate liberal institutionalist, constructivist, and empirical analysis of international institutions.

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  • Sinclair, Timothy J., ed. Global Governance: Critical Concepts in Political Science. Global Concepts in Political Science. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    Very useful and expensive collection of eighty-one (mostly) seminal journal articles, many of them preceding the global governance debate, but altogether forming an excellent collection (four volumes) that represents the evolution of thinking in IR about key questions of today’s global governance research agenda.

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  • Weiss, Thomas G., and Rorden Wilkinson, eds. Routledge Global Institutions Series. London: Routledge, 2005–.

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    Many international institutions (e.g., OECD, ISO, WIPO) have received surprisingly little research. This series fills many gaps, providing concise empirical analyses of a wide range of important regional and global organizations, from the African Union to the World Health Organization (WHO), including institutions like the Red Cross and the World Economic Forum. Often largely descriptive, not theory-oriented.

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    Research Resources

    For research about international institutions, the hard facts are regularly updated in the Yearbook of International Organizations, and the Multilaterals Project is a fine resource if one is looking for international treaty texts. Regarding nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and global civil society, the Global Civil Society Yearbook series is essential; it is a publication of the London School of Economics Global Governance research center. Another leading research network with a rich website is the Global Governance Project. The Global Policy Forum is very helpful, because it gathers and organizes many references on global public policy. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is one of the best policy-oriented think tanks, producing many analyses pertinent for global governance.

    Journals

    Since the concept covers such a great variety of global issues, articles discussing global governance appear in most political science and international relations journals, but also in periodicals from other academic disciplines, especially law and economics. Selecting the most relevant journals is therefore impossible. Two general journals nevertheless merit highlighting—Millennium and International Organization—because they regularly publish innovative research on global governance. And then there are the specialized journals; first and foremost among these is Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, the leading forum for debate. Among promising recent journals, The Review of International Organizations is very theory-oriented, and Global Policy concentrates on policy-oriented research. Global Society and Global Networks are very multi/interdisciplinary, often favoring critical approaches, and are useful if one is looking for research on the transnational, societal level (nongovernmental organizations [NGOs], social movements, etc.).

    Theory

    Within every major theoretical approach to international relations (IR), significant research on global governance has been developed. Liberal approaches focus on the question of cooperation among states and the function of international institutions. Realist studies emphasize the decisive influence of powerful states in global governance. Constructivist studies identify the role of nonmaterial factors and the social construction of meaning. The “English School” of IR is experiencing a revival because its interest in international society directly relates to the issue of political community in global governance. Critical approaches are relevant for their critiques of dominant global governance discourses and their political consequences. (Neo-)Marxist research on global governance examines the political economy of global governance and its embeddedness in global capitalism. Normative/ethical positions represent thinking, often from within political philosophy, about how global governance should be in ethical and moral terms.

    Liberalism

    Liberal international relations (IR) scholarship has a lot to bring to global governance research, because it has studied the importance of international institutions for decades, if not centuries. Claude 1971 is a major analysis of the early United Nations that developed the concept of collective security. Keohane 2005 is a difficult landmark study of international cooperation under anarchy, which inaugurated neoliberal institutionalism. Recent extensions and refinements of this research agenda are collected in Hawkins, et al. 2006 and Milner and Moravcsik 2009, both representing the current state of the art of liberal explanations of why and how international institutions matter. With regard to global governance, the emphasis on intergovernmental organizations has, however, limited liberal contributions to the study of nongovernmental actors. Moravcsik 1997 is a seminal article that moves liberal theorizing away from its preoccupation with international institutions, prioritizing domestic politics instead. Simmons 2009 is a magisterial study that demonstrates the interdependence between international law and mobilization for human rights within states. This selection is rather short, but liberal approaches are highly represented in other sections of this guide. Thus, Martin 2008, Martin and Simmons 2001, and Goldstein and Steinberg 2010 (all cited under Readers and Book Series); Beitz 1999 (cited under Normative/Ethical Positions); Keohane 2002 (cited under Monographs); and Goldstein, et al. 2001 (cited under International Law) are also directly relevant.

    • Claude, Inis L., Jr. Swords into Plowshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organizations. 4th ed. New York: Random House, 1971.

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      Advanced the concept of collective security, an important study, still relevant for its analysis of the beginnings of the United Nations. Out of print, but easy to find second-hand or in academic libraries. Originally published in 1956.

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    • Hawkins, Darren G., David A. Lake, Daniel L. Nielson, and Michael J. Tierney, eds. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511491368Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Excellent collection, covering both delegation to and independent agency by supranational institutions. Uses principal-agent theory to advance the liberal institutionalist research agenda. Thirteen chapters, many by leading IR scholars such as Milner, Martin, and Lake, several on the International Monetary Fund, but also the European Union, the World Trade Organization, and international courts.

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    • Keohane, Robert O. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton Classic Edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

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      Landmark study of international cooperation under anarchy, explaining how institutions can provide incentives to realize mutual gains in the absence of a hegemon. Established the neoliberal institutionalist research agenda. Not easy to understand, but required reading for researchers and advanced graduate students working on international cooperation. Originally published in 1984.

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    • Milner, Helen V., and Andrew Moravcsik, eds. Power, Interdependence, and Non-State Actors in World Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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      A Festschrift collection of Keohane’s former students, revisiting and advancing the paradigm of neoliberal institutionalism. Thirteen chapters, mostly examining the functioning and the role of international institutions in very different issue areas (trade, women’s rights, peacekeeping, environment, finance, etc.). High quality of research throughout.

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    • Moravcsik, Andrew. “Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Relations.” International Organization 51 (1997): 513–553.

      DOI: 10.1162/002081897550447Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Seminal article, trying to tie the various branches of liberal IR thinking together into a coherent theoretical framework, emphasizing the ontological priority of domestic politics.

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    • Simmons, Beth. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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      State-of-the-art analysis of how international human rights treaties constrain state rulers. Employs statistical tests and case studies to develop a theory of commitment and compliance, emphasizing domestic politics.

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    • Prakash, Aseem, and Jeffrey A. Hart, eds. Globalization and Governance. New York: Routledge, 1999.

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      Mostly interesting for the early theoretical discussion of global governance from liberal institutionalist and constructivist perspectives in the editors’ introduction and the first five chapters by Lake, McGinnis, Sandholtz, Haas, and Douglas. The other six chapters discuss globalization’s impact on states and are somewhat dated.

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    Realism

    Power politics among states is at the center of realist approaches to global governance. Carr 2001 and Morgenthau 2005 are the classical realist statements within modern international relations (IR), and both remain relevant for global governance, because they both addressed the international institutional orders of their times (inter- and postwar period, respectively). Both are also highly readable—Carr even a delight—and function well in undergraduate courses. More recent, but also a classic, is Gilpin and Gilpin 2001, which interprets the global political economy and is often used as an introductory textbook. Much realist research is directed against liberalism, trying to show that international institutions hardly matter, such as the seminal articles Grieco 1988 and Mearsheimer 1994–1995. Foot, et al. 2003, examining US hegemony in international institutions, and Gruber 2000, studying power politics in supranational institutions, demonstrate the prevalence of powerful states in global governance. Barnett and Duvall 2005 provides an excellent discussion of power in global governance from different theoretical perspectives, thus questioning realism’s core concept. Drezner 2007 (cited under Monographs) is also directly relevant.

    • Barnett, Michael, and Raymond Duvall, eds. Power in Global Governance. Who Governs in Global Governance? University of Wisconsin-Madison. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511491207Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Excellent collection, thirteen chapters reexamine the understanding and the role of power in international politics from different theoretical perspectives. Few realist contributions, but the other approaches (constructivist, English School, feminism, postcolonialism, Marxism, etc.) offer contending interpretations of realism’s key concept.

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    • Carr, Edward H., and Michael Cox. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

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      One of the great realist classics, a pleasure to read. The arguments it mobilizes against the League of Nations, international treaties, and liberal utopianism more generally are still relevant for discussions of global governance today. Advocates focusing on the “real” power politics, but the book is much more complex. Originally published in 1939 (London: Macmillan). Reissued with a new introduction and additional material by Michael Cox.

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    • Foot, Rosemary, Neil MacFarlane, and Michael Mastanduno. US Hegemony and International Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      DOI: 10.1093/0199261431.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Comprehensive, best book on the topic. Twelve chapters, empirically examining the hegemonic role of the United States in various multilateral arenas, four broader evaluations, four contributions each on the United States in global (UN, IMF/WB, WTO, Kyoto) and regional (Africa, Asia, Europe, Americas) organizations.

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    • Gilpin, Robert, and Jean M. Gilpin. Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

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      Successful update of the author’s classic Political Economy of International Relations (1987), a landmark study of hegemonic stability theory. Dense, comprehensive overview, authoritative treatment of economic theories. Develops a “state-centric realist” perspective. Fine as textbook for advanced students.

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    • Grieco, Joseph M. “Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest Liberal Institutionalism.” International Organization 42.3 (1988): 485–507.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0020818300027715Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Seminal article, widely cited, argues against Keohane 2005 (cited under Liberalism), explaining why cooperation among states cannot work. Best realist critique of liberal institutionalism.

