International Relations NATO
by
Carl Cavanagh Hodge
  • LAST MODIFIED: 02 March 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0036

Introduction

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a military alliance of North American and European democratic states founded by the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949 in Washington, DC. It is a product of both the Anglo-American alliance during World War II and the conflict that emerged after 1945 between the United States and the Soviet Union over the postwar future of Europe. It was preceded by the Treaty of Brussels, signed 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom, which was as much a hedge against the reemergence of an aggressive Germany as an anti-Soviet coalition. As the Soviet military threat to Western Europe made the Brussels states anxious to secure an American security guarantee, talks were convened that ultimately led to the creation of NATO, incorporating the five Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. In 1952 Greece and Turkey were added, and in 1955 the inclusion of the Federal Republic of Germany further strengthened NATO and made West Germany the front-line state of NATO’s confrontation with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Treaty Organization until 1989. Since the end of the Cold War in 1991, NATO has added to its number former member states of the Warsaw Pact and former Soviet republics, so that as of 2010 its membership totals twenty-eight countries. The literature on NATO falls into four categories: journal articles dealing with NATO in all periods since its founding, literature on the Cold War Era, studies of post–Cold War change generally, and growing literature on NATO in the expeditionary era specifically.

Journals

With the exception of the NATO Review, which is both a textbook of alliance affairs and a bulletin of news, journal scholarship on NATO is evenly divided between historians and political scientists, and most of the journals listed below feature a healthy degree of cross-fertilization between those two disciplines. Cold War History, however, is dominated by historical enquiry and often engages the matter of the Cold War’s place in international history. At the opposite extreme, Survival offers articles on contemporary events and policy debates. Atlantic Community is a highly informative website on a wide array of contemporary issues. International Affairs has since 1924 routinely published articles and reviews of the widest variety on global politics; its archive therefore covers the entire history of NATO. By contrast, International Security features many more articles dealing with international-relations theory, much of which is of direct or indirect relevance to the alliance. The same can be said of European Security, with the difference that its focus on Europe gives a very high profile to NATO and related concerns. Although the Journal of Transatlantic Studies is comparatively new on the scene, its articles and reviews feature a strong representation of scholarship on NATO and related topics. The RUSI Journal is oriented toward government and military personnel, yet is approachable.

  • Atlantic Community.

    E-mail Citation »

    Website covering all aspects of transatlantic relations; essays, bulletins, calls for papers.

    Find this resource:

    • Cold War History.

      E-mail Citation »

      Based on the Cold War Studies Programme of the London School of Economics and publishing since 2000 scholarly articles from historians and scholars in other disciplines on every aspect of the Cold War.

      Find this resource:

      • European Security.

        E-mail Citation »

        Published quarterly since 1991, concerned with all aspects of European security, with many articles and reviews on NATO affairs.

        Find this resource:

        • International Affairs.

          E-mail Citation »

          The quarterly journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, publishing articles by scholars and policy experts aimed at specialists as well as general readers.

          Find this resource:

          • International Security.

            E-mail Citation »

            Well-documented articles on war and peace, contemporary security issues, diplomatic and military history, peacekeeping, arms control, nuclear forces, and strategy.

            Find this resource:

            • Journal of Transatlantic Studies.

              E-mail Citation »

              Academic quarterly published since 2002. Multidisciplinary, but dominated by history, international relations, and security studies generally and NATO’s contemporary challenges specifically.

              Find this resource:

              • NATO Review.

                E-mail Citation »

                Online journal of the alliance, featuring news, organizational bulletins, and articles on security and defense-related matters; also video and RSS feed.

                Find this resource:

                • RUSI Journal.

                  E-mail Citation »

                  Journal of the Royal United Services Institute, published since 1857, oriented toward defense and military personnel; extremely useful on NATO expeditionary operations.

                  Find this resource:

                  • Survival.

                    E-mail Citation »

                    Flagship journal the highly respected International Institute for Strategic Studies; routinely publishes articles on NATO and related matters.

