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International Relations Terrorism
by
Hall Gardner

Introduction

Terrorism is a multidimensional concept in which most definitions (there are at least 100) include the use of violence or force, with an emphasis on instigating fear or “terror.” International terrorism can be considered the use of psychologically, culturally, morally, or legally “unacceptable” violence, or else the threat to use such force or violence, by state, anti-state or even non-state actors, generally with the intent to achieve or express some form of political, social, economic, or ideological goal, belief, or statement that crosses state boundaries or results in some form of international repercussion or response. The goals of this bibliography are to familiarize the reader with works that seek to explain the American and international responses to the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, which arguably represented the greatest single act of anti-state international “terrorism” in history. Concurrently, the bibliography also chooses works that seek to explain the reasons for those attacks and their possible consequences. As it is state or military leaderships that have generally been responsible for the most significant acts of international “terrorism” throughout history, and not anti-state actors, this bibliography also seeks to emphasize those books that explore the complex interaction between state-supported and anti-state violence. The bibliography also chooses works that explore how globalization affects the tactics and strategies of the new terrorism and what policies states and international organizations need to adopt to deal with this form of threat.

General Overviews

A number of texts provide a general overview of issues related to international terrorism. These introductory texts can be used to establish a foundation of understanding about terrorism, both past and present, which need to be supplemented with additional resources that go into greater and more specific detail. Camus 1992 is a classic text that explains why people oppose existing governments, in discussing both individual and state terror. One of the best introductory texts, Howard and Sawyer 2003, provides a number of excellent chapters from differing perspectives on the historical background of anti-state terrorism, in addition to highly detailed coverage on the nature of the contemporary threat. Simonsen and Spindlove 2006 offer a more general, easy to read, survey of contemporary terrorist movements. Chaliland and Blin 2007 explores a number of historical perspectives on anti-state and state-supported terrorism. Hoffman 2006 provides a deeper sociopolitical analysis of the contemporary anti-state movements. Wilkinson 2001 argues that there has been an upsurge of religiously oriented groups, with a general decrease in extreme left-wing and right-wing groups. Wright 2006 is one of the best-researched books on al-Qaeda.

  • Camus, Albert. The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt. New York: Vintage, 1992.

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    A classic and thought-provoking text as to why men oppose existing governments, examining differing forms of metaphysical and historical rebellion, as well as individual and state forms of terrorism.

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  • Chaliland, Gérard, and Arnaud Blin, eds. The History of Terrorism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

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    Provides a general history of terrorism by both states and anti-state movements both before and after the French Revolution, arguing that the latter represents the origins of modern totalitarian “terrorism” but has also inspired anti-state “terrorist” movements. The book also examines French Resistance “terrorism” versus Vichy authorities and left-wing movements in the United States and Europe, along with Islamic terrorism and al-Qaeda.

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  • Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. Rev. ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

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    Discusses complications in defining terrorism, analyzes suicidal terrorism, shows the relationship between religion and terrorism as well as the techniques and technologies of terrorism, and discusses how the collapse of empires often results in the rise of groups willing to use extreme violence. Book also discusses how terrorism can be “internationalized” when groups enact “major media events” by targeting symbols of power.

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  • Howard, Russell D., and Reid L. Sawyer, eds. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment: Readings and Interpretations. Guilford, CT: McGraw Hill, 2003.

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    Covers key themes with regard to contemporary terrorist movements, goals, and methods. Seeks a definition for “terrorism”; provides historical examples of “terrorist” movements; examines the “new” terrorism; the relationship between religion and the terrorism; threats to use weapons of mass destruction; use of the media, including the Internet; and strategies for combating terrorism. Excellent interview with Eqbal Ahmed, among other excellent chapters.

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  • Simonsen, Clifford E., and Jeremy R. Spindlove. Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future. 3d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

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    Easy-to-read introductory text that outlines the activities of differing “terrorist” groups around the world, discussed region by region. The book provides an introductory history of both state and anti-state forms of “terrorism” as well as an analysis of counter-terrorist strategies.

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  • Wilkinson, Paul. Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Cass Series on Political Violence 9. London: Frank Cass, 2001.

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    Updated after the 11 September 2001 attacks, this book argues that there has been an upsurge of religiously oriented groups, with a general decrease in extreme left-wing and right-wing groups. A number of these are state-supported and increasingly possess international outreach in obtaining arms and funding from overseas. All contemporary forms of terrorism appear to be augmenting their destructive capabilities while striking civilian populations indiscriminately.