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    • Gruber, Lloyd. Ruling the World: Power Politics and the Rise of Supranational Institutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

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      Brings realist concerns into the debate around supranational authority. Well-argued analysis of ways in which power asymmetries distort mutual benefits and create winners and losers within supranational arrangements. Somewhat easy yet still persuasive case studies of NAFTA and the European monetary system.

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    • Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19.3 (1994–1995): 5–49.

      DOI: 10.2307/2539078Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A well-argued attack on liberal institutionalist theories of international cooperation by the key thinker of offensive realism. Develops nine reasons why collective security is doomed to fail. Part of a great debate in International Security 19.3 and 20.1, good for discussion in IR introduction courses.

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    • Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 7th ed. Revised by Kenneth W. Thompson and W. David Clinton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

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      The classical realist textbook, developing a comprehensive perspective on world politics. Its focus on states’ power and competition remains important; parts 6, 8 and 9, discussing international law and organizations, are particularly relevant for global governance. First published in 1948 (New York: Knopf). This edition comes with a foreword and an appendix (seven articles and the UN charter), which are very helpful for reading this classic in today’s context.

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    Constructivism

    Social constructivist approaches are concerned with how nonmaterial, intersubjective forces like ideas, values, and norms or identities influence global governance, both at a structural level (how do existing norms/identities shape behavior?) and at the level of agency (how do actors construct meaning?). Adler 2005, emphasizing epistemic communities, and Ruggie 1998, focusing on the constructed normative underpinnings of international institutions, integrate scholarship by two leading constructivists, developing broad visions of global governance. Abdelal, et al. 2010 is an important volume that advances a constructivist international political economy (IPE) approach to the governance of the global economy, and its introduction would be excellent for students. Chwieroth 2010, analyzing the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and financial liberalization, and Hall 2008, interpreting the governance of monetary affairs as social relations, also fall into this framework. Both are fine theoretical and empirical studies, just like Hoffmann 2005, which studies the governance responses to climate change and is particularly relevant for its insights into what “global” means in global governance. Barnett and Finnemore 2004 is a key study of the autonomous rule making of international organizations. Weaver 2008 (cited under International Financial Architecture), as well as Cronin 2003 and Wheeler 2002 (cited under English School), are also directly relevant.

    • Abdelal, Rawi, Mark Blyth, and Craig Parsons, eds. Constructing the International Economy. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.

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      Groundbreaking volume, developing a broad constructivist perspective on central matters of international political economy (IPE). The introduction establishes the necessity and the rationale of constructivist approaches to IPE, and then ten case studies explore how nonmaterial forces (divided into four aspects: meaning, cognition, uncertainty, and subjectivity) shape important governance issues of the international economy.

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    • Adler, Emanuel. Communitarian International Relations: The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations. New International Relations. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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      Puts together previously published articles by a leading constructivist IR scholar, developing a communitarian approach that emphasizes the role of socially framed knowledge in the formation of international communities. Chapter 6, on epistemic communities, and chapter 7, on imagined security communities, are particularly relevant.

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    • Barnett, Michael, and Martha Finnemore. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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      Uses a constructivist approach to examine international organizations as bureaucracies that gain independent rule-making capacities. Rich empirical case studies of the IMF, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the UN. Best IR book on how international organizations function as autonomous institutions.

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    • Chwieroth, Jeffrey M. Capital Ideas: The IMF and the Rise of Financial Liberalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

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      Analyzes the evolution of ideas regarding capital accounts liberalization among the IMF’s staff of economists. Sees epistemic communities not only as knowledge-based but also influenced by ideology and organizational dynamics, thus developing an actor-centered constructivist account. Well researched and argued.

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    • Hall, Rodney Bruce. Central Banking as Global Governance: Constructing Financial Credibility. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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      Innovative study that analyzes monetary affairs at both the domestic and the international level as social relations, in which actors (central banks, Bank for International Settlements [BIS], IMF, rating agencies, etc.) construct meaning and, especially in finance, credibility. Challenging, theory-heavy, but well argued.

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    • Hoffmann, Matthew J. Ozone Depletion and Climate Change: Constructing a Global Response. SUNY Series in Global Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

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      Fine study of how international responses to ozone depletion and climate change became truly global, aiming at universal participation. A constructivist analysis of how norms evolve and shape global governance, using formal analysis and case studies to develop its arguments. Interesting also for its broader discussion of what “global” means in global governance.

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    • Ruggie, John Gerard. Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization. New International Relations. New York: Routledge, 1998.

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      Integrates key articles by one of the most creative thinkers in IR into one volume, laying a social constructivist framework over previously more eclectic scholarship. Covers broad aspects of international organization and order; most chapters are relevant for global governance concerns.

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    English School

    The English School of international relations (IR) has recently received renewed attention, because its focus on international society appears well suited for analyzing global governance, which raises questions about political community at the global level. And its emphasis on power and legitimacy and norms, linking it to both realist and constructivist concerns, also seems to fit well with what global governance is all about. Dunne 2005 is a brief introduction to ways in which the English School relates to global governance, while Buzan 2004 is the most systematic effort to extend the classical English School vision to the contemporary global order. Hurrell 2008 is similarly sweeping but is more eclectic in terms of theory and more concrete and normative in its analysis. Cronin 2003, asking why states create regimes to protect particular populations, and Wheeler 2002, illuminating humanitarian intervention, study normative change of international society. Both are exemplary English School research, well written and argued, and therefore great texts for students, also because their focus is more limited and concrete.

    • Buzan, Barry. From International to World Society? English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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      Thorough stock-taking and updating of the English School of IR. Sees two rival visions of international/world society at work today: a “pluralist,” sovereignty-based society and a “solidarist,” more cosmopolitan one; specifies and discusses the social forces behind each vision.

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    • Cronin, Bruce. Institutions for the Common Good: International Protection Regimes in International Society. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 93. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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      Examines international protection regimes (norms/obligations for states to protect particular groups of people in their territory) during different eras, arguing that each of these represent different normative visions of “societies of states” concerned with order and stability. Well written.

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    • Dunne, Tim. “Global Governance: An English School Perspective.” In Contending Perspectives on Global Governance: Coherence, Contestation and World Order. Edited by Alice D. Ba and Matthew J. Hoffmann, 72–87. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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      Short yet not overly concise examination of the English School’s relation to global governance theorizing. Problematizes the alleged state-centrism of the English School and discusses the concerns with international society/order/system and legitimacy.

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    • Hurrell, Andrew. On Global Order: Power, Values, and the Constitution of International Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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      Sweeping, scholarly study of the ways in which globalization has changed the organization of world order and international society. Three conceptual chapters, then key issues: nationalism, human rights, war, economy, environment. Combines analysis with discussion of how world politics should adapt/evolve.

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    • Wheeler, Nicholas J. Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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      One of the best analyses of the topic, an English School/constructivist explanation of normative change, supported with rich empirical analysis of how interventions in Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo were justified internationally. Ambitious and very readable.

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    Critical Approaches

    Critical theory, in a narrow sense, builds on the insights of the Frankfurt School of social theory (Adorno, Horkheimer, and others), such as the recent work gathered in Pensky 2005. In a broader sense, critical approaches include a variety of theoretical influences that all share the Frankfurt School’s principal aim: to criticize existing social order so as to advance emancipation. Linklater 2007 integrates work by one of the most renowned critical international relations (IR) theorists, examining political community beyond the states system. With regard to globalization, criticism frequently involves analyses of dominant discourses. Latham 1999 is a seminal article that questions the very idea of global governance. Lederer and Müller 2005 gathers similar research that looks at a variety of governance themes. More policy-oriented, Neuman and Sending 2010 uses Foucault’s “governmentality” to reexamine the roles of international organizations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in global governance, while Rai and Waylen 2008 develops feminist critiques and analyses of gender issues. Cox 2002, listed under (Neo-)Marxist Approaches, is also directly relevant.

    • Latham, Robert. “Politics in a Floating World: Toward a Critique of Global Governance.” In Approaches to Global Governance Theory. Edited by Martin Hewson and Timothy J. Sinclair, 23–53. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

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      A stimulating, reflective critique of the “global governance” discourse, questioning its underlying assumptions, its quest for order, and its tendency to be post-political. An intellectual “salon” conversation rather than political science, but it identifies important problems of global governance research.

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    • Lederer, Markus, and Philipp S. Müller, eds. Criticizing Global Governance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

      DOI: 10.1057/9781403979513Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Eleven chapters, most quite abstract, but thoughtful critiques of central themes in global governance discourses (global governance, human rights, civil society); others focus on the reconstruction of the Balkans, transnational private arbitration, or international lawyers.

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    • Linklater, Andrew. Critical Theory and World Politics: Citizenship, Sovereignty and Humanity. New York: Routledge, 2007.

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      Ties together previously published journal articles by one of the most renowned critical IR thinkers. Interesting for global governance, as it examines the problems of political community within sovereign states and more cosmopolitan contexts. Then looks at the governance and morals of citizenship and harm (four chapters each) in world politics.

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    • Neumann, Iver B., and Ole Jacob Sending. Governing the Global Polity: Practice, Mentality, Rationality. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010.

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      Adapting Foucault’s concept of governmentality to IR, the authors contend that international organizations and NGOs serve as indirect instruments of states trying to enforce global social order. Inspiring in its theoretical thinking, well argued in its concrete case studies/examples.