                    Find this resource:

                    The Cold War Alliance

                    Historians and political scientists represented in this literature have been concerned with NATO’s origins and with the diplomacy of alliance management more than with purely military affairs. This is a wholly appropriate reflection of NATO’s role as an international political organization and forum of diplomacy, but it means that the literature is more useful to students of international affairs and security—on matters ranging from conventional to nuclear defense, mutual assured destruction versus flexible response, détente, and arms negotiations—than to military historians. General studies of the alliance are rather evenly divided between history and political science, ranging from Deutsch’s early and theoretical work at one extreme (Deutsch, et al. 1957) and Grosser’s survey of alliance diplomacy at the other (Grosser 1980). Kaplan 1999 and Gann and Duignan 1998 attempt a broad framework for viewing NATO as a multinational community as well as an alliance. Joffe 1987, Schmidt 2001, and Smith 2000 are all concerned with NATO’s evolution and the internal stresses brought about by international change.

                    • Deutsch, Karl W., Sidney A. Burrell, Robert A. Kann Jr., Maurice Lee, Martin Lichterman, Raymond E. Lindgren, Francis L. Loewenheim, and Richard W. Van Waganen. Political Community in the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.

                      E-mail Citation »

                      Landmark publication applying theories of integration to the North Atlantic region, for which the NATO “security community” constituted much more than a military alliance.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Gann, L. H., and Peter Duignan. Contemporary Europe and the Atlantic Alliance: A Political History. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

                        E-mail Citation »

                        Country-by-country chapters are useful individually, but the work is fragmented and incoherent as a whole.

                        Find this resource:

                        • Grosser, Alfred. The Western Alliance: European-American Relations since 1945. Translated by Michael Shaw. New York: Continuum, 1980.

                          E-mail Citation »

                          Lucid combination of history and policy analysis of the alliance at the beginning of the last decade of the Cold War.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Kaplan, Lawrence S. The Long Entanglement: NATO’s First Fifty Years. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.

                            E-mail Citation »

                            Relations between the United States and its European allies over the Cold War’s half century, written by a major authority on the alliance. Mandatory reading.

                            Find this resource:

                            • Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

                              E-mail Citation »

                              A history dedicated to recurrent policy differences between the United States and its European allies.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Joffe, Josef. The Limited Partnership: Europe, the United States, and the Burdens of Alliance. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1987.

                                E-mail Citation »

                                A lucid review of the alliance’s evolution, especially its crises, with a mind to attacking the anti-NATO left of northern Europe, so strong at the time of the writing.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Schmidt, Gustav. ed. A History of NATO: The First Fifty Years. 3 vols. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2001.

                                  E-mail Citation »

                                  A remarkable work featuring sixty articles, many by renowned security scholars, with a useful bibliography and index. A genuine reader.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Smith, Mark. NATO Enlargement during the Cold War: Strategy and System in the Western Alliance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2000.

                                    E-mail Citation »

                                    Enlargement and intra-alliance dynamics in which both strategic necessity and balance among the European alliance members were critical.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    Early Alliance History

                                    The early years of the alliance constitute a major factor in the post-1945 reconstitution of Europe in line with the deepening superpower confrontation. Kaplan 2007 focuses on the politics and diplomacy of NATO’s founding, while Ruane 2000, Smith 1991, Trachtenberg 1999, and Willis 1968 each deal in greater detail with specific bilateral relationships within the alliance.

                                    • Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO 1948: The Birth of the Transatlantic Alliance. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

                                      E-mail Citation »

                                      A study of the contentious and often torturous negotiating process after which the United States abandoned its traditional rejection of alliance to accept a permanent military burden in Europe.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Ruane, Kevin. The Rise and Fall of the European Defence Community: Anglo-American Relations and the Crisis of European Defence, 1950–55. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 2000.

                                        E-mail Citation »

                                        The alliance’s infancy and the miscarried attempt to establish a European alternative, followed by German rearmament and NATO membership; elegantly argued.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Smith, E. Timothy. The United States, Italy, and NATO, 1947–52. London: Macmillan, 1991.

                                          E-mail Citation »

                                          American diplomacy and Italian membership in NATO as critical aspects of the legitimation of the postwar regime in Rome and its prominent role in the creation of the European Community. Solid NATO and European history.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Trachtenberg, Marc. A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945–1963. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

                                            E-mail Citation »

                                            West Germany as pivotal to European peace, with German security—conventional or nuclear—the central question.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Willis, F. Roy. France, Germany, and the New Europe, 1945–1963. Rev. ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968.

