International Relations Civil Society in the European Union
by
Debora Spini
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 August 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0022

Introduction

The European Union (EU) is the most important if not the only example of a postnational polity, and therefore it is an unequaled observation point for the destiny of civil society beyond the nation-state. The relevance of the nature and role of civil society in the EU goes well beyond the field of European studies, as the EU represents a testing ground for trends that are typical of many advanced democracies and of a globalizing political space. Civil society was recognized at an early stage as an important element in the process of European integration, as demonstrated by the establishment of the European Economic and Social Committee under the terms of the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Until the mid-1980s, however, organs of the European Economic Community (EEC) conceptualized civil society mostly in terms of all those groups representing organized interests. The role of civil society therefore was mostly seen as that of providing consultancy and feedback to EEC policy making in the context of a “social dialogue.” The process leading to enactment of the Maastricht Treaty and the quest for a specific political identity for the newborn EU brought a new understanding of the role of civil society. Civil society appeared as the source of a European public opinion in the making and as a privileged actor in fostering the union’s democratic legitimacy. In fact, groups that mobilize to promote issues of common concern (public interest groups) at the European level have grown in number and influence. Therefore scholarly literature has considered civil society, on the one hand, as an important actor in EU governance and, on the other, as a major element in strengthening the performance-based, “output” legitimacy of the EU. From this perspective, organized interests and actors coming from the sphere of economic life are usually considered in the scholarship as making up part of civil society, unlike mainstream literature on global civil society. On the other hand, the authors of many works debate civil society in terms of the space in which a full-fledged European public sphere is developing. Thus civil society is considered in connection with other themes, such as European identity, the EU democratic deficit, the constitutional process, and European citizenship. However, most scholars agree that while civil society meant as representation of interests thrives and operates within the EU governance networks, public interest groups are still weaker in their agency. The Treaty of Lisbon has opened new space for participation by citizens, whose impact on European public interest groups is still to be evaluated. This bibliogrpahy takes into consideration civil society at the European level. It will not consider works dealing with individual European countries—with a few exceptions for some comparative works.

Official European Union Documents

Various EU bodies, most notably the European Commission and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), produce documents on the nature and role of civil society. These documents express a “mainstream” view on civil society: this is the case for European Economic and Social Committee 1999 and European Economic and Social Committee 2011. In general, they show growing expectations about the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in terms of their capacity to voice concerns and to channel citizens’ participation, thus helping to solve the democratic legitimacy deficit of the EU and to contribute to creating a European identity. This represents a major change from an earlier view of civil society as organized interests cooperating in EU policy making. This new attitude is perfectly expressed in European Commission 2000 and European Commission 2001, which consider the role of civil society in the broader framework of the quest for a specific political identity in the EU. European Commission 2002 aims to provide implementation guidelines, while European Commission 2005 and European Commission 2006b reflect on the need for democratic debate within the EU. European Commission 2006a addresses civil society from the specific point of view of organized interests.

Comments and Reactions

These works problematize and discuss the attitude and policies of the EU beyond the “eurojargon” of official position papers. Armstrong 2002 and Joerges, et al. 2001 concentrate on European Commission 2001 (cited under Official European Union Documents). Kohler-Koch 2001, Kohler-Koch and Quittkat 2001, and Rumford 2003 take into consideration a wider range of documents.

  • Armstrong, Kenneth. “Rediscovering Civil Society: The European Union and the White Paper on Governance.” European Law Journal 8.1 (2002): 102–132.

    DOI: 10.1111/1468-0386.00144E-mail Citation »

    Reconstructs the main point of the White Paper on Governance (see European Commission 2001, cited under Official European Union Documents). Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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    • Joerges, Charles, Yves Mény, and Joseph H. Weiler, eds. Mountain or Molehill? A Critical Appraisal of the Commission White Paper on Governance. New York: Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law and Justice, 2001.

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      Interesting collection of essays commenting on the White Paper on Governance (see European Commission 2001, cited under Official European Union Documents), mostly in a critical perspective. Composed during critical phases in the work of European integration, which marked the onset of the constitutional process.