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  • Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaida and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf, 2006.

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    One of the best-researched books on the rise of al-Qaeda. Examines the lives of Al-Zawahiri and bin Laden by means of hundreds of interviews. The book traces their childhood through to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and explains why these men became “fundamentalists” in opposing “apostate” Islamic regimes, as well as the United States and other European powers, in addition to the Soviet Union/Russia.

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Anthologies and Archives

This section provides a select number of anthologies and archives written about violent or “terrorist” actions in support of “left-wing,” “right-wing,” “religious,” or other causes. The individuals involved may or may not call themselves “terrorists” but often rationalize or explain the use of state-supported or anti-state violence in differing ways. Also included are documents on historical American concepts of “Homeland Security” as the United States has, in the past and present, sought to protect itself from perceived threats from differing partisan groups. The Anarchy Archives offers works by a number of key anarchist theorists. Challiand 1982 provides a range of writings on revolutionary warfare, with its mix of guerrilla and terrorist tactics. Griffin 1995 includes selected writings from Italian fascism and German National Socialism, along with contemporary New Right thinking. Laqueur 2004 provides a historical anthology of writings on anti-state movements up to Hamas and al-Qaeda. Maxwell 2004 traces primary-source documentation of efforts by the United States to maintain its security versus perceived internal threats.

  • Anarchy Archives: An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism.

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    Includes works by both violent and nonviolent anarchists.

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    • Chaliland, Gerard, ed. Guerrilla Strategies: An Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

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      Offers a broad range of revolutionary analysis, dealing primarily with guerrilla movements in China, Yugoslavia, Algeria, Philippines, Vietnam, Kenya, Guinea, Colombia, Cuba, Greece, Palestine, and Afghanistan, which often use irregular or terrorist tactics to achieve their aims. It starts with Camille Rougeron’s classic study “The Historical Dimension of Guerrilla Warfare.”

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    • Griffin, Roger, ed. Fascism. Oxford Readers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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      Includes selected writings from Italian fascist literature and German National Socialism. Also provides right-wing literature from many countries in Europe, responses to fascist movements from differing theoretical viewpoints, and discourses on post–World War II varieties of fascism, Universal Nazism, Holocaust denial, and Euro-fascism, among other contemporary expressions of New Right thinking in Europe and Russia.

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    • Laqueur, Walter. Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings and Manuals of Al Qaida, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2004.

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      An excellent anthology of eighty-two primary-source documents on tyrannicide, revolution, guerilla warfare, and anti-state terrorism. The 2004 edition includes selections by Islamist terrorists and seeks to explain the changing concept of jihad both before and after the 11 September 2001 attacks.

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    • Marighella, Carlos. 1969. Minimanual of the Urban Guerilla.

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      The classic underground text that influenced radical left-wing movements in their struggle against military dictatorships but that also set the stage for more extreme contemporary forms of terrorism, in both the “right” and “left” wings. Describes how an elite vanguard could provoke a revolution even if socioeconomic conditions were not necessarily “ripe” in a Marxist sense.

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    • Maxwell, Bruce. Homeland Security: A Documentary History. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 2004.

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      Providing primary sources, the book traces the path of homeland security in the effort to protect the United States from internal threats (which were often seen as supported by external powers). Documents start with the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1789 and conclude with the Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States of 2004.

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    Data Sources

    This section indicates a number of databases for in-depth and quantitative research. The Global Terrorism Database provides open-source data on terrorist events around the world from 1970 through 2004. The John Jay and ARTIS Transnational Terrorism Database provides research on radical Islamists with more than two thousand case studies. LaFree and Dugan 2007 presents more than eighty thousand case studies. Schmid and Jongman 1988 seeks to articulate definitions of different forms of terrorism through an extensive and quantitative search through the literature on the subject. The Terrorism and Preparedness Data Resource Center is an archive of data on domestic and international terrorism.

    • Global Terrorism Database.

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      An open-source database with information on all domestic and international terrorist events from 1970 to 2004. It currently includes more than eighty thousand cases and contains information on the date and location of the incident, the weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and—when identifiable—the identity of the perpetrator.

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      • John Jay and ARTIS Transnational Terrorism.

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        A database of radical Islamists and their associates who have directly contributed to the occurrence of a terrorist attack through participation in an active “core” network. The database contains more than two thousand case studies of individuals from more than twenty countries. Sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and developed under the guidance of Scott Atran.

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        • LaFree, Gary, and Laura Dugan. Introducing the Global Terrorism Database. Terrorism and Political Violence 19 (2007): 181–204.

