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International Relations Military Science
by
Joseph Cerami, John David Young

Introduction

Military science is a term that generally dates back to the Industrial Revolution, when many disciplines sought to discuss their ideas in terms of the emerging fascination with science and the scientific method. Contrasting views contend that war and the conduct of warfare remain arts, and imperfect ones at that. Nevertheless, the term “military science” is used here to outline the main topics in the literature on the military and warfare. Military-centered topic areas include strategy, doctrine, history, and leadership. The military-science literature addresses the different kinds of war and uses of military force. The kinds of wars, or more broadly, the kinds of conflict, include conventional and counterinsurgency warfare. More current concerns address the military’s role in humanitarian interventions, which have increased in quantity, scope, and priority since the end of the Cold War’s superpower rivalry. Post-9/11 attention has been more focused on terrorism and the proliferation and use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons of mass destruction. Traditional areas for the study of military science include developing an understanding of the role of military power that defines the purposes, role, scope, and primary operational areas of the armed services, including discussions of land power, sea power, and airpower. In military operations since World War I, the nature of combined arms warfare is emphasized, and in modern terminology, includes the joint military operations of land, sea, air, special operations, intelligence, space, and cyber forces. The influence of technology on warfare remains an important focus of study, as does the longstanding significance of arms and weapons-systems research and development, budgets and resource management, manpower, and logistics. For the United States and Western powers, as well as the armed forces of emerging democracies, the topic of civilian-military relations remains of critical importance.

Military Strategy

Military strategy in classic warfare involved the plan of the general and the employment of soldiers and sailors in battle. Paret, et al. 1986 and Handel 2001 provide insights on classic strategy. With the ascent of Napoleonic warfare, more attention was devoted to addressing the significance of campaign planning and logistics. Many of the tactical and operational innovations of Napoleonic warfare are reflected in the modern concepts of conventional warfare, including the German blitzkrieg and the US military’s AirLand Battle concept. Weigley 1977 is an account of the American way of war that addresses what is in some circles thought to be the traditional US military strategy of attrition, dating from Grant’s Civil War generalship. In the post–World War II era, the scope of military strategy incorporated the notion of total warfare and included new strategies for thinking about the possibilities of nuclear warfare as well as the relationship between the military and politics. In response to the critique of the United States in the aftermath of Vietnam, civilian and military analysts revisited the topic of strategy and reexamined the classical theorists and historians such as Clausewitz and Thucydides. Luttwak 2001, Gray 1999, and Collins 2001 place modern military strategy in the post-Vietnam and Cold War contexts. In the post-9/11 world, more attention is paid to what is commonly referred to as the “spectrum of conflict,” including and conventional and unconventional warfare, terrorism, and emerging transnational threats that have become issues of security and military strategy. Buley 2008 and Loo 2008 look at more contemporary issues of military strategy, including the notions of revolutions in military affairs, defense transformation, and current warfare.

  • Buley, Benjamin. The New American Way of War: Military Culture and the Political Utility of Force. London: Routledge, 2008.

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    Buley discusses the old and new American ways of war. Then he looks at the impact Vietnam and 9/11 had on American strategy in Afghanistan; he concludes with a balanced critique of that strategy.

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  • Collins, John M. Military Strategy: Principles, Practices, and Historical Perspectives. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2001.

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    Collins describes the framework for thinking about military strategy and its fundamentals (including arms control and military preparedness). Part 3 focuses on special military strategies, such as biological warfare and terrorism. The entire work is a solid, cohesive look at military strategy.

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  • Gray, Colin S. Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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    Colin Gray analyzes the writing of Clausewitz and newer strategists. This work also examines the political, ethical, and cultural aspects of military strategy.

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  • Handel, Michael. Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought. 3d ed. London: Frank Cass, 2001.

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    Masters of War summarizes the major themes of classic writers on war and other important factors in military strategy. Handel attempts to create a unified theory of war, including everyone’s thoughts.

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  • Loo, Bernard, ed. Military Transformation and Strategy: Revolutions in Military Affairs and Small States. London: Routledge, 2008.

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    The contributors argue that a revolution in military affairs is underway and examine its effects on strategy and operations. Part 3 discusses impediments to the transformation, including officers’ attitudes and organizational characteristics. The work specifically focuses on how the revolution in military affairs affects small-scale conflicts.