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      • Kohler-Koch, Beate. “The Three Worlds of European Civil Society: Different Images of Europe and Different Roles for Civil Society.” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 57–72. London: Routledge, 2001.

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        Reconstructs how EU bodies conceptualized civil society beginning in the 1990s. For a long time, the terms “civil society” and “civil society organizations” were used interchangeably: only with development of the consultation regime did the diversities among CSOs become apparent. The author notes that the Barroso Commission marked a narrower, more functional, and more governance-oriented approach to civil society.

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        • Kohler-Koch, Beate, and Christine Quittkat. “What Is ‘Civil Society’ and What Does It Represent in the European Union?” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 18–38. London: Routledge: 2001.

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          Survey of the various definitions of civil society employed by EU official bodies and of conceptions of the role of civil society in the EU. This essay and Kohler-Koch 2001 are still extremely relevant.

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          • Rumford, Chris. “European Civil Society or Transnational Social Space? Conceptions of Society in Discourses of EU Citizenship, Governance, and the Democratic Deficit: An Emerging Agenda.” European Journal of Social Theory 6.1 (2003): 25–43.

            DOI: 10.1177/1368431003006001555E-mail Citation »

            European civil society is a transnational space and cannot be conceptualized using the traditional categories of nation-states. This original perspective is still relevant in spite of the many events that have marked the European integration process since 2003. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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            General Overviews

            The works cited here provide a basic introduction to the nature and role of civil society active at the EU level, and they combine empirical evidence and theoretical reflection. Greenwood 2011, Balme and Chabanet 2008, and Ruzza 2004 provide extensive information on both public interest groups and civil society organizations (CSOs) representing private interests. Imig and Tarrow 2001 is a seminal work, as it assesses the capacity of CSOs to give birth to a genuinely political and therefore “contentious” public space at the European level rather than strengthening output legitimacy. Sanchez-Salgado 2007 and Saurugger 2006 show the transformations undergone by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) active at the European level. Mascia 2004 is a good source in Italian, and Pérez Díaz 2009 provides an interesting normative framework.

            • Balme, Richard, and Didier Chabanet. European Governance and Democracy: Power and Protest in the EU. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

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              A comprehensive study of collective action of both organized interests and public interest groups in the EU between 1984 and 2006. Draws on extensive empirical research; combines cross-national analysis with longitudinal analysis of some key policy issues. Empirical findings are then analyzed in the broader framework of the nature of European democracy.

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              • Greenwood, Justin. Interest Representation in the European Union. 3d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

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                A crucial resource. Presents extensive data on civil society active at the EU level for both business interests and lobbying and public interest groups; develops an interesting reconstruction of the changing number and role of public interest groups at the European level. Shows how public interest groups still find it hard to match the powerful private interest lobbies. Provides lists of interest groups present in Brussels. Suitable for teaching.

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                • Imig, Doug R., and Sidney G. Tarrow, eds. Contentious Europeans: Protest and Politics in an Emerging Polity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

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                  Seminal collection of essays that focuses on advocacy coalitions in the EU. The editors identify as a conceptual focus the emergence of contentious politics in a new kind of polity, such as the EU, as opposed to a more consensus-seeking attitude typical of civil society meant as organized interest.

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                  • Mascia, Marco. La società civile nell’Unione europea, nuovo orizzonte democratico. Venice: Marsilio, 2004.

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                    Analyzes civil society’s involvement in the EU; gives a rather positive assessment of the future outlook for participatory democracy in the EU.

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                    • Pérez Díaz, Víctor. Markets and Civil Society: The European Experience in Comparative Perspective. New York: Berghahn, 2009.

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                      Defines civil society as the interaction among public spheres, voluntary associations, and markets. This definition is extremely relevant for the civil society in the EU; however, the author does not apply the framework to the concrete case of the EU.

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                      • Ruzza, Carlo. Europe and Civil Society: Movement Coalitions and European Governance. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2004.