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    • Pensky, Max, ed. Globalizing Critical Theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

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      An odd collection of works inspired by the Frankfurt School. Not all contributions fit the title, but the first six chapters are important examples, with two political interventions by Habermas and Derrida, and then four chapters on the global public sphere, plus a helpful introduction.

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    • Rai, Shirin M., and Georgina Waylen, eds. Global Governance: Feminist Perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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      Best collection of research on gender issues in global governance. Twelve contributions, several (but not all) using critical approaches; interdisciplinary, yet mostly IR-based. Three broader conceptual chapters, nine case studies (three cover trade issues, two European Union policies, others the International Criminal Court, US-Mexico border, the World Bank, and United Nations security policy).

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    (Neo-)Marxist Approaches

    Even for non-Marxists, (neo-)Marxist approaches are valuable for their analysis of the political economy of global governance. Close to Marx’s original thinking are historical materialist interpretations that see globalization and global governance as derivatives of the dynamics of expanding capitalism. Cammack 2003 presents a concise statement in this vein, and Wallerstein 2004 a broad overall framework. Sklair 2001 looks below the structural level, on class relations, at how a new transnational capitalist class shapes globalization. Wilkinson 2005 contains several contributions that use neo-Marxist and neo-Gramscian perspectives to understand global governance, which can be used in undergraduate courses. Those that follow Gramsci’s extensions of Marx focus more on ideological hegemony. Cox 2002 and Gill 2008 are works from the most imaginative and influential scholars in this respect, and these collections serve as excellent introductions to their thoughts about the manufacturing of world order and the possibilities of resistance against it. Hardt and Negri 2000 is a much-discussed attempt to rethink neo-Marxist concerns about global politics in a new fashion. Murphy 1994 in Monographs is the best historical materialist study of global governance.

    • Cammack, Paul. “The Governance of Global Capitalism: A New Materialist Perspective.” Historical Materialism 11.2 (2003): 37–59.

      DOI: 10.1163/156920603768311228Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A straightforward Marxist analysis of current World Bank/IMF “good governance” projects, seeing them as a capitalist project aimed at “completion of the world market.” Familiarity with core Marxist concepts are important for understanding the text’s “new materialist” analysis.

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    • Cox, Robert W., with Michael G. Schechter. The Political Economy of a Plural World. New York: Routledge, 2002.

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      Integrates previously published articles by one of the most unorthodox, critical, and inspiring IR thinkers. Uses Marxist and Gramscian insights freely to advance critical interpretations and concepts of world politics and order—for example, his famous “nébuleuse” (networks of state and corporate representatives and intellectuals building policy consensus for global capitalism).

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    • Gill, Stephen. Power and Resistance in the New World Order. 2d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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      Brings together previously published articles (abridged, rewritten, and updated) by one of the foremost Gramscian thinkers in IR. Develops a framework to explain globalization and its governance with American hegemony and the disciplinary power of neoliberalism, but also examines counter-hegemonic actors and processes of resistance. First published in 2003.

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    • Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

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      Much-discussed neo-Marxist pamphlet, sweeping and ambitious, trying to rethink “global governance and resistance” in a new terminology/framework as “empire and the multitude.” Partly interesting, but overhyped, pretentious writing-style, closer to the humanities than to social science.

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    • Sklair, Leslie. The Transnational Capitalist Class. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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      Analyzes the owners and chief executives of the Fortune Global 500 corporations as a new transnational capitalist class that shapes globalization. Based on rich empirical research (many interviews), innovative in its arguments, Marxist in its general perspective.

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    • Wallerstein, Immanuel. World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.

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      Very accessible introduction by the doyen of the world-systems approach in IR, which is heavily influenced by Marx’s political economy. Argues that the expanding capitalist world economy, since the 16th century, shapes international politics, as countries are conditioned by their position in the core, semiperiphery, or periphery.

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    • Wilkinson, Rorden, ed. The Global Governance Reader. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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      Uneven collection of seventeen texts. The nine selections in the “conceptual issues” part are very useful, though not comprehensive, including excerpts from the Commission on Global Governance, Keohane and Rosenau, and four neo-Marxist approaches. The “global governance issues” section is interesting but does not represent the state of the art.

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    Normative/Ethical Positions

    As international relations (IR) developed into an academic discipline, it became more concerned with explaining world politics than with developing moral and ethical arguments about how international affairs should be governed. Beitz 1999 is a groundbreaking early work that reintroduced normative concerns into what is now often termed “international political theory.” Held 1995 is another seminal work, developing a cosmopolitan approach to global governance that has spurred a lot of debate and research. Whereas Beitz would be more adequate for graduate students, parts of Held can serve as a fine introduction for undergraduates. By now, questions about values and the accountability of international actors and rule-making have entered the IR mainstream, particularly when it is concerned with the legitimacy of global governance. Foot et al. 2003, examining the relationship between order and justice, and Held and Koenig-Archibugi 2005, focusing on accountability, are excellent and representative volumes in these respects. Ebrahim and Weisband 2007 also studies accountability, but with greater attention to private actors and cultural diversity. Political philosophy raises moral questions more immediately, and a rich body of theorizing about global justice and ethics has evolved during the past decades. Pogge and Moellendorf 2008 and Pogge and Horton 2008 are brilliant collections of key works, ideal as textbooks on the topics. Singer 2004 is a very engaging and (morally) demanding treatise on the ethics of globalization. Carr 2001 (cited under Realism) is also relevant.

    • Beitz, Charles. Political Theory and International Relations. Rev. ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

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      Important and influential study that extends concerns of political theory about justice to IR. Argues that states and the global order are subject to moral judgments. First published in 1979, the revised edition contains a new afterword in which Beitz engages with criticism of his work.

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    • Ebrahim, Alnoor, and Edward Weisband, eds. Global Accountabilities: Participation, Pluralism, and Public Ethics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511490903Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Fourteen interdisciplinary contributions. Particularly valuable for its strong focus on the accountability of private actors in global governance: seven chapters on NGOs and civil society, three on corporations. Rich in its case studies, stimulating in its attention to different cultural understandings of accountability.

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    • Foot, Rosemary, John Gaddis, and Andrew Hurrell, eds. Order and Justice in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      DOI: 10.1093/0199251207.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Very well organized volume, systematically studying the relationship between order and justice with regards to key global governance actors/areas (e.g., UN, IMF/WB, WTO, EU, US, China, India, Russia, Islam). Ten chapters by renowned IR scholars. Excellent select bibliography.

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    • Held, David. Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

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      Groundbreaking work by one of the foremost cosmopolitan thinkers. Fine analysis of the historical co-evolution of democracy and sovereignty, and how both are challenged by globalization. Geared toward the development of normative arguments for a new cosmopolitan democratic order.

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    • Held, David, and Mathias Koenig-Archibugi, eds. Global Governance and Public Accountability. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005.

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      Leading IR scholars like Kahler, Moravcsic, Scholte, Slaughter, and Risse examine the accountability and legitimacy of international institutions and global governance (e.g., IMF/WB/WTO, transgovernmental networks, civil society, transnational corporations), as well as several more general reflections. Eleven contributions with high-quality research throughout. First published as a special issue of Government and Opposition, 39.2 (2004).

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    • Pogge, Thomas, and Darrel Moellendorf, eds. Global Justice: Seminal Essays. Vol. 1. Paragon Issues in Philosophy. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 2008.

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      The title doesn’t promise too much—a top-notch (and very affordable) collection of twenty-two articles that, together with the companion volume, Pogge and Horton 2008, provide an authoritative overview of leading political philosophers’ thinking about global justice and ethics. Excellent introductions guide reader through the volume.

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    • Pogge, Thomas, and Keith Horton eds. Global Ethics: Seminal Essays. Vol. 2. Paragon Issues in Philosophy. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 2008.

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      Twenty-four articles that, together with the companion volume, Pogge and Moellendorf 2008, provide an authoritative overview of leading political philosophers’ thinking about global justice and ethics.

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    • Singer, Peter. One World: The Ethics of Globalization. 2d ed. Terry Lecture Series. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004.

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      Thought-provoking and engaging examination of how we should think ethically at the global level by a leading and provocative contemporary philosopher. Studies climate change, human rights and humanitarian intervention, international trade and the WTO, and foreign aid. Very accessible and clear writing, ideal for students of any level. First published in 2002; the second edition has a new foreword on the Iraq War.

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    Global Public Goods

    Which policy areas need global governance? The concept of global public goods (GPGs) is an attempt to address this question analytically and to develop a rational framework for studying the challenges and opportunities underlying the provision of GPGs. Influential research initiated by the United Nations Development Programme (Kaul, et al. 1999, Kaul, et al. 2003) brought the concept to the top of international agendas. International Task Force on Global Public Goods 2006 and Lomborg 2009 are other important examples of how GPG came to dominate thinking about the goals of global governance. Both are policy-oriented, and they try to answer the question of which GPGs need priority attention. Geared toward broader audiences, but based on serious research, they serve as excellent introductions for students. Intellectually, GPGs extend insights from public-choice economics, especially work by Mancur Olson and Elinor Ostrom about the local or national provision of common goods, to the global level. Holzinger 2008 and Sandler 2004 are rigorous studies based on game theory that develop the theoretical underpinnings of GPG analysis in international relations (IR). Barrett 2007 does the same but is more accessible and fine for undergraduate students. Thoughtful critiques of the GPG concept come from Coussy 2005 and Long and Wooley 2009, which question its analytical value and see it more as a legitimizing rhetoric tool for states and international organizations. Most references in Normative/Ethical Positions are equally important, approaching the question of “common goods” from philosophical perspectives. See also Cronin 2003 and Hurrell 2008 in English School.