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  • Luttwak, Edward. Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

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    Luttwak begins with examining the logic of strategy. Then, in his next section, he discusses several different levels of strategy—from tactical to theater—and includes thoughts on the nonstrategies of air and nuclear.

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  • Paret, Peter, Gordon A. Craig, and Felix Gilbert, eds. Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

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    The key military and technological innovations of the last five hundred years and their impact on strategy are discussed in this work, as are famous strategists and tacticians. Sections focus on the creation and expansion of modern warfare, followed by historical analysis, concluding with a look at the future of strategy.

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  • Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

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    Weigley’s work looks at major military leaders and their actions throughout America’s history. He discusses the strategies they used to achieve their goals. Focuses on conventional military operations.

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Military Doctrine

In essence, military doctrine provides the war-fighting concepts, including tactics, techniques, and procedures, that the arm forces design to fight engagements, battles, and campaigns. Military doctrine answers the questions regarding how armies, navies, air forces, and special operations forces will fight. At the operational level of war, doctrine provides concepts for campaign planning and the employment of joint forces. Posen 1986 provides background on the role and significance of military doctrine. Brooks and Stanley 2007 addresses how doctrine and other forces influence military effectiveness. Cohen and Gooch 2006 emphasizes learning from failure in developing sound military doctrine. Collins 1998 stresses the importance of understanding geography to create effective military strategy. Current views on military doctrine and the need for major reforms are highlighted in Macgregor 2003 and Berkowitz 2003. Common terminology used by US military and civilian officials can be found online in the Defense Department’s Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.

  • Berkowitz, Bruce. The New Face of War: How War Will Be Fought in the 21st Century. New York: Free Press, 2003.

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    Berkowitz examines asymmetric warfare and how it will be relevant in the 21st century. He especially focuses on the importance of electronics and cyberspace in the Information Age.

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  • Brooks, Risa A., and Elizabeth A. Stanley, eds. Creating Military Power: The Sources of Military Effectiveness. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

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    The contributing authors discuss how culture, society, institutions, and international forces impact the effectiveness of military forces. Chapters use case studies from various time periods to analyze military power.

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  • Cohen, Eliot A., and John Gooch. Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War. New York: Free Press, 2006.

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    The authors look at five specific instances of military failure and why the failures occurred. Cohen and Gooch argue that learning from failure is vital for future military doctrine.

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  • Collins, John M. Military Geography: For Professionals and the Public. Washington, DC: Potomac, 1998.

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    Collins explains all of the facets of physical and cultural geography and how it pertains to military forces. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of understanding geography to create accurate military policy.

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  • Department of Defense. DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.

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    Standard terminology for the US armed forces. Intended as common, unclassified interpretations of terms and definitions that are approved for use within the Defense Department, except when dealing with NATO operations, where NATO terminology takes precedence.

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  • Macgregor, Douglas. Transformation Under Fire: Revolutionizing How America Fights. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

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    Macgregor argues in favor of joint expeditionary forces in future land warfare. The author defines the concepts and architecture for joint expeditionary forces and how to organize the military for it.

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  • Posen, Barry R. The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany Between the World Wars. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.

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    Posen gives examples of three different styles of military doctrine: offensive, defensive, and deterrence. Chapter 2 argues that balance-of-power theory and organizational theory explain why states choose different military doctrines.

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Military History

Since conflict and warfare have been constant features of human affairs, military history covers thousands of years. Military history covers wars, battles, campaigns, and military forces, as well as the studies of soldiers and generals, in war and peace. Recent efforts by modern historians seek to record recent, relevant lessons learned from ongoing operations that are usually drawn from current histories and firsthand accounts. The list below covers a limited number of sources that each provide an entry point into more extensive literatures. The books below focus primarily on US military history. Bradford 2003, Chambers 1999, and Sweeney 2006 provide an atlas, short entries on military battles, and a concise handbook of US military history, respectively. Broader US military history is covered by Millett and Maslowski 1994. Heller and Stofft 1986 offers insights into the failures of US forces in their first battles in a variety of historical periods and types of wars. Michael Howard’s classic work (Howard 2009) covers war in European history, which enlightens readers on the Western way of war. Boot 2003 includes a history of small wars with insights for 21st-century warfare.

  • Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003.

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    Boot looks at the involvement of American forces in small wars throughout history. He concludes with some thoughts about how the United States will fight small wars in the 21st century based on previous post–Cold War conflicts.