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                        This book is an essential resource for analysis of public interest groups and advocacy networks in their dealings with EU policy making bodies. Methodological approaches are described extensively in the appendixes.

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                        • Sanchez-Salgado, Rosa. Comment l’Europe construit la société civile. Paris: Éditions Dalloz, 2007.

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                          Originates from a doctoral dissertation. A political sociology analysis on how EU institutions and policies shape CSOs from the point of view of Europeanization. Foreword by Renaud Dehousse.

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                          • Saurugger, Sabine. “The Professionalisation of Interest Representation: A Legitimacy Problem for Civil Society in the EU?” Paper presented at a workshop organized at the Institut d’Études Politiques in Paris in May 2003. In Civil Society and Legitimate European Governance. Edited by Stijn Smismans, 260–276. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006.

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                            This article shows how public interest groups present at the EU level tend to professionalize and consequently to lose their contact with the grassroots, becoming less credible as representatives of a European public opinion. Similar trends are also discussed in Ruzza 2004 and Greenwood 2011.

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                            Democratic Legitimacy

                            The works cited here share a concern for the democratic legitimacy of the EU, and the authors almost unanimously consider the presence of a lively civil society as a prerequisite for democratizing the EU, although Spini 2008 questions the capacity of actual civil society organizations (CSOs) active in the EU to be a source of democratic legitimacy. The Civil Society Contact Group’s act4europe provides firsthand testimony of the experience of CSOs. Maloney and van Deth 2010 presents the results of empirical research conducted by the Citizenship Involvement and Democracy Research Network. Kohler-Koch and Rittberger 2007 may be used as an excellent resource for teaching. Smismans 2011 discusses how CSOs may enhance active citizenship in the EU. Warleigh 2006 deals with the dichotomy of customers-citizens. Schmitter and Trechsel 2004 remains a crucial reference, providing a normative framework and policy-oriented indications.

                            • act4europe.

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                              The Civil Society Contact Group, an umbrella organization gathering eight important public interest groups present in Brussels, has launched the campaign act4europe to increase democratic participation in light of the new possibilities opened by the Treaty of Lisbon. The website hosts an interesting section titled Briefings that provides relevant EU documentation and discussion papers.

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                              • Kohler-Koch, Beate, and Berthold Rittberger. Debating the Democratic Legitimacy of the European Union. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

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                                A collection of essays touching on the most important issues regarding the democratic legitimacy of the EU. Part 3 is “The Public Sphere and Civil Society: Prerequisites for Democratically Legitimate Rule Making” (pp. 165–209).

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                                • Maloney, William A., and Jan W. van Deth, eds. Civil Society and Activism in Europe: Contextualizing Engagement and Political Orientations. London: Routledge, 2010.

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                                  Interesting collection of essays based on extensive empirical research on voluntary associations and on representative samples of the population in thirteen countries.

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                                  • Schmitter, Philippe C., and Alexander H. Trechsel. The Future of Democracy in Europe: Trends, Analyses, and Reforms. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe, 2004.

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                                    A classic reference for all debates concerning the democratization of the EU; identifies civil society organization as a basic factor in democratizing the EU. This seminal book makes a challenging proposal: civil society should be financially supported by a system of taxation-based vouchers in following the principle of no representation without taxation.

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                                    • Smismans, Stijn. “European Civil Society and Citizenship: Complementary or Exclusionary Concepts?” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 73–91. London: Routledge, 2011.

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                                      Presents some interesting cases of practices of associations.

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                                      • Spini, Debora. “The Double Face of European Civil Society.” In The Search for a European Identity: Values, Policies, and Legitimacy of the European Union. Edited by Furio Cerutti and Sonia Lucarelli, 142–156. London: Routledge, 2008.

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                                        Provides a theoretical reflection on civil society active at the European level. Civil society active in the EU should be conceptualized on the basis of Hegelian categories rather than based on the Habermasian perspective, which has been adopted by the authors of the majority of the literature on global civil society.