    • Barrett, Scott. Why Cooperate? The Incentive to Supply Global Public Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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      Based on game theory but lucidly written in a nontechnical fashion for a broader audience, the book studies different collective-action problems underlying different GPGs and then examines which kind of incentives are needed to improve the provision of GPGs. Strong analytically, with many examples from nuclear proliferation to global pandemics.

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    • Coussy, Jean. “The Adventures of a Concept: Is Neo-Classical Theory Suitable for Defining Global Public Goods?” Review of International Political Economy 12.1 (2005): 177–194.

      DOI: 10.1080/09692290500049755Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Concise evaluation of the GPG concept, its intellectual legacies in economics, and its evolution in current public-policy discussions. Sees GPG discourses as a legitimizing strategy used by international actors. Also useful for its review of research on the concept in France.

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    • Holzinger, Katharina. Transnational Common Goods: Strategic Constellations, Collective Action Problems, and Multi-Level Provision. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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      Develops a theoretically ambitious framework that differentiates between different attributes of common goods, of the groups involved, and of the international context. Then uses various examples to illustrate the different strategic constellations in the provision of common goods. Analytically rigorous; examines not only global but also other levels.

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    • International Task Force on Global Public Goods. Meeting Global Challenges: International Cooperation in the National Interest. Stockholm, Sweden: International Task Force on Global Public Goods, 2006.

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      Initiated by the governments of France and Sweden, a task force with inputs from leading academics studied how the provision of GPGs could be realized. Identified six priority GPGs: disease control, climate change, financial stability, peace, trade, knowledge. Theoretically informed, policy-oriented, good for students. The task force’s website does not give access to documents anymore, but a copy of the report is available at the Global Policy Forum website. Taskforce members include Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, Tidjane Thiam, and Kingsley Y Amoako.

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    • Kaul, Inge, Isabelle Grunberg, and Marc Stern, eds. Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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      This and Kaul, et al. 2003 are two very influential volumes organized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). They include many chapters from leading IR and IPE scholars (e.g., Held, Martin, Sachs, Stiglitz, Zacher) that brought the concept of GPGs to the forefront of international public policy discussions. This book set the conceptual agenda with twenty-one contributions. The UNDP also maintains a website with a knowledge portal for research on GPGs.

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    • Kaul, Inge, Pedro Conceicao, Katell Le Goulven, and Ronald U. Mendoza, eds. Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      DOI: 10.1093/0195157400.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      The second influential volume organized by the United Nations Development Programme. Includes many chapters from leading IR and IPE scholars (e.g. Held, Martin, Sachs, Stiglitz, Zacher) that brought the concept of GPGs to the forefront of international public policy discussions. This book, with twenty-four contributions, is more policy-oriented. The UNDP also maintains a website with a knowledge portal for research on GPGs.

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    • Lomborg, Bjørn, ed. Global Crises, Global Solutions. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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      A much-discussed project: first asked leading international scholars to discuss solutions to key global challenges (10, from air pollution to women and development), then had a panel of world-class economists evaluate what the global priorities should be, on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. Despite its hype, serious work, rich in pertinent data and arguments. First published in 2004, 2nd edition updated and revised.

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    • Long, David, and Frances Wooley. “Global Public Goods: Critique of a UN Discourse.” Global Governance 15.1 (2009): 107–122.

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      Criticizes the GPG concept from within its theoretical framework, arguing that it is poorly defined and in need of substantial clarifications before it can be useful for advancing global governance. Exposes the GPG as a rhetorical device rather than a sharp analytical tool.

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    • Sandler, Todd. Global Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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      Extends Mancur Olson’s political economy of collective action to the governance of global challenges: what can work, why, and how? A pure rationalist approach, employing some (nontechnical) game theory, convincingly argued. Issues addressed include health, aid, crime, terrorism, and pollution.

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    International Organizations

    Global governance encompasses hundreds of international organizations created by governments to address specific concerns. Many of them have a regional character, limited membership, and/or very narrow tasks. The most global one is clearly the United Nations (UN) with its system of subsidiary organizations. More recent and outside the UN system is the International Criminal Court (ICC), tasked with the prosecution of grave human-rights violations. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) form the centerpieces of the international financial architecture, though other important institutions are also involved in macroeconomic global governance. With regard to trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) towers over the global exchange of goods and services. The summit meetings of the main economic powers used to be a very exclusive club (G6, 7, or 8), trying to coordinate their policies to address global problems, but the recent extension of these summits to the G20 makes them more representative. Research examines the functioning of these organizations—especially their autonomy and their power—as well as their role in global governance, which frequently involves evaluations and critiques of their policies and their consequences.

    United Nations

    The UN is a truly global organization, far from being a world government, but involved in the governance of a wide variety of international policy areas, particularly through its treaties and its subsidiary organizations (United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], United Nations Environmental Programme [UNEP], etc.), which makes the UN system vastly complex. In order to understand it, Weiss, et al. 2009 is the best textbook introduction, while Weiss and Daws 2007 is the indispensable handbook for UN scholars and practitioners. Both cover the key policy areas and institutions of the UN system. Chesterman 2007, examining the office of the Secretary-General, and Lowe, et al. 2008, studying the Security Council, provides important in-depth analyses of central UN institutions. Hurd 2008, which also examines the Security Council, is a seminal work on the relationship between legitimacy and power in global governance. For a historical account of how the UN evolved, Kennedy 2007, broad and accessible but limited in its research, is best read in combination with Mazower 2009, whose deeper investigation develops a more critical perspective on the UN’s origins. If one is interested in the evolution of more specific UN themes and ideas, such as, human rights, The United Nations Intellectual History Project would be a very good resource. The Routledge Global Institutions Series (Weiss and Wilkinson 2005–, cited under Readers and Book Series) contains many concise introductions to key UN institutions. Claude 1971 (cited under Liberalism,) and Barnett and Finnemore 2004 (cited under Constructivism) are also directly relevant.

    • Chesterman, Simon, ed. Secretary or General? The UN Secretary-General in World Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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      Twelve chapters by renowned experts, well organized, examining the secretary general’s role and influence in relation to the constraints of his/her office. Three contributions each on “the job,” “maintaining peace and security,” “normative and political dilemmas,” and “independence and the future.” With useful appendix of selected documents.

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    • Hurd, Ian. After Anarchy: Legitimacy and Power in the United Nations Security Council. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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      Important academic study, developing a thorough theory of international legitimacy and how it matters in relation to power, combining insights from constructivism and rational choice. Applies its theory in rich empirical case studies of crucial Security Council moments: its beginnings in 1945, the behavior of strong states, and the sanctions debate regarding Libya.

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    • Kennedy, Paul. The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations. New York: Vintage, 2007.

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      One of the best overall histories of the UN, by a renowned scholar. Thematically organized around the UN’s areas of activity, including a chapter on democracy and NGOs. Overall, sympathetic to the UN project. Very good introduction and conclusion that locates the UN in its historical context, discussing world order 1815–1945 and in the 21st century.

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    • Lowe, Vaughan, Adam Roberts, Jennifer Welsh, and Dominik Zaum, eds. The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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      Excellent, comprehensive interdisciplinary (IR, law, history) collection of research on the topic. Twenty-eight chapters, including three broader analyses, six on the SC’s roles, twelve case studies, six on the Security Council (SC), and one on the changing character of war. Very useful appendices (timelines, lists, e.g., of vetoed resolutions).

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    • Mazower, Mark. No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations. Lawrence Stone Lectures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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      Critical/revisionist, much-discussed study of the origins of the UN by a leading historian, arguing that it was much more linked to the prior League of Nations and to ideas of empire than commonly assumed. Develops its arguments via intellectual portraits of five relevant actors (Nehru and Smuts among them). Based on original research, well written and argued, joins current UN reform debates.

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    • The United Nations Intellectual History Project.

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      Essential resource for research on the UN. Gathers oral history interviews and publishes research (17 books so far, of varying quality) on the ideas and policies advanced by the UN. One book chosen is by Thomas G. Weiss, and Ramesh Thakur, Global Governance and the UN: An Unfinished Journey (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010)—a fine overview. Website also has a useful reading list and links to related projects.

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      • Weiss, Thomas G., and Sam Daws, eds. The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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        The best comprehensive overview of the UN system in one volume. 40 chapters by renowned experts and IR scholars cover theoretical frameworks, the principal organs, relationships with other actors, the key policy areas (security, human rights, development), and the reform agenda, with select bibliographies for each section. Indispensable for working on the UN.

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      • Weiss, Thomas G., David P. Forsythe, Roger A. Coate, and Kelly-Kate Pease. The United Nations and Changing World Politics. 6th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2009.