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  • Bradford, James C., ed. Atlas of American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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    Each author contributes a chapter on a different war or conflict in American history, from the colonial wars to after the Cold War.

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  • Chambers, John Whiteclay, ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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    This work has over a thousand entries from notable historians on hundreds of battles. The entries include analysis as well as historical details.

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  • Heller, Charles E., and William A. Stofft, eds. America’s First Battles, 1776–1965. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986.

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    The contributing authors each discuss meaningful initial-contact battles from America’s history. Peculiarities arise from these battles that impact the remainder of the ensuing war, the concluding author John Shy argues.

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  • Howard, Michael. War in European History. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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    Howard summarizes the major European wars and their main combatants. Chapters discuss the changes in military strategy and doctrine.

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  • Millett, Allan R., and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. Rev. ed. New York: Free Press, 1994.

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    For the Common Defense is a complete history of American military endeavors focusing on political, economic, social, and institutional facets, as well as the military one. The authors’ purpose is to analyze military policy’s development, execution, and impact on domestic development and international relations.

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  • Sweeney, Jerry K., ed. A Handbook of American Military History: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. 2d ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

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    Each section discusses the chronology and military operations of specific time periods in American history. Also contains a bibliography of other works describing events within the time period.

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Military Leadership

Military education and training places enormous emphasis on the importance of effective leadership. Leadership generally includes accomplishing military missions and tasks while caring for soldiers. The effectiveness of military organizations from squad through army levels is normally viewed as a reflection of individual and collective leadership skills. Historical lessons and case histories of effective leadership as the art of military command are found in Fredriksen 1999, and Laver and Matthews 2008, and Nye 2001. Malone 1983 continues to resonate with tactical-level leaders from corporals to colonels. Kolenda 2001 and Snider and Matthews 2005 address the concepts of leadership and the development of leaders as military professionals. The army’s doctrine on military leadership is in its official manual (Center for Army Leadership 2004).

  • Center for Army Leadership. The U.S. Army Leadership Field Manual: Be, Know, Do. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

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    The official army work concerning leadership. The three parts focus on the human dimension, direct leadership, and strategic leadership.

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  • Fredriksen, John C. American Military Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

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    Alphabetical list of major American military leaders. The entries describe some of their backgrounds and their major military accomplishments.

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  • Kolenda, Christopher D., ed. Leadership: The Warrior’s Art. Carlisle, PA: Army War College Foundation Press, 2001.

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    Kolenda’s work covers three major topics: ancient and modern leadership, case studies, and contemporary experiences. The authors adequately discuss leadership in war and peace.

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  • Laver, Harry S., and Jeffrey J. Matthews, eds. The Art of Command: Military Leadership from George Washington to Colin Powell. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2008.

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    The Art of Command lists major leaders from American military history and describes their leadership virtues. Leaders discussed include Marshall, Eisenhower, and Powell.

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  • Malone, Dandridge M. Small Unit Leadership: A Commonsense Approach. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1983.

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    This book informs officers how to manage and develop soldiers effectively. It gives advice on how to deal with soldiers based on individual traits. Focus is on personal and interpersonal leadership skills at the tactical level.

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  • Nye, Roger H. The Challenge of Command: Reading for Military Excellence. New York: Berkley, 2001.

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    Nye discusses the various roles a commander plays, including moral arbiter, strategist, and warrior, to name a few. The initial section describes the challenges a company commander faces.

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  • Snider, Dan M., and Lloyd J. Matthews, eds. The Future of the Army Profession. 2d ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

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    Various authors discuss the many facets of the army profession and how they are currently changing. Topics include technical expertise, ethics, and leader development, among others.

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Conventional Warfare

For many military officers and defense analysts, conventional warfare remains at the heart of the military profession. Clausewitz 1984 remains the keystone for military theorists, especially those in the Western tradition. More modern views can be found in Smith 2007 and Johnson, et al. 2004. Art and Waltz 2009 remains an important book on the use of force and the role of military power in international politics. The literature below should be supplemented with readings from the long history of wars throughout human history.

  • Art, Robert J., and Kenneth N. Waltz, eds. The Use of Force: Military Power and International Politics. 7th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

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    This is an enduring work on the uses of force in different contexts. The three sections address strategies behind the use of force, several case studies, and several current military issues. The authors analyze the effectiveness of military action during three eras: great power, superpower, and contemporary.