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                                        • Warleigh, Alex. “Making Citizens from the Market? NGOs and the Representation of Interests.” In Making European Citizens: Civic Inclusion in a Transnational Context. Edited by Richard Bellamy, Dario Castiglione, and Jo Shaw, 118–133. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

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                                          Affirms that civil society is to play a role in the transformation of the EU from a “market” into a polity.

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                                          The Constitutional Process

                                          The constitutional process that led to the convention for the drafting of the Charter of Fundamental Rights represents a turning point for the conception of civil society in the EU. Works cited here provide an assessment of civil society’s involvement at key moments, such as the drafting of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, or in the constitutional process in view of the quest for a democratic legitimacy. Castiglione 2006 and Trenz, et al. 2011 provide normative frameworks. Lombardo 2007 provides a good overview of the topic. Deloche-Gaudez 2002 and Fossum and Trenz 2006 assess civil society’s role in positive terms. Liebert 2011 applies Albert Hirschman’s triad of exit, voice, and loyalty to European civil society’s attitudes and role in the constitutional process.

                                          • Castiglione, Dario. “We the Citizens? Representation and Participation in EU Constitutional Politics.” In Making European Citizens: Civic Inclusion in a Transnational Context. Edited by Richard Bellamy, Dario Castiglione, and Jo Shaw, 75–95. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

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                                            Analyzes the role of civil society in the process leading to the drafting of the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

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                                            • Deloche-Gaudez, Florence. “La convention pour l’élaboration de la Charte des Droits Fondamentaux: Une méthode ‘constituante?’” In Une constitution pour l’Europe? Edited by Renaud Dehousse, 177–209. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2002.

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                                              Presents the drafting process for the Charter of Fundamental Rights as a successful example of dialogue with civil society.

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                                              • Fossum, John Erik, and Hans Jörg Trenz. “The EU Fledging Society: From Deafening Silence to Critical Voice in European Constitution Making.” Journal of Civil Society 2.1 (2006): 57–77.

                                                DOI: 10.1080/17448680600730959E-mail Citation »

                                                Emphasizes the role of civil society as a critical voice in the constitutional process in view of a democratization of the European public space.

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                                                • Liebert, Ulrike. “Exit, Voice, or Loyalty? The New Voice of European Civil Society.” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 95–122. London: Routledge, 2011.

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                                                  Explains why few organizations opted for exit and most chose voice or loyalty.

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                                                  • Lombardo, Emanuela. “The Participation of Civil Society.” In Constitutional Politics in the European Union: The Convention Moment and Its Aftermath. Edited by Dario Castiglione, Justus Schönlau, Chris Longman, Emanuela Lombardo, Nives Pérez-Solórzano, and Miriam Aziz, 153–170. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

                                                    DOI: 10.1057/9780230593343E-mail Citation »

                                                    A good account of civil society’s role in the drafting of the convention and its aftermath.

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                                                    • Trenz, Hans-Jorg, Nadine Bernhard, and Erik Jetges. “Civil Society and EU Constitution-Making: Towards a European Social Constituency.” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 123–142. London: Routledge, 2011.

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                                                      Introduces the notion of civil society as social constituency in relation to the quest for an EU democratic legitimacy and focuses on what CSOs consider as “good governance for the EU.” Special attention to German NGOs.

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                                                      The European Public Sphere

                                                      This section presents a selection of works applying (or at least discussing) the Habermasian category of civil society to European integration. Mostly, authors of this literature agree that a European public sphere is in fact in the making and that it represents a key element in the democratization of the EU. This is the case with Trenz and Eder 2004, Eriksen 2005, and Fossum and Schlesinger 2007. Bee and Bozzini 2010 and Koopmans and Statham 2010 concentrate on the role of mass media. Eder 2011 and de Beus 2010 present a normative perspective.

                                                      • Bee, Cristiano, and Emanuela Bozzini, eds. Mapping the European Public Sphere: Institutions, Media, and Civil Society. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

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                                                        Interesting especially for the essays collected in Part 2, which focuses on the media (including new media) and on the information society.