                                              E-mail Citation »

                                              Now dated treatment of a critical bilateral relationship during the formative years of the alliance, still useful in appreciating the politics of the time.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              Intra-Alliance Relations

                                              The literature on relations among NATO members tends to be dominated by three approaches. The first, typified by Calleo 1988, Kissinger 1965, and Osgood 1962, places the alliance in a broad historical and theoretical context. A second approach studies cooperation and responsibilities within NATO in considerable detail. Sandler and Hartley 1999 applies an economic model, while Boyer 1993 resorts to a more comprehensive public-goods approach to costs and benefits. Lunn 1983 is concerned with the impact of NATO’s structure on its internal diplomacy; Risse-Kappen 1995, a more recent study, draws appropriate attention to the influence of European members following the Cold War. A third tendency, here represented by Carpenter 1994 and Treverton 1985, is dominated by policy advocates and combines informed commentary on current issues with specific recommendations.

                                              • Boyer, Mark A. International Cooperation and Public Goods: Opportunities for the Western Alliance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                An application of the “public goods” model to NATO, arguing that many benefits beyond security are derived by alliance membership.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Calleo, David P. Beyond American Hegemony: The Future of the Western Alliance. Brighton, UK: Wheatsheaf, 1988.

                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                  A critical contribution on why and how the European member states should take greater responsibility for their own defense—a timeless NATO theme.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Carpenter, Ted Galen. Beyond NATO: Staying Out of Europe’s Wars. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 1994.

                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                    Essentially a policy brief against NATO expansion, questioning the post–Cold War utility of the alliance; long on polemics and short on scholarship.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Kissinger, Henry A. The Troubled Partnership: The Atlantic Alliance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.

                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                      A plea for American flexibility on sharing decision-making powers with European allies, strongly influenced by the Gaullist diplomacy of France yet featuring observations that remain relevant to the contemporary alliance.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      • Lunn, Simon. Burden-Sharing in NATO. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                        An even-handed discussion of how the very structure of the alliance has tended to aggravate disputes over responsibilities, disputes usually overcome by compromise but which were made more intractable by the crises of the 1980s

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Osgood, Robert E. NATO: The Entangling Alliance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                          A landmark book on the strategic dilemmas posed by a permanent American security guarantee to Western Europe, now quite dated but useful in its clear thinking on the Cold War alliance.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Risse-Kappen, Thomas. Cooperation among Democracies: The European Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                            Simultaneously a study of European influence within NATO, an alliance in post–Cold War transition, and institutionalized diplomacy with an alliance of democratic states.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Sandler, Todd, and Keith Hartley. The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                              The tools of economic analysis applied to burden sharing within a military alliance, demonstrating a recurrent tendency toward the exploitation of the strong by the weak.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Treverton, Gregory F. Making the Alliance Work: The United States and Western Europe. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1985.

                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                A snapshot of NATO’s condition in the mid-1980s, published in the midst of the Euromissile crisis, with informed advice on how common interests can keep the alliance united for another thirty years.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                Britain and NATO

                                                                Among the European founding members of NATO, Britain was critical. Baylis 1993 stresses the British role in entangling the interests of the United States in Europe generally, while Dockrill 1991 focuses on Britain’s contribution to rehabilitating Germany as a major factor in strengthening the alliance. Priest 2006 deals with Anglo-American relations during the Vietnam era, while Badsey and Latawsky 2004 focuses on Britain and NATO peace support in Yugoslavia.

                                                                • Badsey, Stephen, and Paul Latawsky, eds. Britain, NATO and the Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts, 1991–1999. London: Frank Cass, 2004.

                                                                  DOI: 10.4324/9780203495285E-mail Citation »

                                                                  High-quality papers by defense and security analysts on the national and NATO implications of peacekeeping and peacemaking in the former Yugoslavia.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Baylis, John. The Diplomacy of Pragmatism: Britain and the Formation of NATO, 1942–49. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1993.

                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Important mandatory reading on the pivotal role of Britain in rearticulating its World War II alliance with the United States into a permanent American security commitment to Europe.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Dockrill, Saki. Britain’s Policy for West German Rearmament, 1950–1955. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Solid scholarship on British diplomacy in the effort to rearm West Germany and admit it to NATO—the most important enlargement of the Cold War era.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      • Priest, Andrew. Kennedy, Johnson, and NATO: Britain, America, and the Dynamics of Alliance, 1962–68. London: Routledge, 2006.