          DOI: 10.1080/09546550701246817Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors discuss the Global Terrorism Database, an open-source database with information on all domestic and international terrorist events from 1970 to 2004. It currently includes more than eighty thousand cases and contains information on the date and location of the incident, the weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and—when identifiable—the identity of the perpetrator.

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        • Schmid, Alex P., and Albert J. Jongman. 1988. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, and Literature. Rev. ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2005.

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          One of the earliest and most meticulously researched, studies on terrorism, recently revised, that seeks to articulate definitions of different forms of terrorism through an extensive and quantitative search through the literature on the subject. Prepared under the auspices of the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University.

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        • Terrorism and Preparedness Data Resource Center.

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          This is an archive of data about domestic and international terrorism collected by a variety of sources, including government agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and researchers.

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          History of State-Supported and Anti-State Terrorism

          Listed here are selected works dealing with the history of state-supported terrorism as well as anti-state terrorist and guerrilla movements that use extreme violence as a means to achieve their goals. In general, guerrilla movements possess a small army, while terrorist organizations generally consist of a small elite or vanguard. Yet differing state leaderships and pro-state and anti-state movements can all use irregular or unconventional or terrorist tactics of extreme violence to achieve their goals. Arendt 1976 is the classic text on totalitarianism as a form of state terrorism. Asprey 2002 offers a panoramic view of guerrilla conflicts from Alexander the Great to the war in Afghanistan, with a focus on Vietnam. Chaliland, et al. 2007 provides a general history of terrorism both before and after the French Revolution. Crenshaw 1995 seeks to place terrorist movements in their historical context. Lewis 2002 analyzes Middle Eastern cultures and their clash with the Western world. De Mesquita and Dickson 2007 explains when governments are likely either to show restraint or react harshly in confronting acts of terrorism. Naftali 2005 outlines how the United States gradually warmed up to terrorist threats from the end of World War II to 11 September 2001. Stohl and Lopez 1984 examines differing forms of state terrorism. Taber 1965 argues how liberal democratic governments can be made vulnerable to guerrilla warfare.

          • Arendt, Hannah. Origins of Totalitarianism. 3 vols. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.

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            A classic text defining “totalitarian terrorism” that outlines the rise of anti-Semitism, as well as systems of state-supported repression and “terrorism” (which Arendt argues characterizes the very nature of a totalitarian society) in the European colonies and in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.

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          • Asprey, Robert. War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2002.

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            Originally published in 1994, a panoramic view of guerrilla conflicts from Alexander the Great’s battles with Asiatic Scythians, to the Russian Revolution, and up to the partition of Palestine, Cuban Revolution, and Northern Ireland, and war in Afghanistan. Critiques American failure in the Vietnam War and explains why guerilla warfare has evolved into an “ideal instrument for the realization of social-political-economic aspirations of underprivileged peoples.”

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          • Chaliland, Gérard, Arnaud Blin, Edward D. Schneider, Kathryn Pulver, and Jesse Browner, eds. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

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            Provides a general history of terrorism by both states and anti-state movements both before and after the French Revolution, arguing that the latter represents the origins of modern totalitarian “terrorism,” but has also inspired anti-state “terrorist” movements. The book also examines French Resistance “terrorism” versus Vichy authorities and left-wing movements in the United States and Europe, along with the topics of Islamic terrorism and al-Qaeda.

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          • Crenshaw, Martha, ed. Terrorism in Context. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.

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            Book seeks to place terrorist movements in their historical context, discussing the intellectual origins of modern terrorism in Europe; Russian revolutionary terrorism; left-wing terrorism in Italy; West German left-wing terrorism; political violence in Argentina and Peru, Ireland, India, and Algeria; the Basque movement in Spain; and terrorism in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

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          • Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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            Analyzes Middle Eastern cultures and their clash with the Western world in an effort to put the September 11 attacks in historical perspective.

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          • De Mesquita, Ethan Bueno, and Eric S. Dickson. “The Propaganda of the Deed: Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Mobilization.” American Journal of Political Science 51.2 (April 2007): 364–381.

            DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00256.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Examines when terrorist conflict is likely to occur, the conditions under which conflict between terrorists and the government increases or decreases radicalism among the aggrieved population, and when governments are likely either to show restraint or react harshly in confrontation with acts of terrorism.

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          • Naftali, Timothy J. Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

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            Outlines how the United States gradually warmed up to terrorist threats from the end of World War II to 11 September 2001, as terrorism was generally regarded as largely inevitable or impossible to stop. Focuses on threats from Puerto Rican independence movements in the 1950s, to Cuban hijackers in the 1960s, to Middle Eastern militants in the 1970s and beyond.