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                                                        • de Beus, Jos. “The European Union and the Public Sphere.” In The Making of a European Public Sphere: Media Discourse and Political Contention. Edited by Ruud Koopmans and Paul Statham, 13–33. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511761010E-mail Citation »

                                                          Sets the normative framework for empirical analyses of the birth of a European public sphere.

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                                                          • Eder, Klaus. “The Making of a European Civil Society: ‘Imagined,’ ‘Practiced,’ and ‘Staged?’” In The New Politics of European Civil Society. Edited by Ulrike Liebert and Hans Jörg Trenz, 40–53. London: Routledge, 2011.

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                                                            The author of this essay constructs an innovative argument for the specificity of European civil society as compared to a purely cosmopolitan perspective.

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                                                            • Eriksen, E. O. “An Emerging European Public Sphere.” European Journal of Social Theory 8.3 (2005): 341–363.

                                                              DOI: 10.1177/1368431005054798E-mail Citation »

                                                              The European case as an example of the postnational public sphere. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                              • Fossum, John Erik, and Philip Schlesinger, eds. The European Union and the Public Sphere: A Communicative Space in the Making? London: Routledge, 2007.

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                                                                A collection of essays featuring a common Habermasian perspective. Assesses the perspectives of a European public sphere and its ambiguities.

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                                                                • Koopmans, Ruud, and Paul Statham. The Making of a European Public Sphere: Media Discourse and Political Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511761010E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This collective book is especially interesting for Part 3, “Mass Media: Performance, Claim Making, and Framing,” which includes empirical research on media in Europe and their role in creating a European public sphere.

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                                                                  • Trenz, Hans Jörg, and Klaus Eder. “The Democratizing Dynamics of a European Public Sphere.” European Journal of Social Theory 7.1 (2004): 5–25.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1177/1368431004040016E-mail Citation »

                                                                    A European public sphere is considered in its democratizing function. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                    European Union Governance

                                                                    Civil society as composed of organized interests has always been recognized as an important actor in EU governance, exercising important functions, such as providing consultancy and expertise. Ruzza 2006 sets the research agenda for analyzing the role of public interest groups in EU policy making. Ruzza and della Sala 2007a and Ruzza and della Sala 2007b provide an exhaustive approach to the question. Magnette 2003 reflects on the specific nature of the EU and its effects on civil society’s nature and behavior. Kohler-Koch, et al. 2008 originates from research conducted in the framework of the network Connex report series. Hooge 2008 applies the political opportunity approach to civil society organizations (CSOs) active in the EU. Steffek, et al. 2008, although mostly focusing on global governance, includes interesting chapters on the role of civil society in EU governance. Kröger 2008 concentrates on policy making. Friedrich 2008 concentrates upon migration and environmental policies. Mazey and Richardson 2006 analyzes civil society as composed of interest groups.

                                                                    • Friedrich, Dawid. “Democratic Aspiration Meets Political Reality: Participation of Organized Civil Society in Selected European Policy Processes.” In Civil Society Participation in European and Global Governance: A Cure for the Democratic Deficit? Edited by Jens Steffek, Claudia Kissling, and Patrizia Nanz, 140–161. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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                                                                      Reflects on the different roles played by the European Commission and the European Council. The conclusion highlights the difference between the commission’s attitude and that of the council—the latter being less inclined to include CSOs.

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                                                                      • Hooge, Mark. “The Political Opportunity Structure Approach for Civil Society Organizations in a Multilevel Context: Social Movements, Organizations, and the European Union.” In Civil Society and Governance in Europe: From National to International Linkages. Edited by William A. Maloney and Jan van Deth, 45–71. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2008.

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                                                                        Observes that “top-down” participation in EU policy making works quite well but that a bottom-up integration of CSOs in policy making does not look promising.

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                                                                        • Kohler-Koch, Beate, Dirk de Bièvre, and William Maloney, eds. Opening EU-Governance to Civil Society: Gains and Challenges. Connex Report Series 5. Mannheim, Germany: Mannheim Connex, 2008.

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                                                                          Analyzes various aspects of European governance based on extensive empirical research.