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  • Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Rev. ed. Edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1984.

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    On War is the essential work in Western military science on the nature of warfare. Essential reading on the relationship of politics and warfare. Includes important ideas about the significance of the “remarkable trinity”—the relationships among the army, the people, and the government.

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  • Johnson, David E., Karl P. Mueller, and William H. Taft V. Conventional Coercion across the Spectrum of Operations: The Utility of U.S. Military Forces in the Emerging Security Environment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2004.

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    Johnson, Mueller, and Taft provide an in-depth discussion on coercion theory. The book follows with case-study results and an analysis of results (including matrixes). The conclusion makes recommendations about the level of effort and force necessary for positive results.

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  • Smith, Rupert. The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Knopf, 2007.

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    Smith gives a history of the advancements of war from the Industrial Age to the end of the Cold War. The author analyzes future trends and directions, with a specific look at Bosnia. He urges militaries to change paradigms rather than simply tools.

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Counterinsurgency Warfare

After 9/11 there has been a re-emergence of studies on counterinsurgency warfare. Classic books such as Galula 2006 have been reissued to address the challenges in the ongoing counterinsurgencies in Iraq, Afghanistan, Colombia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and other hot spots. Marston and Malkasian 2008 draws from history to inform current counterinsurgency thinking. Metz 2008 criticizes and offers alternatives to current US grand strategy in general and the counterinsurgency in Iraq in particular. Weinstein 2007 writes about the logic, structure, and strategies of rebel groups in insurgencies. US military doctrinal writing, with case-study illustrations, can be found in US Department of the Army 2007, a reprint of the Army/Marine Corps counterinsurgency manual, and in the Marine Corps’s small-wars manual (US Marine Corps 2009).

  • Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger Security, 2006.

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    Galula defines conventional Western pre-9/11 thinking about counterinsurgency warfare. He questions what makes for a successful insurgency and provides a historical analysis of counterinsurgencies. The work ends with a look at strategy and tactics as well as a sample operation structure for a counterinsurgency.

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  • Marston, Daniel, and Carter Malkasian, eds. Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare. Oxford: Osprey, 2008.

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    Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare is an anthology of insurgencies from the 1900s through today. Each chapter looks at a different war, including Vietnam and Northern Ireland, among others. It draws lessons for counterinsurgency in the 21st century based on efforts in Afghanistan.

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  • Metz, Steven. Iraq and the Evolution of American Strategy. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2008.

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    Metz is a military theorist who examines how the war in Iraq has reshaped the US approach to grand and military strategy. The book reviews US-Iraqi relations from the early 1980s through the 2003 conventional war and the following counterinsurgency period. Analyzes and critiques US strategy-making and strategic thinking.

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  • US Department of the Army. The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

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    The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual is an official military manual that is very specific and detailed. It discusses the major aspects of insurgencies and a plan to fight them. The manual also addresses unity in civilian and military leaders, designing campaigns, and developing local security forces.

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  • US Marine Corps. Small Wars Manual. New York: Skyhorse, 2009.

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    Small Wars Manual is a textbook on how to fight minor wars. It defines “small wars” and the necessary organization, logistics, and training necessary to fight them. Finally, the work summarizes initial military operations and withdrawal strategies.

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  • Weinstein, Jeremy M. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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    The author describes the structure and strategy of rebel groups in detail. Weinstein concludes that the most important aspect for the effectiveness of an insurgency is simply access to material resources.

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Humanitarian Interventions

With the end of the Cold War and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War, many analysts turned to the study of humanitarian interventions. The role and number of United Nations peacekeeping and peacemaking operations expanded enormously in this period. Studies sought to learn from the experiences and failures of the UN and its member states in places like Rwanda and the Great Lakes region in Africa. Finnemore 2004 and Holzgrefe and Keohane 2003 address the political and military rationales for interventions. The US military’s focus on humanitarian interventions was heightened by its experience in the Balkan conflicts in the 1990s. Haass 1999 focuses on the use of US conventionally armed forces in military interventions. Harff and Gurr 2004 focuses on ethnic conflict, as does Toft 2003. The emergence of the issue of human security—the responsibilities to protect people and ethnic groups—is addressed in Kaldor 2007, MacFarlane and Khong 2006, and Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 2007.