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          • Stohl, Michael, and George A. Lopez, eds. The State as Terrorist: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression. Contributions in Political Science 103. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984.

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            The work examines differing forms of state terrorism and distinguishes between the study of oppression, repression, and state terror systems. State terrorism in the form of enforcement terrorism, economic repression, military control, and the “legal” oppression of apartheid is discussed, with attention to Argentina, the Philippines, and South Africa. One chapter explores American containment policy. Theoretical chapters analyze government terror and the international dimensions of this problem.

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          • Taber, Robert. The War of the Flea: A Study of Guerrilla Warfare Theory and Practise. New York: L. Stuart, 1965.

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            Argues how liberal democratic governments can be made vulnerable to guerrilla warfare with its psychological and economic forms of weaponry, in that such governments must keep the economy functioning, maintain the appearance of normalcy, and often cannot act forcefully because they cannot be regarded as ruthless as guerrilla forces.

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          International Islamist and Other Religiously Oriented Movements

          Selected works dealing with the rise of the Taliban, al-Qaeda, and other religiously oriented “terrorist” movements. Alexander and Swetnam 2001 provides major declarations and fatwas issued by al-Qaeda, and include some of bin Laden’s statements. Esposito 2002 discusses the rise of militant Islam and key terrorist figures in the context of a broader discussion about Islam and religion generally. Goodman 2001 analyzes the Afghan war that began in 1978, following interviews with members of the Taliban and field research. Juergensmeyer 2003 discusses the role of religious communities in terrorist activity. Pape 2003 argues that suicide attacks are not generally religiously motivated but rather strategic decisions, because they are the most effective form of violence. Rashid 2000 outlines the history of the rise of the Taliban, its religious beliefs and social norms (vis-à-vis women, for example), as well as links to al-Qaeda. Rabasa 2006a and Rabasa 2006b examine terrorist groups that may not be formally part of al-Qaeda but have assimilated its worldview, and explores the nexus between terrorism and organized crime. Wright 2006 is one of the best researched books on the rise of al-Qaeda.

          • Alexander, Yonah, and Michel S. Swetnam. Usama bin Laden’s al Qaida: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.

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            Al-Qaeda has an informal network in more than fifty countries. It is seen as responsible for the 1998 twin embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, the attack on the USS Cole in 2000, and the September 11 attacks. Authors provide declarations and fatwas issued by al-Qaeda and include some of bin Laden’s major statements as well as transcripts from the 2001 trial United States of America v. Usama bin Laden, et al.

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          • Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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            Discusses the rise of militant Islam and key terrorist figures in the context of a broader discussion about Islam and religion generally.

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          • Goodman, Larry. Afghanistan’s Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

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            Analyzes the Afghan war that began in 1978, following interviews with members of the Taliban and field research. Focuses on six critical factors: Afghanistan’s ethnic-linguistic cleavages, social structures, and religious ideology; the long and devastating conflict; and Afghanistan’s geopolitical position and limited economic development.

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          • Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. The Global Rise of Religious Violence. 3d ed. Comparative Studies in Religion and Society 13. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

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            On the basis of interviews with members of terrorist movements, the author discusses the role of religious communities in terrorist activity. Work focuses on cultures of violence within Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism.

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          • Pape, Robert A. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. American Political Science Review 97.3 (2003): 343–361.

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            Through his systematic review of 187 suicide attacks from 1980 to 2001, the author explains that such attacks are not generally religiously motivated but strategic decisions, because they are the most effective form of violence.

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          • Rabasa, Angel, Peter Chalk, Kim Cragin, Sara A. Daly, Heather S. Gregg, Theodore W. Karasik, Kevin A. O’Brien, and William Rosenau. Beyond al-Qaida: Part 1, The Global Jihadist Movement. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2006a.

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            This study examines how al-Qaeda has changed since the September 11 attacks. It then turns to an analysis of the broader global jihadist movement—al-Qaeda and affiliated or associated terrorist groups or groups that may not be formally part of the al-Qaeda network but that have assimilated its worldview and concept of mass-casualty terrorist attacks.

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          • Rabasa, Angel, Peter Chalk, Kim Cragin, Sara A. Daly, Heather S. Gregg, Theodore W. Karasik, Kevin A. O’Brien, and William Rosenau. Beyond al-Qaida: Part 2, The Outer Rings of the Terrorist Universe. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2006b.