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        Best textbook on the UN for undergraduate students, comprehensive in its coverage of how the UN functions and how it governs key issues: security, human rights, and development. Not theory-oriented, but strong in its analysis of the historical evolution of its topics, always covering past, present, and future prospects. Includes the UN charter.

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      International Criminal Court

      The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 marked a major change in international law and politics, as the ICC has jurisdiction over certain crimes, such as genocide, that were previously the domain of domestic criminal law or, exceptionally, special tribunals. With some links to, but independent of, the UN, the ICC is set to become a key actor in the global governance of human rights, because it brings enforcement to the international level. From a legal viewpoint, Schabas 2007 provides a comprehensive overview of how the ICC works, while Cryer, et al. 2010 is an excellent textbook on the wider framework of international criminal law, which puts the ICC into context. Glasius 2006, emphasizing the role of global civil society (good for undergraduate level), and Schiff 2008, more grounded in IR theory (better for graduate level), are fine analyses of the political struggles behind the ICC’s emergence. Simmons and Danner 2010 develops a sophisticated rationalist account of why states join the ICC. Roach 2009 gathers a state-of-the-art discussion of whether the International Criminal Court is a post-sovereign, cosmopolitan institution.

      • Cryer, Robert, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, and Elizabeth Wilmshurst. An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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        Best textbook introduction to the wider area of international criminal law, putting the ICC into its legal context. Written for law students, but very accessible, well written, and organized.

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      • Glasius, Marlies. The International Criminal Court: A Global Civil Society Achievement. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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        Examines the rise of the ICC, placing special emphasis on the pro-ICC civil society campaigns (both victories and defeats) and the resistance of the United States. Accessible introduction to the ICC, particularly useful for its civil society focus.

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      • Roach, Stephen C., ed. Governance, Order, and the International Criminal Court: Between Realpolitik and a Cosmopolitan Court. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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        Fine collection of ten research articles, five using/assessing different IR theories to explain the functioning of the ICC, four discussing the meaning of the ICC as a cosmopolitan institution within international political theory.

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      • Schabas, William A. An Introduction to the International Criminal Court. 3d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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        Comprehensive legal study of the ICC, briefly discussing its emergence, then in detail how it functions—the legal procedures and the administration/structure of the ICC. Clear writing style. Long appendices section, including the Rome statute.

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      • Schiff, Benjamin N. Building the International Criminal Court. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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        Well-written overview of the political and legal struggles surrounding the ICC’s emergence and functioning. Blends historical and legal analysis with IR theory, rather eclectically.

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      • Simmons, Beth A., and Allison Danner. “Credible Commitments and the International Criminal Court.” International Organization 64.2 (2010): 225–256.

        DOI: 10.1017/S0020818310000044Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Develops a rationalist account of why many states join the ICC while others don’t. Uses credible commitment theory and the prospects of prosecution to explain states’ decisions, then tests the argument with statistical event history analysis.

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      International Financial Architecture

      The Bretton Woods institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, used to be at the center of the international financial architecture, with the World Bank financing development via loans and the IMF overseeing the global financial system, but also providing loans to countries under serious macroeconomic stress. Woods 2006 is the best critical analysis of both institutions’ “globalizing” role, as they use their leverage in providing loans to pressure countries into liberalizing their economies. It also serves as an excellent introduction for students. Serra and Stiglitz 2008 is a broader evaluation of the so-called Washington Consensus behind the institutions’ policies. Vreeland 2003 provides a magisterial study of the problematic links between the IMF and its borrowers. Significant advances for understanding the World Bank come from Babb 2009, which examines US influence over bank policies, and Weaver 2008, which explains the hypocrisy appearing from the bank’s words and deeds. With regard to monetary relations, Cohen 2008 and Eichengreen 2008, works by two leading IPE scholars, are seminal works on the global governance of exchange rates and financial stability. Cohen is more theory-oriented, whereas Eichengreen requires only modest prior economic knowledge and is thus an ideal introductory text. At least since the 1970s, global financial regulation goes way beyond the IMF, and a host of new issues and institutions have emerged. Davies and Green 2009 is the best overview of today’s increasingly complex international financial architecture, while Simmons 2001 is a seminal article developing a framework for analyzing the political dynamics behind this global governance. Abdelal, et al. 2010, Barnett and Finnemore 2004, Chwieroth 2010 and Hall 2008, cited in Constructivism, and Gilpin 2001, cited in Realism, are also directly relevant.

      • Babb, Sarah. Behind the Development Banks: Washington Politics, World Poverty, and the Wealth of Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

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        Innovative political sociology study of how the domestic politics (tensions between executive and legislature) of the largest donor (the US) shape the policies of the World Bank and the regional development banks. Based on original research; well written and argued.

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      • Cohen, Benjamin J. Global Monetary Governance. New York: Routledge, 2008.

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        Brings together thirteen previously published articles of one of the foremost IPE scholars. An introduction and comments integrate the volume, which is particularly strong on international monetary arrangements, but also on the tensions between private capital and governments.

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      • Davies, Howard, and David Green. Global Financial Regulation: The Essential Guide. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2009.

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        Concise and authoritative overview of the broader global governance of finance; explains the objectives of regulation (chapter 1) and the functioning of key regimes such as the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) (chapter 2), including assessments of recent problems and reform proposals in the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis.

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      • Eichengreen, Barry. Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System. 2d ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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        The best historical overview of global monetary relations, from the gold standard to the euro, by a top scholar of the subject. Authoritative and accessible, fine for undergraduate students, not theory-oriented. First published in 1996.

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      • Serra, Narcís, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, eds. The Washington Consensus Reconsidered: Towards a New Global Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

        DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534081.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Excellent collection, sixteen chapters, mostly by leading economists closer to Keynes than to Hayek (Stiglitz, Krugman, etc.), reexamine the neoliberal Washington Consensus, focusing on development. Also includes studies of trade and domestic macroeconomic policymaking; three final chapters discuss the future of economic global governance.

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      • Simmons, Beth. “The International Politics of Harmonization: The Case of Capital Market Regulation.” International Organization 55.3 (2001): 589–620.

        DOI: 10.1162/00208180152507560Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Develops a rationalist analytical framework, based on incentives and externalities, to understand the global governance of capital markets—why rules become harmonized globally or not. Empirical examples are capital adequacy, anti–money laundering, accounting standards, and securities. For advanced undergraduate students and above.

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      • Vreeland, James Raymond. The IMF and Economic Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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        State-of-the-art research, uses statistical analysis to explain why governments turn to the IMF (to gain leverage over their citizens), and to evaluate the effects of IMF loans (negative for growth and equality). Vreeland also published a concise introduction to, and balanced assessment of, the IMF: The International Monetary Fund: Politics of Conditional Lending (New York: Routledge, 2007).

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      • Weaver, Catherine. Hypocrisy Trap: The World Bank and the Poverty of Reform. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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        Excellent study of why hypocrisy—the mismatch between rhetoric and deeds—is such a persisting feature of international organizations. Based on original research and constructivist/organizational sociology approaches. Very well written and argued.

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      • Woods, Ngaire. The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers. Cornell Studies in Money. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.

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        Important critical analysis of the IMF/WB’s roles in integrating countries into the global economy. First-rate scholarship, based on original research, well argued and written. Case studies of Mexico, post-Soviet Russia, and Africa, closes with a discussion of IMF/WB reform.

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      World Trade Organization

      The World Trade Organization and its precursor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT), constitute the global governance of trade and have achieved a significant liberalization of international trade since 1947, as Goldstein, et al. 2007 show in an important assessment. Barton, et al. 2006 is a brief yet profound introduction to the ways in which the complex trade system evolved and functions, which works well in broader global governance/IPE courses, while the more detailed textbook Hoekman and Kostecki 2009 would be the ideal choice for courses focusing exclusively on trade. The research on trade in international relations (IR), international political economy (IPE), economics, and law is vast—the Critical Perspectives on the Global Trading System and the WTO series is very valuable because it gathers (mostly) seminal journal articles on different themes. Krueger 1998 is a good collection of early IR/IPE analysis of the WTO, and Jones 2010 provides a thorough study of the institutional problems behind the current trade negotiations of the Doha round. A key issue concerns the conflicting interests between developing and developed countries. Jawara and Kwa 2004 examines how trade negotiations work on the ground, and how they favor rich nations, whereas Odell 2006 presents several case studies that show developing countries’ increasing influence. Serra and Stiglitz 2008, cited in International Financial Architecture, is also directly relevant, as it examines the norms and ideas behind free trade politics.

      • Barton, John H., Judith L. Goldstein, Timothy E. Josling, and Richard H. Steinberg. The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Politics, Law, and Economics of the GATT and the WTO. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.

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        Best overview of the topic, concise and broad coverage, interdisciplinary (politics, economics, and law), scholarly and theory-based, yet requiring only modest background knowledge. Ideal as a textbook for advanced undergraduate classes or above, well organized though somewhat dry.

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      • Critical Perspectives on the Global Trading System and the WTO. London: Edward Elgar, 2004.

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        Book series with expensive but mostly very good collections—17 so far—of important previously published journal articles; covering key themes concerning the WTO and trade governance—some more legal, several more IR/IPE-related, including M. L. Busch and E. D. Mansfield’s The WTO, Economic Interdependence, and Conflict (2007). Contents are online, and are very useful as reading lists.