  • Finnemore, Martha. The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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    Finnemore studies the evolution of thought about military action in given situations. She looks at the traditional reasons for intervention and several cases that describe how social pressures have extended the classic rational for military action. She argues social purpose must be understood in order for policy to use force effectively.

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  • Haass, Richard N. Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post–Cold War World. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

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    The author examines twelve recent interventions by the US military and then draws conclusions based on the data. His thoughts are quite centrist—not favoring obsessive intervention or isolationism—and emphasize the importance of the UN. Haass also makes some recommendations for handling the domestic political scene.

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  • Harff, Barbara, and Ted Robert Gurr. Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. 2d ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004.

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    The authors provide a framework for understanding ethnopolitical conflict by expounding upon internal dynamics. The book summarizes the major arguments about state sovereignty and concludes with thoughts for the international community to respond to ethnic violence.

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  • Holzgrefe, J. L., and Robert O. Keohane, eds. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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    This is an anthology discussing humanitarian interventions, specifically involving legality and sovereignty issues. The authors address the ethical and political reasons justifying outside assistance in resolving ethnic violence.

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  • Kaldor, Mary. Human Security: Reflections on Globalization and Intervention. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2007.

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    Human Security discusses the role of nationalism and globalization in ethnic violence. The author provides a definition for human security and emphasizes its future importance in international affairs.

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  • MacFarlane, S. Neil, and Yuen Foong Khong. Human Security and the UN: A Critical History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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    The authors offer a history of the evolution of human security and of the UN’s role. Chapters specifically target the UN’s role in protecting vulnerable groups and developing states. The book argues that a framework is in place to protect individuals, and the UN is agreeable toward human security.

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  • Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou, and Anuradha M. Chenoy. Human Security: Concepts and Implications. London: Routledge, 2007.

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    The authors attempt to define the new concept of human security; then they provide critiques and counter-critiques of the concept. The book argues that human security is a useful framework because it includes security, development, and human aid. Finally, the authors touch on intervention and international aid.

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  • Toft, Monica Duffy. The Geography of Ethnic Violence: Identity, Interests, and the Indivisibility of Territory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

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    Toft focuses on the geographical factor of territory in understanding ethnic violence. Her claims are solidified by four examples from the former USSR. The author emphasizes the strength of institutions in constraining demands for political autonomy under certain situations.

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Land Power

Books on armies provide the majority of the writing on military science. “Land power” is the term normally used to describe the use of ground forces in warfare. Today, of course, all conflicts routinely employ all of the elements of military power. The books below highlight the army’s employment of its land power to accomplish the goals and objectives of battles and campaigns, and to achieve the military goals of regional and global strategies. Land power on a smaller scale (contingency operations) is covered by Crane 2001. Donnelly and Kagan 2008, Macgregor 1997, and Metz and Millen 2003 all address the role of land power in current and future military operations.

  • Crane, Conrad C. Landpower and Crises: Army Roles and Missions in Smaller-Scale Contingencies during the 1990s. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2001.

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    The author examines peacetime operations during the 1990s. Crane specifically discusses the timeline of these operations and the number of forces present.

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  • Donnelly, Thomas, and Frederick W. Kagan. Ground Truth: The Future of U.S. Land Power. Washington, DC: AEI, 2008.

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    Donnelly and Kagan advocate a larger but more flexible ground force for the 21st century, not the commonly recommended smaller one, capable of fighting both insurgents and potential great powers. Their supporting examples come primarily from the Iraq War.

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  • Macgregor, Douglas A. Breaking the Phalanx: A New Design for Landpower in the 21st Century. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

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    Macgregor discusses land power and strategic dominance in light of the ongoing revolution in military affairs. The following chapters make suggestions to organize the military within the new military trends in the Information Age.

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  • Metz, Steven, and Raymond A. Millen. Future War, Future Battlespace: The Strategic Role of American Landpower. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2003.

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    The authors suggest that the future “battlespace” will no longer involve only military risks and rewards. They believe that the US Army should become both more flexible and more geared toward collective involvement.