                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                        The Anglo-American special relationship in a period of crisis in American foreign policy.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        France and NATO

                                                                        France represents the most ambivalent major power in Europe. Whereas Hitchcock 1988 studies France’s painful transition from a victim of Nazi occupation to a central player in European integration, Bozo 2001 and Gordon 1993 are concerned with the Gaullist revolution in French foreign policy in the Fifth Republic, according to which France sought to maximize its autonomy within NATO.

                                                                        • Bozo, Frédéric. Two Strategies for Europe: De Gaulle, the United States, and the Atlantic Alliance. Translated by Susan Emanuel. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Possibly the best primer available in English on Gaullism and France’s troubled relationship with NATO.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Bozo, Frédéric. La France et l’OTAN: De la guerre froide au nouvel ordre européen. Paris: Masson, 1991.

                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Among the most important books of alliance history generally, and mandatory reading on French foreign policy.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Gordon, Philip H. A Certain Idea of France: French Security Policy and the Gaullist Legacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Possibly the best book in English on the founding ideology of the French Fifth Republic and its implications for NATO and Western Europe’s defense.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              • Hitchcock, William I. France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944–1954. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                First-rate study of the European diplomacy of the Fourth Republic and its effort to redefine France’s relationship with Germany.

                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                Germany and NATO

                                                                                As long as the Cold War lasted, the Federal Republic of Germany represented NATO’s frontline state. The story begins with Richardson 1966. Hanrieder 1989 explains why the relationship between the United States and West Germany was the most “special” of all special relationships. Duffield 1998 explores the pacifying effect of the Cold War on Germany and its foreign policy. The contribution of a reunified Germany to NATO enlargement is then examined by Hyde-Price 2000.

                                                                                • Duffield, John S. World Power Forsaken: Political Culture, International Institutions, and German Security Policy after Unification. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.

                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  A study in the postnational, multilateral tradition of German foreign policy, the product in part of Germany’s security within NATO.

                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                  • Hanrieder, Wolfram F. Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Magisterial study of the most important bilateral relationship of the alliance during the Cold War.

                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                    • Large, David Clay. Germans to the Front: West German Rearmament in the Adenauer Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      A fine book explaining how rearmament within NATO was a critical phase in the rehabilitation of Germany.

                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                      • Richardson, James L. Germany and the Atlantic Alliance: The Interaction of Strategy and Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.

                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Now dated, but nonetheless a useful detailed study of the fundamental changes brought about and strategic challenged posed by West Germany’s induction into NATO

                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                        • Hyde-Price, Adrian. Germany and European Order: Enlarging NATO and the EU. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2000.

                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          One of the few volumes to consider NATO and EU enlargement together, made doubly useful by focusing on a major member of both.

                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                          Military Strategy

                                                                                          Books on NATO strategy during the Cold War are dominated by the nuclear issue, ranging from debates over doctrine covering strategic weapons in Daalder 1991, Haftendorn, et al. 2006, Risse-Kappen 1988, and Schwartz 1983, to Heuser 1997, a comparative study of the divergent policies of three major European allies on nuclear weaponry. Duffield 1995 stands out as the best of the very few works dealing with NATO’s conventional military forces and their posture to war with the Warsaw Pact. Haftendorn 1996 is mandatory reading on the rethinking of nuclear strategy in the 1960s, while Pierre 1984 is an edited volume that revisits the issue two decades later.

                                                                                          • Daalder, Ivo H. The Nature and Practice of Flexible Response: NATO Strategy and Theater Nuclear Forces since 1967. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            A major history of Western European nuclear strategy meticulously reconstructed from a wide array of sources and explaining American, British, Dutch, and German positions. Mandatory reading.

                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                            • Duffield, John S. Power Rules: The Evolution of NATO’s Conventional Force Posture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              A history of the evolution of NATO’s conception of conventional forces for the defense of Europe, superbly documented and soberly evaluated.

                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                              • Haftendorn, Helga. Georges-Henri Soutou, Stephen F. Szabo, and Samuel F. Wells Jr., eds. The Strategic Triangle: France, Germany, and the United States in the Shaping of the New Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Fifteen essays on many aspects of the triangle; especially useful on the NATO crisis of the 1960s and the Euromissile crisis of the 1980s.