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            Contributors examine Islamist groups without formal links to al-Qaeda, such as Hamas and Hezbollah in the Middle East and Islamist groups in Africa, as well as non-Islamist groups, including the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, the FARC and ELN in Colombia, Maoist insurgencies, and the violent antiglobalist movement. Explains how these groups might fit into the al-Qaeda agenda and use criminal organizations to finance their activities.

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          • Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

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            Outlines the history of the Taliban, its religious beliefs and social norms (vis-à-vis women, for example), as well as its links to al-Qaeda. It explains American support for the Pakistan secret service (the ISI), whose involvement in drug trafficking raised money for the anti-Soviet resistance. The study points to the American-Pakistani practice of supporting the most radical elements in the Afghan opposition largely in the effort to counter Russian and Iranian influence in Central Asia.

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          • Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaida and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf, 2006.

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            One of the best-researched books on the rise of al-Qaeda. Examines the lives of Al-Zawahiri and bin Laden by means of interviewing hundreds of individuals with whom they came into contact and traces their actions from childhood up until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Explains why these men became “fundamentalists” and established al-Qaeda.

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          International Organizations and Terrorism

          This section lists selected websites dealing with the differing approaches of international organizations to “terrorism.” One of the main aims of the Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization is to coordinate efforts in the struggle against international terrorism. The European Union, Counter-Terrorism Strategy outlines the EU’s counter-terrorism strategy, based on four pillars: “prevent, protect, pursue and respond.” The League of Arab States opposes terrorism but proclaims the right to struggle for national self-determination. The League of Nations Conventions on International Terrorism represents the first (and failed) attempt to deal with the issue of anti-state terrorism by the League of Nations in 1937. NATO and the Fight Against Terrorism provides description and documentation on NATO’s role in the fight against terrorism. Nesi 2006 identifies different aspects of the United Nations’ response to terrorism. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization signed a convention recognizing that terrorism, separatism, and extremism constitute a threat to international peace and security. UN Resolution 1373 documents UN measures to deal with terrorism.

          US Government Perspectives

          On terrorism at the international level, Blair 2010 provides the most recent annual US threat assessment by the Director of National Intelligence. The Federation of American Scientists provides a list of background and threat assessments by the US government. 9/11 Commission Report examines the reactions of presidents Clinton and Bush to acts of terrorism that led up to the 11 September 2001 attacks. The US State Department provides its interpretations of country-by-country reports on terrorism.

          Critique of American Strategy

          This section examines the role of domestic American forces and intelligence agencies in pressing for US intervention in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 attacks. Bacevich 2005 argues that the US has been led into the “global war on terrorism” through a marriage of military power and the utopian belief in the universality of American values. Bamford 2004 argues that the CIA was ill-equipped in the fight against Osama bin Laden. Cassidy 2006, by contrast, argues that the problem lies in the reluctance of the US military to prepare for irregular warfare. Coll 2004 examines the defeat and withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, and the emergence of Osama bin Laden. Clarke 2004 gives his insider’s critique of the administrations of presidents Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush and their respective attitudes toward and actions to combat terrorism. Dreyfuss 2005 shows how the United States provided significant aid to a number of Islamic groups during the Cold War in its effort to undermine Soviet and pan-Arab influence, unintentionally resulting in “blowback.” Mann 2004 argues that the George W. Bush administration’s foreign policy has its roots in the Republican Party faction that opposed detente with the Soviet Union. Moyar 2009 develops a historically based theory of “leader-centric” warfare as a means to “win” in Iraq and Afghanistan. Scheuer 2004 offers a controversial critique of American intelligence services and national security policy.

          • Bacevich, Andrew J. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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            Argues that the United States has been led into overseas imperial intervention and into the “global war on terrorism” through a marriage of military power and the utopian belief in the universality of American values. Rather than benefiting the American position in the world, increasing militarization will pervert American ideals, undermine its democracy, alienate other countries and, in the not-so-long run, isolate the United States.

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          • Bamford, James. A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies. New York: Doubleday, 2004.

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            Argues that the CIA was ill-equipped in the fight against Osama bin Laden and had to rely on Afghan proxies and ineffective cruise missile attacks. The Bush administration then used the September 11 attacks as a pretext for the essentially unilateral military intervention in Iraq, and it pressured the CIA into backing a war with unclear goals and no clear exit strategy.

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          • Cassidy, Robert M. Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.