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        • Goldstein, Judith L., Douglas Rivers, and Michael Tomz. “Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade.” International Organization 61.1 (2007): 37–67.

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          Careful statistical analysis trying to determine the effects of membership (differentiated according to “standing” and “embeddedness” of countries) on trade regimes like the WTO, showing that participation does increase trade.

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        • Hoekman, Bernard M., and Michel M. Kostecki. The Political Economy of the World Trading System: The WTO and Beyond. 3d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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          Most comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to the topic. Not theory-oriented, but empirically rich presentation of the political economy of trade under the WTO’s regime, covering all relevant aspects. Well organized, full of useful tables and figures. Very good textbook for undergraduate (and above) politics courses on international trade.

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        • Jawara, Fatoumata, and Aileen Kwa. Behind the Scenes at the WTO: The Real World of International Trade Negotiations: The Lessons of Cancun. Updated ed. London: Zed, 2004.

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          Impressively researched (based on many interviews with trade negotiators), despite its sometimes very idealist prose, the book (cofinanced by six British development NGOs) provides a rare in-depth account of how trade negotiations work and how developed countries (mainly the United States and the European Union) dominated WTO negotiations during the failed Cancun round.

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        • Jones, Kent. The Doha Blues: Institutional Crisis and Reform in the WTO. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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          Fine analysis of the reasons behind the problems of trade liberalization during the Doha round of negotiations. Concentrates on the institutional obstacles of an expanding institution in a changing global context, carefully examining needs and options for reform. Well written.

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        • Krueger, Anne O., and Chonira Aturupane, eds. The WTO as an International Organization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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          A conference proceedings volume with sixteen contributions, interesting as an early reflection on the WTO by leading experts, examining the WTO’s institutional capacity (six chapters), substantive issues (environmental and labor standards, services, etc.; six chapters), and the WTO and transition and developing countries.

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        • Odell, John S., ed. Negotiating Trade: Developing Countries in the WTO and NAFTA. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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          Eight chapters examine how developing countries have become more important in WTO (six contributions) and NAFTA trade negotiations (one chapter). Theory-based analysis looking at coalition-building, strategies, and dynamic interactions to explain outcomes. The cases studied mostly show increased influence of developing countries.

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        G7/8/20

        The summit meetings of the G7/8 represent the great economic powers’ attempts to coordinate global governance, initially mostly macroeconomic issues, but gradually expanding into many other international policy areas. Despite the attention and criticism these summits attract, the process remains surprisingly understudied, making it difficult to evaluate their impact beyond symbolic politics. Putnam and Bayne 1987 is an unsurpassed analysis, though only for the early days of the G7. For the more recent evolution, Dobson 2007 is currently the best introduction, fine for students of any level, and Baker 2006 provides a valuable study of the finance ministers’ part of the G7 summits. The Global Finance Series (Kirton 2000–) and the G8 and Global Governance Series (Kirton, et al. 2002–) gather most of the current research on the G7/8, but the quality of research varies a lot. The G8 and G20 Information Centre is a very useful online resource that documents the various summits, their official outputs, as well as research on them. Garrett 2010, very concise, and Alexandroff and Cooper 2010, more sweeping, are fine analyses of the changes that come with the evolution of the G7/8 to the G20, and both would work well for introducing students to the issues.

        • Alexandroff, Alan S., and Andrew F. Cooper, eds. Rising States, Rising Institutions: Challenges for Global Governance. Waterloo, ON: Centre for International Governance Innovation , 2010.

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          Broad evaluation of the changing international structure, due to new rising powers like Brazil, China, and India, and how this will change global governance. Includes contributions by leading IR scholars like Ikenberry, Hurrell, Slaughter, and Moravcsic, and two chapters by Kirton on the G20’s new role after the 2008 financial crisis. Published in conjunction with the Brookings Institution, in Washington, D.C.

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        • Baker, Andrew. The Group of Seven: Finance Ministries, Central Banks and Global Financial Governance. Routledge/Warwick Studies in Globalisation 10. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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          Careful study, empirically rich and theoretically eclectic, of the G7 meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors, examining their links with the finance industry and their influence on shaping consensus about a market-oriented governance of finance.

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        • Dobson, Hugo. The Group of 7/8. Global Institutions Series. London: Routledge, 2007.

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          Best introduction to the topic, not theory-oriented, but well organized. Examines the G7/8 in relationship to international organizations (UN, WB, WTO), which helps to understand its distinct form and function below full institutionalization. Useful select bibliography.

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        • G8 and G20 Information Centre, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto.

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          Website by the G8/G20 Research Group, a global network of scholars and professionals. Excellent resource center on the G8 and G20, gathering the official websites and documents of the G8 and G20 meetings, as well as research on these global governance forums. With search engine and a useful list of hyperlinks to related online resource centers.

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          • John J. Kirton, ed. G8 and Global Governance Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.

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            Together with the Global Finance Series, gathers much of the current research on the G7/G8. Seven directly relevant titles so far in this series, covering the evolution of the G7/G8 process and various specific policy areas. Useful because of the dearth of other publications on the G8, and because the volumes contain plenty of empirical information. Uneven quality of research, though; not very theory-based or –theory-oriented.

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            • Garrett, Geoffrey. “The G2 in the G-20: China, the United States and the World After the Global Financial Crisis.” Global Policy 1.1 (2010): 29–39.

              DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-5899.2009.00014.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              Concise, perceptive policy-oriented analysis of why the bilateral relationship between China and the United States will dominate the new role of the G20.

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            • John J. Kirton, Michele Fratianni, and Paolo Savona, eds. 2002–.Global Finance Series. Aldershot: Ashgate.

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              Together with the G8 and Global Governance Series, gathers most of the current research on the G7/G8. Seven directly relevant titles in this series. Useful because of the dearth of other publications on the G8, and because the volumes contain plenty of empirical information. Uneven quality of research, though; not very theory-based or –theory-oriented.

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              • Putnam, Robert D., and Nicholas Bayne. Hanging Together: Cooperation and Conflict in the Seven-Power Summits. Rev. and Enl. ed. London: Sage, 1987.

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                Landmark study of the early G7 summits and their institutionalization; Putnam, the political scientist, interprets the empirical insights of Bayne, the diplomat. Emphasizes the role of leaders responding to international and domestic demands, later formalized in Putnam’s seminal article “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization 42 (Summer 1988): 427–460.

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              International Law

              International law is a key instrument of global governance. International relations (IR) students without prior knowledge should turn to Çali 2010, the textbook that provides the best general introduction. The relationship between international law and politics is a matter of intense discussions. Goldstein, et al. 2001, Reus-Smit 2004, and Simmons and Steinberg 2007 collect state-of-the-art IR research on the topic. A central question concerns sovereignty—whether international law limits it and why and how states comply with legal obligations. Chayes and Chayes 1995 pioneered a new understanding of states’ compliance, and Sarooshi 2005 magisterially examines the revocability of powers transferred to international organizations. This leads to the other main question of whether international organizations have become lawmakers in their own right, gaining supranational authority. Alvarez 2005 is an outstanding and comprehensive study of the question that also works well in upper-level university courses. Dunoff and Trachtman 2009 goes even farther, examining whether the expanding and deepening system of legalized world politics could be seen as a constitution of global governance. Raustiala 2002 and Slaughter 2004, cited under Policy Networks, are also directly relevant.

              • Alvarez, José E. International Organizations as Lawmakers. Oxford Monographs in International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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                Landmark study by a leading legal scholar fully attuned to IR questions (see the fine introduction); sweeping study of international institutions’ role in lawmaking, multilateral treaty making, and institutionalized dispute settlement. Theoretical, historical, and empirical, well written, fine for students. A must-read.

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              • Çali, Başak, ed. International Law for International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                Seventeen chapters:eight cover the basic structures of international law; the others introduce the topics most relevant for IR, including international trade, human rights, and criminal law. Ideal textbook for IR students without prior knowledge, highly readable.

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              • Chayes, Abram, and Antonia Handler Chayes. The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

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                Influential study among liberal IR scholars, blending law and politics, arguing that sanctions become less relevant in enforcing international law, because growing interdependence in global governance creates new incentives and new mechanisms to ensure states’ compliance. Accessible, well argued.

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              • Dunoff, Jeffrey L., and Joel P. Trachtman, eds. Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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                Does the increasing legalization of international affairs signify something like a constitution of global governance? If yes, what kind? This groundbreaking interdisciplinary volume gathers thirteen analyses addressing these questions, some more abstract, others focusing on the UN, the WTO, the EU, and on human rights. Excellent research.

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              • Goldstein, Judith L., Miles Kahler, Robert O. Keohane, and Anne-Marie Slaughter, eds. Legalization and World Politics. International Organizations Special Issues. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

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                Excellent and influential collection of eleven articles by leading (mostly liberal) IR scholars, examining the increasingly important role of law in international politics. Two chapters develop the concept of legalization, followed by two case studies of dispute resolution, and three on economic integration, monetary affairs, trade, and human rights. Originally published as a special issue of International Organization 54.3 (2000).