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Sea Power

Sea power and the role of naval forces are usually highlighted in books emphasizing the military’s role in geopolitics. Mahan 1987 provides the ideas for the emergence of the United States as a great power with global reach in the late 19th century, with the advent of Theodore Roosevelt’s “Great White Fleet.” Baer 1994 offers a hundred-year history of US naval history. Hagan 1991 provides a longer view, going back to the navy’s founding in 1775. Keegan 1989, by a British historian, covers classic naval battles in military history—Trafalgar, Jutland, Midway, and the Battle of the Atlantic (World War II). Holloway 2007 discusses the use of aircraft carriers in modern conventional wars. Future roles for sea power are suggested by Pfaltzgraff and Schultz 2000 and Till 2009.

  • Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.

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    Baer summarizes the lessons learned by the US Navy on the water. The last section discusses the overall direction that the navy took during the late 20th century.

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  • Hagan, Kenneth J. This People’s Navy: The Making of American Sea Power. New York: Free Press, 1991.

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    This People’s Navy is a history of the US Navy from 1775 to 1990. Hagan explains the various uses of sea power within the chapters.

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  • Holloway, James L., III. Aircraft Carriers at War: A Personal Retrospective of Korea, Vietnam, and the Soviet Confrontation. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007.

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    Holloway, a retired admiral, discusses the actions of aircraft carriers during Korea, Vietnam, and later incidents. The conclusion reaffirms the necessity of aircraft carriers in the future.

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  • Keegan, John. The Price of Admiralty: The Evolution of Naval Warfare. New York: Penguin, 1989.

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    The author describes four classic naval battles in detail: Trafalgar, Jutland, Midway, and the Battle of the Atlantic (World War II). Keegan concludes that an “empty ocean”—dominated by carriers and submarines—is the most effective means of sea power.

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  • Mahan, A. T. The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783. New York: Dover, 1987.

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    Mahan’s classic work begins with a description of the elements of sea power. Subsequent chapters examine European naval wars in light of the increasing importance of naval forces.

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  • Shultz, Richard H., Jr., and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff Jr., eds. The Role of Naval Forces in 21st-Century Operations. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2000.

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    The contributing authors examine the current and future security environments in light of naval forces. New strategies, missions, and challenges are discussed in later chapters.

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  • Till, Geoffrey. Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 2009.

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    Till offers a definition of sea power and an explanation of why it is important. Then he lists the components and technologies of navies, as well as other useful topics.

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Airpower

Airpower history began with World War II. Since the emergence of strategic bombing in World War II, the histories and theories of airpower have grown exponentially. Given the importance of bombers and missiles in the Cold War and the emergence of space and cybersecurity, some would say air-space power is of increasing importance. Douhet’s ideas from the early period are the classic reference (Douhet 2009). Boyne 2003, Budiansky 2004, and Olsen 2010 provide air-warfare histories. Buckley 1999 reviews airpower history from the world wars. Corum and Johnson 2003 discusses airpower in small wars against insurgents and terrorists. Pape 1996 provides theoretical insights on the relationship between airpower and coercion. The failure of air forces in war is addressed in Higham and Harris 2006.

Joint Military Operations and Combined-Arms Warfare

Today all warfare is conducted using joint forces. The earlier concept, especially in writing about the evolution of military forces in the conduct of World War II, was called “combined-arms warfare.” The evolution of infantry, artillery, and cavalry combined-arms operations has been greatly expanded and accelerated in contemporary warfare. Beaumont 1993 provides a short history on the evolution from combined arms to joint warfare. House 2002 remains the most significant work on 20th-century combined-arms warfare. Joint Chiefs of Staff 1997 provides a historical collection of writings on joint military operations. Dorman, et al. 2002 and Vego 2009 discuss current trends in joint warfare. The role of airpower in joint operations is addressed by Johnson 2007 and Spirtas, et al. 2009.

  • Beaumont, Roger A. Joint Military Operations: A Short History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993.

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    The author gives a history of combined-arms warfare since World War II. He uses case studies to illustrate current trends and discuss the issues facing joint operations.

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  • Dorman, Andrew, Mike Smith, and Matthew Uttley, eds. The Changing Face of Military Power: Joint Warfare in the Expeditionary Era. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

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    This book contains a number of articles that advocate continuing the trend toward joint warfare. Authors also discuss the economics of joint warfare and limitations faced.

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  • House, Jonathan M. Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th-Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 2002.

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    House’s work summarizes combined-arms actions from World War I and World War II. He concludes with an explanation of how lower levels in the armed forces were integrated into combined arms. He also addresses potential future trends.