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                                                                          • Kröger, Sandra. Nothing but Consultation: The Place of Organised Civil Society in EU Policy-Making across Policies. EUROGOV No. C-08-03. 2008.

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                                                                            Maintains a mildly critical point of view.

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                                                                            • Magnette, Paul. “European Governance and Civic Participation: Beyond Elitist Citizenship?” Political Studies 51 (2003): 144–160.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.00417E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Analyzes citizens’ participation in the broader framework of the specific nature of EU democracy. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                              • Mazey, Sonia, and Jeremy Richardson. “Interest Groups and EU Policy Making: Organizational Logic and Venue Shopping.” In European Union: Power and Policy-Making. Edited by Jeremy Richardson, 247–268. London: Routledge, 2006.

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                                                                                Analyzes the behavior of interest groups in responding to the increasing relevance of the EU as a policy making area and their relationship with EU bureaucracies.

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                                                                                • Ruzza, Carlo. “European Institutions and the Policy Discourse of Organised Civil Society.” Paper presented at a workshop organized at the Institut d’Études Politiques in Paris in May 2003. In Civil Society and Legitimate European Governance. Edited by Stijn Smismans, 169–185. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006.

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                                                                                  A crucial work based on a comparative analysis of documents produced by public interest groups and official EU documents.

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                                                                                  • Ruzza, Carlo, and Vincent della Sala, eds. Governance and Civil Society in the European Union. Vol. 1, Normative Perspectives. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2007a.

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                                                                                    Very interesting collection of essays by scholars engaged in connecting the three dimensions of democracy, governance, and civil society in addressing normative questions about the EU.

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                                                                                    • Ruzza, Carlo, and Vincent della Sala, eds. Governance and Civil Society in the European Union. Vol. 2, Exploring Policy Issues. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2007b.

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                                                                                      Continues the work of Ruzza and della Sala 2007a, concentrating on various policy issues.

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                                                                                      • Steffek, Jens, Claudia Kissling, and Patrizia Nanz, eds. Civil Society Participation in European and Global Governance: A Cure for the Democratic Deficit? Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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                                                                                        Defines CSOs as a “transmission belt” between citizens and supranational and international policy making processes. Provides twenty empirical indicators for assessing transparency and access in interactions between international organizations and CSOs in global governance and in the specific case of the EU.

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                                                                                        Lobbying

                                                                                        Lobbying in the EU is gaining momentum and may now be considered as a component of EU policy making, as shown in Greenwood 2011 (cited under General Overviews). This section presents a selection of an ever-growing literature on lobbying. Europa Publications Office 2005 represents the EU institutional point of view, while van Schendelen 2010 is interesting as it approaches the question from the point of view of lobbyists. Cohen and Richardson 2009 analyzes lobbying in the EU in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Michel 2005 is a useful resource in French.

                                                                                        • Cohen, David, and Jeremy Richardson, eds. Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issues. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                          An extremely helpful collection of essays. Part 2 includes essays on lobbying different EU bodies. Part 4 includes sectoral studies on individual lobbying.

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                                                                                          • Europa Publications Office. Lobbying in the European Union. Europa Publications EU Information Series. London: Routledge, 2005.

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                                                                                            Main reference for all individuals and groups lobbying the EU, including public interest groups. Provides a list of the most important European institutions and a list of lobbyists and members of parliament and of various professional associations, interest groups, nongovernmental organizations, trade unions, and employers’ organizations.

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                                                                                            • Michel, Hélène, ed. Lobbyistes et lobbying de l’Union européenne: Trajectoires, formations, et pratiques des répresentants d’intérêts. Strasbourg, France: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, 2005.

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                                                                                              A collection of sociological studies on the training and the career itineraries of lobbyists in Brussels.

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                                                                                              • van Schendelen, Rinus. More Machiavelli in Brussels: The Art of Lobbying the EU. 3d ed. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                The third edition of a very informative title, clear and witty; a handbook for lobbying in Brussels useful both for private interest lobbyists and for public interest group activists. Analyzes from this specific perspective the operations of each EU body.

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