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              • Simmons, Beth A., and Richard H. Steinberg, eds. International Law and International Relations: An International Organization Reader. International Organization Reader. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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                Twenty-six articles, all previously published in International Organization, provide a state-of-the-art collection of research on the politics of international law and legalization by leading scholars.

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              • Reus-Smit, Christian, ed. The Politics of International Law. Cambridge Studies In International Relations 96. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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                First-rate collection, with eleven articles by renowned IR scholars, examining—many from a constructivist perspective—the mutual influences between international law and politics. Case studies of climate change, land mines, Kosovo war, migrant rights, IMF/WB, and the use of armed force.

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              • Sarooshi, Dan. International Organizations and Their Exercise of Sovereign Powers. Oxford Monographs in International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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                Thorough examination of supranational authority from a legal perspective, focusing on the revocability of powers delegated to international organizations. In-depth case study of the United States and the WTO. Legal writing style, but many links to IR concerns in its analysis.

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              Transnational Policy Networks

              Transnational policy networks are less institutionalized forms of global governance, connecting various actors in their efforts to deal with policy issues across borders, but they appear to become more and more important. Two main categories can be distinguished. First, transgovernmental networks, a concept pioneered by Keohane and Nye 1974. Reinicke 1998 extended the idea of policy networks to global public policymaking. Slaughter 2004 and Raustiala 2002 have developed the most comprehensive analytic frameworks for such inquiries, and both would be very good introductions for students. The second category is epistemic communities, knowledge-based networks that influence governance through their ideas and expertise. This concept, often situated within constructivist IR theorizing, entered IR thinking with Haas 1997 (first published in International Organization in 1992), which remains the best source for students and researchers new to the topic. Orenstein 2008 provides an interesting case study of the international policy network that pushed for the privatization of pensions. Connelly 2008 is a landmark study of how global governance failed in its struggle to control population growth. Chwieroth 2010, cited in Constructivism, is also directly relevant.

              • Connelly, Matthew. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

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                Landmark study of the transnational struggle to control population growth—involving scientific networks, international organizations, and NGOs—and its failings. Passionately argued, fine historical research, a must-read as a counterbalance to all the global governance success stories.

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              • Haas, Peter M., ed. Knowledge, Power, and International Policy Coordination. Studies in International Relations. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.

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                Ten articles exploring the role of epistemic communities in international policy coordination and cooperation. Established the concept in IR. Seven case studies from international environmental and economic policymaking and food aid. Three articles assess the explanatory strength of the concept more theoretically. First published as a special issue of International Organization 46.1 (1992).

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              • Keohane, Robert, and Joseph Nye. “Transgovernmental Relations and International Organizations.” World Politics: A Quarterly Journal of International Relations 27.1 (1974): 39–62.

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                Seminal article introducing transgovernmental relations. Examines transgovernmental policy coordination, coalition building, and the role of international organizations as arenas for, and participants in, transgovernmental relations. Ideal for undergraduate students.

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              • Orenstein, Mitchell A. Privatizing Pensions: The Transnational Campaign for Social Security Reform. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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                Uses the broader notion of transnational policy actors, which includes epistemic communities, but also IOs like the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank, to explain the spread/diffusion of pension privatization across countries. Carefully crafted study, mostly based on qualitative process-tracing; well argued and written.

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              • Raustiala, Kal. “The Architecture of International Cooperation: Transgovernmental Networks and the Future of International Law.” Virginia Journal of International Law 43.1 (2002): 1–92.

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                Thorough analysis of the rise of transgovernmental networks. Empirical examples from securities, competition, and environmental regulation, investigating mechanisms of regulatory diffusion and convergence. Mostly anchored in IR; only the “implications” parts are written for an international law audience.

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              • Reinicke, Wolfgang H. Global Public Policy: Governing Without Government? Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998.

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                Influential study of global public policy networks, examining both transgovernmental relations and the influence of nonstate actors in global policymaking. Case studies of financial regulation, anti–money laundering measures, and dual-use trade. Similar research continues within the Global Public Policy Institute.

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              • Slaughter, Anne-Marie. A New World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

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                Extends the ideas of her previous article “The Real New World Order” (Foreign Affairs 76.51997]: 183–197). Argues that cross-border networks of regulators, judges, and legislators represent the future of global governance. Excellent in its broad perspective, with manifold empirical examples; less convincing in its normative evaluation celebrating this new world order.

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              Nongovernmental Actors

              Unlike NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), which are nowadays mostly associated with nonprofit organizations, the term “nongovernmental actors” is broader, including any private actor that does not fall under public international law, from corporations to criminals to the Catholic Church. Since the 1970s, transnational nongovernmental actors have become recognized as increasingly relevant for world politics, leading to a less state-centric IR research agenda. With regard to global governance, one can distinguish the following significant groups or types of transnational nongovernmental activities: for-profit business, especially multinational corporations and their governance structures; civil society, especially NGOs and social movements, advocating for and participating in international rule-making; and protest and resistance, covering those events and activities that criticize or oppose particular instances of global governance, such as the protests surrounding G8/G20 summits. Keohane and Nye 1972, a landmark exploration, put transnational actors such as multinational corporations (MNCs) and NGOs onto the previously very state-centric IR agenda. But it engendered rather little scholarship until the 1990s, when research on transnational private actors bourgeoned in tandem with discussions of globalization and global governance. Risse 2002 provides an excellent analytical overview of how research on transnational actors has evolved, and is currently the best introduction; it is also ideal for students. Josselin and Wallace 2001 is a representative overview of the contemporary issues and concerns. With regard to global governance, the discussion of transnational nongovernmental actors has moved away from the question of whether they matter (yes) to how they wield influence. Higgot, et al. 2000, with a concentration on MNCs, and Hall and Biersteker 2002, strong on theory, are important collections examining how transnational actors develop private authority. Kahler 2009 presents the state-of-the-art research on how transnational networks, including several nongovernmental ones, operate in world politics.

              • Hall, Rodney Bruce, and Thomas J. Biersteker, eds. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 85. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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                First-rate compilation of twelve articles, with empirical chapters on corporate actors, NGOs, religious terrorism, organized crime, and mercenaries. Excellent theoretical discussion of different forms of private authority in the introduction and conclusion.

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              • Higgot, Richard A., Geoffrey R. D. Underhill, and Andreas Bieler, eds. Non-State Actors and Authority in the Global System. Routledge/Warwick Studies in Globalisation 1. New York: Routledge, 2000.

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                Collection of seventeen articles, many by renowned scholars, on the influence of transnational actors on global rule-making, mostly looking at MNCs (nine chapters), but also on IGOs, civil society NGOs, and think tanks. Three theoretical chapters. Very good for its broad coverage.

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              • Josselin, Daphné, and William Wallace, eds. Non-State Actors in World Politics. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

                DOI: 10.1057/9781403900906Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Ideal as an overview. Fifteen contributions cover an impressive range of different transnational actors, including diasporas, MNCs, NGOs, organized crime, transnational religion, think tanks, trade unions, and political parties.Three theoretical chapters, and a mostly high level of research.

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              • Kahler, Miles, ed. Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.

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                Eleven contributions, mostly by leading IR scholars, focusing on networks as structures and agents of transnational politics in its various manifestations: human rights; transgovernmental, criminal, and terrorist networks; and Internet governance. Excellent combinations of theoretical concerns and empirical analysis.

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              • Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye Jr., eds. Transnational Relations and World Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.

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                Groundbreaking volume of twenty articles. Analytical chapters by prominent scholars like Gilpin, Evans, and the editors. Case studies on multinational corporations, the Catholic Church, NGOs, and several other transnational actors, all more descriptive than analytical. First published as a special issue of International Organization 25.3 (1971).

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              • Risse, Thomas. “Transnational Actors and World Politics.” In Handbook of International Relations. Edited by Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons, 255–274. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2002.

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                Best overview of the topic, authoritative in situating it within the broader development of IR. Well organized, analytically strong, far more than just a summary. Ideal as an introduction for graduate students.

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              Transnational Business

              While state-based global governance organizations like the WTO or the BIS set many rules for transnational business, important aspects are being regulated by private frameworks and bodies. A fundamental question for IR and global governance research concerns the autonomous authority of such private rule-making, that is, the possibility of “governance without government.” Cutler, et al. 1999 is a pioneering collection of articles on this topic, while Cutler 2003 is a more in-depth study of transnational merchant law. Büthe and Mattli 2009, analyzing private standards and standard-setting bodies, and Harten 2005, exploring the system of investor protection, are excellent works on very important policy areas. Credit-rating agencies, very well examined in Sinclair 2005, are even more interesting, because their authority extends over states that seek credit. The articles in Potoski and Prakash 2009 only look at voluntary programs among businesses, but the thorough theoretical framework and the excellent case studies make it essential reading for understanding private global governance. Porter and Ronit 2010 links the discussion of private authority to questions of legitimacy, looking for democratic principles in private-business authorities.

              • Büthe, Tim, and Walter Mattli. “International Standards and Standard-Setting Bodies.” In Oxford Handbook of Business and Government. Edited by David Coen, Graham Wilson, and Wyn Grant, 440–471. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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                Authoritative account of the international standard-setting bodies, key institutions of and for transnational business. Sound analysis of their evolution and their functioning, discussing the roles of expertise, power and—most important—the institutional design of national standard-setting organizations.