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  • Johnson, David E. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post–Cold War Era. Rev. ed. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2007.

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    Johnson argues that the entire decision-making process in combined-arms warfare should be overhauled because of the new deep-strike abilities of the air force. Examples are from the Gulf War, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq.

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  • Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Military Operations Historical Collection. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1997.

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    This work is a history of joint operations that exemplify standard tactics and doctrine by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The lessons focus on planning, deploying, and managing joint troops. Includes historical case studies.

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  • Spirtas, Michael, Thomas-Durell Young, and S. Rebecca Zimmerman. What It Takes: Air Force Command of Joint Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2009.

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    The authors define and explain joint task forces. Later chapters discuss lessons from the past as well as current issues before providing recommendations.

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  • Vego, Milan N. Joint Operational Warfare: Theory and Practice. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2009.

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    Vego describes joint warfare at the operational level. Chapters detail aspects of joint operational warfare.

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Force Structure and Planning

The design of military organizations and formation remains an essential part of military science. Related to the topic of force structure are the concepts of planning for military operations. Dunnigan 2003 provides a comprehensive explanation of military organizations, weapons, equipment, and logistics. Threat assessments remain an essential element of military planning. Alexseev 1997 and Press 2005 discuss threat analysis. Cragin and Daly 2004 provides insights on terrorist threats. Mandel 2008 provides an alternative methodology for military planning by using target-centered assessments. Biddle 2004 is a groundbreaking book that provides a method for determining the effectiveness of military power in a variety of scenarios.

  • Alexseev, Mikhail A. Without Warning: Threat Assessment, Intelligence, and Global Struggle. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

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    Alexseev describes asymmetrical threat assessment and its causes after he gives his argument for the end of deterrence. Several case studies from world history follow, as well as some concluding thoughts about post–Cold War threat assessment.

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  • Biddle, Stephen. Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

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    In Biddle’s important book he explains a modern system for force employment. Military Power concludes with two case studies and different tests that support the author’s ideas and methodology.

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  • Cragin, Kim, and Sara A. Daly. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2004.

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    The authors assess terrorist organizations’ threats, intentions, and capabilities. The last section looks at the groups as dynamic entities, specifically Hezbollah and Egyptian Islamic Jihad.

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  • Dunnigan, James F. How to Make War: A Comprehensive Guide to Modern Warfare in the Twenty-first Century. 4th ed. New York: Quill, 2003.

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    Dunnigan explains all of the units and weapons that make up the US Armed Forces, including Special Forces. He also touches on logistics and the weapons of other nations.

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  • Mandel, Robert. Global Threat: Target-Centered Assessment and Management. Westport, CT: Praeger Security, 2008.

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    Global Threat analyzes the new threats in the post–Cold War world. The author suggests a new way to approach and prioritize threats and uses four case studies to support his case.

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  • Press, Daryl G. Calculating Credibility: How Leaders Assess Military Threats. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

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    Press’s work looks at several theories of credibility. Three case studies follow: appeasement from 1938 to 1939, the Berlin Crisis from 1958 to 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

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Arms, Logistics, and Technology

The importance of arms, technology, and logistics are fundamental to an understanding of military science. The advent of the nuclear age, the information age, and the age of globalization has had a major influence on military forces, operations, and logistics. Kane 2001 directly focuses on the essentials of military-logistics influences on strategic performance. In Van Creveld 1977 the reader gets a classic book on the significance of military logistics for supplying wars throughout history. The post–Cold War emphasis in the US Defense Department is highlighted in several books, such as Loo 2008. Military innovation as defense transformation is covered by Horowitz 2010 and Boot 2006. The history of military innovation is addressed in Knox and Murray 2001 and Van Creveld 2006. Mahnken 2008 reviews the evolution of technology and weapons systems, from after World War II to contemporary times.

  • Boot, Max. War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Course of History, 1500 to Today. New York: Gotham, 2006.

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    War Made New discusses arms and technological innovations, but argues that they must be paired with sound leadership and training to be effective.

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  • Horowitz, Michael C. The Diffusion of Military Power: Causes and Consequences for International Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

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    The author explains the concept of diffusion and how military innovations spread throughout the armed forces. The next four chapters discuss new weapons or military strategies and how they expanded into common use.

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  • Kane, Thomas M. Military Logistics and Strategic Performance. London: Frank Cass, 2001.