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            Cassidy critiques the reluctance of the US military to prepare for irregular warfare. Previous US military interventions in the Indian wars and the Philippines had required credible force, close cooperation between civil and military agencies, indigenous forces employed where possible, and legitimate political processes, even when this meant co-opting members of the political and military opposition.

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          • Clarke, Richard A. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror: What Really Happened. New York: Free Press, 2004.

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            An insider’s critique of the actions as well as attitudes toward terrorism within the administrations of presidents Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush. Argues that global terrorist movements were strengthened when the Reagan administration failed to respond to the 1982 Beirut bombings and that George W. Bush was less interested in the al-Qaeda threat, and more interested in Iraq, which was not involved in the attacks.

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          • Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin, 2004.

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            Examines the defeat and withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, the emergence of Osama bin Laden, and US efforts to obtain cooperation from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. The book points to the irony that the majority of US funding, funneled through Pakistan, went to the most hard-line anti-American Islamist groups, and not to the more pro-Western groups.

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          • Dreyfuss, Robert. Devil’s Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. American Empire Project. New York: Henry Holt, 2005.

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            Shows how the United States provided aid to a number of Islamic groups during the Cold War to undermine Soviet and pan-Arab influence, which unintentionally resulted in “blowback.” In seeking to overthrow the Mossadegh regime in Iran, for example, the United States supported the Islamic clergy, which eventually turned against American interests. Another example is US-Israeli support for Hamas to counter the secular Fatah.

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          • Mann, James. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush’s War Cabinet. New York: Viking, 2004.

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            A well-researched book arguing that the George W. Bush administration’s foreign policy has its roots in the Republican Party faction that opposed detente with the Soviet Union. Argues that Bush administration strategy was based on preemptive action, the belief that the United States should possess no major challengers, and the export of democracy.

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          • Moyar, Mark. A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq. Yale Library of Military History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.

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            Develops a historically based theory of “leader-centric warfare” and applies it to the American civil war as well as insurrections in the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, El Salvador, and US strategy in Afghanistan and Iraq, in an effort to “win” the latter two conflicts.

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          • Scheuer, Michael. Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2004.

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            A controversial critique of American intelligence services and national security policy by a former CIA analyst. Argues that the original al-Qaeda has been overtaken by a series of regionally based, autonomous jihadist terrorist groups, which carried out post–September 11 attacks on Bali, Riyadh, Madrid, Istanbul, Casablanca, Chechnya, the Philippines, Thailand, and Iraq.

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          Perspectives on the Global War on Terrorism

          Differing perspectives on the global political, social, cultural, and human-interest effects of the American response to international terrorism after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Achcar 2002 examines US foreign policy in the Middle East, the social psychology of the Arab middle classes, as well as the conceptions of a post–Cold War “clash of civilizations.” A number of major international-relations theorists and analysts look at the global ramifications of the September 11 attacks in Booth and Dunne 2002. In Crocker, et al. 2007 a number of excellent chapters deal directly or indirectly with causes of terrorism or policy toward terrorism. Gardner 2007 critiques American global strategy and the rise of the neoconservative movement as it opted for NATO enlargement, US military expansion, and the Global War on Terrorism. Halliday 2002 examines the general clash between Islamists and the secular, modernizing trends in Islamic states backed by Western powers. Kepel 2004 examines the breakdown in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process in 2000 at the same time that US policies had begun to intervene more forcefully in “greater” Middle Eastern affairs. Weiss 2004 examines the interplay among US domestic issues, human rights issues, and foreign policy, and the unintended international consequences of the war on terrorism.

          • Achcar, Gilbert. Clash of Barbarisms: September 11 and the Making of the New World Disorder. New York: Monthly Review, 2002.

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            Examines US foreign policy in the Middle East, the social psychology of the Arab middle classes from whom Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda has drawn its recruits, as well as the conceptions of a post–Cold War “clash of civilizations” that have prepared the way for the “war on terrorism” and its dangerous consequences.

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          • Booth, Ken, and Tim Dunne, eds. Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

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            Essays written on the global ramifications of the September 11 attacks by a number of major international-relations theorists and analysts with differing ideological perspectives.

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          • Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds. Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2007.

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            A number of excellent chapters deal directly or indirectly with causes of terrorism or policy toward terrorism, with discussions on new global dangers, economic causes of civil conflict, use of force, communal conflicts, conflict prevention, and grand strategy.

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          • Gardner, Hall. American Global Strategy and the “War on Terrorism.” Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

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            Critiques American global strategy and the rise of the neoconservative movement as Washington opted for NATO enlargement and US military expansion, the “Global War on Terrorism,” in addition to US-led military intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq. Discusses four forms of terrorism: anti-state terrorism, state-supported terrorism, totalitarian terrorism, and street terrorism.