                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                • Haftendorn, Helga. NATO and the Nuclear Revolution: A Crisis of Credibility, 1966–1967. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Superb account of the crisis of nuclear strategy brought on by the growing Soviet arsenal, the advent of the French force de frappe, and the discussion of flexible response.

                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                  • Heuser, Beatrice. NATO, Britain, France, and the FRG: Nuclear Strategies and Forces for Europe, 1949–2000. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1997.

                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Superb scholarly study of nuclear doctrine and nuclear politics in the three most important allies of the American superpower by an authority completely at home in three national contexts.

                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                    • Pierre, Andrew J., ed. Nuclear Weapons in Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1984.

                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      A volume of essays debating the strategic utility and political wisdom of the intermediate-range nuclear-missile deployments of the 1980s.

                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                      • Risse-Kappen, Thomas. The Zero Option: INF, West Germany, and Arms Control. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.

                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        The critical role of the Federal Republic of Germany in the missile deployments of the 1980s, the extraordinary consultation with it allies, and the happy outcome of an arms race that brought peace to Europe.

                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                        • Schwartz, David N. NATO’s Nuclear Dilemmas. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1983.

                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Thoughtful study of the decision to deploy a new generation of nuclear weapons in Western Europe in the 1980s, told by an insider. Not for novices.

                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                          Post–Cold War Change

                                                                                                          The literature covering post–Cold War change within NATO is dominated by the debate over the alliance’s eastward expansion. A smaller but equally important literature addresses the recurrent ambition of the European member states to develop a collective security and defense capacity relatively independent of the United States, while European defense technologies have generally lagged behind American advances to a degree that has actually increased European material dependency on NATO. Surveys of NATO after the historic changes of 1989–1991 take a broad view of a variety of issues. Kay 1998 is the most useful introductory reading, while Rynning 2005 and Serfaty 2005 assume a basic knowledge of NATO and of contemporary strategic issues on the part of the reader. The same can be said of Thies 2009 and Williams and Jones 2001, with the difference that they are more speculative about the future viability of the alliance.

                                                                                                          • Kay, Sean. NATO and the Future of European Security. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            The alliance’s post–Cold War role, with an inventory of issues from enlargement to military missions beyond Europe.

                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                            • Rynning, Sten. NATO Renewed: The Power and Purpose of Transatlantic Cooperation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              First-rate sober discussion of NATO’s evolutions since the Cold War, based on a general framework about alliances and change. Mandatory reading.

                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                              • Serfaty, Simon. ed. Visions of the Atlantic Alliance: The United States, the European Union, and NATO. Washington, DC: CSIS, 2005.

                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                A very useful collection of essays on NATO’s condition midway through the presidency of George W. Bush.

                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                • Thies, Wallace J. Why NATO Endures. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Superb scholarship on alliances generally and NATO specifically, exploring how it is different and how it is not. Mandatory reading.

                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  • Williams, Geoffrey Lee, and Barkley Jared Jones. NATO and the Transatlantic Alliance in the 21st Century: The Twenty-Year Crisis. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2001.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1057/9780230599079E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    Provocative reading on the alliance’s next twenty years based on its recent past.

                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    NATO Enlargement

                                                                                                                    The enlargement of NATO during the 1990s to include former members of the Warsaw Pact represents one of the two major vehicles that unified Europe under democratic government, alongside the expansion of the European Union. Goldgeier 1999 examines the process by which the United States decided in favor of enlargement. Gheciu 2005 and Simon 2004a are particularly attentive to the complementary nature of EU and NATO enlargement. Asmus 2002, Kugler 1996, and Larrabee 2003 focus meanwhile on the strategic implications of enlargement, particularly its impact on American and European relations with Russia. Barany 2003 and Jacoby 2004, meanwhile, stress that NATO has always been a political as well as a military organization, in which aspiring members from Eastern Europe experienced profound political change as the price of belonging. Simon 2004b deals in detail with the transformation wrought in Poland, a pivotal state in ending the Cold War and in enlarging NATO.

                                                                                                                    • Asmus, Ronald D. Opening NATO’s Door: How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era. New York: New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Detailed history of American efforts to reconcile membership aspirations of Eastern European states with the policy of partnership with Russia, told by an advisor to the Clinton administration.

                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      • Barany, Zoltan D. The Future of NATO Expansion: Four Case Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A comparative of the approaches to membership adopted by four of the seven countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) invited to join NATO at the Prague summit of 2002.