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    Kane explores the importance that logistics plays in warfare and attempts to define practical principles for future leaders. He provides examples from recent wars to support his ideas.

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  • Knox, MacGregor, and Williamson Murray, eds. The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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    Contributing authors discuss the past revolutions in military affairs, including the how, and the why of succeess or failure. Knox and Murray argue that past lessons are necessary for the current revolution in military affairs.

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  • Loo, Bernard, ed. Military Transformation and Strategy: Revolutions in Military Affairs and Small States. New York: Routledge, 2008.

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    The contributors argue that a revolution in military affairs is under way, and they examine its effects on strategy and operations. Parts 1 and 2 discuss specific advancements and how they affect strategy and operations. The work focuses on how the revolution in military affairs affects small-scale conflicts.

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  • Mahnken, Thomas G. Technology and the American Way of War. New York: Colombia University Press, 2008.

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    Mahnken’s work starts with the nuclear revolution in 1945 and continues chronologically to 2008, summarizing the impact of new technologies on warfare. He notes the limitations and benefits of technology on strategy and tactics.

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  • Van Creveld, Martin. Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

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    Classic work on logistics that examines a number of old campaigns. Van Creveld also discusses the importance of railways and money for the effectiveness of logistical operations.

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  • Van Creveld, Martin. The Changing Face of War: Lessons of Combat from the Marne to Iraq. New York: Presidio, 2006.

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    The Changing Face of War examines the innovations of the last hundred years of warfare. The author discusses how new technology has affected the way wars are fought.

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Civil-Military Relations

In Western military traditions, the tension between generals and statesmen has been an area of continuing interest for scholars and military professionals. The field of civil-military relations is important in the disciplines of military science, sociology, political science, and history. Huntington 1967 is a treatise on the differences between objective and subjective professional expertise, providing an important idea that has stood the test of time. Nielsen and Snider 2009 updates Huntington’s classic for the contemporary reader. Feaver 2003 and Feaver and Kohn 2001 provide the results of detailed survey research. Their theoretical and historical insights into civil-military relations illustrate the potential for adverse effects on the armed forces and policymakers today. Feaver and Kohn also sound alarm bells about the potential effects that dissonant civil-military relations may have on political-military policy, strategy, and operations. Brooks 2008 also discusses the influence of civil-military relations on strategic assessments. The enduring American tradition of civilian control of the military in the current, changing security environment is addressed in Desch 1999, an influential book. Cohen 2002 provides a masterful history of senior-level civil-military relations, with in-depth historical case studies of forceful civilian leaders in wartime. Cohen provides important insights and positive reviews of the wartime civilian leadership of Lincoln, Clemenceau, Churchill, and Ben-Gurion.

  • Brooks, Risa A. Shaping Strategy: The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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    Brooks argues that the nature of the civil-military relationship is vital to the accuracy of a strategic assessment. She uses five different case studies to support her claim.

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  • Cohen, Eliot A. Supreme Command: Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in Wartime. New York: Free Press, 2002.

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    Important book about command in wartime and the relationship between civilian and military leaders. Historical case studies of Lincoln, Clemenceau, Churchill, and Ben-Gurion. Includes Cohen’s theory on civilian control of the military.

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  • Desch, Michael C. Civilian Control of the Military: The Changing Security Environment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

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    The author examines the civil-military relationship under a variety of different threat environments. Desch uses several case studies to discuss civilian control in foreign nations as well as the United States.

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  • Feaver, Peter D. Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

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    Feaver uses the principal-agent relationship to create a new theory explaining civil-military relations. Specifically, he looks at day-to-day interactions in this work.

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  • Feaver, Peter D., and Richard H. Kohn, eds. Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

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    The book is based on former secretary of defense and US senator William Cohen’s concerns about “the gap” between civilians and the military. The different authors examine the gap and how it has evolved over time.

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  • Huntington, Samuel P. The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.

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    Classic work explaining the theory behind the interactions of civilians and professional military officers. Huntington offers some suggestions for how to create equilibrium between the two sides.

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  • Nielsen, Suzanne C., and Don M. Snider, eds. American Civil-Military Relations: The Soldier and the State in a New Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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    The contributors examine a variety of issues facing the civilian-military relationship. The conclusion lists nine suggestions that fit into the framework of Huntington 1967.

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LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0052

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