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          • Halliday, Fred. Two Hours That Shook the World: September 11, 2001: Causes and Consequences. London: SAGE, 2002.

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            Examines the general “west Asian crisis,” in which Islamists seek to create a society based on Islamic principles in conflict with modernizing trends in Islamic states backed by Western powers. Islamists see themselves humiliated by Western colonialism, while opposing Western culture, which is seen as secular and commercializing and in opposition to Islamic values.

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          • Kepel, Gilles. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Translated by Pascale Ghazaleh. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2004.

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            Examines the breakdown in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process in 2000 at the same time that US policies had begun to intervene more forcefully in “greater” Middle Eastern affairs. The book critiques the American ability to confront Osama bin Laden’s radical Islamist doctrine. It argues for ways to ultimately win the support of more “moderate” members of the Muslim world.

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          • Weiss, Thomas G., Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering. Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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            Examines the interplay among US domestic issues, human rights and US foreign policy, the unintended international consequences of the war on terrorism, the Bush administration’s neglect of human rights in fighting terrorism, the war against Iraq, the future of US-European Relations, and US foreign policy toward the Middle East.

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          Globalization and Terrorism

          This section looks beyond the nation-state to examine the roots of international insecurity and the causes of terrorism. Coker 2002 examines the relationship between globalization and the new security dilemmas (including international “terrorism”). Costigan and Gold 2007 put together articles on the economics and financing of terrorism. Hoffman 2007 seeks to explain why diaspora communities are participating in terrorist attacks against their adopted governments. Jenkins 1974 focuses on anti-state terrorism as warfare without territorial limits. Kilcullen 2004 argues that the United States needs a new paradigm, capable of addressing globalized insurgency. Richardson 2004 studies the importance of protecting maritime trade from piracy and terrorism. Sullivan 2007 seeks to find a means to heal the fracture between East and West on the issue of terrorism.

          • Coker, Christopher. Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-First Century: NATO and the Management of Risk. Adelphi Paper 345. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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            Examination of the relationship between globalization and the new security dilemmas (including international “terrorism”) and the consequent challenges for NATO.

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          • Costigan, Sean S., and David Gold, eds. Terrornomics. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

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            Collection of important essays from differing scholars dealing with economic aspects of terrorism, how such groups finance themselves, relations between terrorism and diasporas, where such groups obtain weapons, the relations between terrorism and criminal groups (narco-terrorism), the use of the Internet, the relations between the free market and terrorism, as well as the effect of sanctions on terrorism. Makes policy proposals for the United States, Europe, and international institutions.

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          • Hoffman, Bruce, William Rosenau, Andrew J. Curiel, and Doron Zimmermann. The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism. Joint conference by the RAND Corporation and the Center for Security Studies at ETH Zurich, 2007. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2007.

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            Historically, diaspora communities provided support to terrorist organizations involved in homeland conflicts. Now, members of diaspora communities are participating in terrorist attacks against their adopted governments through recruitment, fundraising, training, operations, and procurement.

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          • Jenkins, Brian M. International Terrorism: A New Kind of Warfare. Rand Paper series. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1974.

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            Focuses on anti-state terrorism as warfare without territorial limits, waged without armies as we know them, in which sporadic “battles” can take place worldwide. It is also “warfare without neutrals, and with few or no civilian innocent bystanders.”

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          • Kilcullen, David. Countering Global Insurgency: A Strategy for the War on Terrorism. Small Wars Center of Excellence, 2004.

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            Argues that since classical counterinsurgency is designed to defeat insurgency in one country, the United States needs a new paradigm, capable of addressing globalized insurgency. Such a strategy of disaggregation (delinking or dismantling) would be intended to prevent the disparate elements of the jihad movement from functioning as a global system. Applying this approach to the war generates a new and different range of policy options and strategic choices.

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          • Richardson, Michael. A Time Bomb for Global Trade: Maritime-Related Terrorism in an Age of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004.

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            Examines the problems with and the importance of protecting maritime trade from piracy and terrorism.

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          • Sullivan, Stephen, Christine Lynch, Daniel Bautista, and Greg Austin. Protect! Building a Global Network to Combat Terrorists. Report of the EastWest Institute’s 4th Worldwide Security Conference, 2007.