                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        • Gheciu, Alexandra. NATO in the “New Europe”: The Politics of International Socialization after the Cold War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          A sophisticated study of NATO as a political organization of democratization and “value change” in the Czech Republic and Romania.

                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          • Goldgeier, James M. Not Whether But When: The U.S. Decision to Enlarge NATO. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            A superb case study of the process by which the Clinton administration decided to press for NATO membership for former members of the Warsaw Pact.

                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            • Jacoby, Wade. The Enlargement of the European Union and NATO: Ordering from the Menu in Central Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Attention to detail and crisp writing in an explanation of why and how former Warsaw Pact states contrived to join the West—and how NATO and the EU facilitated them.

                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              • Kugler, Richard L., and Marianna V. Kozintseva. Enlarging NATO: The Russia Factor. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996.

                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Theoretical depth and empirical richness brought to question the prudence of alliance enlargement in the face of Russian objection.

                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                • Larrabee, F. Stephen. NATO’s Eastern Agenda in a New Strategic Era. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2003.

                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Post-Prague-summit assessment of NATO enlargement and transformation, combined with discussion of the alliance’s future strategic purpose.

                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  • Simon, Jeffrey. NATO and the Czech and Slovak Republics: A Comparative Study in Civil-Military Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004a.

                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    Rich factual detail and expert explanation of change in the civil-military balance in two of the early candidates for enlargement.

                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    • Simon, Jeffrey. Poland and NATO: A Study in Civil-Military Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004b.

                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Civil-military reform in Poland as an integral aspect of its absorption into NATO, in many respects a completion a completion of what Poland began alone in the 1980s.

                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      The Capabilities Gap

                                                                                                                                      During the 1990s a good deal of literature explored the gap in military capabilities between the United States and its European allies. Much of the literature was highly technical and rather weak on the historical aspects of a problem dating to the 1960s; Quinlan 2001 is exceptional in this regard. Otherwise, the more useful work on the capabilities gap devotes primary attention to bilateral and multilateral efforts either to overcome or mitigate it. Cogan 2001, Gordon 1995, and Haglund 1991 all place Franco-German cooperation at the very center of efforts to create a European security and defense policy.

                                                                                                                                      • Cogan, Charles G. The Third Option: The Emancipation of European Defense, 1989–2000. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Among the best treatments of Europe’s effort to establish an autonomous defense capability, given new impetus in the 1990s by Europe’s poor performance in Yugoslavia and American ambivalence over deploying ground forces in Kosovo.

                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        • Gordon, Philip H. France, Germany, and the Western Alliance. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995.

                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          The evolution and future of the most important bilateral relationship in Europe, especially critical to NATO after German reunification and subsequent developments such as the formation of the Franco-German Brigade in 1990.

                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          • Haglund, David G. Alliance within the Alliance? Franco-German Military Cooperation and the European Pillar of Defense. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991.

                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            An analysis of Franco-German defense cooperation as a possible basis for European self-reliance, assessing its lack of progress and possible ways forward.

                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            • Quinlan, Michael. European Defense Cooperation: Asset or Threat to NATO? Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2001.

                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              Expert exploration of decades of efforts in burden sharing among European states, interpreted in the end primarily as a strengthened collective contribution to NATO.

                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              Strategic Divergence

                                                                                                                                              A parallel phenomenon to the post–Cold War alliance has been the divergent strategic perspectives and military priorities in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact. Although this literature remains underdeveloped, Haass 1999, a collection of essays on tensions between the United States and its European allies with regard to “rogue states” on and beyond NATO’s periphery, is a sound introduction. Michta 2006 and Rupp 2006 discuss the intensification of transatlantic strategic divergence since the events of September 11, 2001. Sloan 2005 is prescriptive, yet it comes from one of greatest authorities on NATO affairs and is mandatory for any student of the alliance.

                                                                                                                                              • Haass, Richard N., ed. Transatlantic Tensions: The United States, Europe, and Problem Countries. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Strong collection of sober essays on the divergent approaches within NATO toward rogue states.

                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                • Michta, Andrew A. The Limits of Alliance: The United States, NATO, and the EU in North and Central Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  National-security policies in an era of NATO and transatlantic strategic divergence.

                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  • Rupp, Richard E. NATO after 9/11: An Alliance in Continuing Decline. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Portrays the structure of international relations since the end of the Cold War as increasingly complex, while post-9/11 internal divisions undercut the alliance’s relevance and utility.