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              • Cutler, A. Claire. Private Power and Global Authority: Transnational Merchant Law in the Global Political Economy. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 90. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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                Innovative study of lex mercatoria, the vast body of private law governing transnational business relations. Critical examination of the autonomous authority of transnational merchant law, and of the distinction between public and private. Not an easy read.

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              • Cutler, A. Claire, Virgina Haufler, and Tony Porter, eds. Private Authority and International Affairs. SUNY Series in Global Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

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                Compilation of twelve articles, exploring private authority in the economic sphere; several excellent chapters, for example, on rating agencies and maritime transport, but not all of the same quality. Good theoretical discussion in the introduction and conclusion.

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              • Harten, Gus van. “Private Authority and Transnational Governance: The Contours of the International System of Investor Protection.” Review of International Political Economy 12.4 (2005): 600–623.

                DOI: 10.1080/09692290500240305Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Excellent analysis of the interrelationships between bilateral investment treaties and private dispute-settlement arrangements in transnational business (investment). Examines whether, and to what extent, the private legal system is truly autonomous. Fine for advanced undergraduate students or above.

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              • Porter, Tony, and Karsten Ronit, eds. The Challenges of Global Business Authority: Democratic Renewal, Stalemate, or Decay? Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010.

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                Interesting volume that examines democratic principles and mechanisms (and their lack/limits) within various forms of global business authority. Eleven chapters,three looking at the firm level, three at the industry level, and four at the general level of business authority in global governance.

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              • Potoski, Matthew, and Aseem Prakash, eds. Voluntary Programs: A Club Theory Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

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                Best collection of research on self-regulation through voluntary agreements among businesses. Thirteen chapters: five developing club-theory understandings of voluntary agreements, and eight applying the theory to empirical cases. Highly relevant as “governance without government.”

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              • Sinclair, Timothy J. The New Masters of Capital: American Bond Rating Agencies and the Politics of Creditworthiness. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

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                Very good explorative study of the rising authority of US credit-rating agencies. Empirically rich, tracing their historical evolution and analyzing the sources of their international authority. Employs a constructivist framework to understand how rating agencies frame and shape knowledge.

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              Transnational Civil Society

              Transnational civil society activism—NGOs and social movements—has become increasingly relevant in world politics, leading to a discussion of whether one should think about “global civil society” as a new actor domain in global governance. Lipschutz 1992 and Boli and Thomas 1999 have been influential works in putting forward such a perspective, but whether one accepts this view or not, the influence of transnational civil-society actors as policy advocates is well documented. Keck and Sikkink 1998 provides an analytical framework for NGOs’ clout in world politics and remains state-of-the-art and the best introduction for both students and researchers. Florini 2000 and Khagram, et al. 2002 are compilations of case studies in the Keck/Sikkink tradition, worthwhile because of the variety of issue areas they cover. Price 2003 is a rigorous review article of transnational advocacy research, exposing analytical shortcomings. Klotz 2002 is valuable for its comparative historical analysis and for relating transnational activism to the broader structure of global governance. Tarrow 2005 is the best analysis of transnational civil society from a social movements perspective. Connelly 2008, cited in Transnational Policy Networks, is also directly relevant.

              • Boli, John, and George M. Thomas, eds. Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.

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                Influential volume developing the “Stanford school” argument that the growth of international NGOs reflects a new world culture, leading to the emergence of a global polity. Blends sociology and IR, mostly via constructivism. Two theoretical chapters develop the framework for analysis for eight case studies.

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              • Florini, Ann M., ed. The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange, 2000.

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                Fine compilation of eight articles—three examining the rise of global civil society conceptually, and five case studies of prominent transnational movements regarding issues such as corruption, human rights, land mines, and sustainable development. Also contains an excellent annotated bibliography. Published in conjunction with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, D.C.

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              • Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

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                Landmark study specifying the transnational influence of advocacy NGOs, well written and argued, a must-read. Persuasive analytical framework, historical overview, and three case studies on human rights, environmentalist, and women’s rights networks.

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              • Khagram, Sanjeev, James V. Riker, and Kathryn Sikkink, eds. Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, and Norms. Social Movements, Protest, and Contention 14. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

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                Fifteen articles: three theoretical (all by/with Sikkink), and 12 case studies covering human rights, development, and the environmental and labor issues, all examining transnational collective action as a new form of politics, bridging IR research on norms and social movement scholarship. Contributions from both academics and practitioners/activists.

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              • Klotz, Audie.“Transnational Activism and Global Transformations: The Anti-Apartheid and Abolitionist Experiences.” European Journal of International Relations 8.1 (2002): 49–76.

                DOI: 10.1177/1354066102008001002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Very good study, based on constructivism, comparing the 19th-century antislavery campaign with the more recent anti-apartheid campaign, advancing the understanding of when, how, and why transnational civil-society actors gain influence.

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              • Lipschutz, Ronnie. “Reconstructing World Politics: The Emergence of Global Civil Society.” Millenium: Journal of International Studies 21.3 (1992): 389–420.

                DOI: 10.1177/03058298920210031001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Influential article, advanced the concept of global civil society, arguing both historically (how world politics has been changing) and conceptually (what the term “global civil society” implies). Fine for students. Part of a special issue on “International Society.”

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              • Price, Richard. “Transnational Civil Society and Advocacy in World Politics.” World Politics 55.4 (2003): 579–606.

                DOI: 10.1353/wp.2003.0024Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Valuable review article, evaluating important scholarship on the role of transnational civil society. Reveals strengths and weaknesses of the research field, and tries to identify criteria for contexts when transnational civil society matters. Also interesting is the author’s own study: “Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines,” in International Organization 52 (1998): 613–644.

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              • Tarrow, Sidney. The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                Best overview of the topic, analytically careful (though not parsimonious), distilling the various processes and mechanisms connecting transnational activism to states’ domestic politics. Many diverse examples and cases support author’s arguments about how “rooted cosmopolitans” act within international political opportunity structures.

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              Contestation and Resistance

              The violent “Battle of Seattle” surrounding the November 1999 WTO meeting demonstrated the force of resistance against what is perceived as neoliberal global governance. Cockburn and St. Clair 2000 is an insightful account of this transformative moment. With an intellectual background in social-movements research, Smith and Johnston 2002 studies a variety of similar cases of resistance against economic globalization, and O’Brien, et al. 2000 compares how international organizations respond to contestation and protest. O’Neill 2004 is an excellent introduction to transnational protest that would be great for undergraduate students. Amoore 2005 is a well-organized reader that could work as a textbook for analyzing resistance, or as a handbook for mobilizing it. Armstrong, et al. 2004 is useful for its broader theoretical discussion of the dichotomy of global governance / resistance. Tarrow 2005, cited under Transnational Civil Society, is also directly relevant.

              • Amoore, Louise, ed. The Global Resistance Reader. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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                Excellent reader; with thirty-seven excerpts from relevant publications. Nine texts on conceptual issues (many critical/neo-Marxist thinkers, like Gramsci, Cox, Gill), eight on what movements are, twelve case studies of resistance (gender, work, debt, development, environment), and eight on cultures and techniques of resistance. Ideal as a textbook for courses at any level.

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              • Armstrong, David, Theo Farrell, and Bice Maiguashca, eds. Governance and Resistance in World Politics. Review of International Studies 29. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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                Thirteen chapters examine the editors’ proposition to think about contemporary world politics in terms of the dichotomy of governance/resistance. Useful discussion, quite abstract and conceptual, involving Marxist, feminist, and cosmopolitan perspectives, among others—some supporting, more questioning the dichotomy.

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              • Cockburn, Alexander, and Jeffrey St. Clair. Five Days That Shook the World: Seattle and Beyond. London: Verso, 2000.

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                Well-researched, lively journalistic account of the protest against the 1999 WTO meeting, including why and how it turned violent. Insightful and detailed coverage of a key event, though not interested in broader questions of global governance or world trade, and concentrating on US-based protest movements.

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              • O’Brien, Richard, Anne Marie Goetz, Jan Aart Scholte, and Marc Williams. Contesting Global Governance: Multilateral Economic Institutions and Global Social Movements. Cambridge Studies in International Relations 71. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511491603Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Innovative study, arguing that intergovernmental multilateralism is changing, responding to pressure from transnational social movements. Examines the influence of labor, environmental, and women’s movements on the World Bank, the IMF, and the WTO, detailing the institutional responses of the IOs.

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              • O’Neill, Kate. “Transnational Protest: States, Circuses, and Conflict at the Frontline of Global Politics.” International Studies Review 6.2 (2004): 233–251.

                DOI: 10.1111/j.1521-9488.2004.00397.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                Concise and insightful study of transnational protest, how it operates (participant, targets, strategies, repertoires, tactics), how it influences global governance, and how it has spawned international police cooperation in response. Excellent for students, with many examples.

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              • Smith, Jackie, and Hank Johnston, eds. Globalization and Resistance: Transnational Dimensions of Social Movements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

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                Comprehensive assessment of how globalization shapes social movements (four theoretical chapters) and vice versa: how social movements mobilize across borders against negative impacts of economic globalization (nine case studies). Based in social- movement theorizing, focusing on mobilization, framing, diffusion, networking, and contention.

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              LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

              DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0015

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