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            Examines the questions of definition, language, and values, to define and clarify the fracture between understandings of the subject between East and West. Evaluates the existing frameworks for combating terrorism, with special focus on international cooperation, including the interactions with states, private companies, and nongovernmental bodies.

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          Countering International Terrorism

          Listed below are works dealing with US, European, and international efforts to counter terrorism. Many of the texts observe that dealing with international terrorism may need differing political and social approaches or military, legal, or police techniques than generally used in countering purely domestic forms of “terrorism.” Alexander 2002 examines the counterterrorism policies of ten countries asking: What are the lessons of past experiences for future counterterrorism responses at the national, regional, and global levels? Art and Richardson 2007 presents a number of case studies as examined by differing specialists as to how states have sought to repress or otherwise deal with differing terrorist groups. Byman 2006 argues that the war on terrorism requires new forms of alliances. Chapters in Cronin and Ludes 2004 aim to develop a grand strategy in response to terrorism involving all its elements. Kilcullen 2009 examines new forms of conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq as case studies for protracted interventions. Pillar 2003 critiques the hard line taken by official US counterterrorist policy. Pressman 2007 argues that the range of options in dealing with transnational terrorism is more limited because the agendas and fields of play of international terrorists are much larger. Zakharchenko 2007 explicates the differences between US and EU strategies toward terrorism.

          • Alexander, Yonah, ed. Combating Terrorism: Strategies of Ten Countries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

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            Examines counterterrorism policies of ten countries: the United States, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Spain, the United Kingdom, Israel, Turkey, India, and Japan. Each chapter addresses the same set of questions to permit cross-national comparisons of strategies, in essence seeking a response to the major question: what are the lessons of past experiences for future counterterrorism responses at the national, regional, and global levels?

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          • Art, Robert J., and Louise Richardson, eds. Democracy and Counterterrorism: Lessons from the Past. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace, 2007.

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            Examines case studies by differing specialists as to how states have sought to repress or otherwise deal with differing terrorist groups: the Red Brigades, the IRA, ETA, the GIA, FALN-FLN, Sendero Luminoso, FARC, Hamas and Fatah, Hezbollah, the PKK, Russia and Chechen groups, India and Kashmir and Sikh Khalistan, Tamil Tigers, and Aum Shinrikyo.

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          • Byman, Daniel L. Remaking Alliances for the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Studies 29.5 (2006): 767–811.

            DOI: 10.1080/01402390600900887Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            Argues that alliances are vital for counterterrorism, but what is needed from alliances in the “war on terrorism” is quite different from that demanded from traditional alliance partners during the Cold War and its immediate aftermath. Traditional problems with American Allies are likely to remain, but new approaches and new relations with key allies are needed.

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          • Cronin, A. K., and J. M. Ludes, eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2004.

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            Aims to develop a grand strategy in response to “terrorism,” involving all its elements, with essays from some of the major experts in the field.

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          • Kilcullen, David. The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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            Written by an adviser on counterinsurgency to General David Petraeus, this work examines new forms of conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq as case studies for protracted interventions. Proposes two strategies that seek to rebalance military and nonmilitary elements of power with an emphasis on strengthening local actors, while developing the credible political leadership: strategic disruption seeks to keep active terrorists off guard while military assistance seeks to counter the conditions that produce guerrillas.

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          • Pillar, Paul. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

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            Critiques the hard line taken by official US counterterrorist policy and questions whether there might be cases where agreements might reduce terrorism and whether isolation and pressure really force offending states to alter their support for terrorists. Also discusses what factors affect the willingness of foreign governments to help the United States in counterterrorism.

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          • Pressman, Jeremy. Rethinking Transnational Counterterrorism: Beyond a National Framework. Washington Quarterly 30.4 (2007): 63–73.

            DOI: 10.1162/wash.2007.30.4.63Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            The distinction between national and transnational terrorist groups largely stems from a fundamental difference in geographic scope: transnational terrorist objectives are not tied to a single state. Although national organizations are not easy to tame or defeat, the range of options is even more circumscribed in dealing with transnational ones because their agendas and fields of play are much larger.

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          • Zakharchenko, Anna I. The EU and U.S. Strategies Against Terrorism and Proliferation of WMD: A Comparative Study. Occasional Paper Series 6. George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, January 2007.

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            Explicates the differences between US and EU strategy: The EU points out the wide spectrum of challenges in the security environment, from the problem of good governance, poverty and disease to energy security. The US agenda points out terrorism, regional conflicts, WMD proliferation, and promoting effective democracies and effective trade as main threats and challenges.

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          LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

          DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0055

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