                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    • Sloan, Stanley R. NATO, the European Union, and the Atlantic Community: The Transatlantic Bargain Challenged. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      A compelling plea from an ardent Atlanticist for alliance renewal based on intensified cooperation and a warfighting/peacekeeping division of labor with the European Union.

                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      Expeditionary NATO

                                                                                                                                                      The growing literature on NATO’s involvement in the serial wars of the Yugoslav succession during the 1990s and on NATO burden sharing across a variety of missions in Afghanistan also deals with the transatlantic “capabilities gap”. At the same time, however, it devotes considerable attention to the logistical challenges of coalition expeditionary warfare and the tactical challenges of counterinsurgency and reconstruction. Last, and most important, much of the literature engages the issue of NATO unity and survival in the face of challenges over which there are deep internal divisions. Contemporary general treatments of NATO’s post–Cold War military missions have given primary attention to the transformative impact of such missions, ranging from humanitarian intervention in the former Yugoslavia beginning in the 1990s to differences over the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the alliance’s travails with counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. Yost 1998 is the most worthwhile stock-taking of transformation in the first decade following the end of the Cold War, while Frantzen 2005 concentrates on the impact of the decade on three alliance members. Cohen-Tanugi 2003, Gordon 2004, Hodge 2005, and Pond 2004 all stress the internal discord within NATO following upon the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and are to varying degrees pessimistic about NATO’s future. More recent and more optimistic is Moore 2007, a work on NATO’s democratic mission, and Hallams 2010, an authoritative work on Iraq and Afghanistan.

                                                                                                                                                      • Cohen-Tanugi, Laurent. An Alliance at Risk: The United States and Europe since September 11. Translated by George A. Holoch Jr. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Casts transatlantic friction as the product of structural change and enduring policy divergence underscored but not caused by American foreign policy since September 11, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        • Frantzen, Henning-A. NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991–1999: Policies and Doctrines. London: Frank Cass, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          The travails of three NATO member states—Britain, Canada, and Denmark—in adjusting to the expeditionary environment of the 1990s.

                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          • Gordon, Philip H, and Jeremy Shapiro. Allies at War: America, Europe, and the Crisis over Iraq. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Among the first accounts, and in many respects still the best, of NATO’s crisis over the Anglo-American invasion on Iraq.

                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            • Hallams, Ellen. The United States and NATO since 9/11: The Transatlantic Alliance Renewed. London: Routledge, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              The role of postcombat reconstruction and stabilization in Afghanistan and Iraq in renewing NATO following the initial unilateralism of the Bush administration.

                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              • Hodge, Carl Cavanagh. Atlanticism for a New Century: The Rise, Triumph, and Decline of NATO. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                The alliance’s possible future measured against its past, with stress on disunity over Afghanistan and Iraq.

                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                • Moore, Rebecca R. NATO’s New Mission: Projecting Stability in a Post–Cold War World. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Sees post–Cold War NATO as a political community, extending the ambit of democracy beyond its Cold War frontiers and beyond Europe itself.

                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  • Pond, Elizabeth. Friendly Fire: The Near-Death of the Transatlantic Alliance. Pittsburgh, PA: European Union Studies Association, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Ideological and diplomatic factors in the clash between Washington and its European allies over the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq.

                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    • Yost, David S. NATO Transformed: The Alliance’s New Roles in International Security. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Sound treatment of NATO’s post–Cold War change, officially in a strategic partnership with Russia yet enlarging into Eastern Europe and waging humanitarian war in the Balkans.

                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      The Former Yugoslavia

                                                                                                                                                                      NATO intervention in the former Yugoslavia has produced a number of high-quality books, all of which are ambivalent about the use of force, the nature of its application, and its results. Kaufman 2002 is the best introductions to NATO’s travails in Yugoslavia generally, while Fromkin 1999 represents the most negative interpretation of the cost and benefit of the war over Kosovo specifically. Bacevich and Cohen 2001, along with Daalder and O’Hanlon 2000, brings a more detached yet informed interpretation of the policy motivations and the diplomacy preceding and accompanying the use of NATO airpower over Kosovo. Henricksen 2007, Lambeth 2001, and Peters 2001 have produced comparatively detailed accounts of the use of precision airpower, its virtues and limitations, and consequences of the “capabilities gap” within NATO for Operation Allied Force. Norris 2005 extends its concern to the damage done by NATO’s intervention to relations with Russia.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Bacevich, Andrew J., and Eliot A. Cohen, eds. War Over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Worthwhile contribution on the politics behind, and the problems with, the use of limited force to end humanitarian outrages in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo.

                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        • Daalder, Ivo H., and Michael E. O’Hanlon. Winning Ugly: NATO’s War to Save Kosovo. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          The best of the early books on Kosovo, with sound analysis of diplomatic initiatives, military plans, and political pressures.

                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          • Fromkin, David. Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals Meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields. New York: Free Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            America leadership indicted for burdening the United States and NATO with permanent responsibilities in the former Yugoslavia.

                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            • Henriksen, Dag. NATO’s Gamble: Combining Diplomacy and Airpower in the Kosovo Crisis, 1998–1999. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Especially strong on the decision-making factors that led NATO to use precision airpower as a weapon of first resort.

                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              • Kaufman, Joyce P. NATO and the Former Yugoslavia: Crisis, Conflict, and the Atlantic Alliance. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                The alliance’s inability to redefine its mission officially after 1989 while being forced by events into a fundamental transformation.

                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Lambeth, Benjamin S. NATO’s Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  A lucid narrative of the progress of the alliance’s seventy-eight-day bombing campaign against Serbia; useful on both operational and political challenges.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Norris, John. Collision Course: NATO, Russia, and Kosovo. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    The politics of humanitarian force in Kosovo, shot through with internal divisions in NATO, bringing friction with Russia and nearly a military confrontation.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Peters, John E., Stuart E. Johnson, Nora Bensahel, Timothy Liston, and Traci Williams. European Contributions to Operation Allied Force: Implications for Transatlantic Cooperation. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                      E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      The gap between American and European military capacity revealed by the Kosovo operation and the vulnerabilities of multimember military collations.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      Afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                      The literature on NATO’s joint effort in Afghanistan is as yet underdeveloped, but the efforts of Jones 2008 and O’Hanlon and Sherjan 2010 represent very strong early contributions. Bensahel 2003 puts Afghanistan in the context of a larger alliance effort against terrorism, complementing Kobras 2010, a study of asymmetric warfare. Giustozzi 2008, a study of the neo-Taliban insurgency, is an excellent primer on the nature of the military and political struggle with all its complications. Fergusson 2008 is a case study of the British experience, offering graphic detail on modern counterinsurgency. Paul, et al. 2010 then completes the picture with a broad view of counterinsurgency.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bensahel, Nora. The Counterterror Coalitions: Cooperation with Europe, NATO, and the European Union. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                        E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        A prescription for bilateral and multilateral cooperation, in which NATO’s Afghanistan mission represents just one front.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fergusson, James. A Million Bullets: The Real Story of the British Army in Afghanistan. London: Bantam, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          The experience of British troops in Helmand, featuring a revealing interview with General David Richards, commander of NATO forces.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Giustozzi, Antonio. Koran, Kalashnikov, and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                            E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Superb analysis of Taliban tactics as well as of the coalition counterinsurgency methods employed in response.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jones, Seth G. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                              E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Counterinsurgency in theory and in practice by NATO and other coalition forces. Very sound on insurgencies and on coalition counterinsurgency, with informed recommendations.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kobras, Fritz. Afghanistan und die NATO: Gefangen im asymmetrischen Krieg. Frankfurt: Fischer, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                A useful introduction to asymmetric warfare generally and its Afghan peculiarities specifically.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • O’Hanlon, Michael, and Hassina Sherjan. Toughing It Out in Afghanistan. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The long haul of the United States and its allies, with prescriptions for the future.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Paul, Christopher. Colin P. Clarke, and Beth Grill. Victory Has a Thousand Fathers: Detailed Counterinsurgency Case Studies. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of thirty case studies in counterinsurgency with many lessons for the contemporary alliance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    back to top

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    How to Subscribe

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions and individuals. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Purchase an Ebook Version of This Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ebooks of the Oxford Bibliographies Online subject articles are available in North America via a number of retailers including Amazon, vitalsource, and more. Simply search on their sites for Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guides and your desired subject article.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    If you would like to purchase an eBook article and live outside North America please email onlinemarketing@oup.com to express your interest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Up

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Down